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Do “Green” Consumers Always Buy Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products?

Team 2
Sarah Clamons Lorrie Etheridge Lea Ann Gates Gina Minks

Florida State University Instructional Systems Program EME6635: Inquiry and Measurement—Spring 2009 April 26, 2009

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Executive Summary
Sustainable living refers to a lifestyle that attempts to reduce the use of the Earth’s natural resources. The term sustainable living is also used interchangeably with the terms “living green” and “environmentally friendly” living. In March 2009, a small scale study was conducted in Tallahassee, Florida to investigate if adults who claim to want to live “green” lifestyles actually purchase environmentally friendly home cleaning products. An anonymous online survey was designed to determine if consumers face certain barriers when making “green” purchasing decisions. The study collected information about the level to which the participants understood common green terminology. Also, the participants were given a list of cleaning products and asked to choose the ones they purchase on a regular basis. The list was a mix of green and non-green commercial products and natural products. Finally, the survey questioned the participants to determine their personal attitudes about five common barriers consumers face when making green purchasing decisions: costs, the trustworthiness of the marketing, the availability of green cleaning products, negative attitudes and the methods used to advertise “green” cleaning products. The study found that even though all of the participants claimed to be green, only 7% exclusively used only green or natural cleaning products. Even though many of the participants were overwhelmed by the green terminology, 76% were influenced to purchase products simply because the word “green” is on the label. In general, the participants seemed to desire more information about a product in order to make a better purchasing decision with only 30% of the participants believing they had enough information to make an informed purchasing decision when it comes to “green” cleaning products. The survey results indicated that while participants preferred green products over nongreen products, several factors influenced whether they actually purchased environmentally friendly products. 73% of participants factor cost into the equation when considering the purchase of green cleaning products. Another possibly larger factor was the distrust of the manufacturers’ claims about their products with 88% of participants indicating they believe companies must prove their products are green. Finally, the study revealed an association between the age groups surveyed and their use of green or natural cleaning products. 40% of the youngest group used natural cleaning products, while 100% of the oldest group did so. Based on the study results, it seems that consumers who desire to live a “green” lifestyle do not necessarily purchase “green” cleaning products for their home. A second version of the study could further examine issues such as determining measurements of a “green lifestyle”, if age is truly a factor, and if the geographical location is a factor in the consumer’s ability to purchase “green” cleaning products.

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Introduction
This study examined the buying habits of American consumers who have expressed the desire to live a “green” lifestyle. It was relatively easy to find people who assert that they are taking steps to live a ”green” lifestyle. The specific area of “green” living examined was whether individuals make informed decisions about how the cleaning products purchased impact the environment. The study also examined if the purchasing choices made by individuals are affected by factors such as personal attitudes, costs, availability, distrust of manufacturers, or misleading advertising. In the US, the market for household cleaning products was estimated to be 7 billion dollars. Companies compete for that market with advertising and packaging, but are their marketing confusing to consumers who wish to lead a “green” lifestyle?

Purpose
The purpose of this study was to discover what barriers, if any, inhibit Americans who want to live a “green” lifestyle from purchasing “green” cleaning products. Research shows that there is a gap between the number of consumers who say they purchase “green” products and the number of consumers who actually do so (Consumers Want “Green” Products, 2007). In their study, they focused on five potential barriers consumers face when purchasing products: cost, lack of advertising, availability, distrust, and negative perceptions of companies selling “green” cleaning products (Bonini and Oppenheim, 2008).

Rationale
The concept of “living green” is pervasive in American media, but there does not seem to be much in the way of guidance for consumers about how to choose “green” cleaning products. The decision was made to focus on cleaning products because it was hypothesized that everyone purchases some sort of cleaning supplies for completing household chores, and these items are potentially the most toxic things consumers can purchase. The Green Gap survey (Do “Green” Conscious, 2008) is conducted annually by Cone LLC in collaboration with The Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship. The 2008 survey of American adults focused primarily on consumer attitudes towards advertising, definitions, and purchasing of “environmentally friendly” products. They found that people are confused by green advertising and green terms, and that people want there to be oversight of marketing efforts by green manufacturers. The primary focus for this study is to discover whether consumers purchase cleaning products that are potentially harmful to the environment while believing that they practice an environmentally friendly lifestyle.

