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VideoTrainingCoursesinOffshoreStructures

Item
no.

SubjectofTrainingCourse

Video
Duration

Loadsonoffshorestructures

Marineoperationforjacketsandtopsides(loadout,
sailout,installation)

2hours

DesignofTublarmembersforjackets

4hours

DesignofTublarjointsforjackets

8hors

Inplaceanalysisofjackets

1hour

onbottomstabilityofjackets(mudmatdesign)

7
8

BasicsofSoilMechanicsforFoundationofoffshore
Structures
Pilefoundationsforoffshorestructures(Design,
Analysis)

2.5hours

1.5horse
4.5hours
6hours

Pilesinstallationandloadtest

3hors

10

Offshorespecialfoundations

2hours

11

Jackupriganalysisanddesign

3hours

12

SacsmodelingforoffshoreStructures

3hours

13

Sacsanalysisofoffshorestructures(inplace,seismic,
Fatigue)

5hours

Remarks

TheseVideoCoursesare
collectedin10DVDs,ifyouare
interestedinprovideitpls
contactmeatemail
offshore_expert123@yahoo.com
inordertoarrangefor
dispatchingDVDsthroughTNT
orDHLcashondeliveryService.

TotalCostisabout130us$(90
forDVDs+40forDelivery)

CashondeliveryServiceisa
modelofpaymentunderwhich
youpayuponyoureceivedthe
order

BelowyoucanhavealookatsomepartsofvideocoursenotesaboutOnbottomstabilityofjackets
(MudmatDesign),DesignofTubularmembersandPilegroupseffects

Mudmat Concepts and Design

OUTLINE FOR SESSION 10


Mudmat
Concepts
Stability Requirements
Design
Special Foundations
Bucket Foundations
Gravity Foundations

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Mudmat
Mudmats are temporary floor support for the
jacket immediately after the jacket has been
upended from floating horizontal position prior to
supported by piles.
Need to designed with adequate surface area and
sufficient strength strength to avoid excessive
settlement of the jacket.
Usually made of steel plate and reinforced by
steel beams. However, alternate materials like
Timber and FRP has been used to reduce weight
and cost
30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Advantages of
FRP and Timber Mudmat
FRP and Timber mudmats are used when lift
weight is a concern. They will reduce the weight
considerably.
The design requirement for Cathodic Protection
will also be reduced

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Large Timber Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

FRP Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

MUDMAT CONCEPTS

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Jacket with Rectangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Triangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Rectangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Circular Mudmat

30 May 2008

10

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Triangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

11

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Mudmat Panels
Mudmat panels can be any one of the following.
Flate Plate (Steel)
Corrugated Plate (Steel)
Timber Plank
Profilled Panel (FRP)
These panels will be appropriately supported by
steel structural members attached to the jacket
structure
30 May 2008

12

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Flat Steel plate

30 May 2008

13

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Timber Plank

30 May 2008

14

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Corrugated Steel plate

30 May 2008

15

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

FRP PANEL

30 May 2008

16

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Design Requirements
When the jacket is resting on seabed, it shall
satisfy following requirements
Stability against bearing
Stability against sliding
Stability against overturning
Structural members shall have adequate
strength

30 May 2008

17

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Design Loads
Dead loads
Bouyancy Loads
Wave and Current Loads
Wind Loads
Loads from Pile stabbing sequence

30 May 2008

18

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Design Requirements
When the jacket is resting on seabed, it shall
satisfy following requirements (API RP 2A)
Stability against bearing
Stability against sliding
Stability against overturning
Sometimes it is also called Unpiled Stability since
this is prior to the piling of the jacket after which the
jacket is firmly fixed to the seabed by piles

30 May 2008

19

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Stability Against Bearing


As explained earlier, stability against bearing is to
have adequate bearing area to avoid excessive
settlement of jacket / failure of mudmat. This has
two parts.
Geotechnical Requirement
Structural Requirement

30 May 2008

20

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

10

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Factor of Safety against Bearing


The Factor of Safety against bearing shall be
calculated as below.

Q
P

F .O.S

Where Qu is the ultimate bearing capacity of soil


and Pa is the applied pressure
The minimum Factor of Safety shall be 2.0 for
loads arising from dead weight of the jacket only
and 1.5 for dead weight + environmental loads.
30 May 2008

21

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Applied Mudmat Pressure (Dead Load)
The applied mudmat pressure can be calculated for dead
loads alone very easily.

W eW H

A
I 2
S

yy

Where WS is the total submerged weight of the jacket


including ballast water on any compartments of legs, bouyancy
tanks and AM is the total mudmat area
If the Jacket is not symmetrical and has self weight acting at
an eccentricity of ex, and not at the geometric centre of
mudmat, then the effect shall be included as moment
component.
30 May 2008

22

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

11

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Applied Mudmat Pressure
(Dead Load + Environment Load)
The applied mudmat pressure can be calculated for dead
loads alone very easily.

W eW H Fh H


A
I 2 I 2
S

yy

yy

Where Fe is the total environmental loads from wave,


current and wind and h is the height from seabed at which the
environmental loads are applied and Iyy is the moment of
inertia of the mudmat system about YY axis.

30 May 2008

23

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Factor of Safety against Sliding


The Factor of Safety against sliding shall be
calculated as below.

F .O.S

F
PW
e

Where Fe is the total environmental loads applied


and is the friction coefficient between the soil
and mudmat system.
The minimum FOS of 1.5 shall be required.
30 May 2008

24

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

12

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Factor of Safety against Overturning


The Factor of Safety against Overturning shall be
calculated as below (for each edge).

F .O.S

Fh
Wx
e

Where x is the distance between the vertical


load (jacket submerged weight) and the geometric
centre of mudmat system at mudline.
The minimum FOS of 1.5 shall be required.
30 May 2008

25

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Jacket Settlement
Most of Settlement will take place immediately after the
jacket has been placed on seabed.
Hence the only immediate settlement using elastic theory
will suffice.

