qarTveluri memkvidreoba (akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis qarTveluri dialeqtologiis samecniero-kvleviTi institutis perioduli samecniero Jurnali) tomi

XII, gv., 19-30 Tamaz beraZe, beJan xorava qarTuli saliteraturo ena da qarTuli kultura _ saqarTvelos yvela eTnografiuli mxaris Semoqmedebis nayofi qarTuli saliteraturo ena da qarTuli mwignobroba saqarTve-los yvela istoriul-eTnografiuli mxaris, yvela qarTuli kilokavisa da dialeqtis monawileobiT Seiqmna. am did saqmeSi saqarTvelos sxva mxareebs Soris mniSvnelovani wvlili samegrelom, svaneTma da afxazeTma Seitanes. qarTul tomebs erTianobis grZnoba Zalze Soreul warsulSi, jer kidev Zv. w. XV-XIV ss. gaaCndaT, im dros, rodesac uZvelesi qarTuli saxelmwifo _ kolxeTi Camoyalibda. momdevno saukuneebSi erTianobis es grZnoba kidev ufro gaRrmavda. amas "qarTlis cxovrebis" is epizodic mowmobs, sadac egrisis patroni quji saqarTvelos erTianobisTvis qarTlis mefe farnavazis erisTavobas nebayoflobiT Tanxmdeba. SeiZleba es epizodi movlenebs zustad ver asaxavs. mTavari isaa, rom VII-VIII saukuneebSi, rodesac `qarTlis cxovrebis" uZvelesi nawili Seiqmna, mis mkiTxvels, rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTveloSi, movlenebis aseT ganviTarebaSi eWvi ar epareboda. saqarTvelos istoriul-eTnografiuli mxareebi gvianantikur xanaSi, qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebisa da qarTuli damwerlobis Seqmnis Semdeg erTmaneTs kidev ufro dauaxlovdnen. amas mowmobs Tundac IV-V saukuneebis mijnaze petre iberisa da ioane lazis urTierToba: petre iberi _ eriskacobaSi murvanosi, qarTlis mefis buzmiris vaJi iyo da rogorc mZevali, bizantiis samefo karze izrdeboda. aq misi sulieri maswavlebeli iyo egrisis mkvidri miTridate `lazi". maT saero cxovrebaze uari erTad Tqves da ierusalimSi rogorc petre iberi da ioane lazi berad aRikvecnen. maT saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli V saukuneSi wminda miwaze agebuli ori monasteri, romlebic bizantiur saistorio wyaroebSi qarTvelTa monastrebis saxeliTaa cnobili. es ori monasteri, iseve rogorc petre iberis epoqaSi qarTvelebis mier palestinaSi agebuli sxva eklesia-monastrebi, V-VI saukuneebSi qarTuli mwignobrobis umniSvnelovanes kerebad iqca. V-VIII saukuneebis qarTuli damwerlobis Zeglebma dasavleT saqarTvelodan dRemde ver moaRwia. amis umTavresi mizezi isaa, rom am xanaSi dasavleT saqarTvelos udidesi nawili eklesiurad konstantinopolis sapatriarqos eqvemdebareboda. Tumca dasavleT saqarTveloSi am saukuneebis berZnuli warwerebic umniSvnelo

raodenobiT aris SemorCenili. berZnuli eklesia da berZnuli damwerloba am qarTulenovan samyaroSi Tavsmoxveuli da ucxo iyo. niSandoblivia, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi adre Sua saukuneebis arc erTi berZnuli xelnaweri ar SemorCenila. amitom, rodesac dasavleT saqarTvelos sulier cxovrebaSi qarTuli damwerlobis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba miecaT, aq uamravi qarTuli lapidaruli da freskuli warwera gaCnda. VIII saukunis miwuruls afxazeTis erisTavTa dinastiam dasavleT saqarTvelo erT samefod gaaerTiana. amitom mas "afxazTa" samefo ewodeba. igi lixis qedidan md. nikofsiamde da kavkasionis mTavari wyalgamyofi qedidan Woroxis xeobamde teritorias moicavda. "afxazTa" samefo qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianeba iyo, sadac RvTismsaxurebisa da mwignobrobis ena qarTuli iyo. `afxazTa" mefeebi saerTo qarTul saSinao da sagareo politikas atarebdnen. isini qarTul kulturas da mwignobrobas yovelmxriv xels uwyobdnen. `afxazTa" mefeebma dasavleT saqarTvelos eklesia konstantinopolis sapatriarqos CamoaSores da jer afxazeTis kaTolikoss, Semdeg ki sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqs dauqvemdebares. afxazeTis sakaTalikosoSi RvTismsaxureba qarTul enaze iyo. amitomac dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTuli damwerlobis dRemde moRweuli uZvelesi Zeglebi IX saukunes miekuTvneba. dasavleT saqarTveloSi uZvelesi qarTuli lapidaruli warwerebi Tanamedrove afxazeTis teritoriaze msigxuas (amJ. gudauTis raioni) miqael mTavarangelozis eklesiaSia aRmoCenili, romelic IX saukuniT TariRdeba. msigxuas warwerebis garda dRevandeli afxazeTis