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Aims/Objectives
The purpose of the study was to shed light on the state of “green” living habits of American consumers by looking at how they approach the purchase of cleaning products for their homes. A survey was designed to determine if consumers face certain barriers, including cost, lack of advertising, distrust in companies, availability and negative attitudes when making “green” purchasing decisions. The survey supports the secondary goal of understanding what factors influence the purchasing decisions of consumers.

Research Questions
The main research question for the study was: Do American consumers who desire to practice a “green” lifestyle actually choose environmentally friendly cleaning products? The supporting question for the study was: If these consumers want to live a “green” life style but still chose cleaning products that were not environmentally friendly, did factors such as cost or greenwashing affect their decision?

Background
Sustainable living refers to a lifestyle that attempts to reduce the use of the Earth’s natural resources (“Sustainable Living,” 2009). This philosophy of living revolves around the concept that the Earth’s resources should not be depleted faster than they can be replenished. Sustainable living includes reducing energy consumption and reducing unnecessary waste. Sustainable living is also used interchangeably with the terms “living green” and “environmentally friendly” living. Even though many Americans desire to live “green”, there seems to be a gap between the number of consumers who indicate a desire to purchase “green” products and the number of those consumers who actually purchase “green” products. “Eighty-two percent of the population claims to make going green a priority, but as this data proves, the behaviors of those consumers vary drastically. While certain ‘green’ conscious consumers do make a concerted effort to buy ‘green’ products, there are certain segments of the population that are environmentally sensitive but that does not necessarily translate into their actual behavior” (Do “Green” Conscious, 2008). Other studies (Cone Releases 2008 Green, 2008) have found that Americans erroneously believe products labeled as “green” have a beneficial impact on the environment. Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) identified five barriers that consumers face when considering “green” purchases: “lack of awareness, negative perceptions, distrust, high prices, and low availability.” Pickett-Baker and Ozaki (2008) point out that even though the desire to purchase “green” products exists, consumers have difficulty locating these products due to lack of marketing efforts. When consumers do find these products, many

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of them feel that the companies are just trying to sell more of their product (Cone Releases 2008 Green, 2008). Additionally, consumers are faced with greenwashing efforts. Greenwashing is a process that manufacturers use to market non-“green” products as “green” (O’Brien, 1992). The greenwashing problem is so bad that the US Government is taking a role to help protect consumers from false “green” advertising (Sorting Out “Green”, 1999). Since consumers face barriers to making decisions when considering “green” purchases, it is possible that there are consumers who believe they are living a sustainable lifestyle who are not purchasing “green” products.

Research Methods
Approach
The research approach used for this study was the survey method. Respondents were invited to participate in a short online survey. They were informed of the topics to be covered, as well as the time commitment required to complete the survey. Participation in the survey was strictly voluntary and participants were informed of the option to discontinue involvement at any point during the survey. The survey began with questions to determine demographic information, such as age, gender and race, but respondents were not asked to reveal their personal identity. There was a potential for research bias since two of the four researchers work in fields that promote “green” living. One works for a global computer hardware and software company that is currently conducting a campaign to convert data centers so that they are more environmentally friendly. Another recently managed a technology conference that focused on “green” initiatives. Care has been taken to focus on a research question that will not be influenced by either of the researchers’ current position and care has been taken so that there is a potential bias is not effect the data analysis.

Participants
The survey was administered to residents in the city of Tallahassee located in the state of Florida. Selected respondents were adults who self-identified as individuals who live a “green” lifestyle. Respondents agreed to participate in a survey about their habits when purchasing cleaning products. Attempts were made to approximate US population for gender, age, and ethnicity, although a small sample was obtained and it is unlikely that it could be assumed that the research would be applicable to the larger population of the US population. Participants were pre-screened and known to have a proclivity for a “green” lifestyle. They were sent an email message inviting them to participate in the study. The initial email is included in Appendix I.