30 May 2008

26

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

13

Mudmat Concepts and Design

30 May 2008

27

Fe

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Jacket Settlement
Settlement of jacket is an important criteria in designing
the mudmat system as excessive settlement woill lead
submergence of bottom framing in to the soil. This will lead
following issues.
The mudline framing will be subjected to constant
upward force on the members
The conductor guide if any will be submerged in to mud
thus driving conductors will become difficult
Boulder if present at shallow depth may damage
structural braces
The jacket cut-off level will get affected
30 May 2008

28

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

14

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Jacket Settlement
Elastic settlement of jacket on to the seabed can
be calculated as below.

qB
(1 Q ) I
E

Where q is the uniform applied pressure, B is the


width of the mudmat, E is the Modulus of the soil,
 is the poissons ratio and Is is the influence
coefficient and shall be calculated depending on the
shape of the mudmat.
30 May 2008

29

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Settlement of Circular Footing


Vertical settlement of circular footing is given by
G
Where

1 J

Q
4GR

1X

Q
4GR

uv

uv,un = vertical and horizontal displacement


Q, H = Vertical and horizontal loads
G = elastic shear modulus of the soil
 = poissons ratio of the soil
R = radius of the base
30 May 2008

30

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

15

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Rectangular Mudmat system

Am

4bh
Ws M ( y ) M ( x)


Am
I xx
I yy

Pa

I xx

4bh 3
 4bh( H / 2  h / 2) 2
12

I yy

4b 3h
 4bh( B / 2  b / 2) 2
12

Where x and y are co-ordinates of points at which the mudmat pressure is


required
30 May 2008

31

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Circular Mudmat system

Am
Pa

S
4

D2

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)


Am
I xx
I yy

I xx

4S 4 4SD 2 H 2
D 
2
64
4

I yy

4S
4SD 2 B
4
D 
2
64
4

30 May 2008

32

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

16

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Triangular Mudmat system

Am
Pa

I xx

I yy

bh
2

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)


Am
I xx
I yy

4bh 3
 2bh H  2
2
3
36

2
4bh 3
 2bh  B  2 b
2
3
36

30 May 2008

33

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Triangular Mudmat system

Am

bh
2

Pa

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)


Am
I xx
I yy

I yy

3bh 3
 bh B  b
2
2
48

I xx

2
2
bh 2 H
3bh 3
 bh H  2 h 
1 h
3
3
2
3
36
2

30 May 2008

34

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

17

Mudmat Concepts and Design

BEARING CAPACITY OF
MUDMATS

30 May 2008

35

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

BEARING CAPACITY
The ultimate bearing capacity (qu) is
defined as the least pressure which
would cause shear failure of the
supporting soil immediately below
and adjacent to a formation.

30 May 2008

36

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

18

Mudmat Concepts and Design

MODES OF FAILURE
a) General failure
b) Local shear
c) Punching failure
The mode of failure depends on the
following
- Foundation type and geometry
- Soil compressibility
30 May 2008

37

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

MODES OF FAILURE

a) general shear b) local shear c) punching shear


30 May 2008

38

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

19

Mudmat Concepts and Design


THEORY OF PLASTICITY

A suitable failure mechanism shall be


found by either inspection, trial or limit
theorems. Two bounds can be defined.
Lower Bound
True failure load is large than the load
corresponding to an equilibrium system

Upper Bound
The true failure load is smaller than the load
corresponding to a mechanism if that load is
determined using the virtual work principle
30 May 2008

39

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM
An equilibrium system, or a statically admissible field
of stresses is a distribution of stresses that satisfies
the following conditions
a) it satisfies the conditions of equilibrium in each point
of the body
b) it satisfies the boundary conditions for the stresses
c) the yield condition is not exceeded in any point of the
body.

30 May 2008

40

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

20

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Mechanism

A mechanism, or a kinematically admissible field


of displacement is a distribution of displacements
and deformations that satisfies the following
conditions.
a) the displacement field is compatible, i.e. no
gaps or overlaps are produced in the body
(sliding of one part along another part is
allowed)
b) it satisfies the boundary conditions for the
displacements
c) wherever deformations occur the stresses
satisfy the yield conditions
30 May 2008

41

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


IDEALIZED STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

Shear stress

Shear strain
30 May 2008

42

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

21

Mudmat Concepts and Design


STATE OF PLASTIC EQUILIBRIUM

30 May 2008

43

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

1
(V 1  V 3 )
2

sin I

1
(V 1  V 3  2c cot I )
2
?V 3 (1  sin I ) V 1 (1  sin I )  2c cos I

?V 3
?V 3
30 May 2008

1 sinI
(1 sin2 I)
 2c
V1
I
1 sinI

1
sin

1 sinI
1 sinI

 2c
V1
I
1
sin
I

1
sin


44

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

22

Mudmat Concepts and Design

LOWER BOUND SOLUTION

30 May 2008

45

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

V 1 V 3 tan 2 45  I / 2  2c tan 45 

45  I / 2

tan 2 45  I / 2

1 for I 0

V 1.2 V 3.1 q(1)  2c(1)


V 1.1 qult V 3.1 (1)  2c(1)


qult

q  2c  2c

qult

4c

30 May 2008

46

4c  q
Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

23

Mudmat Concepts and Design

UPPER BOUND SOLUTION




q ult

B&B
qB & B
 cSB & B 
2
2

q ult

30 May 2008

2S c  q

47

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Simplified bearing capacity for a c soil

30 May 2008

48

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

24

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Pp

V 1 (dz )


I
I

(
) tan 2 45   2c tan 45  dz
yz
q


2
2


yH 2
.K p  q H .K p  2cH . K p
Pp
2
Pp
B
B H
qult &  y .  cA cos U 
2
2 2
sin U cos I

qult

2K p
 K p K p yB K p
c
 Kp  q

 Kp

cos I
4 cos I

cos I

qult

cN c  q N q  yBN y

30 May 2008

49

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

FAILURE UNDER A STRIP FOOTING

30 May 2008

50

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

25

Mudmat Concepts and Design

FOOTING AT DEPTH D BELOW THE


SURFACE

30 May 2008

51

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


PERSUMED BEARING VALUS (BS 8004: 1986)
Soil type

Bearing
value(kN/m)

Dense gravel or dense sand and gravel


Medium dense gravel or medium dense
sand and gravel
Loose gravel or loose sand and gravel
Compact sand
Medium dense sand
Loose sand

