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26th element

It is simply a metal or
alloy that contains Iron
(the element ferrous) as
the base (starting) metal

55.85 Atomic Mass

(1) iron-containing compounds exist in abundant


quantities within the earths crust;

(2) metallic iron and steel alloys may be produced using


relatively economical extraction, refining, alloying, and
fabrication techniques;
(3) ferrous alloys are extremely versatile, in that they
may be tailored to have a wide range of mechanical and
physical properties

The true equilibrium


ironcarbon phase
diagram with
graphite instead of
cementite as a stable
phase.

Baja

Besi

C < 2%

C > 2%

Dipukul nyaring

Dipukul tidak nyaring

C terikat/larut membentuk
fasa alpha/Fe3C lamel

C bebas sebagai GRAFIT

Temp lebur > 1550oC

Temp lebur 1300-1400oC

Ductility tinggi

Ductility rendah

Bisa ditempa

Tidak bisa ditempa

Geram panjang

Geram pendek/putus

Bunga api sedikit

Bunga api banyak

ironcarbon alloys that may contain appreciable concentrations of other alloying


elements

There are thousands of alloys that have


different compositions and/or heat
treatments
The mechanical properties are sensitive to
the content of carbon, which is normally less
than 1.0 wt%.
Different elements are added to steels to
given the steel different properties.
The elements pass on properties such as harden-ability, strength, hardness, toughness,
wear resistance, etc

Boron
Improves hardenability without the loss
of (or even with some improvement in)
machinability and formability.

Calcium
Deoxidizes steels, improves toughness, and
may improve formability and
machinability

Carbon
improves hardenability, strength,
hardness, and wear resistance; it reduces
ductility, weldability, and toughness.

Cerium
controls the shape of inclusions and
improves toughness in high-strength low
alloy steels; it deoxidizes steels

Chromium
improves toughness, hardenability, wear
and corrosion resistance, and hightemperature strength; it increases the
depth of the hardness penetration
resulting from heat treatment by
promoting carburization.

Cobalt
improves strength and hardness at elevated
.
temperatures

Lead
improves machinability; it causes liquidmetal embrittlement

Copper
improves resistance to atmospheric
corrosion and, to a lesser extent, increases
strength with little loss in ductility; it
adversely affects the hot-working
characteristics and surface quality.

Magnesium
has the same effects as cerium
Manganese
improves hardenability, strength, abrasion
resistance, and machinability; it
deoxidizes the molten steel, reduce shot
shortness, and decreases weldability.

Molybdenum
improves hardenability, wear resistance,
toughness, elevated-temperature strength,
creep resistance, and hardness; it
minimizes temper embrittlement.
Nickel
improves strength, toughness, and
corrosion resistance; it improves
hardenability.

Niobium (columbium)
imparts fineness of grain size and improves
strength and impact toughness; it lowers
transition temperature and may decrease
hardenability.
Phosphorus
improves strength, hardenability, corrosion
resistance, and machinability; it severely
reduces ductility and toughness

Selenium improves machinability


.
Silicon
improves strength, hardness, corrosion
resistance, and electrical conductivity; it
decreases magnetic-hysteresis loss,
machinability, and cold formability

Sulfur
Improves machinability when combined
with manganese; it lowers impact strength
and ductility and impairs surface quality
and weldability
Tantalum
has effects similar to those of niobium
Tellurium
improves machinability, formability, and
toughness

Titanium
improves hardenability; it deoxidizes
steels.
Tungsten has the same effects as cobalt.
Vanadium
improves strength, toughness, abrasion
resistance, and hardness at elevated
temperatures; it inhibits grain growth
during heat treatment.
Zirconium has the same effects as cerium

http://www.iit.edu

group by their percentage of carbon content per weight. The higher the carbon content
the greater the hardness, strength and wear resistance after heat treatment. Contains a
1.5% C max, 1.65 % Mn max, 0.60% Si max, 0.60% Cu max, and 0.05 % S and P max.
The first two digits designate the type
of steel, 10 for plain carbon steels.