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In all, there were 26 respondents who completed the survey. About half of the respondents were from age 40 -59. More women (69%) participated than men. The majority of respondents (73%) had a Bachelor’s Degree or higher (see Table 1).
Table 1: Participant Information Sample (n=26)

Age
18-29 30-39 40-59 60 and above

19% 27% 50% 4% 15% 12% 69% 0% 0% 4% 69% 21% 0% 8% 12% 8% 38% 31% 4%

Race
African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Native American Other

Gender
Female Male

Education Level
Some High School High School Some College Associate’s Degree Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree Doctorate Degree

Data Collection
A survey instrument was constructed to facilitate data collection. The survey was conducted online using Zoomerang, a surveying tool. A paper version was available to individuals without internet access; however all respondents used the online version of the survey. Individual survey results were anonymous, and individual responses remained confidential. The complete survey instrument as well as the data collected can be seen in Appendix II. Prospective respondents were contacted via word of mouth and email. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to 50 people that met the criteria of the sample population. An additional respondent was recruited from an invitee. Twenty-eight respondents replied to the invitation wishing to participate. Of those 28 respondents, 26 completed the survey. The response rate of 52% well exceeded the anticipated rate of 20%. The survey link was sent to respondents with a reasonable amount of time to complete the survey. The online survey data collection method was chosen in order to gather the most data in the shortest amount of time.

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The survey was designed to determine if consumers face certain barriers when making “green” purchasing decisions. The survey also contained census-type questions to see if additional factors such as age, gender, or education influenced purchasing decisions (see Appendix II). Questions were developed in the survey to measure the respondents’ knowledge of common marketing terms used on the labels of “green” cleaning products. Respondents were also asked questions regarding type of cleaning products they purchase and use, as well as where they purchase the cleaning products. The cleaning products were chosen by sampling the cleaning products used by the survey team, as well as by examining products that were packaged as “green” or “eco-friendly” in a local grocery store. Finally, questions were developed to determine the participants’ personal attitudes about costs, the trustworthiness of the marketing, the availability of green cleaning products, and the methods used to advertise “green” cleaning products. A trial with the survey instrument was planned with a test group to determine if the survey questions produced valid responses, but unfortunately was not conducted. If it had been conducted, a flaw in the survey instrument would have been discovered. The question relating to natural cleaning products did not allow respondent to choose more than one answer. It is unclear if incomplete data was collected due to this flaw. Responses were organized using Zoomerang. Unfortunately, the free version of the product did not allow downloading the information into an Excel file. The team spent extra time transposing the Zoomerang information into Excel spreadsheets for more analysis.

Data Analysis
Information was collected regarding the respondents’ demographic data, purchasing habits, and their understanding of terms and definitions used in marketing “green” products. Factors of cost, availability, distrust and advertising of “green” cleaning products and manufacturers were also explored.

Findings/Results
This study set out to investigate whether Americans that say they are living “green” purchase “green” cleaning products. The study also explored if the factors theorized by Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) are actually preventing “green” lifestyle consumers from making environmentally sound choices with regards to cleaning products.

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Data Findings
Purchasing/Cleaning Habits
Even though the criteria for participating in the survey was that the respondent selfidentify as a “green” consumer, only 7% of respondents either exclusively purchase “green” products or only use natural cleaning products. 73% of the respondents use a combination of “green” products, natural cleaning products and “green” cleaning products. A surprising 19% of the respondents reported that they do not use any “green” products or natural cleaning products. This includes one “no response” to the question regarding natural cleaning products. Also surprising is that 69% of the respondents disagree or strongly disagree that they use commercial cleaning products as a last resort.
Figure 1: Respondent use of commercial cleaning products
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Percent of respondents who only use commercial cleaning products as a last resort method Strongly Agree Agree Unsure Disagree Strongly Disagree 4% 11% 15% 12% 58%

Definitions of “Green” Terms
69% of the respondents agree or strongly agreed that they consider the environmental impacts on their purchases. 76% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that having the word “green” in the product label influences their purchasing decision. 42% of the survey takers agree or strongly agree that they are overwhelmed by the terminology.

Cost as a Factor
Cost appears to be a factor. 73% of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that they consider cost when considering the purchase of “green” cleaning products. This finding confirms the literature relating to purchasing habits and cost (see Figure 2).