>600
200 600

Very stiff boulder clays and hard clays


Stiff clays
Firm clays
Soft clays and silts
Very soft clays and silts

300 600
150 300
75 150
<75

30 May 2008

52

<200
>300
100 300
<100

Remarks
Width of
foundation (B)
not less than 1
m. Water table
at least B below
base of
foundation
Susceptible to
long-term
consolidation
settlement

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

26

Mudmat Concepts and Design

qu
qu

1
JBN J  cN c  JDN q
2
the ultimate bearing capacity

B Breadth
D Depth
N J , N c and N q
30 May 2008

53

bearing capacity factors


Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Nq

exp (S tan I ) tan 2 ( 45 o  I /2)

Nc

(N q  1 ) cot 

Nq, Nc

Bearing capacity factors

NJ

1 . 80 ( N q  1) tan I

NJ

( N q  1) tan( 1 . 4I )

Nq, NJ
30 May 2008

Bearing capacity factors


54

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

27

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Square footing

qf

0.4JBN J  1.2cN c  JDN q

Circular footing

qf

0.3JBN J  1.2cN c  JDN q

qf

The ultimate bearing capacity

B Breadth
L Length
30 May 2008

55

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

30 May 2008

56

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

28

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Skemptons values of Nc
for u = 0 (Reproduced
from A.W.Skempton (1951)
Proceedings of the Building
Research Congress,
Division 1, p.181, by
permission of the Building
Research Establishment,
Crown copyright)

30 May 2008

57

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


RECOMMENDED
BEARING
CAPACITY
FACTORS

30 May 2008

58

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

29

Mudmat Concepts and Design

ECCENTRICALLYLOADED FACTORS

30 May 2008

59

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

AREA REDUCTION
FACTORS
ECCENTRICALLYLOADED
FACTORS

30 May 2008

60

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30

Mudmat Concepts and Design

DENSITY INDEX OF SANDS


N Value

Classification

Id (%)

(NI)60

04

Very loose

0 15

03

4 10

Loose

15 35

38

10 30

Medium dense

35 65

8 25

30 50

Dense

65 85

25 42

> 50

Very dense

85 100

42 58

30 May 2008

61

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Bearing capacity calculations
by Davis and Booker
The bearing capacity can be calculated when the soil profile
is varying linearly with depth
qu

UB

Fr Cuo N c 
(1  S c )
4

Sc

NJ B
Nc L

Shape factor

NC= 5.14 for strip footing


N = 1 for footing at top of soil
Fr = shear strength factor depends on the variation of the soil profile
= rate of increase of shear strength
B = width of footing
30 May 2008

62

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

31

Mudmat Concepts and Design


F r - Shear Strength F acto r
1.70
1.60
1.50
1.40
1.30
1.20
1.10
1.00
0.90
0.80
0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

6.000

7.000

8.000

Rho
30 May 2008

63

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS

30 May 2008

64

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

32

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Special Foundations

Suction Anchor
(Bucket Foundation)
Gravity Foundation

30 May 2008

65

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Suction Anchors (Piles)


A suction anchor is an inverted top capped hollow
cylinder of fairly large diameter with a length to
diameter ratio (L/D) of 1.0 to 2.0 that is embedded
into the sea bed. Self-weight and differential water
pressure can facilitate easy installation of this type
of anchor into the sea bed. This differential water
pressure (active suction) can be created by
pumping out the water from the interior of the
anchor.

30 May 2008

66

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

33

Mudmat Concepts and Design


The main pile advantages of this anchor over tension piles are
due to the weight of the soil plug inside and the freely available
high ambient water pressure which offers two advantages; easy
installation of the anchor with its active suction arrangement and
mobilization of passive suction force at the anchor bottom during
uplift. Further, the large-diameter sealed top provides a
substantial space for additional ballast, which can increase the
breakout resistance

30 May 2008

67

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design

Suction Breakout Factors


From the equilibrium considerations (referring to
figure 1) the uplift pullout capacity of the suction
anchor is given by
Pu = Wa + Fext + Ws + Wb + Rb

Where
Wa = is the weight of the anchor
Fext = is the shear resistance along the external wall
Ws = is the weight of the soil plug
Wb = is the weight of the ballast (if any) at the top
Rb = is the suction-induced reversed end bearing
30 May 2008

68

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

34

Mudmat Concepts and Design

30 May 2008

69

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Concepts and Design


Pu = Wa + Ws + Fext + Rb
Rb1 = Pu (Wa + Ws + Fext)
From consideration of rupture in clay under tensile loading (Vesic, 1971) the
bottom breakwater resistance is expressed in a non-dimensional form as
Fext = Cu Ase
From the plug equilibrium (refer to figure 13) equations can be written as:
Rb2 + Ws - Ps + Fint
Rb2 = Ps + Fint - Ws
Rb2 = Nb2 Cu Ab
Where
Nb1 and Nb2 are bottom breakout factors from overall and plug
equilibrium, respectively, ps is suction pressure measured at the top
of soil plug, Ab is the base area of the anchor,  is an adhension
factor, Fint is internal skin friction, Asi is the area of internal skin
friction and Ase is the area of external skin friction
30 May 2008

70

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

35

Design of Tubular Members


Buckling

CONTENTS
Introduction

Local Buckling

Necessity of tubular

Global buckling (Euler)

Loading and Load types

Effective Length
Design Methods

Factors affecting strength

Allowable Stress Design (ASD)

Method Tubular Fabrication

Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)

Steel Making process

API RP 2A - ASD

Seam Less Pipes


Fabricated Pipes

Applied stresses

Residual stresses

Allowable stresses
Interaction

Material Properties

API RP 2A - LRFD

Yield and Tensile Strength

Load and Resistance factors

Modulus of Elasticity

Interaction

Imperfections

Hydrostatic Pressure

Out-of roundedness
Misalignment

Hoop stresses

Straightness deviation

Interaction
Design examples

Ultimate Strength
Factors affecting ultimate strength

Tubular section

Ultimate strength of sections and span

Ring stiffened cylinders

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Tubular Members

Tubulars or circular hollow sections (CHS) are


used for jacket structures commonly due to
their versatility in resisting various forces. The
major reasons are listed below.
Good Hydrodynamic Properties (Low Cd and Cm)
good buoyancy to weight ratio
Good resistance against hydrostatic pressure
Uniform property across the section
No torsional buckling
Good Ultimate strength compared to others
Full moment connections possible

However, the tubular member connections are


susceptible to fatigue cracks and have
fabrication difficulty due to non-linear surfaces
at intersection !.
9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Load Categories
Following external forces are applied to
the structure which in turn induce
internal loads on the members.