The second two digits show the carbon


content in hundredths
of percent.
For example, designation AISI 1045
indicates a plain carbon steel with a
nominal carbon content of 0.45 percent.

Contains a maximum of 0.25 percent


carbon
These are arguably produced in the greatest
quantities than other alloys.
It is easily machined, formed, and welded
Carbon present in these alloys is limited, and
is not enough to strengthen these materials
by heat treatment; hence these alloys are
strengthened by cold work
Their microstructure consists of ferrite and
pearlite, and these alloys are thus relatively
soft, ductile combined with high toughness
Applications : structural shapes, tin cans,
automobile body components, buildings,
nails, screws, pipes, panels, sheets, wires

Carbon content between 0.25 % 0.65%


These are stronger than low carbon
steels

Less ductile than low carbon steels


These alloys can be heat treated to
improve their strength
Medium-carbon steels are the most
versatile of all plain carbon steels and
used for a wide range of applications
Application : railway tracks & wheels,
gears, crankshafts, planet pinion
shafts, struts, and tie rod ends, mining
equipment, cranes, garden tools,
structural steel

Contains between 0.60% - 1.0% C


These are strongest and hardest of
carbon steels, and of course their
ductility is very limited, brittle
These are heat treatable, and mostly
used in hardened and tempered
conditions
They possess very high wear
resistance, and capable of holding
sharp edges
High-carbon steels are more costly to
make and have poor formability and
weldability

Symbol

Dipasaran dalam bentuk :


Plain Sheet
Coil

Keterangan

SPCC

For General use

SPCD

For Deep Drawing Use

SPCE

For Extra Deep Drawing Use

Symbol

ASTM

Class

Si

Mn

UTS

0.2%

SPCC

ASTM
A366-72

Class 1

0.12 max

0.50
max

0.040
max

0.045
max

270
min

32 min

SPCD

ASTM
A619-82

Class 2

0.10 max

0.45
max

0.035
max

0.035
max

270
min

34 min

SPCE

ASTM
A620-82

Class 3

0.08 max

0.40
max

0.030
max

0.030
max

270
min

36 min

The name comes from their high resistance to corrosion i.e. they are rust-less (stain-less)
Steels are made highly corrosion resistant by addition of special alloying elements,
especially a minimum of 12% Cr along with Ni and Mo
Chromium forms a surface oxide film that protects the underlying metal from further
corrosion
The addition of nickel to stainless steel improves its corrosion resistance in neutral or
weakly oxidizing media
Nickel in sufficient amounts also improves the ductility and formability by retaining an
austenitic structure at room temperature
Molybdenum improves corrosion resistance of stainless steel in the presence of chlorine
ions

These stainless steels are called ferritic


because their microstructure remains
mostly as ferrite at normal heat
treatment conditions

Ferritic stainless steels are essentially


iron-chromium alloys containing 12 30% chromium and a limited amount
of carbon
ferritic stainless steels have low
ductility, are sensitive to surface
damage, and have poor weldability

When a regular steel is cooled


fast enough, such as quenched in
water, it has a martensitic
structure at room temperature
iron-chromium alloys containing
12-17% Cr

Compared with ferritic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels contain larger amounts
of carbon. This is necessary so that a martensitic structure can be formed after quenching
from high temperature.
Because of the strengthening effect, martensitic stainless steels are used primarily in
applications that require high hardness

They are essentially Fe-Cr-Ni alloys


containing 16-25% Cr and 7-20%Ni
The most common austenitic
stainless steel is type 304. It
contains 18% Cr and 8% Ni and is
referred to as 18-8 stainless steel.
These stainless steels are called
austenitic because their structure
remains austenitic at all normal
heat treatment temperatures
Some of the nickel can be replaced
by manganese and maintain their
austenitic structure

Austenitic stainless steels are popular mainly because of their high corrosion resistance
and formability