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Figure 2: Cost Considerations
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 0% 19% 27% 54%

I consider the cost w hen choosing w hether or not to purchase green cleaning products

Strongly agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Availability
Only 38% agree that there is sufficient availability of “green” cleaning products. This finding confirms the literature relating to availability of products to consumers (see Figure 3).
Figure 3: Lack of Availability
40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0% 0% 38%

31%

31%

There are enough green cleaning products available to make it convenient to purchase them.

Strongly agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly disagree

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Consumer Distrust
Respondents don’t search very deep for information about the products they purchase. Figure 4 (d) shows that only 34% agree that they consider the history of the company when purchasing cleaning products. The distrust of companies selling “green” products continues with regards to the way these products are advertised. 15% of the respondents agree that the companies’ claims about their products are accurate (see Figure 4 (a)). 50% of the respondents agree that when companies communicate about the environment, it makes them want to buy products from them as shown in Figure 4 (b). Figure 4 (c) shows an overwhelming 88% of the respondents agree that companies must prove their products are “green”.
Figure 4: Consumer Distrust
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 15% 0% 46% 31 % 42 % 27 % 19% 8% 4% 23% 12 % 0% 0% 0% 65 %

35% 31 % 27 % 8%

8%

(a) I believe (b) Companies that (c) Companies must (d) I consider a companies are communicate about not only say a product company's history of accurately the environment make is good for the environmental communicating me want to buy environment, they commitment when information about their products from them need to prove it choosing whether or impact on the not to purchase a environment green cleaning product Strongly Agree Agree Unsure Disagree Strongly Disagree

Advertising
The data collected seems to indicate that consumers feel the need for more information about the “green” cleaning products that are available. 30% of the respondents agree that there is sufficient information to make a decision on purchasing “green” cleaning products, but only 15 % agree that there is sufficient advertising for “green” cleaning products (see Figure 5).

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Figure 5: Advertising
70% 60% 50% 40% 31 % 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 15 % 4% 8% 0%
There is sufficient information avaliable to make informaed decisions about buying green products.

58 %

35 % 27%

23 %

There is sufficient advertising of available products for me to make a decision to purchase them.

Strongly agree

Agree

Unsure

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Data Results
Commonalities exist among the respondents who do not purchase “green” cleaning products or use natural cleaning products. These respondents agreed that a company cannot just say a product is not only good for the environment, they must also prove it. They also commonly disagree that companies are accurately communicating about their impact on the environment.

Demographic Correlations
The data shows an association between age and “green” purchasing habits. The study showed that only 40% of respondents in the 18-29 age range use natural cleaning products. 100% of the respondents in this age group purchase a combination of “green” and non-”green” cleaning products. The 30-39 age range had one of the highest percentages of respondents who use natural cleaning products at 71%. 14% of respondents in this age group only use “green” commercial products. Figure 6 shows the percentage of respondents in each age group who use “green” and non-”green” commercial products and natural cleaning products. It is important to note that 100% of respondents in the 60 and above age group use only natural cleaning products and no commercial products, however only one respondent fell into this category and should not be taken as a true representation of the age group.

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Figure 6: “Green” buying patterns by Age

Green Patterns by Age
Percentage of Respondents 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 18 -29 30-39 40-59 60 + Age Range non green commercial green commerical natural products

Discussion
The study showed that although respondents felt they were living a “green” lifestyle, this assumption does not necessarily translate into their purchasing habits of “green” cleaning products. A high percentage (88%) of respondents purchase commercial cleaning products and a very small percentage (7%) use “green” or natural cleaning products exclusively. According to the data, the greatest factors affecting the use of “green” products are cost and distrust with the companies. The economic downturn the United States has recently seen most likely plays a large role in the tendencies of respondents to be more money conscious. However, the concept that cost is a major factor in determining whether consumers purchase “green” products was also seen in the study conducted by Bonini and Oppenheim (2008), which was conducted before the economic downturn. It may be an inherent and lasting notion of our society to “count our pennies.” Distrust in companies is a big factor in determining whether consumers purchase or use “green” cleaning products. A company cannot only say that their products are good for the environment, they must also show evidence that their products are environmentallyfriendly and that they are taking steps as a company to help reduce waste. Most respondents also expressed that they were unsure of what some of the “green” terms on product labels meant. This confusion about what a product label is conveying will also add to the distrust in companies. A question was asked about where consumers shop for cleaning products to use as an indicator of whether price is actually a factor or not. For instance, if a respondent says price is a factor, yet the majority purchases their products at the most expensive location, it follows that price really is not a factor for them. The study showed that the majority of the respondents purchase their products from discount stores or grocery stores. Only four

