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Fundamentals of LRFR and Applications of LRFR

for Bridge Superstructures


Presented by:
Sita Ram Pandey &
Sreelatha Nandivada
AI Engineers,
E i
IInc.
919 Middle Street,
Middletown, CT, 06457

From
4 day course by National highway Institute

How did we get Here? Origin & History


Two Major historical events
Tacoma Narrows bridge Collapse on Nov 7th
1940
Silver Bridge ; from Point Pleasant WV, and
Gallipolis Ohio , over Ohio river , collapse in
1967.
Prompted National concern for Bridge safety conditions
and to the establishment of the National Bridge
Inspection Standards ( NBIS)

Tacoma Narrows Bridge - 1940

Tube - The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Collapse (1940

Purpose for Load Rating


Ensure Public Safety
Comply with federal standards / regulations
NBIS
Rehabilitation and replacement
Posting needs
Report to the NBI
Processing of Overload permits

When should we Load Rate a bridge


Design stage.
Initial
I iti l iinventory
t
iinspection.
ti
Change in live loading.
Change in dead load on structure.
Physical change in any structural member
member.
Change in load rating method.

Classification of Bridge Conditions

Bridge
Condition

Structurally
Deficient

Functionally
Obsolete

Not
Deficient

Bridge
id Conditions
di i
1991-2009
603
603,254
254 bbridges
id iin
the United States
as of December
2009
771,179
, 79 w
were ratedd
structurally
deficient and
78,468 were rated
functionally
obsolete.
b l

Wh t Load
L d Rating?
R ti ?
Whats
y g capacity
p
y of the Bridge
g
Live Load carrying
Using as-built bridge plans
Information gathered from latest field Inspection
Expressed in Rating Factors or in tonnage for a particular
vehicle instead of the design approach of satisfying
satisfying limit
states
Superstructure Spans, primary components of the bridge and
connections shall be load rated until the governing
componentt is
i established
t bli h d

Load Rating Standards and Requirements


Standards
AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE)
single national standards for load rating of highway
b id
bridges.
Load rating requirements and reporting are specified
in NBIS
N S
Data
Geometric data
Member and condition data
Loading and traffic data

Load Rating Methods in the MBE


Allowable Stress Rating ( ASR)
Load Factor Rating ( LFR)
Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)

Load Rating Method: ASR


Loads are at a working level.
Capacity
C
it iis reduced
d
db
by a ffactor
t off safety.
f t
Live Load is the HS20 truck or lane load,
whichever governs.

Load Rating Method: LFR


A Strength-based
S
h b d load
l d rating
i method
h d
Uncalibrated code. Load factors were
established based on engineering judgment
(Unknown reliability)
No guidance on adjusting load and resistance
factors for changed uncertainty in loadings or
member resistance.
Live Load is the HS20 truck or lane load,
whichever governs
governs.

Load Rating Method: LRFR


Reliabilityli bili based
b d limit
li i states philosophy.
hil
h
Use probabilistic method to derive load &
resistance factors
Uniform reliability in load ratings and load
postings.
guidance on adjusting
j
g live load
Provide g
factors using site-specific traffic data.

Overview Of LRFR

Benefits of LRFR
Reliability-based, limit states approach
consistent
Rating done at strength limit state and
check for serviceability
More easily adopts site specific
i f
information
ti while
hil maintaining
i t i i uniform
if
reliability.

CALIBRATION OF LIMIT STATES


Onlyy the Strength
g Limit State was calibrated
based upon structural reliability theory. Other
limit states were calibrated to current practice
Reliability indices of bridges designed by the
Standard Specs ranged from 1.5 to 4.5
Target
T
reliability
li bili index
i d off 3.5 was selected
l
d for
f
new designs.
Design Reliability = 3.5 ; 1 in 10,000 notional
failure probability.
For evaluation =2.5
=2 5 or a 1 in 100 notional
failure Probability.

LRFR GOAL : UNIFORM RELIABILITY

Effect of LRFD and LRFR Specs


p
on Bridges

More Reliable and Safer Bridges

Increased Bridge Life

Meaningful Load Ratings!

Methodology of LRFR

Limit
i i State Equation
i
FACTORED LOAD EFFECT < FACTORED RESISTANCE

DRIiQi <
Rn
where:
D=ductility factor
R=redundancy factor
I=operational importance factor
i=load
l d ffactor
Qi=force effect
=resistance factor
Rn=nominal resistance

LRFR Rating
i
Equation
i
C DC DC DW DW P P
RF =
L LL (1 + IM )

is the structural capacity

DC is the dead-load effect of structural components and attachments

DW is the dead-load effect of wearing surfaces and utilities

P is the permanent loading other than dead loads

LL

DC

DW
P
L

is the live-load effect

IM

is the dynamic load allowance

is the load factor for structural components and attachments


is the LRFD load factor for wearing surfaces and utilities
is the load factor for permanent loads other than dead loads
is the evaluation live-load factor

Capacity,
i
C
C =

cs Rn

For the STRENGTH Limit State

Where,

c= Condition Factor
s= System Factor
= Resistance Factor
C = fR

For the SERVICE or FATIGUE


Limit States

fR= Allowable stress.

Capacity,
i
C (Contd.)
(
d)

LRFR Rating
i
Process

LRFR Live
i Load
d Levell
Design Load:
HL-93
Legal Loads:
a)

Routine Commercial Traffic


Type 3 Truck
Type 3s2 Truck
Type 3-3 Truck
Lane Load model
b) Specialized Hauling Vehicles
NRL
SU4
SU5
SU6
SU7
Permit Loads:

p
Permit > 80 kips
Routine/ Annual Permit < 150 kips
Special Permit > 150 kips

LRFD Design
i
Load
d HL-93
or

Fatigue Truck

AASHTO
S
O Legal
ega Loads
oads
(Routine Commercial Traffic)

VDOT Legall Loads


d
VA Truck & Semi Trailer = 80 kips
VA Single= 54 kips

12k

20k
20

10

17k

17k

17k
33

17k

VDOT Permit
i Trucks
k

LRFR Limit
i i States (Strength)
(
h)

LRFR Limit
i i States (Service/Fatigue)
(
i /
i
)

LRFR Load
d Factors

LRFR Load
d Factors(( Contd.)
d)

LRFR Load
d Factors(( Contd.)
d)

A l i M
th d
Analysis
Methods:
Approximate Method
Lever Rule.
Distribution Formulas.
Special Analysis for Exterior Girder.

Refined Method

Refined method is used if the girders spacing are out of range of applicability of
LRFD, curved girders, NSG Vehicle and to improve load ratings of low rated
bridges.

T
L
d Distribution
Di t ib ti
Transverse
Load

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

* The skew correction factor shall be applied for the


skewed bridges.

Di t ib ti
F t
Distribution
Factor
Distribution Factor for Exterior Members:
Distribution Factor for Moment, gm
Distribution
b
Factor for Shear,, gv

Distribution Factor for Interior Members:


Distribution Factor for Moment, gm
Distribution Factor for Shear, gv

Version for each of :


One lane loaded, and
Two or more lane loaded

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

(Contd )
Distribution Factor (Contd.)

Load Posting

Load Posting

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example

Load Rating Example


Interior Girder Rating Factor Summary:

Thank
h k You!!!

Questions????