Material Fe yang mengandung C > 2,14 % dengan struktur terdiri


dari:
Partikel karbon bebas (grafit)
dan matriks perlit dan ferit austenitic, martensitic, bainitic
(austempered).
Sangat keras dan getas
Kuat dalam beban tekan
Cocok untuk aplikasi pengecoran [dapat
dituang pada temperatur relatif rendah]

Engine block, machine


parts

Lebih Murah dari Baja (Biaya Produksi lebih rendah dan peralatan lebih sederhana)
Temperatur Lebur Rendah (1140-12000C)
Kemampuan Cor Tinggi (Casting ability)

Mudah Permesinan
Tahan Aus (wear resistance)
Damping Capacity Tinggi
Sangat cocok untuk applikasi yang membutuhkan rigidity and resistance to wear

1. kelas dari ferrous alloys dengan


kandungan C > 2.14%
2. Terdapat grafit dalam
mikrostrukturnya
3. Jenisnya antara lain : Besi Cor
Kelabu, Besi Cor Putih, Besi
Cor Nodular, Besi Cor Malleable

1. Kandungan Karbon antara 2.5 - 4.0 wt%


2. Kandungan Silikon antara 1.0 - 3.0 wt%,
3. Umumnya karbon berlebih membentuk
grafit yang berbentuk flakes (mirip corn
flakes), dikelilingi matrix ferrite atau
pearlite
4. Karena grafitnya berbentuk flakes maka
patahannya berwarna abu-abu

Grafit

Grey iron has a high damping capacity,


excellent sliding properties and thermal
conductivity
Machine bases, damping plates for pianos, engine
blocks, flywheels, piston rings, brake discs dan drums

1. Didapat dengan cara menambahkan


magnesium dan atau cerium sebelum
dicor untuk mendapatkan kekuatan yang
lebih besar
2. Umumnya karbon berlebih membentuk
grafit yang berbentuk bulat, dikelilingi
matrix ferrite atau pearlite
Ductile iron has greater strength and
ductility than grey iron, good machining
qualities
Heavy duty gears, pistons, rolls for rolling
mills, gear cases, valves, tubes and door
hinges

Grafit

1. Kandungan Karbon antara 2.5 - 4.0 wt%


2. Kandungan Silikon < 1.0 wt%,
3. Umumnya karbon berlebih berbentuk
cementit
4. Patahannya berwarna putih
Cementit
White cast iron has a high compressive
strength and alloyed versions have a good
retention of strength and hardness
Pearlite
at elevated temperatures
shot-blasting nozzles, rolling mill
rolls, crushers, pulve rizers and ball mill liners

1. Didapat dengan cara memanaskan besi


cor putih pada temperature antara 800 900oC dalam waktu yang lama dan
atmosfer yang netral (mencegah korosi)
2. Terjadi dekomposisi cementite
membentuk grafit yang berbentuk
rossete, dikelilingi matrix ferrite atau
pearlite
Grafit

Malleable iron is replaced by nodular iron


for economical reasons, especially since
the fields of application are very similar

Ferrite

Semua Jenis Baja yang dipergunakan sebagai perkakas (tool)


Biasanya dipergunakan untuk

CUTTING

SHAPING

FORMING

Kondisi selama pemakaian:


Beban yang Tinggi dan Tiba-tiba
(Very high & rapidly loads)
Temperatur Operasi yang Tinggi
(Very high temperature)

Tool Steel merupakan paduan kompleks


yang mengandung sejumlah besar unsur:
Carbon (C)

Tungsten (W)
Molybden (Mo)
Vanadium (V)
Mangan (Mn)

Chrom (Cr)
Kebanyakan Tool Steel dibuat:
Wrought Product (Rolling)
Precision Casting (Cor Khusus)
Powder Metallurgy (Serbuk)

Tahan
terhadap
softening
(pelunakan)
material
pada
Temperatur tinggi (Kemampuan
mempertahankan
high
red
hardness atau hot hardness)
Tahan terhadap wear (keausan),
deformation (perubahan bentuk) &
perpatahan
Tangguh
(toughness)
untuk
menyerap beban yang besar dan
tiba-tiba
Memiliki sifat mampu mesin
(Machinability)

