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S2FO2R: Search, Strategy, Formula, Operation, Output, Re-check

BOXES IN ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
BY: CG. SHAIFUR AZURA BIN SUHAIMI Box #1: Inverse Function

f(x) f-1 (x)

= =

2x x

+ 2

5 5

Box # 2 : Inverse Function

f(x)

=

2x 3x

+ + -

5 5 5 2

terms in the box remain unchanged

f-1(x)

=

5x 3x

Box # 3 : Form the quadratic equation given the roots (a) 3 and -4 are the roots

Roots

x=3 x=- 4 Eqn:

( x ( x x2

+ +x

3 ) 4) -12

=0 =0 =0

(b) 2 and

1 are the roots 3

Roots

x=2 ( x 1 ( 3x x= 3 Eqn: 3x2

-7x

2 ) 1) +2

=0 =0 =0

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S2FO2R: Search, Strategy, Formula, Operation, Output, Re-check

Box # 4 : Form the quadratic equation using given roots Example: Given that α and β are the roots of quadratic equation 2x2 + 7x -15 = 0. Form an equation with the roots of 2α and 2β.

2x2+ x 5 : a 2 b 7 c -1 7 -1 =0 = , = , = 5
F rm o

a 2 x (α ) +β x 2 α ) ( +β x2

b x b a 7 2 -7 +x 7 (α ) β

c c a 1 5 x 2 + -3 0 -3 0

+

a a

1 1 en q:
Box # 5: Index Numbers

4 α ) ( β

Alternative Method: Using Index Box

B as e Y ea r

S p e c ific Ye ar

Q0
a d a p e r k a ta a n 'b a s e ye a r ', in d e x n u m b e r o r p r ic e i n d e x m e s ti 10 0

Q1 I

r o w fo r Q u a n ti ty, P r i c e e tc r o w fo r p ri c e in d e x, in d e x n u m b e r

100

Q0 Q1 = or Q0 xI =100 Q1 100 I

Example:
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Q1: The mean electric bill of Ali increases from RM420 a month in 2006 to RM630 a month in 2009. Calculate the index number of the electric bill of Ali in 2009 based on 2006.
20 06 20 09

40 2 10 0
420 I = 100 x 630 63000 I = 420 I = 150

60 3 I

Box # 6 : RELATED RATES OF CHANGES

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S2FO2R: Search, Strategy, Formula, Operation, Output, Re-check

THE RATES BOX

column for Are a, Volume & y

A, v, y h, r, x

h, r, x d t
column for time

d
column for he ight, radius & x

Briefing about Rates Box:

TH E R AT ES BO X

d iv id e o r b y

A , v , y h , r, x d
d iff e re n t ia te

re s p e c t to t

d h , r, x t

s y m b o l X = t im e s

THE RATES BOX

Refer to general

column for Are a

A r
1)
dA dA dr = X dt dr dt

r d t
column for time

d
column for r adius

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S2FO2R: Search, Strategy, Formula, Operation, Output, Re-check

THE RATES BOX

Refer to sphe e

r

column for volume

d

v r

r t

d
column for time

column for radius

2)

dv dv dr = X dt dr dt
THE RATES BOX

Refer to cylinder

column for volume

v d h
3)
dv dv dh = X dt dh dt
THE RATES BOX

h d t
column for time

column for height

Refer to cube

column for volume

v d x
dv dv dx = X dt dx dt

x d t
column for time

column for height

4)

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2: Find the value

S,A, V, Y d h,r,x

h,r,x d t

d ( s, A, v, y ) = [ s, A, v, y ] X [ h, r , x ] dt

3: Find the value

S,A, V, Y d h,r,x

h,r,x d t

d ( h, r , x) [ s, A, v, y ] = dt [ h, r , x ]

Example: SPM 2005, Q20
v= 1 3 h + 8h 3 dv 1 = (3) h 2 + 8 dh 3

dv = 10 dt
dh =? , dt

= h2 + 8 = (2)2 + 8 when h = 2
dv dh

= 12

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3: Find the value

d

V 10 h 12
dh 10 ∴ = dt 12

h t

d

= 0.833cms-1
Example 2: Sasbadi Nexus, pg 152
dr = 2cms dt
−1

, spherical balloon
dv =? dt

r = 7 cm. Find Solution: V sphere =
4 π3 r 3
dv 4 = (3)πr 2 dr 3 = 4πr 2

= 4π (7)2 = 196π

d

V 196π r

r 2 t

d

dv = 196 πX 2 dt

= 392π SMALL CHANGES IN QUANTITIES Using “Small Changes Box”

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dy δy = lim it x , when δ is very small δx →0 δx dx δ dy S2FO2y Search, Strategy, Formula, Operation, Output, Re-check ∴ R: ≈ δx dx dy δy = • δx dx 1.

Depend on question: May be δy, δA, etc Depend on question: May be dy, dA, etc

2. Using Small Changes Box

δy δx

dy dx dy • δx dx

= times dx is a reference, dx = 1 divide or by

δy =

3. Small changes in X

x increase from, 2 to 2.01
To find δ x:

x:2→2.01 start end δx = xend - xstart

= 2.01 - 2 = 0.01
4. ynew =

yinitial +δy

A. Example 1: y = x3 +2 , find the approximate increase y in y or δ when x increases from 2 to 2.01 solution: x: 2 → 2.01 = 0.01
dy = 3x 2 dx

dx = 2.01 − 2

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= 3(2) = 12 Using the small changes box:

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C.

Example 3:
16 dy 4 , find the value of dx x when x = 2. Hence, find the

Given y =

approximate value of

16 . ( 2.04 ) 4

Solution: 16 16 y = 4 =16x -4 = , ( 2) 4 x

yinitial =

16 =1 ( 2) 4

dy =16 ( −4) x −5 dx

= 16(-4) (2)-5 = -2 x : 2 → 2.04 δx = 2.04 -2 = 0.04

ynew = ?
δ y 0.04

-2 1

∴ δy = 0.04 x -2 = -0.08

ynew = yinitial + δy
= 1 + (-0.08) = 0.92
Check: using calculator • press <16> < ÷ > <( 2.04 ∧ 4)> <=> • Answer shown on a screen as 0.9233845426

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