teritoriaze am xanis sxvadasxva Sinaarsis mravali warwera gvxvdeba: taZris qtitorTa, ostat-maSenebelTa savedrebeli, wmindanTa sadidebeli da sxva, rac imaze metyvelebs, rom taZris qtitori, ostat-mSeneblebi, mrevli RvTismsaxurebas qarTul enaze eweoda da qarTul eTnokulturul samyaros ekuTvnoda (l. axalaZe, 2005, gv. 146). "afxazTa" samefo qarTuli kulturis kera iyo. `afxazTa" mefis giorgi II-is (922-957) karze moRvaweobda cnobili qarTveli himnografi ioane minCxi. mis erT-erT poetur nawarmoebs `galobani giorgisni" avtori urTavs kidurwerils: `ese galobani mas kargsa giorgi mefesa, didsa, didiTa vedrebiTa aRuwervebian minCxisada. wmidao giorgi, Seewien giorgi mefesa winaSe meufeTa meufisa da adide" (p. ingoroyva, 1954, gv. 669-670). X s. meore naxevarSi cnobilia kidev erTi saxelganTqmuli qarTveli himnografi stefane sananois Ze Wyondideli, romelic aseve dasavleT saqarTvelos himnografiuli skolis warmomadgenlad iTvleba (k. kekeliZe, 1980, gv. 179-180). X saukuneSive "afxazTa" samefo karze Seiqmna "afxazTa mefeTa divani", sadac VIII-X ss. "afxazTa" mefeebis genealogiaa mocemuli. qarTuli kulturis erT-erT uZveles keras warmoadgens svaneTi, sadac qarTuli lapidaruli warwerebi IX saukunidan Cndeba. am droidan svaneTSi SemogvrCa rogorc samSeneblo-qtitoruli, ise samarTlebrivi xasiaTis warwerebi, xis naWrebsa Tu sxvadasxva xelnawerebze miwerili sabuTebi (p. ingoroyva, 1941). es mowmobs, rom qarTuli wera-kiTxva da

mwignobroba am mxareSi sayovelTaod iyo gavrcelebuli. am mxriv Zalze sainteresoa Cvabianis macxovris eklesiaSi SemorCenili X saukunis II naxevris freskuli asomTavruli warwera saRmrTo werilis nawyvetebis teqstiT. pirveli moTavsebulia gaSlil wignze, romelic eklesiis sakurTxevlis mxatvrobaSi sxva wmindanebs Soris gamosaxul ioane maxarebels uWiravs: `pirveliTgan iyo sityua~ da sityua~ igi iyo RmrTisa Tana, da RmerTi iyo sityua~ igi" (iovane, 1,1). meore warwera, Sesrulebuli didi zomis monumenturi asoebiT, moTavsebulia sakurTxevlis TaRis wina mxares: "q. saxlsa Sensa SuYnis siwmide, ufalo, sigrZesa dRYTasa" (fs. 92,5) (svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi, 1988, gv. 14-15). qarTuli mwerlobis keras odiTganve warmoadgenda samegrelo. istoriul samegreloSi, dRevandeli afxazeTis teritoriaze, sofel RumuriSSi, aRmoCenilia dasavleT saqarTveloSi yvelaze adreuli _ grigol galatozTuxucesis mxedruli warwera (l. axalaZe, gv. 83). IX-X saukuneebSi, Tu ufro adre ara, "qarTveli" saqarTvelos yvela istoriul-geografiuli mxaris mosaxlis zogad saxelad iqca. termini `saqarTvelo" ki `qarTlis cxovrebaSi" pirvelad murvan yrus laSqrobasTan dakavSirebiT ixsenieba. saqarTvelos erTianobis xanaSi erTiani qarTveli xalxi erTi saliteraturo eniT da saerTo qarTuli damwerlobiT ukve arsebobda. qveynis nebismier mxareSi yvelam icis, rom is jer qarTvelia, Semdeg ki Tavisi mxaris, Temis, soflis mkvidri. amis naTeli magaliTia svaneTSi, sof. lahilis wm. giorgis eklesiis miqael mTavarangelozis xatis (XIII-XIV ss.) warwera: "q. wmidao mTavarangelozo muxerisao, elTuqmaro, adiden mefeni bagratunianni, da dadiani, da didebulni da erTobili saqarTvelo da erTobilni suanni da Bevi latalisa; da aRaSene maSenebeli Seni sofeli lailisa da yovelni madidebelni Senni, amen" (m. axalaSvili, 1987, gv. 65). niSandoblivia, rom am Sinaarsis warwera Seqmnilia erT-erTi svanuri soflis dakveTiT, romlis mosaxleni qarTveli xalxis Semadgenel organul nawilad Tvlida Tavs. maTi gagebiT, svanebi, iseve rogorc megrelebi, afxazebi iseTive qarTvelebi iyvnen, rogorc saqarTvelos sxva istoriuleTnografiul mxareTa mkvidrni. Sua saukuneebSi afxazeTis, odiSis, svaneTis eklesia-monastrebi qarTuli kulturis umniSvnelovanes kerebs warmoadgendnen. am taZrebSi Seiqmna qarTuli mwerlobis ubrwyinvalesi Zeglebi, gadaiwera oTxTavebi da sxva sasuliero Tu saero wignebi. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia XII saukunis biWvintis saxareba; 1300 wels daniel moqvelis dakveTiT moqvis RvTismSoblis taZarSi gadawerili oTxTavi, romelic "moqvis oTxTavis" saxeliTaa cnobili. es aris erT-erTi umdidresi qarTuli xelnaweri miniaturebisa da morTuli sazedao asoebis raodenobis mxriv. moqvis taZris kuTvnileba iyo XII-XIII saukuneebSi gadawerili oTxTavi, romelic Semdeg dadianTa ojaxSi moxvda, Semdeg ki jruWis monasters Seswires da dRes `jruWis II oTxTavis" saxeliTaa cnobili. X-XI saukuneebSi svaneTSi gadawerili saeklesio wignebidan dRemde moaRwia `saweliwado iadgarma", `mestiis oTxTavma", `ierusalimis ganCinebam", sagaloblebis krebulma. 1322

