video training course in topside, jackets offshore structures design and analysis
sacs analysis training course

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video training course in topside, jackets offshore structures design and analysis
sacs analysis training course

© All Rights Reserved

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Item

no.

SubjectofTrainingCourse

Video

Duration

Loadsonoffshorestructures

Marineoperationforjacketsandtopsides(loadout,

sailout,installation)

2hours

DesignofTublarmembersforjackets

4hours

DesignofTublarjointsforjackets

8hors

Inplaceanalysisofjackets

1hour

onbottomstabilityofjackets(mudmatdesign)

7

8

BasicsofSoilMechanicsforFoundationofoffshore

Structures

Pilefoundationsforoffshorestructures(Design,

Analysis)

2.5hours

1.5horse

4.5hours

6hours

Pilesinstallationandloadtest

3hors

10

Offshorespecialfoundations

2hours

11

Jackupriganalysisanddesign

3hours

12

SacsmodelingforoffshoreStructures

3hours

13

Sacsanalysisofoffshorestructures(inplace,seismic,

Fatigue)

5hours

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order

BelowyoucanhavealookatsomepartsofvideocoursenotesaboutOnbottomstabilityofjackets

(MudmatDesign),DesignofTubularmembersandPilegroupseffects

Mudmat

Concepts

Stability Requirements

Design

Special Foundations

Bucket Foundations

Gravity Foundations

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat

Mudmats are temporary floor support for the

jacket immediately after the jacket has been

upended from floating horizontal position prior to

supported by piles.

Need to designed with adequate surface area and

sufficient strength strength to avoid excessive

settlement of the jacket.

Usually made of steel plate and reinforced by

steel beams. However, alternate materials like

Timber and FRP has been used to reduce weight

and cost

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Advantages of

FRP and Timber Mudmat

FRP and Timber mudmats are used when lift

weight is a concern. They will reduce the weight

considerably.

The design requirement for Cathodic Protection

will also be reduced

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

FRP Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

MUDMAT CONCEPTS

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Triangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Rectangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Circular Mudmat

30 May 2008

10

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Triangular Mudmat

30 May 2008

11

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Mudmat Panels

Mudmat panels can be any one of the following.

Flate Plate (Steel)

Corrugated Plate (Steel)

Timber Plank

Profilled Panel (FRP)

These panels will be appropriately supported by

steel structural members attached to the jacket

structure

30 May 2008

12

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

13

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Timber Plank

30 May 2008

14

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

15

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

FRP PANEL

30 May 2008

16

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design Requirements

When the jacket is resting on seabed, it shall

satisfy following requirements

Stability against bearing

Stability against sliding

Stability against overturning

Structural members shall have adequate

strength

30 May 2008

17

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design Loads

Dead loads

Bouyancy Loads

Wave and Current Loads

Wind Loads

Loads from Pile stabbing sequence

30 May 2008

18

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Design Requirements

When the jacket is resting on seabed, it shall

satisfy following requirements (API RP 2A)

Stability against bearing

Stability against sliding

Stability against overturning

Sometimes it is also called Unpiled Stability since

this is prior to the piling of the jacket after which the

jacket is firmly fixed to the seabed by piles

30 May 2008

19

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

As explained earlier, stability against bearing is to

have adequate bearing area to avoid excessive

settlement of jacket / failure of mudmat. This has

two parts.

Geotechnical Requirement

Structural Requirement

30 May 2008

20

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

10

The Factor of Safety against bearing shall be

calculated as below.

Q

P

F .O.S

and Pa is the applied pressure

The minimum Factor of Safety shall be 2.0 for

loads arising from dead weight of the jacket only

and 1.5 for dead weight + environmental loads.

30 May 2008

21

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Applied Mudmat Pressure (Dead Load)

The applied mudmat pressure can be calculated for dead

loads alone very easily.

W eW H

A

I 2

S

yy

including ballast water on any compartments of legs, bouyancy

tanks and AM is the total mudmat area

If the Jacket is not symmetrical and has self weight acting at

an eccentricity of ex, and not at the geometric centre of

mudmat, then the effect shall be included as moment

component.

30 May 2008

22

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

11

Applied Mudmat Pressure

(Dead Load + Environment Load)

The applied mudmat pressure can be calculated for dead

loads alone very easily.

W eW H Fh H

A

I 2 I 2

S

yy

yy

current and wind and h is the height from seabed at which the

environmental loads are applied and Iyy is the moment of

inertia of the mudmat system about YY axis.

30 May 2008

23

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

The Factor of Safety against sliding shall be

calculated as below.

F .O.S

F

PW

e

and is the friction coefficient between the soil

and mudmat system.

The minimum FOS of 1.5 shall be required.

30 May 2008

24

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

12

The Factor of Safety against Overturning shall be

calculated as below (for each edge).

F .O.S

Fh

Wx

e

load (jacket submerged weight) and the geometric

centre of mudmat system at mudline.

The minimum FOS of 1.5 shall be required.

30 May 2008

25

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Jacket Settlement

Most of Settlement will take place immediately after the

jacket has been placed on seabed.

Hence the only immediate settlement using elastic theory

will suffice.

30 May 2008

26

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

13

30 May 2008

27

Fe

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Jacket Settlement

Settlement of jacket is an important criteria in designing

the mudmat system as excessive settlement woill lead

submergence of bottom framing in to the soil. This will lead

following issues.