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respondents purchased their products from other locations, two from member only clubs, one from a co-op and one from a distributor. The location that respondents purchased their cleaning products did not appear to have an impact on their purchasing decisions. The respondents were asked to select products they purchase to clean their home. The responses were categorized as “green,” or “not green”. The categorization was based on if the product contributed to landfills (e.g. Swiffer and Clorox Disinfecting Wipes) and the ingredients included in the products (e.g. Windex Multi-Surface Cleaner with Vinegar and lemons). These were used as indicators of whether or not people were really “green” who said they were “green.” If everyone in general said they buy green products, but the purchasing habits show otherwise - that they are buying the least environmentallyfriendly products, are they really living “green”? The survey showed that although all of the participants said they lived green, only 7% of respondents either exclusively purchase “green” products or only use natural cleaning products. . There is room for the respondents to become “more green” with the use of more natural cleaning products or the new “green” product lines that the leading cleaning brands are producing (i.e. Clorox GreenWorks). An association was discovered in the data between age and green buying habits. It was shown that the millennial generation is less likely to use natural cleaning products while the older generations are more likely to use natural cleaning products. There did not appear to be any other correlations among the millennial age group that would explain why they are the least likely to use natural cleaning products. The possible reasons for this trend could range from money issues with getting started in the “real world” to a lack of knowledge on the types of natural cleaning products that can be used in the house. This may be information that is learned through experience. So do American consumers who desire to practice a “green” lifestyle actually choose environmentally cleaning products? The results of this survey seem to indicate that they do not. The barriers preventing “green” consumers from making “green” purchases when it comes to cleaning products include cost, distrust of manufacturers’ claims, and lack of advertising. If these consumers want to live a “green” life style but still chose cleaning products that were not environmentally friendly, did factors such as cost or greenwashing affect their decision? While it appears that the participants of this study do factor cost into their “green” purchasing decisions, the respondents do not seem to trust the marketing claims of the manufacturers of greenwashing claims.

Conclusions
Even though a larger sample would need to be examined to see if these results can be generalized for the larger population, the survey did surface some interesting implications.

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Implications
This study seems to implicate that cost is a consideration when choosing to purchase environmentally-friendly cleaning products. Additionally, consumers feel that advertising is lacking, and there is less than optimal availability of green cleaning products. Even if there was better advertising and availability, consumers seem to distrust the companies that sell green cleaning products. It is unclear what companies marketing green products need to do in order to bridge that trust gap.

Significance
The significance of the findings from this study is that the five barriers identified by Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) support the hypothesis that consumers who claim to live a green lifestyle do not necessarily purchase environmentally friendly cleaning products. Although consumers are integrating green cleaning products into their housekeeping regimen, they have not adopted these products exclusively. The issue of cost is a significant factor, along with the issues surrounding trust, education, advertising and availability. Another significant finding relates to the age groups and their purchasing habits. The 1829 year old age group purchase more non-green commercial products than the older age groups. This same age group also has a lower rate of natural cleaning product use. 100% of the 60+ age group use natural cleaning products, but the group consisted of only one respondent. While these findings are interesting, our sample size was not large enough to draw conclusions from them for all adults in the Tallahassee area.

Recommendations
It is apparent that consumers are not living as “green” as they say they are. More information is needed to understand what can be done to change this trend. The study showed that cost was a factor in considering green cleaning product purchases, but more information could be gathered on if cost is the main switching point when the purchases decisions are made. The survey showed that the age group less likely to use natural cleaning products is the millennial generation. Additional research is needed into why this age group is not living “green.” It could be hypothesized that this age group does not purchase as many green cleaning products because of their budgets, as they tend to have less money than older age groups. Another consideration is the lack of knowledge of natural cleaning products. Research should be conducted to investigate whether consumers in the 18 – 29 year old age group are aware of how to clean with natural products such as lemons, baking soda and vinegar. Another recommendation would to be to widen the geographic area of the survey. Attitudes towards the availability of green cleaning products as well as the amount of advertising done by the companies selling these products may be different in a more