Gravity loads
Wind Loads
Wave and Current Loads
Seismic Loads
Drilling Loads
The above forces shall be applied to the
structure in a three dimensional analysis.
The member internal loads shall be
extracted from the analysis results.

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Member internal loads

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


FREE BODY DIAGRAM
Following member internal loads may
need to be considered

Axial (Compression or tension)


Bending (In-plane or Out-off plane)
Torsion
Shear (in-plane or Out-off plane)
External Pressure
Following member internal loads
may need to be considered

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Factors Affecting Strength
Following factors affect the strength of the member.
Material properties (E, Fy, Ft )
Imperfections and residual stresses
Production method of tubular
Boundary conditions
Loading
Geometric proportions: L/D, D/t
Stiffeners: circumferential or longitudinal

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Material Properties (Steel)
The physical and mechanical properties of steel used in the design are listed
below.
Density
7850 kg/m3 or 78.5 kN/m3
Tensile stress (Ft)
Varies between 490 to 600 MPa
Yield stress (Fy )
Is in the range of 250 400 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity (E)
Normally taken as 200000 210000 MPa
Strain in elastic range is 0.2%.
Poisson Ratio is in the range of 0.3 to 0.4
Friction coefficient is around 0.3 to 0.4
9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Imperfections

Imperfections in fabrication and assembly can


cause the reduction in the strength of the
structure and must be minimized. Hence
material and fabrication specifications shall
include control parameters to limit the same.
This is called Tolerances. Following are some
of the imperfections that need to be included.
Variation is cross section
Variation in thickness
Residual stresses
Out-off roundedness
Out-off straightness
Misalignment across thickness
Misalignment along length

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Tubular Production Methods
Tubular or Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) can be made using any one of the
following methods.

Seamless tube production by piercing of heated bars and


extruding techniques
Hot forming steel plate and induction welding along the
longitudinal direction
Cold forming methods coils of plate and resistance welding along
longitudinal direction
Cold forming of coils of plate and resistance welding along radial
direction
Cold forming of flat plates and assemble to make pipes

Each method has its own limitations, advantages and disadvantages. Hence
depending on the availability and technical requirement, production method
shall be selected.

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Steel Making Process an outlook
IRON ORE

BLAST FURNACE

PIG IRON

PIG IRON

STEEL MAKING
PROCESS

INGOT, BILLETS

INGOT

HEAT
TREATMENT

SLABS

SLABS

ROLLING

PLATES & SHAPES

01 August 13

10

Department of Ocean Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Steel Making Process an outlook

Source : Nippon Steel Corporation, Japan

01 August 13

11

Department of Ocean Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members

01 August 13

12

Department of Ocean Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members

01 August 13

13

Department of Ocean Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Pilger and Piercing
The large size bars are
used to produce pipes.
This has been in use for
several decades in the
pipe producing mills.
Both thin and thick pipes
can be made using this
method.
Limiting size for such
production depends on
the mill but generally
diameter larger than 20
is normally not available
by this method.
9/16/2015

14

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Cold Forming Processes and Resistance welding
In this method, sheet coil
of plates is used to form
circular sections using
rollers.
The folded section is then
welded by resistance
welding.
The application of this
method is also limited by
diameter and generally to
20.

9/16/2015

15

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Hot forming and induction welding
This method is very similar
to the forming and welding
method except that this is
done in hot condition.
The coils of plate is heated
first before it is bent and
rolled to the shape.
The folded section is then
welded by induction
welding.The application of
this method is also limited
by diameter and generally to
20.

9/16/2015

16

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Cold Forming Processes
In this method, the plate
sections of specific length
and width will be rolled to
shapes either in semicircular shape or in quarter
arc of a circle.
The rolled sections of the
circular arc is then joined by
arc welding to form a long
pipe. This method is very
commonly used for making
pipes of any diameter used
in the steel fabrication
industry. Using this method,
pipes of any diameter can be
made for use.
As an alternative to the plates, rolls of plate can be used to form the pipe using
spiral form and then welded, and it is called Spirally welded pipes. Pipes
manufactured using this method is normally not used in the primary structure.
9/16/2015

17

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Fabrication tubulars

Tubular can be fabricated from flat plates. Normally, flat


plates are rolled to form circular arcs and welded to
form circular section as shown in figure.

cold rolling a flat plate and weld at the seam to


form a can (length up to 3m). The longitudinal
seam may be one or more depending on the
width of the plate available. This one piece of pipe
made from plates is called Can.
Several cans can be welded to form a long tube
The long seams shall be arranged such that the
orientation in each can away by 90o.
Welding between Cans is called transverse seam
or circumferential weld.
This method of fabrication introduces out-ofroundness, out of straightness imperfections and
residual stresses in both the longitudinal and
circumferential directions
9/16/2015

18

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Residual Stresses
Residual stresses developed during welding of plates to form pipes and
welding of two pieces of pipes to form length may affect the final strength
unless these stresses are relieved.

Bending plates to form circular arcs induces bending strain and


stresses depending on the radius of bend and D/t ratio. Larger the
bending radius, smaller the stresses. Larger the D/t ratio, strain will
be smaller.
Heat induced stresses during welding could be large due to
restraint provided by the joining components.
Stresses induced during joining of pipe segments due to restriction
on the expansion during welding.