wels svaneTSia gadawerili laxuStis saxareba-aparakosi. aRsaniSnavia, rom svaneTSi qarTul saeklesio wignebs ierusalimidanac agzavnidnen. ase, magaliTad, XIV saukuneSi ierusalimidan iovane qscxianis Svilma "fxotreris dekanozis xeliT" Tavis Zmas muxeris mTavarangelozisaTvis Sesawirad gamougzavna ierusalimis qarTvelTa aRdgomis eklesiaSi mis mier gadawerili saxareba, romelsac dRes `lahilis oTxTavi" ewodeba. ierusalimidan svaneTSi am Zvirfasi ZRvenis gamogzavnis Sesaxeb cnoba saxarebis anderZ-minawerSia daculi: `q. saxeliTa RmrTisaiTa, aRdgomisa eklesiasa Sina, winaSe saflavisa qristesa me, codvilman da umecarman da ucbad mCxrekelman, iovane qscxianis Svilman xelvyav aRwerad wmidaTa amaT oTxTavTa, da Sevswire suaneTs wmidasa mTavarangelozsa muxerisa..." (svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi, 1986, gv. 53). saqarTvelos Zlierebis xanaSi qarTuli ena, qarTuli kultura qarTul qristianobasTan erTad CrdiloeT kavkasiaSic vrceldeboda. cnobilia qarTul-xunZuri orenovani warwera daRestnidan, sadac xunZuri warwera qarTuli anbaniTaa Sesrulebuli (t. gudava, 1954, gv. 185-196). CrdiloeT kavkasiisagan gansxvavebiT, saqarTveloSi qarTuli enis romelime dialeqtze an kilokavze ubralo warwerac ki arasodes Seqmnila. XV s. meore naxevarSi erTiani saqarTvelo samefo-samTavroebad daiSala, magram erTianobis idea amis Semdegac ar gamqrala. XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi yvelgan qarTuli ena rCeboda sakomunikacio, RvTismsaxurebis, literaturisa da xelovnebis enad. es gansakuTrebiT reliefurad Cans odiSis (samegrelos) da svaneTis magaliTze. XVI saukuneSi odiSSi, bediis eparqiis centrSi, bediis RvTismSoblis taZarSi, Seiqmna gulani, romelic bediis gulanis saxeliTaa cnobili. s-s. orbelianis ganmartebiT, gulani "gulT sandomad Sekrebuli wignia". gulani saeklesio krebulia, romelSic Cveulebriv, Tavmoyrilia saRvTismsaxuro wignebi _ saxareba, Tveni, marxvani, zatiki, svinaqsari, tibikoni, mokle hagiografiuli sakiTxavebi da sxv. (a. xelaia, 2006, gv. 635-636). moqveli mTavarepiskoposis efTvime sayvareliZis dakveTiT moqvSi gadaiwera metafrasi (XVI s.); walenjixaSi, moZRvarT-moZRvar ilarion walenjixelis dakveTiT mRvdel gabriel bokuCavas 1667 w. gadauweria kurTxevani (v. beriZe, 1967, gv. 50); caiSis taZarSi gadaiwera gulani (XVIII s.). odiSis mTavrebis mier moWedili jvar-xatebi, maT mier agebuli eklesia-monastrebi Semkulia qarTuli warwerebiT. odiSis mTavris levan II dadianis (1611-1657) karze 1634-1657 wlebSi moRvaweobda imereTis mefis mdivan-mwignobari da kaligrafi mamuka TavaqalaSvili (TavaqaraSvili), romelmac mTavris brZanebiT 1646 w. gadawera da miniaturebiT Seamko `vefxistyaosani". aRsaniSnavia, rom es aris am poemis uZvelesi TariRiani xelnaweri. levan II dadianis brZanebiT masve gadauweria "Sah-names" qarTuli prozauli versia `uTruTian-saamiani" da gauleqsavs "zaaqianis" prozauli teqsti. amave xanebSi odiSis samTavro karze moRvaweobda poeti barZim vaCnaZe. levan II dadianis mTavrobis wlebSi ganaxlda odiSis yvela eklesia, xelaxla moixata da Seimko walenjixis, caiSis, xobis eklesiebi, aSenda

korcxelis eklesia; odiSis mTavarma valebidan gamoixsna ierusalimis jvris monasteri, xolo misi safasiT nikifore ColoyaSvilma 1643 wels ganaaxla taZris mxatvroba. am dros odiSis samTavro karze arsebobda saoqromWedlo saxelosno, sadac araerTi jvar-xati moiWeda, Seimko oqrovercxliT da Zvirfasi TvlebiT (l. xuskivaZe, 1974, gv. 15-16). `jvarcmis" (oqonis) xatis vercxlis budeze warwera gvauwyebs: `q. eha Zviruxsenebelo, goneba miuwdomelo, cisa da qveynis Semqmnelo, yovlis feris dambadebelo, RmerTo, Zeo macxovaro qriste meufeo, jvarcmao oqonisao, romelman movaWedineT kubo ese vercxliTa Cuen, dadianman, patronman levan, mis kurTxeulisa Cvenisa, am soflisa Tvalis sinaTlisa, dedoflisa, patronisa nestan-darejanisa sulis saxsrad da saoxad, raTa ixsen youlisa satanjvelisagan. levan" (l. xuskivaZe, iqve, gv. 