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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 265

Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON VECTOR CONTROL INDUCTION


MOTOR FEED BY Z-SOURCE INVERTER
Shyam Sunder Kaushik 1 , Prof. J. S. Khan 2 , D. K. Sharma 3
Department of EEE, Alflah School of Engineering & Technology, Faridabad, Haryana, India1,2,3

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a Z source inverter used to control the speed of an induction motor with PID Controller. The
induction motors were characterized by complex, highly non-linear and time-varying dynamics, and hence their speed
control is a challenging problem in the industry. The advent of vector control techniques has solved induction motor
control problems. The development of any for the design of such control systems undoubtedly requires the synthesis
of many concepts from artificial intelligence. The most commonly used controller in the industry field is the
proportional plus-integral-plus derivative (PID) controller. The Z source inverter (ZSI) can effectively to reduce the
voltage stress across the capacitors in the impedance network and also the cost of the proposed topology which is in
turn used to control the speed of an induction motor which is used in many valuable industrial applications. The Z
Source inverter is a combined inverter with an additional buck-boost feature and the proposed topology increases the
efficiency of the circuit by reducing the voltage stress across the capacitors. A speed sensor is connected to an
induction motor to sense the actual speed, which is compared with a reference speed. A PID controller is designed
which helps to run the motor to the reference speed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed topology is a
promising technique that can be applied to improve the overall motor efficiency.

1. INTRODUCTION
Induction motors are widely used in industries due to its robust construction and low maintenance. Separately excited
dc drives are simpler in control because independent control of flux and torque can be brought about. In contrast,
induction motors involve a coordinated control of stator current magnitude and the phase, making it a complex
control. The stator flux linkages can be resolved along any frame of reference. This requires the position of the flux
linkages at every instant. Then the control of the ac machine is very similar to that of separately excited dc motor.
Since this control involves field coordinates it is also called field oriented control. The requirement of the phase angle
of the flux linkages in the control process gives the name vector control [1]. The demand for control of electric power
for electric motor drive system and industrial control existed for many years. Power electronics have revolutionized
the concept of power control for power conversion and for control of electrical motor drives. Variable-speed drives are
created when a motor is combined with a power electronics converter. Variable speed AC motor drives have been
continuously developed during the last decades owing to the advances in power electronics, control theory and
microprocessors technology. By introducing variable speed to the driven load, it is possible to optimize the efficiency
of the entire system and it is in this area that the greatest efficiency gains are possible. AC motor drives are widely
used to control the speed of conveyor systems, blower speeds, pump speeds, machine tool speeds, and other
applications that require variable speed [2]. Control deals with the steady state and dynamic characteristics of closed
loop system There are many closed loop control strategy are used such as Proportional control, derivative control,
integral control, and some combination of this such as PI, PD, PID in all this PID is mostly used because of other has
sluggish performance to avoid oscillations, another problem with proportional-only control is that power application is
always in direct proportion to the error [3].
To resolve problems, many feedback control schemes include mathematical extensions to improve performance. The
most common extensions lead to proportional-integral derivative control, or PID controller. Recently by adapting non
linear speed control techniques the dynamic performance of electric drives can be improved. This paper review of
implementation of PID control scheme applied to model of Induction motor feed by Z-Source Inverter.

2. PID CONTROLLERS
PID controllers use a 3 basic behaviour types or modes: P -proportional, I - integrative and D -derivative. While
proportional and integrative modes are also used as single control modes, a derivative mode is rarely used on its own
in control systems, such as PI and PD control are very often in practical systems. PID controller has all the necessary
dynamics: fast reaction on change of the controller input (D mode), increase in control signal to lead error towards
zero (I mode) and suitable action inside control error area to eliminate oscillations (P mode). Derivative mode
improves stability of the system and enables increase in gain K and decrease in integral time constant Ti, which
increases speed of the controller response. PID controller is used when dealing with higher order capacitive processes
(processes with more than one energy storage) when their dynamic is not similar to the dynamics of an integrator (like
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 266


Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

in many thermal processes). PID controllers often used in industry, but also in the control of mobile objects (course
and trajectory following included) when stability and precise reference following are required. Conventional autopilot
is for the most part PID type controllers [4].

3. INDUCTION MOTOR
Three phase induction motors are the most widely used in various industrial applications because of the following
properties - self starting property; elimination of a starting device; robust construction; higher power factor and good
speed regulation. But the induction motor is a constant speed machine which makes its applications pretty much
limited. To increase the areas of application of the induction motor, its speed has to be controlled by varying the
supply frequency. The advantage of speed control of the induction machine is that it can save the energy spent by the
machine.
For example, a speed reduction of about 20% can improve the energy savings up to 50% in a centrifugal pump. This
means that an energy inefficient motor can be replaced by a variable speed machine given an efficient control system.
The base speed of an induction motor is directly proportional to the supply frequency and the number of poles. Now
since the number of poles is fixed in the motor design, the best way to control the speed of the motor is to vary the
supply frequency. The torque developed by the motor is directly proportional to the ratio of the applied voltage and
the supply frequency. The torque is kept constant by varying the applied voltage and the supply frequency and by
keeping their ratio to a constant value [5]. The induction machine sub system in arbitrary reference frame shown in
fig. 1

Fig 1. Induction Machine Subsystem


The torque speed characteristics also denote that:
1. The starting current requirement is lower.
2. The stable operating point of the motor is increased. The motor can be run at 5% of the synchronous speed up to
base speed instead of running the motor from the base speed itself.
3. The acceleration and deceleration of the motor can be controlled by controlling the change of the supply frequency
of the motor with respect to time.