9/16/2015

19

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Consideration of Residual Stresses in design equations
Consideration shall be given to account for the residual stresses in
members in the design equation.
As these stresses exist even before the member is loaded, these
stresses shall be deducted from the allowable stresses. However,
it will not be practical to account for in each case.
Hence it is better to reduce the yield stress by certain percentage
to account for the residual stresses. DNV codes suggests a 5%
reduction in yield stresses to residual stresses of welded section

9/16/2015

20

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Effective method of including Imperfections in design
The method to include the imperfections in fabrication is a difficult process as
the imperfections will not be known at the stage of design.
Hence certain assumptions has to be made during the design with limitations on
deviations that can be tolerated both with respect to design aspects and
operational aspects.
Design aspects will include change in cross sectional area, moment of inertia,
center of gravity and other geometric properties. On the other hand, the
operational aspects include deviation from verticality, sagging of beams which
affects the daily operation for which the structures are built.
Hence restrictions on these imperfections which may happen during the
construction stage may have to be imposed during the design stage.
These restrictions are called Construction Tolerances which shall be
incorporated in the design equations so that the design need not be revised if
these deviations are within the design tolerances.
9/16/2015

21

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Out-of Straightness
Out-of straightness tolerance o shall be
measured at all points along the length of the
member and the maximum shall be taken for
consideration.

DNV (1982) specifies a maximum


limit of 0.0015L (L/666) as the limit
API Spec 2B specifies a maximum
limit of L/960 or 9.50mm in any
12200mm length (L/1284) whichever
is lower

This tolerance is very important as this


deviation will lead to eccentric load and
corresponding moment.

9/16/2015

22

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Out-of Roundedness
Out-of roundedness tolerance for fabrication of
tubular sections can be calculated as shown in
figure using Dmean, Dmax and Dmin.
The Dmax and Dmin shall be measured across
diagonals at any angle and not necessarily at 90
degrees. Out-of roundedness is normally
specified as

Dmax Dmin
=
%
D
Dmean

API Spec 2B specifies that the above tolerance


shall not exceed 2% and DNV specifies that the
tolerance shall not exceed 1%.

9/16/2015

23

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Eccentricity due to variation in Wall thickness
Maximum thickness variation = t = tmax - tmin
Effective axial load eccentricity due to t can be calculated and included in
the stress calculation.

9/16/2015

24

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Misalignment in Butt Joint
Misalignment in butt joint is very
important as it induces additional
eccentricity in axial loads and
stresses.
API allows an eccentricity e of
0.2t1
e < 3.2mm for welding from
one side
e < 6.4 mm for welding from
both side.

DNV allows an eccentricity of 0.15t1 (minimum thickness) or 4mm whichever is less.


When the eccentricity in construction exceeds this limit, the design must be revied
adequate modifications shall be carried out to assure the d=safety of design.
9/16/2015

25

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Ultimate Strength
Ultimate strength of a section or
member depends on the efficiently
of the section to redistribute the
stresses when the stresses exceed
yield.
Increase
load
carrying
capacity after reaching elastic limit
is called Ultimate Strength.
Premature failure before reaching
elastic limit is called Buckling.
Buckling strength of a member is
found to be considerably less than
the theoretical elastic capacity.
Hence in order to determine the ultimate strength, first it is necessary to establish
that the section / member has sufficient buckling capacity to reach elastic capacity.
The ultimate strength of the section / member can be computed based on the
section property and member boundary conditions.
9/16/2015

26

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Buckling Theory
Buckling is a phenomenon that the bifurcation of equilibrium to unstable state
under axial load when the slenderness exceeds 50. This was explained by
Leonhard Euler in 1757 even if there is no axial load.
The column at its unstable
bifurcation of equilibrium, fails due
to lateral displacement for a
particular load called Critical Load
or Buckling Load.
The critical load differs if the end
of the column is restrained in
lateral direction. This is evident
from the photograph showing the
experiment.
Slenderness is the ratio of its
length to the radius of gyration of
the section.
9/16/2015

27

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Effective Length Factors (K)
Effective length factor is
defines as the ratio of
buckling strength of a column
with simple pin-pin end
conditions to that of a actual
column with any other
boundary conditions.
Buckling capacity of a column
with pin-pin end conditions is
given by

Pcr =

2 EI

( KL )

In which K is called Effective length factor and is 1.0 for pin-pin end
conditions of the column. For other cases, it is shown in the table above.
9/16/2015

28

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Local and Global buckling
Buckling of thin walled tubes (D/t > 20) can be
classified in to the following.

Local buckling due to instability of local shell wall


Global buckling due to slenderness

In which the D is the diameter of the cylinder and t


is the wall thickness.
Local buckling is governed by the D/T ratio and the
global buckling is governed by the KL/r ratio. Local
buckling may also happen due to bending of large
diameter tubular.

Local
9/16/2015

29

Global

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Factors influencing Ultimate strength
Following factors influences the ultimate strength of a column or beam

Cross section
Boundary condition at the ends
Load distribution
Stress strain characteristics of the material

Cross section influences the redistribution of stresses while the boundary


condition affects the redistribution of stresses across the length.
The stress strain relationship affects the ultimate load depending on the strain
hardening range of the material. i.e. the gap between the yield point and the
ultimate point the stress strain curve.
All the factors put together, a beam or column can sustain larger load compared
to its load capacity at elastic range.

9/16/2015

30

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ELASTIC AND PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY RECTANGULAR SECTION

h
Pp = Fy b
2

Fy

h
P= b
2 2

Fy h 2h
bh 2
M = b = Fy
6
2 2 3
15th April 2009

31

h h
bh 2

M p = Fy b 2 = Fy
2 4
4

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ELASTIC AND PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY CIRCULAR SECTION
Elastic moment capacity of solid cross
section is give below.

Fy 1 D 2
P=

2 2 4

4D
3

D3
M = Fy

32

Plastic moment capacity of solid cross section is give below.