54). iseve rogorc es warwera, odiSsa (samegrelo) da svaneTSi Sedgenili sabuTebi, dawerilia gamarTuli qarTuliT, qarTul diplomatikaSi arsebuli normebis gaTvaliswinebiT da maTSi kuTxuroba TiTqmis ar igrZnoba. amitom enaTmecnierebi zogjer mxolod varauds gamoTqvamen, rom esa Tu is Zegli svaneTSi an samegreloSia Sedgenili. samegreloSi, iseve rogorc mTel saqarTveloSi, qarTul wignebs mziTevSic atandnen. levan II dadianis dis _ mariamis mziTvis wignSi dasaxelebulia daviTni, Jamni, `yovlad wmindis savedrebeli wigni", `daujdomeli sakiTxavi wigni", "rostomiani", "vefxistyaosani" da sxva (masalebi, 1974, gv. 9). cnobilia, rom qarTlis samefoSi gadedoflebisTanave mariam dadiani saTaveSi Caudga qristianuli sarwmunoebis ganmtkicebisa da qarTuli mwignobrobis aRorZinebis saqmes. misi brZanebiT da safasiT aRadgines da moxates sveticxoveli da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos araerTi eklesia-monasteri. qarTlis dedofalma, iseve rogorc misma Zmam, levan II dadianma, didi Rvawli dasdo ierusalimis jvris monasters. dedofal mariams didi amagi miuZRvis qarTuli xelnawerebis gadanusxva-gamravlebasa da aRdgena-ganaxlebis saqmeSi. misi brZanebiT, daaxloebiT 1634-1645 ww. Soris gadaiwera `qarTlis cxovrebis" xelnaweri, romelic amJamad "mariam dadianiseuli qarTlis cxovrebis" saxeliTaa cnobili. es aris `qarTlis cxovrebis" erT-erTi uZvelesi xelnaweri. dedofali mariami didad zrunavda mtris mier gatacebul qarTul xelnawerTa dasaxsnelad. mis mier Turq-osmalTa tyveobidan daxsnil parxlis mravalTavs (Xs.) aseTi minaweri axlavs: `Cuen, xelmwifema patronma dadianisa asulma dedofalT dedofalman mariam ese wigni urumis qveynidam gamovixsen da gavaaxle, daSlili da wamxdari Cemda sadRegrZelod da codvaTa CuenTa Sesandobad". msgavsi Sinaarsis minawerebi axlavs tbeTis saxarebas (XII s.), Walis gulans, sveticxovlis Jamn-gulans (1567 w.) da sxva xelnawerebs, romlebic aseve mariam dedofals "tyveobidan" dauxsnia (a. tuRuSi, 1992, gv. 36). qarTul xelnawerebze zrunva odiSis samTavro karze arasodes Sewyvetila. odiSis mTavarma otia dadianma (1728-1758) da misma meuRlem dedofalma gulqanma gadaawerines tipikoni (1738 w.); dedofal gulqanisave

brZanebiTaa gadawerili s.-s. orbelianis leqsikoni; odiSis mTavris grigol dadianis (1788-1804) brZanebiT gadauweriaT paraklitioni da t. gabaSvilis "mimoslva" (l. menabde, 1989, gv. 64). XVIII s. miwurulsa da XIX s. dasawyisSi odiSis samTavro karze moRvaweobda istorikosi niko dadiani, feodaluri xanis erTaderTi cnobili istorikosi dasavleT saqarTvelodan. misi saistorio Txzulebis `qarTvelT cxovreba" erTi nawili winamorbedi avtorebis TxzulebaTa Semoklebul gadmocemas warmoadgens, xolo originaluri nawili _ XVIII s. miwurulisa da XIX s. dasawyisis dasavleT saqarTvelos istoria, _ saqarTvelos istoriis fonzea gadmocemuli. samegrelos ukanaskneli mTavari daviT dadiani (18461853) qarTuli wignis didi trfiali iyo. is ara marto agrovebda qarTul wignebsa Tu xelnawerebs, aramed TviTonac eweoda literaturulmTargmnelobiT saqmianobas, werda leqsebs. misi dakveTiT iTargmna mravali mxatvruli nawarmoebi Tu samecniero naSromi, gadaiwera mravali xelnaweri. daviT dadianis dakveTiT gadaiwera ioanesa da Tornikes mier aTonis mTaze gadawerili `biblia", ioane petriwis `prologi", ioseb flaviusis, plutarqes da sxvaTa Txzulebebi; mRvdel iese garsevaniSvils rusulidan aTargmnina herodotes `istoria", plutarqes `SedarebiTni cxovrebis aRwerani", `Seyuanileba miToloRiad" da sxva (g. miqaZe, 1980, gv. 75, 79). es xelnawerebi, da agreTve qarTulad Targmnili sxva mravali Txzuleba, maT Soris, homerosis `iliada", ciceronis `leli anu megobrobisaTvis", monteskies `gulisxmisyofisaTvis sjulTasa", ioane sinelis `klemaqsi", s.-s. orbelianis `leqsikoni qarTuli" (XVIII s.), `rostomiani" (XVIII s.), iona xelaSvilis `ronini" da krebuli (XIX s.), petre laraZis `mravalferyuavilovani" (XIX s.) samegrelos samTavro taxtis memkvidrem nikoloz daviTis Ze dadianma qSwkg sazogadoebas gadasca (qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba, t. 1, 1959). dadianebis koleqciaSi araerTi Zvirfasi xelnaweri Sedioda. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia SatberdSi gadawerili miqael modrekilis himnografiuli krebuli (978-988 ww.). masSi Sedis qarTuli da berZnulidan Targmnili teqstebi. sagalobelTa avtorebi da mTargmnelebi arian giorgi merCule, ioane mtbevari, ioane minCxi, stefane Wyondideli, ezra, ioane qonqozisZe, basili xanZTeli, kurdanai-kvirike, makari leTeTeli. sagalobelTa krebulis Semdgeneli, erT-erTi avtori da gadamweri aris miqael modrekili. aRsaniSnavia, rom sagaloblebs sanoto niSnebic axlavs (z. WumburiZe, 1983, gv. 106-111). gvian Sua saukuneebSi svaneTi qarTuli xelnawerebisa da jvar-xatebis Tavisebur TavSesafrad iqca. qarTuli damwerlobis Zeglebi svaneTSi TiTqmis gafetiSebuli hqondaT, amitomac cdilobdnen rac SeiZleba meti xelnaweri SeeZinaT da daRupvisgan gadaerCinaT. aseT xelnawerebs Soris aRsaniSnavia: adiSis (897 w.), mestiis (1033 w.), labsyaldis (XII s.), quraSis (XII s.), laxamulis (XII s.), ienaSis (XIII s.), lahilis (XIV s.) oTxTavebi; ielis marxvani (XII s.), latalis leqcionari (IX-X ss.) da sxva (svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi, 1986). isini cnobilia im saxeliT, sadac daculi iyo. aRsaniSnavia, rom adiSis oTxTavi aris Zveli qarTuli enisa

da mwerlobis umniSvnelovanesi Zegli, TariRian oTxTavTa Soris uZvelesi nusxa. gadawerilia Satberdis lavraSi. oTxTavze XV-XVI ss. nusxuriT gakeTebul minawerSi naTqvamia, rom nikolaos jumaTels es saxareba da sxva wmida wignebi _ mravalTavi, xelTkanoni, mamaTa wigni da kiTxva-migeba, _ mas klarjeTis monastrebidan wamouRia. Semdeg, XVI saukuneSi isini svaneTSi aRmoCnda (z. WumburiZe, 1983, gv.113-118). mestiis oTxTavi oSkSia gadawerili, lahilis oTxTavi _ ierusalimis aRdgomis eklesiaSi da a.S. samegrelosa da svaneTisagan gansxvavebiT, XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi afxazeTi kulturulad saqarTvelos nawilobriv mowyda, rac am mxareSi dasavleT kavkasiis mTielTa Camosaxlebam gamoiwvia. Tumca aseTi radikaluri eTnikuri cvlilebis Semdegac afxazeTis feodaluri sazogadoeba, samTavro saxli, metwilad qarTuli darCa. XIX saukuneSi mTavris kancelaria kvlavac qarTul enaze muSaobda. niSandoblivia, rom afxazeTis ukanaskneli mTavris mixeil SarvaSiZis (1823-1864) da misi meuRlis, dedofal aleqsandra dadianis saflavis qvebis warwerebi moqvis eklesiaSi qarTul enazea Sesrulebuli. XIX saukuneSi ruseTis imperiam saqarTvelos miwa-wyali nawil-nawil daipyro. saqarTvelos ruseTTan SeerTebis Semdeg carizmi qveynis kolonizaciisa da mosaxleobis asimilaciisTvis zrunvas Seudga, Tumca es procesi ruseT-kavkasiis omma (1817-1864 ww.) Seaferxa. 1864 wels omis warmatebiT dasrulebisa da kavkasiel mTielTa didi nawilis ZaldatanebiT osmaleTSi gadasaxlebis (muhajiroba) Semdeg carizmma kavkasiaSi Tavi myarad igrZno da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis garusebis mcdeloba axali ZaliT gaaCaRa. mefis xelisuflebas surda kavkasia `samoqalaqo da politikuri TvalsazrisiT mWidrod Seekra ruseTTan da mis ganuyofel nawilad eqcia", xolo adgilobrivi mosaxleoba `eniT, gonebiT da grZnobiT rusi gamxdariyo" (Èñòîðèÿ .., 1967, gv. 384). XIX saukunis 80-ian wlebSi carizmis koloniur politikaSi axali tendenciebi gamoikveTa. aSkarad gamoxatuli asimilatoruli politika _ adgilobrivi mosaxleobis ayra mSobliuri adgilebidan da gadasaxleba, fizikuri ganadgureba, rusTa dasaxlebebis Seqmna, _ ruseTis imperiaSi Semavali xalxebis denacionalizaciis, erovnuli cnobierebis moSlis politikiT Seicvala. xelisuflebam CaTvala, rom qarTvelebis rusifikaciis jeric dadga da am miznis misaRwevad yvelaze moxerxebul gzad erTiani qarTuli eTnosis tomebad dayofa miiCnia. am droidan, mosaxleobis aRweris Tu sxva statistikur masalebSi cal-calke aRwerdnen qarTvelTa eTnografiul jgufebs. amierkavkasiis mosaxleobis aRweris (1886 weli) masalebSi cal-calkea Setanili: qarTvelebi, romelSic qarTlkaxeTis mkvidrni igulisxmebodnen, imerlebi, gurulebi, aWarlebi, megrelebi da lazebi, afxazebi, svanebi, TuSebi, fSavlebi, xevsurebi, mTiulebi (Ñâîä ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ..., 1886). qarTvelebis eTnotomobriv jgufebad dayofa 1897 wlis sruliad ruseTis imperiis mosaxleobis pirveli da Semdgomi aRweris drosac ucvleli darCa. amasve emsaxureboda qarTuli enis megruli da svanuri dialeqtebis calke enebad gamocxadeba.

