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1-3 A worker is told her chances of being killed by a particular process are 1 in every 500 years.

Should the worker be satisfied or alarmed? What is the FAR (assuming normal working hours) and

the deaths per person per year? What should her chances be, assuming an average chemical plant?

Solution:

Worker works 50 workweek/year, 40 hours/week

Exposed hours per year = 2000 hrs/year

In 500 years, number of hours worked = 500 x 2000 = 1 x 106 hours

=>

FAR =

Total hrs worked by employees during period covered

FAR = 100

Based on Table 1-3:

FAR(UK) for chemical and allied products = 1.2 (for year 1987-1990)

Thus, worker should be alarmed.

Deaths per year = 2000 hrs/year x 1.2/108

= 2 x 103 x 1.2/108

= 2.5 x 10-5 (workers chance of fatality assuming an average chemical plant)

2-6 The Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) concentration is defined as the

concentration that poses a threat of exposure to airborne contaminants when that exposure is

likely to cause death or immediate or delayed adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an

environment. The IDLH implies a 30-min maximum exposure time.

a) The IDLH for chlorine gas is 10ppm. Use the Probit equation for chlorine deaths to estimate the

fraction of fatalities due to exposure at the IDLH for 30min.

b) Estimate the maximum exposure or evacuation time to result in no more than 1% fatalities at

the IDLH level.

Solution:

IDLH => maximum 30mins exposure = T

a) IDLH for chlorine gas = 10ppm = C

From Table 2-5

Probit correlations for chlorine death:

Y = k1 + k2lnV

Y = k1 + k2lnC2.0T, where C is concentration in ppm, T is exposure time in mins.

k1 = -8.29, k2 = 0.92,

Y = -8.29 + 0.92lnC2T

= -8.29 + 0.92 ln (10x10x30)

= -0.92 => 0% fatality

For 1% fatality, Y = 2.67 (Table 2-4)

Y = -8.29 + 0.92lnC2T

2.67 = -8.29 + 0.92 ln(10 x10 xT)

T = 1490mins = 24.8 hours

3-24 A worker splashfills 400 litres of tetrahydrofuran (THF) (C4H8O) over a 5-min period into a

reactor vessel of 1500 litres total volume. The filling is done through a manway of 0.5m diameter.

The local ventilation rate is 0.5 m3/s, the ambient pressure is 1 atm, and the temperature is 250C.

Estimate the local concentration of the THF, in ppm. What statement can you make regarding the

workers exposure to THF?

Physical property data for THF:

Molecular weight: 72.12

Vapour pressure: 114mmHg

Liquid density: 888kg/m3

TLV-TWA: 50ppm

Solution:

Qv=0.5m3/min

Manway diameter = 0.5m

Splash fill, = 1

MW = 72.12

Psat = 114mmHg

P = 1 atm

Vc = 1500 litres = 1.5m3

= Ko(Mo/M)1/3

= (0.83cm/s) x (18/72.12)1/3

= 5.23 x 10-3 m/s

rf = 400 l/5min x 1/1500 l = 4/75 5.33 x 10-2/min = 8.89 x 10-4/sec

Note: Filling rate is based on per container or vessel. Unit is time -1. Thus need to divide by the

volume of the container.

= 114 (1x (8.89 x 10-4 x 1.5) + (5.23 x 10-3) 0.196) x 106/ (kx0.5x760)

= 705/k

k = mixing coefficient = 0.1 to 0.5

If k = 0.1, Cppm = 7050ppm

If k = 0.5, Cppm = 1410ppm

Thus with splash mixing, ambient concentration ranges from 1410ppm > Cppm > 7050ppm

Comparing with TLV-TWA of 50ppm => Worker is overexposed to THF

13-16 Determine the required thickness of a reactor with cylindrical walls that must be designed to

safely contain a deflagration (hydrocarbon plus air). The vessel has a diameter of 4ft and is

constructed with stainless steel 304. The normal operating pressure is 2 atm.

Solution:

For HC-air mixture

P2/P1 = 8 (Equation 13-5)

P1 = 2 atm

P2 = 16atm = 16 x 14.7 = 235 psi (must design vessel to withstand this)

Stainless steel 304, = 4 ft => r = 48/2 = 24

Table 13-2, Tensile strength = 80000 psi

Using Equation 13-1 since is a cylindrical vessel

P = Smtv/(r + 0.6tv)

Note: Pressure to cause elastic deformation is lower than deflagration, thus cannot use yield point

for calculation

235 = 80000 tv/(24+0.6tv)

tv = 0.0706 = 1.79mm

Q1 An additive plant employs 150 full-time employees who work 8 hours per day and 300 days per

year. The plant has 4 process units, M, N, P and Q, with an FAR of 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 respectively.

The workers spend 50% of their time in Unit M, 20% in Unit N, 10% in Unit P and 20% in Unit Q,

Units M, N and Q are located near each other and any accident in one unit will affect the other 2

units. However, Unit P is located far enough apart such that any impact there will not affect the

other 3 units.

Calculate the overall FAR experienced by the workers.

Q6 A container of 750 litres, takes 45mins to be filled with cyclohexane (C6H12), using subsurface

filling method through a bung opening of 10cm2. The ventilation rate in the open area is 0.7m3/s.

The ambient pressure is 1 atm, and the temperature is 25oC. Cyclohexane has a saturated vapour

pressure of 97mmHg.

Assuming a mixing factor of 0.5, calculate the local concentration of cyclohexane in ppm. State your

answer to the nearest whole number.

Solution:

Using equation 3-24

MW of cyclohexane = 84

Psat = 97/760 = 0.128atm

Vessel takes 45mins to fill.

Filling rate, rf = 1/45 = 0.022 min-1 = 0.022/60 = 3.70 x 10-4 sec-1

Vc = volume of container = 750 litres = 0.75m3

K = mass transfer coefficient for an area A

= Ko(Mo/M)1/3

= (0.83cm/s) x (18/84)1/3

= 0.4966cm/s

= 0.00497m/s

Subsurface filling, = 0.5

Filling area A = 10cm2 = 0.001m2

Substitute into Equation 3-24. Using SI units of m, s and atm

(0.5x0.7x1)

= 0.365(1.39X10-4 + 4.97 X 10-6) X 106

= 0.365 x 1.44 x 10-4 x 106

= 52.56ppm

= 53ppm (nearest whole number)

If ignore evaporation, Cppm = 0.365 x 1.39X10-4 x 106 = 51ppm (nearest whole

number)

Q7 A maintenance contractor of a swimming pool in a country club, wrongly mixed sodium

hypochlorite with bleach, causing a toxic gas release. 200 employees and guests were evacuated

during the incident. It was found they were exposed to chlorine gas at 125ppm concentration for

30mins, followed by a consecutive exposure of 40ppm of chlorine gas for another 15mins during the

incident.

Compute the expected number of people who will survive the incident. State your answer to the

nearest whole number.

Solution:

From Table 2-5

Probit correlations for chlorine death:

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