1 D2
Pp = Fy

2 4
15th April 2009

D2 4D
D3
M p = Pa = Fy

= Fy
8 3
6

32

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY HOLLOW CIRCULAR SECTION
A hollow circular section of diameter D
and wall thickness t is divided in to
four symetric segments.
Consider a small arc of ds with area
of a in the first quadrant of the pipe
as shown in figure.
The area of the segment can be
calculated as tds where ds can be
calculated
using
small
angle
approximation.
Using the symetry, the moment
capacity can be integrated for first
quadrant and multiplied by 4.

a = tds
15th April 2009

33

D
ds = rd =
d
2

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION

MP = 4
0

D
AFy cos
2

D D
M P = 4 Fy t d cos
2
2
0
2

M P = Fy D 2t cos d
0

Pp = Fy dt
15th April 2009

M P =Fy D 2t
34

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Load category, Factors and combinations
Load category and the corresponding load factors are listed below

D1 Dead Load 1, e.g. Self weight


D2 Dead Load 2, e.g. equipment weight
L1 Live Load 1, e.g. weight of fluids
L2 Live Load 2, e.g. operating forces
We Extreme wind, wave and current loads
Wo Operating wind, wave and current loads
Dn Inertial Load correspond to Wo

Dead Load: 0.9 to 1.3


Variable Load: 1.3 1.5
Environmental load: 1.3 1.4

Load combinations and the associated load factors required as per API RP 2A LRFD
Factored gravity loads
1.3D1 + 1.3D2 + 1.5L1 + 1.5L2
Wind, wave and current loads
1.1D1 + 1.1D2 + 1.1L1 + 1.35(We + 1.25Dn)
0.9D1 + 0.9D2 + 0.8L1 + 1.35(We + 1.25Dn)
1.3D1 + 1.3D2 + 1.5L1 + 1.5L2 + 1.2(Wo + 1.25Dn)
Earthquake
1.1D1 + 1.1D2 + 1.1L1 + 0.9E
0.9D1 + 0.9D2 + 0.8L1 + 0.9E
9/16/2015

55

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Comparison of ASD and LRFD a beam column design with uniformly
distributed lateral load and axial load

Design lateral Load = w kN/m


Axial Load = P kN
Span = L m
Self Wight = kN/m
Yield Strength = Fy MPa

Applied
stresses

P + L
fa =
A

Interaction

Fb = 2 Fy

fa fb
+
1.0
Fa Fb

Bending
0.66 stress

Interaction

1 and 2 are to be computed including


the buckling and slenderness effects
9/16/2015

fa =

1P + 2 L
A

wL
Allowable Axial Fc = c Fy
2
stress
1 0.6
Allowable
Fb = b Fy

fb =

Allowable Axial Fa = 1 Fy
stress
Allowable
Bending
stress

Applied
stresses

56

fb =

3wL2
2

c = 0.85
b = 0.95

fc
f
+ b 1.0
c Fy b Fy

1 and 2 are to be computed including the


buckling and slenderness effects. 1, 2 and 3
are load factors 1.5, 1.3 and 1.5 respectively
for live, dead and wind loads

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ASD DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR TUBULAR MEMBERS
Divide the member in to sections and calculate the axial, bending and shear forces in
each section along the length. At-least 3 sections shall be checked.
The variation in section property
such as diameter or wall thickness
shall also be taken in to
consideration for calculating the
section property along the member
length in each section.
The axial buckling capacity shall be
calculated using the variable cross
section along the length.
Variation of internal forces shall
also be computed for various
sections along the length.
Free Body Diagram with member internal forces
9/16/2015

57

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ASD DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR TUBULAR MEMBERS
Divide the member in to sections and calculate the axial, bending and shear forces in
each section along the length. At-least 3 sections shall be checked.
Establish geometric properties such as sectional area, moment of inertia, effective
length factors, radius of gyration for each section.
Calculate the applied axial(fa), bending(fbx, fby), hoop (fh) and shear stresses (fs)
using the geometry of the section and the applied axial, bending, hydrostatic and
shear forces.
Establish the slenderness ratio(kL/r) and calculate the allowable axial stress (Fa)
and calculate the elastic buckling stress (Fxe) and inelastic buckling stress (Fxc)
Establish the D/t ratio and calculate the allowable bending stress (Fb)
Compute the allowable stresses for hoop using Elastic Hoop buckling stress (Fhe) and
critical hoop buckling stresses (Fhc).
The combined effect of loads is obtained using interaction of these loads in an
appropriate manner using axial, bending, hoop and shear interaction formulae for
the following cases.
Axial
Axial and bending
Bending
Axial and hoop
Shear
Shear and bending
Hoop
9/16/2015

58

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Applied Stresses in Tubular members
Following method shall be used in calculation of applied stresses in members.

P
A
M xY
f bx =
I xx
fa =

Axial Stress
Bending Stresses
Shear Stress

fs =

V
0.5 A

Hoop Stress

fh =

Ph D
2t

Properties of Tubular section

A=

and

D 2 ( D 2t )
4

f by =

I xx = I yy =

M yY
I yy

D 4 ( D 2t )
64

Where P, V, Mx, My and Ph (= h) are the axial load, shear, in-plane and out-of
plane moments and hydrostatic pressure respectively. Y is the half diameter.
9/16/2015

59

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Allowable Stresses for Tubular members
Following method shall be used in calculation of allowable stresses in members.
Axial Stress Allowable axial stress in compression shall include the effect of
slenderness ratio (kL/r) to determine whether yielding or global buckling govern the
design. This is applicable for compression where as in tension it is taken as 0.6Fy
The effect of local buckling of tubular sections due to axial loads is taken in to
consideration by computing the limiting values of Fy using critical hoop buckling
stress (Fxc).
Bending Stresses Allowable bending stress depends on the D/t ratio and the
maximum value is to be limited to 0.75Fy.
Shear Stress Allowable shear stress is to be taken as 0.4Fy
Hoop Stress The allowable hoop stress is computed based on local buckling
effects due to external hydrostatic pressure. This is done by computing critical
elastic buckling stress (Fhe) and inelastic buckling stress (Fhc).
9/16/2015

60

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Allowable Axial Stress
(Compression)

Allowable Axial
Stress (Tension)

The allowable axial compressive stress, Fa


should be determined from the following
formulae for members with a D/t ratio
equal to or less than 60. Effect of local
buckling
shall
be
considered
by
substituting Fy with local buckling stress.
( KL / r ) 2
1 2C 2 Fy
c

Fa =
for KL / r < Cc
3
3( KL / r ) ( KL / r )

5/ 3+
8C c
8Cc3
12 2 E
Fa =
23( KL / r ) 2
where
2 E
Cc =
F
y
2

9/16/2015

for KL / r Cc

The allowable tensile stress, Fa


for cylindrical members
subjected to axial tensile loads
should be determined from

Fa = 0.6 Fy

Fy = Yield stress (or min (Fxe, Fxc))