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urban area of the country. It may be possible to get more participants in the 60+ age group if the geographic are was widened. This was the lowest represented population in our study and did not provide enough information about the age group to make legitimate claims about their purchasing habits. Additionally, if using a larger population, stricter criteria could be used to select the consumers who believe they are living a “green” lifestyle, such as through a prescreening survey or interview. This study showed that although the participants believed they were living a “green” lifestyle that was not necessarily true. Finally, there should be more research applied to choosing the list of products from which respondents select. The list in this survey was classified as green based on assumptions made by the research team. More care should be taken in classifying products as "green", and this should be based on scientific research. Additionally, a measurement of a “green lifestyle” would be helpful to draw more meaningful conclusions about the real reasons people decide to purchase green cleaning products.

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References
Bonini, S. & Oppenheim, J. (2008). Cultivating the green consumer. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 56-61. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/cultivating_the_green_consumer/. Cone releases 2008 green gap survey. (2008, April 15). Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ConeInc: http://www.coneinc.com/content1136 Do “green” conscious consumers practice what they preach? New consumer purchase data reveals that many do not! (2008, September 29). Business Wire. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from the InfoTrac OneFile database. O'Brien, K. A. (1992). Green marketing: Can it be harmful to your health? Industry Week, 241(8), 56-59. Retrieved January 26, 2009, from the FSU Libraries Business database. Pickett-Baker, J. & Ozaki, R. (2008, May). Pro-environmental products: Marketing influence on consumer purchase decision. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 25(5), 281-293. Retrieved January 31, 2009, from the InfoTrac OneFile database. Sustainable living. (2009, February 17). Retrieved February 22, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_living

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Appendix I: Participant Invitation
This is the text of the email that was sent to solicit participation in the survey. Subject: Do you live "green?" Want to help my research team? Body: Hi Everyone - I'm taking a research methods class and my team is working on a project to determine whether residents of the City of Tallahassee that consider themselves "green" are indeed making green cleaning product purchases. I would really appreciate your help by participating in a survey. The survey will be available next week, online (via Zoomerang) and will take no more than 10 minutes to complete. Your participation will be anonymous, although we will ask a little demographic information of you. If you are willing to participate, please reply to this message so that I can send you the survey link next week. Thanks so much, Survey Administrator

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Appendix II: Survey Instrument
Table 2: Survey Instrument - Age Group 1. Which age group best describes you? Age Range 18-29 30-39 40-59 60 or older Total Table 3: Survey Instrument - Ethnicity 2. Which of the following describes your ethnicity? Ethnicity African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic Native American Other Total Table 4: Survey Instrument - Gender 3. Which best describes your gender? Gender Male Female Total

Number Of Respondents 5 7 13 1 26

Percentage of Respondents 19% 27% 50% 4% 100%

Number Of Respondents 4 3 18 0 0 1 26

Percentage of Respondents 15% 12% 69% 0% 0% 4% 100%

Number Of Respondents 8 18 26

Percentage of Respondents 31% 69% 100%

Table 5: Survey Instrument - Education 4. What is the highest level of education that you have received? Highest Level of Education Number Of Respondents Some High School 0 High School 2 Some College 3 Associate’s Degree 2 Bachelor’s Degree 10 Master’s Degree 8 Doctorate Degree 1 Total 26

Percentage of Respondents 0% 8% 12% 8% 38% 31% 4% 100%

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Table 6: Survey Instrument - Where Cleaning Supplies are Purchased 5. Where do you most often purchase cleaning supplies? Where Cleaning Supplies are Purchased Number Of Respondents Supermarket (Publix, Winn Dixie, etc.) 7 Discount Stores (Wal-Mart, Target, etc.) 15 Pharmacy (Walgreen’s, CVS, etc.) 0 Member-only Stores (Sam’s, Costco, etc.) 2 Other, please specify Co-op 1 Distributor 1 Total 26