upirveles yovlisa, carizmi afxazeTSi rusuli orientaciis inteligenciis CamoyalibebisaTvis zrunvas Seudga. afxazTa Soris xelovnurad nergavdnen antiqarTul ganwyobilebas; daundobeli brZola gamoecxada qarTvel-afxazTa kulturul-istoriul erTobasa da am erTobis safuZvels _ qarTul enas. am mizans emsaxureboda afxazeTis eklesiebSi RvTismsaxurebis saeklesio-slavurze gadayvana da rusuli anbanis safuZvelze afxazuri damwerlobis Seqmna. afxazuri damwerlobis Seqmna emsaxureboda ara kulturul, aramed politikur miznebs, ris Sesaxebac mefisnacvlis sabWos wevri e. veidenbaumi daufaravad werda: `afxazuri ena, romelsac ar gaaCnia damwerloba da literatura, ra Tqma unda ganwirulia gasaqrobad, ase Tu ise axlo momavalSi. sakiTxi isaa, romeli ena Secvlis mas. albaT, mosaxleobaSi kulturuli ideebisa da cnebebis gamtareblis roli unda Seasrulos ara qarTulma, aramed rusulma enam. amitom mimaCnia, rom afxazuri damwerlobis damkvidreba TviTmizani ki ar unda iyos, aramed eklesiisa da skolis meSveobiT qarTuli enis xmarebis dasustebisa da saxelmwifo eniT misi TandaTan Secvlis saSualeba" (z. anCabaZe, 1970, gv. 96). ruseTis xelisuflebam da misma moxele-mecnierebma daiwyes mizanmimarTuli kampania imis dasamtkiceblad, rom megrelebi, svanebi da sxva qarTuli eTnografiuli jgufebi qarTvelebi ar arian, rasac TiTqos maT "enebs" Soris arsebuli gansxvavebac adasturebda. imperiis xelisuflebis azriT kavkasiaSi skola adgilobrivi erebis gadagvarebisa da garusebis mZlavri iaraRi unda gamxdariyo; skolas unda aRmoefxvra adgilobrivi kultura da daenerga rusuli, raTa sabolood gaerusebinaT es xalxebi. 1885 wlis 11 ianvris cirkuliariT samegrelos skolebSi swavleba mSobliur enaze _ e. i. megrulad unda warmarTuliyo. radgan megrul enaze damwerloba ar arsebobda, rusuli anbaniT unda esargeblaT (tr. xundaZe, 1951, gv. 98). megrul enas mimarTavdnen im mizniT, raTa misi meSveobiT samegrelodan qarTuli ena ganedevnaT da ara masze zrunviT, radgan kargad icodnen, rom anbanis, mwerlobis, literaturuli tradiciebis armqone ena ver Secvlida qarTuls da es arc Seadgenda maT mizans. qarTveli sazogadoeba win aRudga am wamowyebas. senakis mazris inteligenciam TxovniT mimarTa ilia WavWavaZes, Careuliyo am ambavSi. swored amave xanebSi samegrelos samTavro taxtis memkvidrem niko dadianma dadianTa SesaniSnavi biblioTeka _ 169 xelnaweri wigni da nabeWdi wignebi qarTul da ucxour enebze _ saCuqrad gadasca qarTvelTa Soris werakiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebas. swored es unikaluri koleqcia daedo safuZvlad qSwkg sazogadoebis biblioTekasa da muzeums. dadianTa biblioTekis TbilisSi gadmotanis motiviT samegreloSi ilia WavWavaZe Cavida (sol. caiSvili, 1962, gv. 205-207). swored am mogzaurobis dros warmoTqva didma iliam is cnobili sityva, romelic salbunad daedo am mravalWirnaxul mxares: "samegreloSi movel da saqarTvelo vnaxe! didi saqarTvelo! bevri Wiri unaxavs saqarTvelos, mravals qartexils gardauvlia zurgszeda missa, magram yovelTvis Jamsa rRvevisa da

gawbilebisa, macxovari Zala igi, qveynis mxsneli samegrelodan momdinareobda, mterTa misTa damTrgunveli samegrelo iyo, igi iyo erTsul da erTgul im sxeulisa, romelsac saqarTvelo ewoda. ase iyo wineT, agre aris axla, agre darCeba momavalSic" (vuk. beriZis mogoneba, gaz. `saxalxo ganaTleba", 1987 w., 23 oqtomberi, #85). qarTveli xalxis gaTiSvis mizniT, kavkasiis saswavlo olqis mzrunvelis k. ianovskis (1878-1899) mowveviT peterburgis universitetis aRmosavleTis enebis fakultetis kandidatma a. grenma, romelic saqarTveloSi 1886 wels Camovida, Seadgina megruli anbani da megruli enis saxelmZRvanelo, megrulad Targmna locvebi da maTes saxarebis ramdenime Tavi (tr. xundaZe, 1951, gv. 105, 108-109). amis winaaRmdeg kvlav gamovida samegrelos mowinave inteligencia, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba. iyo mcdeloba samegrelos eklesiamonastrebSi RvTismsaxureba megrulad daenergaT, saRvTo werili eTargmnaT. es jer kidev XIX saukunis 50-ian wlebSi daiwyo. saqarTvelos egzarqos isidores (1844-1858) winadadebiT samurzayanos eklesiaTa blaRoCinma daviT maWavarianma qarTulidan megrulad Targmna wm. ioane oqropiris liturgia (gaz. `droeba", 1885, #59). samegrelos mosaxleoba uaryofiTad Sexvda saeklesio wignebis megrulad Targmnas, megrul enaze RvTismsaxurebis SemoRebas. megrulad wirva-locvis Catarebis mcdeloba xalxma ar miiRo (gaz. `iveria", 1889, #4). cnobilma moRvawem Tedo Jordaniam, romelic imxanad guria-samegrelos eparqiis samrevlo skolebis meTvalyured muSaobda, vrcel moxsenebaSi sruliad naTlad aCvena locvebis megrulad Targmnis Seusabamoba da uxamsoba, rasac am sakiTxis sabolood moxsna mohyva (gaz. `axali qarTli", 1912, #41). k. ianovskis mfarvelobiT zugdidis saqalaqo skolis maswavlebelma T. aSordiam megrelebisa da svanebisaTvis saanbano wignis Seqmnis idea wamoayena. 