E = Youngs Modulus of elasticity

To account for local buckling


and imperfections, Fy shall be
replaced by minimum of Fxe
and Fxc.
61

K = effective length factor


L = unbraced length
r = radius of gyration

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Local Buckling Stress Due to Axial Load
The local buckling stress for use with axial stress limits
shall be calculated in stages using elastic buckling stress

Elastic Local Buckling Stress


The elastic local buckling stress, Fxe for columns subjected to axial loads
when D/t ratio greater than 60 and less than 300 should be determined
from:
Fxe = 2CE t/D
Where
C = Critical elastic buckling coefficient to be taken as 0.3 (instead of 0.6) to
account for imperfections as per API Spec 2B.
D = outside diameter
t = wall thickness

Inelastic Local Buckling Stress


The inelastic local buckling stress, Fxc, should be determined from:
Fxc = Fy x [1.64 0.23 (D/t)]
 Fxe
Fxc = Fy
for (D/t)  60
16 July 2007

62

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Effective length factor K as specified in API RP 2A
Deck Truss
chord members

Deck Truss web


members

Superstructure
Legs

Jacket Braces

Jacket Legs

9/16/2015

72

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Axial Tension and Hydrostatic Pressure
When member longitudinal tensile stress and hoop compressive stresses
(collapse) occur simultaneously, the following interaction equation should be
satisfied.
f

f + fb (0.5 f h )
( SFx )
A= a
Fy

A + B + 2 A B 1.0
2

B =

Fhc

(SFh )

v = Poisson' s ratio = 0.3,


f a = absolute value of acting axial stress

Fy = Yield Strength

f b = absolute value of acting bending stress

SFx = safety factor for axial tension

Fhc = critical hoop stress

f h = absolute value of hoop compression stress SFh = safety factor for hoop compression
Factor of Safety against Hydrostatic collapse with other loads
Axial
Tension
(SFx)

Bending

Axial
Comp.

Hoop Comp.
(SFh)

Operating

1.67

Fy/Fb

1.67 to 2.00

2.00

Storm

1.25

Fy/1.33Fb

1.25 to 1.50

1.50

Load case

9/16/2015

81

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Axial Compression and Hydrostatic Pressure
When longitudinal compressive stresses and hoop compressive stresses occur
simultaneously, the following equations should be satisfied.

f a + (0.5 f h )
fb
( SFx ) + ( SFh ) 1.0
Fy
Fxc
fh
1.0
SFh
Fhc

Refer to Member Local Buckling stresses


Fxe = Member elastic local buckling stress due
to axial compression
Fxc = Member inelastic local buckling stress
due to axial compression

f x 0.5 f ha f h
1.0
for f ha > 0.5 f x
+
Faa 0.5 Fha Fha
where
SFx = safety of factor for axial compression
Fxe
Faa =
,
SFb = safety of factor for bending
SFx
F
Fha = he ,
SFh
9/16/2015

fx = fa+fb+(0.5 fh)

fx should reflect the maximum compressive stress combination


82

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Ring Design
Circumferential stiffening ring size may be selected on the following
approximate basis.

tLD 2
Ic =
Fhe
8E
Where
Ic = required moment of inertia
for ring composite section
L = ring spacing
D = diameter of pipe
t = thickness of pipe
Fhe = Elastic buckling stress

9/16/2015

83

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Ring Spacing
The ring spacing is defines as the distance
between supports or between the actual
ring location. Hence the following procedure
shall be adopted in designing a ring
stiffened cylinders against combined axial
and hoop stress.
a) Compute the axial and bending stresses
using unstiffened cylinders
b) Assume the spacing of rings as initial
member length L between the supports
or nodal connection as shown in figure
c) Determine the critical elastic hoop stress
(Fhe) and compute the inelastic hoop
stress (Fhc).
d) Determine the interaction ratio using
appropriate factor of safety.
e) Repeat the above steps (b) to (d) using a
reduced spacing S and stop if the UC is
less than 1.0
9/16/2015

84

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Moment of inertia of Ring stiffeners
Effective
shell width

beff = 1.1 Dt

Neutral axis

yna =

beff t ( h + 0.5t + t f ) + tw h ( t f + 0.5h ) + bt f ( 0.5t f )

(b

eff

t + twh + bt f )

Moment of inertia

I xx =

9/16/2015

85

beff t 3

+ beff t ( h + t f yna + 0.5t )

12
2
th 3
+
+ th ( 0.5h + t f yna )
12
bt f 3
2
+
+ bt f ( yna 0.5t f )
12

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Verify a jacket brace of diameter 762mm x 15.88mm against axial loads of 1200 kN, and
in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment of 800 and 600 kNm respectively. The unbraced
length of the member is 15m and yield strength is 345 Mpa.
DESIGN OF A TUBULAR MEMBER AS PER API RP 2A (WSD)
INPUT DATA
Diameter of brace

D := 762 mm

Wall thickness

t := 15.88 mm

Yield Strength

Fy := 345 MPa

Weight density

:= 78.5

kN
3

m
5

Modulus of elasticity

E := 2.0 10 MPa

Unbraced length

Ls := 15 m

Effective length factors

Ky := 0.9

Axial Load

P := 1200 kN

Bending Moment about y axis

My := 800 kN m

Bending Moment about z axis

Mz := 600 kN m

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86

Kz := 0.9

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES

2
2
D ( D 2 t)

As = 3.7 10 mm

64

4
4
D ( D 2 t)

Iy = 2.6 10 mm

Sectiona area

As :=

Moment of inertia about y axis

Iy :=

Section Modulus for y axis bending

Zy :=

Radius of gyration for y axis bending

Ry :=

Due to symetry, z axis properties

Iz := Iy

2 Iy

Iy

Zz := Zy

Slenderness ratio for z axis bending

KLRz :=

Ry = 263.9 mm

As

KLRy :=

Zy = 6.8 10 mm

Slenderness ratio for y axis bending

Ky Ls
Ry
Kz Ls

Rz := Ry
KLRy = 51.165
KLRz = 51.165

Rz
2

12 E

Euler buckling stress

Fe :=

Moment reduction factor

Cm := 1

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87

23 KLRz

Fe = 393.4 MPa

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESS AS PER API RP-2A SECTION 3.2.3
Diametr to wall thickness ratio