Percentage of Respondents 27% 58% 0% 8% 4% 4% 100%

Table 7: Survey Instrument - Cleaning Supplies Used 6. Which of the following cleaning products have you purchased since making an effort to clean with environmentally friendly products? Please choose all applicable answers. Product Used Number Of Percentage of Respondents Respondents Clorox Bleach 14 54% Clorox Disinfecting Wipes 11 42% Clorox Green Works 4 15% Comet 7 27% Mr. Clean 0 0% Palmolive 6 23% Resolve 2 8% Scotch-Brite Quick Floor Sweeper 0 0% Simple Green All Purpose Cleaner 2 8% Simplicity 0 0% Soft Scrub 5 19% Scrubbing Bubbles 5 19% Swiffer 11 42% Windex Multi-Surface Cleaner with Vinegar 9 35% Windex Nature’s Source 2 8% I don’t purchase commercial cleaning products. 3 12% Other, please specify 409 1 4% Seventh Generation 2 8% Shaklee 1 4% Table 8: Survey Instrument - Natural Methods Used 7. Which of the following natural cleaning products have you used in your home in the last six months? Please choose all applicable answers. Natural Cleaning Product Used Number Of Percentage of Respondents Respondents Lemons 5 20% Vinegar 11 44% Baking Soda 5 20% I don’t use any natural cleaning products. 9 36% Other, please specify Steam 1 4% One respondent did not answer this question.

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Table 9: Survey Instrument - Understanding of Terms 8. Please choose the best answer for your understanding of environmental terms and definitions. Strongly Strongly Agree Unsure Disagree Agree Disagree I am comfortable with the environmental terms used on 1 10 13 2 0 “green” product labels to identify 4% 38% 50% 8% 0% whether the product is “green”. Table 10: Survey Instrument - Understanding of Specific Terms 9. For each of the following terms, choose the response that best describes your understanding of the term. Credible Term Non-toxic Natural cleaner Eco-friendly Phosphate-Free 14 54% 6 23% 8 31% 9 35% Need More Information 11 42% 15 58% 12 46% 9 35% Misleading Term 0 0% 3 12% 5 19% 0 0% I am Unfamiliar With this Term 1 4% 2 8% 1 4% 8 31%

Table 11: Survey Instrument - Attitudes towards “Green” Marketing 10. When I see a product advertised as green or environmentally friendly, I have one of the following reactions (please choose the most appropriate answer from the following list): Number Of Percentage of Respondents Respondents I view the product in a positive way 10 38% I view the product in a slightly positive way 13 50% It has no effect on how I view the product 2 8% I view the product in a negative way 1 4% I don’t know what it means 0 0% Total 26 100%

EME 6635—Do Green Consumers Always Buy Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products?

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Table 12: Survey Instrument - Shopping Behaviors 11. Please choose the answer that most closely describes your shopping experiences. Strongly Strongly Agree Unsure Disagree Agree Disagree I consider the environmental 1 17 2 5 1 impacts when I purchase 4% 65% 8% 19% 4% products. When shopping for cleaning products, I only buy products 0 1 5 17 3 that say they are green on the 0% 4% 19% 65% 12% label. I only use commercial cleaning 1 3 4 15 3 products as a last resort 4% 12% 15% 58% 12% method. I am overwhelmed by the 1 10 5 10 0 amount of environmental 4% 38% 19% 38% 0% messages I hear and see. I consider the cost when 5 14 0 7 0 choosing whether to purchase 19% 54% 0% 27% 0% green cleaning products. There are enough green cleaning products available to 0 10 8 8 0 make it convenient to purchase 0% 38% 31% 31% 0% them. Companies that communicate about the environment make 2 11 7 5 1 me want to buy products from 8% 42% 27% 19% 4% them. Companies must not only say a product is good for the 6 17 3 0 0 environment, they need to 23% 65% 12% 0% 0% prove it. I consider a company’s history of environmental commitment 0 9 7 8 2 when choosing whether to 0% 35% 27% 31% 8% purchase green cleaning products. I believe companies are accurately communicating 0 4 12 8 2 information about their impact 0% 15% 46% 31% 8% on the environment. There is sufficient information available to make informed 0 8 7 9 2 decisions about buying green 0% 31% 27% 35% 8% products. There is sufficient advertising of available green products for 0 4 6 15 1 me to make a decision to 0% 15% 23% 58% 4% purchase them.