1899 wels gamovida kidec T. aSordias megruli saanbano wigni "dida nina", romelic kavkasiis saswavlo olqma skolebis saxelmZRvanelod dauSva. imavdroulad gamovida svanuri saanbano wignic _ `luSnu anban". 1903 wlis zafxulSi, rodesac saqarTvelos egzarqosi aleqsi samegrelos ewvia, uamravi xalxi awydeboda mas locva-kurTxevis misaRebad, Tan emudareboda, eSuamdgomla, raTa saeklesio-samrevlo skolebidan qarTuli ena ar amoeRoT da megruli anbani ar SemoeRoT (gaz. `iveria", 1904, #14). samegrelos samTavro taxtis memkvidris niko dadianis Carevamac mniSvnelovanwilad SeaCera samegrelos samrevlo skolebidan qarTuli enis gandevnisa da mis nacvlad megrulis SemoRebis mcdeloba (b. xo-rava, 2001, gv. 80). 1905 wlis revoluciis periodSi carizmi droebiT daTmoba-ze wavida da neba darTo samegrelos, svaneTis, afxazeTis, aWaris skolebSi swavleba qarTul enaze warmarTuliyo (gaz. `iveria", 1906, #66). qarTveli xalxis Semadgeneli calkeuli eTnografiuli jgufebis grZnobebze TamaSi gaTvlili iyo qarTvelTa erovnuli cnobierebis amRvrevaze. saeklesio-samrevlo skolebis zedamxedveli da saRvTo sjulis maswavlebeli i. vostorgovi mogvianebiT kidec aRniSnavda: qarTvelebs "samwuxarod, aqvT erovnuli tradiciebi da

cnobiereba, magram Cven yvelgan aRvZariT tomobrivi grZnobebi im imediT, rom tomi tomze da Zma Zmis winaaRmdeg aRdgeba" (i. vostorgovi, 1905, gv. 332). rogorc mosalodneli iyo, xelisuflebis es mcdeloba CaiSala. 1893 wels martvilis samrevlo skolis gaxsnisas episkoposi grigoli (dadiani) sazogadoebas ase mimarTavda: "daixsomeT, gulSi Rrmad CaimarxeT, Svilebo, rom megrelebi ZvelisZveli qarTvelebi varT. samegrelo, megreli rodi Seadgens gansakuTrebul qveyanas, gansakuTrebul xalxs: samegrelo nawilia erTis qveynisa, Cveni sazogado samSoblosi, saqarTvelosi: megreli saxelia im qarTvelisa, romelic saqarTvelos erT nawilSi, samegreloSi cxovrobs... nu daujerebT im zogierT sulmdablebs, romelTac mxolod piradis interesebisaTvis daiwyes qadageba qarTvelisa da megrelis gansxvavebazed" (n. SataiZe, 1985, gv. 66). qarTvelma sazogadoebam XIX saukuneSi da XX saukunis dasawyisSi carizmis moxele-mecnierebis mcdelobebs sakadrisi pasuxi gasca. samegrelos samTavro taxtis memkvidre niko dadiani werda: "me wavikiTxe is statiebi, romelnic amtkiceben, rom megruli enis Sua da qarTuli enis Sua simsgavsec ar ariso... amas vityvi, is gareSe qveynis filologebi, romelnic sweren megruls da qarTuls enebzed, arian sruliad dabneulni. jere Cveni ena iswavlon da mermed sweron... me mengrelias, imereTs da gurias uyureb, rogorc saqarTvelos provinciebs. Cven Sua gansxvaveba ar aris an arc unda iyos; es aris Cemi azri da am azriT movkvdebi. esRa gvaklia axla, rom vinme CineTelma filologma dasweros Cvens Zvel enazed an gvaswavlos qarTuli. egebis amasac moveswroT..." (gaz. `iveria", 1904, #4). rogorc vxedavT, afxazeTi, samegrelo da svaneTi qarTuli kulturis kerebi iyo. am eTnografiuli mxareebis mosaxleobam didi wvlili Seitana qarTuli saxelmwifos, qarTuli kulturis da qarTuli saliteraturo enis CamoyalibebaSi. qarTuli enis ganStoebebis _ megrulisa da svanuris damoukidebel enebad, xolo megrelebisa da svanebis eTnikur Tu enobriv umciresobebad gamocxadeba am eTnografiuli jgufebis didi qarTuli samwignobro kulturisagan mowyvetas gamoiwvevs. megrulisa da svanuris enebad gamocxadeba, riskenac zogierTi qarTveli da ucxoeli enaTmecnieri dResac aqtiurad miiswrafvis, faqtobrivad, qarTveli xalxis daSlis mcdelobaa. amiT isini uars eubnebian svanebsa da megrelebs im uzarmazar kulturul memkvidreobaze, romlis SeqmnaSic isini saukuneebis manZilze monawileobdnen; uaryofen maT wvlils qarTuli saxelmwifos, qarTuli saliteraturo enis, qarTuli mwerlobisa da, saerTod, qarTuli kulturis SeqmnaSi (sakiTxis istoriisaTvis ix. T. gvancelaZe, 2006). damowmebuli literatura m. axalaSvili, 1987 - m. axalaSvili, X-XV ss. warwerebi svaneTis Weduri xelovnebis Zeglebze, Tb., 1987. l. axalaZe, 2005 - l. axalaZe, afxazeTis epigrafika, rogorc saistorio wyaro, I, Tb., 2005.