Ratio :=

Allowable bending stress

Fb :=

D
t

0.75 Fy if Ratio

Ratio = 47.985

10340
Fy

1.74 Fy D
10340
20680

< Ratio
0.84
Fy if
Fy
Fy
E t

0.58 Fy D
20680

Ratio 300
0.72
Fy if
F
E

y
Fb = 240.1 MPa

9/16/2015

88

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


ALLOWABLE AXIAL STRESS AS PER API RP-2A SECTION 3.2.2
Critical elastic buckling coeficient Ceb := 0.3
Elastic local buckling stress

Fxe := 2 Ceb E

t
D

Inelastic local bukling stress

Fxc :=

D
60
t

Fy if

Fxe = 2501 MPa


D4
D

> 60
minFxe , 1.64 0.23 Fy if
t

Fxc = 345 MPa

Limiting Slenderness ratio

Allowable axial stress in


compression

Cc :=

2 2E
min( Fy , Fxc)

Fa :=

1 KLRz min( Fy , Fxc)

2 Cc 2

if KLRz < Cc
3
5 + 3 KLRz KLRz
3
8 Cc

8 Cc 3

12 2 E
2

23 KLRz
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89

Cc = 107

if KLRz Cc
Fa = 166.7 MPa
Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


APPLIED STRESSES AND COMBINED AXIAL AND BENDING INTERACTION RATIO
Computed Axial Stress

fa :=

Computed Bending Stress

fby :=

Computed Bending Stress

fbz :=

Unity Check ratio

P
As

UC :=

fa = 32.2 MPa

My
fby = 117.6 MPa

Zy
Mz

fbz = 88.2 MPa

Zy
fa
Fa
if

+
fa
Fa

fby2 + fbz2

if

Fb

fa
Fa

0.15

> 0.15

UC1

UC2

fa
Fa

Cm fby2 + fbz2

fa
0.6 Fy

fa

Fb
F
e

Fb

UC max( UC1 , UC2)


9/16/2015

90

fby + fbz

UC = 0.86

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Verify a buoyancy tank of diameter 2000mm x 15mm for a hydrostatic pressure of 100m
depth. The spacing of rings is 2m and yield strength is 250 Mpa.

DESIGN OF A INTERNAL RING STIFFENER FOR BOUYANCY TANKS


Input
Water Depth

Wd := 100 m

Outer Diameter

D := 2000 mm

Thickness of shell

t := 15 mm

Yield Strength of material

Fy := 250 MPa

Density of steel and water

Young's Modulus

E := 2.0 10 MPa

Assume Dia/Thickness ratio

D
= 133.333
t

Spacing of ring stiffeners

Sp := 2 m

9/16/2015

:= 78.5

kN
3

w :=

10.25

kN
3

91

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Buckling Coefficient
Maximum hydrostatic pressure

ph := w Wd

Maximum hoop stress

fh :=

Buckling Coefficient

ph D
fh = 68.3 MPa

2t

Sp 2 D 0.5
M :=

D t

Geometric parameter
Ch :=

0.44

ph = 1.025 MPa

M = 16.33

t
D
if M 1.6
D
t

0.44 t + 0.21 t if 0.825 D M < 1.6 D

D
t
t
M4

0.736 if 3.5 M < 0.825 D


M 0.636
t

0.755 if 1.5 M < 3.5


M 0.559

0.8 if M < 1.5


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92

Ch = 0.0469
Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Hoop Stress Check
Fhe := 2 Ch E

Elastic Hoop Buckling


Stress
Critical Hoop
Buckling Stress

Fhc :=

t
D

Fhe = 140.7 MPa

Fhe if Fhe 0.55 Fy


0.45 Fy + 0.18 Fhe if 0.55 Fy Fhe < 1.6 Fy
1.31 Fy
Fy

1.15 + F
he

if 1.6 Fy Fhe < 6.2 Fy

Fy if Fhe > 6.2 Fy


Fhc = 137.8 MPa
Factor of Safety against
hydrostatic collapse

SFh := 2.0
UC2 :=

Unity Check

9/16/2015

93

fh
Fhc

SFh

UC2 = 0.992

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members


Stiffener Design
Moment of inertia of rings required

t Sp D
Irq :=
Fhe
8E

Irq = 1.055 10 mm

Since the thickness of shell is given as 16mm, the thickness of the stiffener shall not exceed 16mm
due to welding limitations.
Assume a stiffener thickness
and dimension as

ts := 15 mm
ds
ts

Width of shell as part of ring


Nutral axis distance from bottom

Moment of inertia of web

ds := 150 mm

= 10

Less than 10, hence OK

Beff := 1.1 ( t D)

0.5

Beff = 190.5 mm

0.5 ts ds + Beff t ( ds + 0.5 t)


2

y :=

Iwp :=

y = 121.2 mm

ts ds + Beff t
ts ds

12
Beff t

+ ts ds ( 0.5ds y)

+ Beff t ( ds + 0.5 t y)

Moment of inertia of flange

Ifp :=

Moment of inertia provided

Ip := Iwp + Ifp

12

Ip = 1.284 10 7 mm4

Irq < Ip. Hence the provided stiffeners are adequate.


9/16/2015

94

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design of Tubular Members

Questions
1. Check the axial load on the jacket leg of diameter 1524mm and wall thickness
of 50mm with yield strength of 345 MPa. The bending moment acting on the leg
is 200 Tonne.m. The unsupported length is 15m. The effective length factor K
and moment reduction factors Cm shall be taken as 1.0.
2. Calculate safe axial load that can be carried by the jacket leg of diameter
1524mm and wall thickness of 50mm with yield strength of 345 MPa. The
bending moment acting on the leg is 200 Tonne.m. The unsupported length is
15m. The effective length factor K and moment reduction factors Cm shall be
taken as 1.0.
3. Design a buoyancy tank of 2.2m diameter subjected to hydrostatic pressure
at design water depth of 120m. The maximum thickness of the tank shall not
exceed 16mm and the spacing of rings shall not be less than 1m. The material
of construction is ASTM A36. The initial unsupported length shall be taken as
20m.
16 July 2007

95

Dr. S. Nallayarasu
Department of Ocean Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36