Baja yang dapat menjaga kekerasan yang tinggi saat digunakan


Penggunaannya untuk High Speed Cutting
Aplikasi :
Cutting Tools
Bor
Bubut
Jenis :
Group M (Alloy Molybdenum)
Group T (Alloy Tungsten = W)

Dipergunakan untuk kombinasi:


Panas
Tekanan
Abrasi
Cocok Untuk:
- Dies untuk Ekstrusi
- Hot Forging
- Die Casting
- Hot Shears

Temperatur
Tinggi

Application Area

Specific Application

Application Area

Specific Application

Hot Forging Tool


and Dies : Dies

Dies for presses and


hammer: H20, H21
For severe condition
over extended
service period : H22H26

Shearing Tools :

For shearing knives :


H11, H12
For severe hot
shearing application:
H21, H25

Hot Extrusion
and Dies :

Extrusion dies
dummy block; : H21 H26
Tool exposed to less
heat: H10 - H14, H16

Dies Casting and


Molding Dies :

For Aluminum and


lead; : H11, H13
For brass : H21

Cold Forming
Dies : Bending;

Cold-heading die
casings : H13

Structural Part
for Sever Service
Condition

For air craft


components (Landing
gear, arrester hook,
rocket cases) : H11

and Insert;
Forging machine

Extrusion dies
and , mandrel;
Dummy block;
Valve extrusion
tool

Forming;
Drawing; Deep
Drawing Dies and
Punches

Dies for
pierching,
punching, and
triming; Shear
blade

Features

1. Finely distributed spherical carbides


2. Excellent quenching nature
3. Excellent softening resistance under high temperature
4. Excellent heat impact and fatigue resistance
5. Excellent erosion resistance to molten

Applications

- Al, Zn, die caster mold


- Mold's accessories (Plunger sleeve, chip etc.)

Equivalent

Composition (%)

JIS

DIN

AISI

ASSAB

BOHLER

HITACHI

NIPPON KOSHUHA

SKD61

1.2344

H13

8407

W302

DAC

KDA-1

Si

Mn

Cr

Mo

0.32-0.42

0.80-1.20

max 0.50

4.50 - 5.50

1.00 - 1.50

0.80 - 1.20

Heat treatment (oC)

Forging

Annealing

Hardening

Tempering

1,100 - 900

820 - 870
(Slow cooling)

1,000 - 1,050
(Air cooling)

550 - 650
(Air cooling)

Hardness

Thermal conductivity
(cal/cm.sec.oC)

Coefficient of thermal
expansion
(x10-6/oC)

Annealed

Tempered

229 HB (20.5 HRC) max.

53 HRC max.

25 oC

100 oC

200 oC

300 oC

400 oC

500 oC

600 oC

700 oC

0.0569

0.0605

0.0702

0.0707

0.0687

0.0624

0.0712

0.0721

~100 oC

~200 oC

~300 oC

~400 oC

~500 oC

~600 oC

~700 oC

10.5

11.4

12.1

12.8

13.3

13.7

13.6

Tidak Tahan Terhadap


Softening pada Temp.
Tinggi
Temp Operasi < 260 oC
Temp Operasi < 260 oC

KELOMPOK A
(Air Hardening)

KELOMPOK D
(High C, High Cr)

KELOMPOK O (Oil
Hardening)

Cr: 4.75 5.5 %

Cr : 11 13.5 %

Cr : < 0.85 %

C: 0.5 1.5 %

C : 1.4 2.5 %

C : 0.85 1.5%

Aplikasi : shear knives,


punches, blanking,
trimming dies

Aplikasi : dies for


blanking, forming, deep
drawing, shear & Slitter
knives

High Wear Resitant at T rendah


Poor Resistant to Softening pada
T tinggi
Aplikasi: Dies, punches for
blanking, trimming, drawing &
forming

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