gaz. `axali qarTli", 1912, #41. v. beriZe, 1967 - v. beriZe, Zveli qarTveli ostatebi, Tb., 1967. T. gvancelaZe, 2006 - T. gvancelaZe, enisa da kilos sakiTxi qarTvelologiaSi, Tb., 2006. t. gudava, 1954 - t. gudava, ori warwera (qarTuli da qarTulxunZuri) daRistnidan: masalebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis istoriisaTvis, 30, Tb., 1954. gaz. `droeba", 1885, #59. i. vostorgovi, 1905 - È. Âîñòîðãîâ, Öåðêîâíàÿ øêîëà â Çàêàâêàçüå, ,,Íàðîäíîå îáðàçîâàíèå", ìàðò, 1905. gaz. `iveria", 1904, #4, #14; 1906, #66. p. ingoroyva, 1941 - p. ingoroyva, svaneTis saistorio Zeglebi, II, Tb., 1941. p. ingoroyva, 1954 - p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, Tb., 1954. k. kekeliZe, 1980 - k. kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. 1, Tb., 1980. masalebi.., 1974 - saqarTvelos socialur-ekonomiuri istorii-saTvis (mziTvis wignebi); teqstebi gamosacemad moamzada, Sesavali, leqsikoni da saZieblebi daurTo mzia iaSvilma, Tb., 1974. l. menabde, 1989 - l. menabde, naSromi ganZad daSTebis..., Tb., 1989 g. miqaZe, 1980 - g. miqaZe, daviT dadianis biblioTeka, almanaxi `mwignobari", Tb., 1980. svaneTis werilobiTi Zeglebi (X-XVIII ss.), t. II, (epigrafikuli Zeglebi); teqstebi gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvlevebi da samecniero-sacnobaro aparati daurTo v. silogavam, Tb., 1988. a. tuRuSi, 1992 - a. tuRuSi, cxovreba da Rvawli dedofal mariam dadianisa, Tb., 1992. qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba (S koleqcia), t. 1, e. metrevelis redaqciiT, Tb., 1959. n. SataiZe, 1985 - n. SataiZe, ianovski, levicki, aSordia da sxvebi: Jurn. `skola da cxovreba", 1985, #5. sol. caiSvili, 1962 - sol. caiSvili, ilias erTi mogzaurobis istoriidan, wignSi: literaturuli narkvevebi, Tb., 1962. z. WumburiZe, 1983 - z. WumburiZe, qarTuli xelnawerebis kvaldakval, Tb., 1983. a. xelaia, 2006 - a. xelaia, bedia da bediis taZari, wignSi: wminda aRmsarebeli ambrosi (xelaia) da afxazeTi, Tb., 2006. b. xorava, 2001 - b. xorava, dadianTa samTavro saxlis axali dinastia, Tb., 2001. tr. xundaZe, 1951 - tr. xundaZe, narkvevebi saxalxo ganaTlebis istoriidan saqarTveloSi (XIX saukune), Tb., 1951. l. xuskivaZe, 1974 - l. xuskivaZe, levan dadianis saoqromWedlo saxelosno, Tb., 1974. Èñòîðèÿ.., 1967 - Èñòîðèÿ ÑÑÑÐ ñ äðåâíåèøèõ âðåìåí äî íàøèõ äíåé, ò. IV, Ì., 1967.

Ñâîä ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ äàííûõ î íàñåëåíèè Çàêàâêàçñêîãî êðàÿ, èçâëå-÷åííûõ èç ïîñåìåéíèõ ñïèñêîâ 1886 ã., Òèôëèñ, 1893.

TAMAZ BERADZE, BEZHAN KHORAVA GEORGIAN LITERARY LANGUAGE AND CULTURE AS THE COMMON CREATIVE PRODUCT OF ALL THE ETHNOGRAPHIC PART OF GEORGIA Georgian literary language and literacy has been created by the common efforts of all the dialects and sub-dialects functioning in Georgia. Among other regions of the country Megrelia, Svaneti and Abkhazeti brought considerable contributions to its formation. The sense of unity among the Georgian tribes can be traced back in XV-XIV cc. B.C. with the formation of the kingdom of Colchis, an ancient Georgian kingdom. The proclamation of Megrelian and Svan vernacular of the Georgian language as separate languages and declaring Megrels and and Svans as people of ethnic and language minorities will tear these ethnic groups off from the Georgian literacy and culture that has always been created by the active participation of these very groups. The propensity of some Georgian and overseas linguists to declare Megrelian and Svan vernaculars as individual languages is in fact the effort for the further disintegration of the country. In their attempts they seem to deprive the rights from Megrels and Svans to take pride in the language and culture they have been creating for centuries. They neglect the huge contribution of these ethnic groups for the creation of the Georgian statehood, Georgian literary language, and the Georgian culture in general.

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