4. Z-SOURCE INVERTER
The Z source inverter is a single stage converter that can either buck or boost the ac output voltage from a dc supply.
This topology overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional voltage source and current source inverters, where the
output ac voltage is either respectively less or more than the input dc voltage. This combined operation of the z source
inverter eliminates the need of a separate dc-dc converter, thus reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the
circuit [6].
Z source inverter also allows two switches of the same leg to be gated in the circuit, thus eliminating the shoot through
fault that occurs in traditional converters. This feature of the inverter provides the elimination of dead time in the
circuit, thus increasing the reliability and reducing the output distortion of the inverter. Saying that does not free the Z
source inverter from few of its operating problems - the voltage across the capacitors in the traditional Z source
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 267


Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

inverter is equal to the input voltage which increases the volume and cost of the capacitors used; and also the start up
current and voltage in the circuit is very much higher which may destroy the devices at one time or the other. So to
overcome the above said problems, a new topology of the Z source inverter is used, that can be used to drive an
induction motor and to control its operating speed [7]. A unique impedance network is used in the Z source inverter
that consists of two identical inductors L1 and L2 along with two identical capacitors C1 and C2 that couples the
power supply circuit to the inverter circuit. The shoot through period i.e., the time period when two switches of the
same leg are gated allows the voltage to be boosted to the required value when the input dc voltage is not up to the
required level. Else otherwise, the shoot through state is not used thus enabling the ZSI to operate as both a buck-boost
inverter unlike the traditional voltage source and the current source inverters [8]. The following figure.2 shows the
presence of the z source impedance network preceding the inverter main circuit

Fig 2. Z source inverter topology

IV. CIRCUIT AND SIMULATION


The three phase induction motor is connected to the three inverter bridge whose 6 switches are controlled in
order three phase ac output from the dc bus. . The DC bus voltage in this case is increased or decreased to the required
value by the improved version of the z source inverter. The subsystem for the input voltage for the z-source inverter is
shown in fig-3.

Fig-3 Subsystem for input voltage for z-source inverter

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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 268


Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Fig.4- Simulation of the induction motor


The higher value of the dc voltage is obtained when the value of the inductance in the circuit is increased. Likewise,
the dc voltage is decreased by increasing the value of the capacitance in the circuit, thereby providing buck/boost
functionality to the circuit. And also the Z source inverter allows both the switches in the same phase leg to be gated at
the same time without producing any damage to the switches. This negates the presence of any dead time in the
circuit, and actually helps in the buck/boost performance of the improved ZSI by controlling the duty cycle of the
shoot through state. Three phase inverter output is transformed in d-q frame. Rated speed and actual speed is
compared with PID Controller. Figure 4 shows the simulation of the induction motor using MATLAB program.
The simulation results prove that the motor has a high starting torque and does not require any simulation is the
squirrel cage induction motor block which is a commonly used induction motor type. The values of the various
components used in the circuit are: Inductors L1 = L2 = 160mH; Capacitors C1= 1000 F and C2 =470F. The
inverter output voltage is used to drive the three phase induction motor whose speed is to be adjusted according to the
required preset value. Fig 5,fig 6 and fig 7 shows the simulation result for torque, speed and current of the induction
motor with the speed running at a constant preset value.

Fig-5 output torque of induction motor


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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 269


Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

Fig-6 output speed of induction motor

Fig-7 output current of induction motor

V. CONCLUSION
This paper has presented implementation of PID on vector control induction motor feed by Z source inverter. The
topology has the following merits.
1. The Z source capacitor voltage stress is reduced greatly to perform the same voltage boost, thus enabling lowvoltage capacitors to be used to reduce the system cost and volume.
2. The inrush current is suppressed and the traditional topology can be started off with a soft start capability.
3. The PID controller enables the control of the speed of the induction motor, thus providing with a constant
speed application that can be used in various forms.
4. Speed of motor can be compared with and without PID Controller.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our sincere thanks to all our friends who have patiently extended all sorts of help for accomplishing this
undertaking. Finally we extend our gratefulness to one and all who are directly or indirectly involved in the successful
completion of this paper.

REFERENCES
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Induction Motor with Z-Source Inverter,IJSRET,vol.4,Issue 7, July 2015.(accepted ).
[2] D.Amudhavalli,L. Narenddran Improved Z Source Inverter for speed control of an induction motor,
IJAREEIE, vol. 2,Issue 4, , pp. 1240-1247,April 2013.
[3] Neelima Shitol, N. D. Dhoot Implementation of Three Phase Induction Motor Control Drive Using PID and
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International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Technology (IJAERT 270


Volume 3 Issue 7, July 2015, ISSN No.: 2348 8190

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