The mudline framing will be subjected to constant

upward force on the members

The conductor guide if any will be submerged in to mud

thus driving conductors will become difficult

Boulder if present at shallow depth may damage

structural braces

The jacket cut-off level will get affected

30 May 2008

28

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

14

Jacket Settlement

Elastic settlement of jacket on to the seabed can

be calculated as below.

qB

(1 Q ) I

E

width of the mudmat, E is the Modulus of the soil,

is the poissons ratio and Is is the influence

coefficient and shall be calculated depending on the

shape of the mudmat.

30 May 2008

29

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Vertical settlement of circular footing is given by

G

Where

1 J

Q

4GR

1X

Q

4GR

uv

Q, H = Vertical and horizontal loads

G = elastic shear modulus of the soil

= poissons ratio of the soil

R = radius of the base

30 May 2008

30

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

15

Rectangular Mudmat system

Am

4bh

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)

Am

I xx

I yy

Pa

I xx

4bh 3

4bh( H / 2 h / 2) 2

12

I yy

4b 3h

4bh( B / 2 b / 2) 2

12

required

30 May 2008

31

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Circular Mudmat system

Am

Pa

S

4

D2

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)

Am

I xx

I yy

I xx

4S 4 4SD 2 H 2

D

2

64

4

I yy

4S

4SD 2 B

4

D

2

64

4

30 May 2008

32

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

16

Triangular Mudmat system

Am

Pa

I xx

I yy

bh

2

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)

Am

I xx

I yy

4bh 3

2bh H 2

2

3

36

2

4bh 3

2bh B 2 b

2

3

36

30 May 2008

33

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Triangular Mudmat system

Am

bh

2

Pa

Ws M ( y ) M ( x)

Am

I xx

I yy

I yy

3bh 3

bh B b

2

2

48

I xx

2

2

bh 2 H

3bh 3

bh H 2 h

1 h

3

3

2

3

36

2

30 May 2008

34

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

17

BEARING CAPACITY OF

MUDMATS

30 May 2008

35

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

BEARING CAPACITY

The ultimate bearing capacity (qu) is

defined as the least pressure which

would cause shear failure of the

supporting soil immediately below

and adjacent to a formation.

30 May 2008

36

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

18

MODES OF FAILURE

a) General failure

b) Local shear

c) Punching failure

The mode of failure depends on the

following

- Foundation type and geometry

- Soil compressibility

30 May 2008

37

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

MODES OF FAILURE

30 May 2008

38

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

19

THEORY OF PLASTICITY

found by either inspection, trial or limit

theorems. Two bounds can be defined.

Lower Bound

True failure load is large than the load

corresponding to an equilibrium system

Upper Bound

The true failure load is smaller than the load

corresponding to a mechanism if that load is

determined using the virtual work principle

30 May 2008

39

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM

An equilibrium system, or a statically admissible field

of stresses is a distribution of stresses that satisfies

the following conditions

a) it satisfies the conditions of equilibrium in each point

of the body

b) it satisfies the boundary conditions for the stresses

c) the yield condition is not exceeded in any point of the

body.

30 May 2008

40

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

20

Mechanism

of displacement is a distribution of displacements

and deformations that satisfies the following

conditions.

a) the displacement field is compatible, i.e. no

gaps or overlaps are produced in the body

(sliding of one part along another part is

allowed)

b) it satisfies the boundary conditions for the

displacements

c) wherever deformations occur the stresses

satisfy the yield conditions

30 May 2008

41

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

IDEALIZED STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP

Shear stress

Shear strain

30 May 2008

42

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

21

STATE OF PLASTIC EQUILIBRIUM

30 May 2008

43

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

1

(V 1 V 3 )

2

sin I

1

(V 1 V 3 2c cot I )

2

?V 3 (1 sin I ) V 1 (1 sin I ) 2c cos I

?V 3

?V 3

30 May 2008

1 sinI

(1 sin2 I)

2c

V1

I

1 sinI

1

sin

1 sinI

1 sinI

2c

V1

I

1

sin

I

1

sin

44

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

22

30 May 2008

45

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

V 1 V 3 tan 2 45 I / 2 2c tan 45

45 I / 2

tan 2 45 I / 2

1 for I 0

V 1.1 qult V 3.1 (1) 2c(1)

qult

q 2c 2c

qult

4c

30 May 2008

46

4c q

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

23

q ult

B&B

qB & B

cSB & B

2

2

q ult

30 May 2008

2S c q

47

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Simplified bearing capacity for a c soil

30 May 2008

48

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

24

Pp

V 1 (dz )

I

I

(

) tan 2 45 2c tan 45 dz

yz

q

2

2

yH 2

.K p q H .K p 2cH . K p

Pp

2

Pp

B

B H

qult & y . cA cos U

2

2 2

sin U cos I

qult

2K p

K p K p yB K p

c

Kp q

Kp

cos I

4 cos I

cos I

qult

cN c q N q yBN y

30 May 2008

49

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

50

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

25

SURFACE

30 May 2008

51

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

PERSUMED BEARING VALUS (BS 8004: 1986)

Soil type

Bearing

value(kN/m)

Medium dense gravel or medium dense

sand and gravel

Loose gravel or loose sand and gravel

Compact sand

Medium dense sand

Loose sand

>600

200 600

Stiff clays

Firm clays

Soft clays and silts

Very soft clays and silts

300 600

150 300

75 150

<75

30 May 2008

52

<200

>300

100 300

<100

Remarks

Width of

foundation (B)

not less than 1

m. Water table

at least B below

base of

foundation

Susceptible to

long-term

consolidation

settlement

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

26

qu

qu

1

JBN J cN c JDN q

2

the ultimate bearing capacity

B Breadth

D Depth

N J , N c and N q

30 May 2008

53

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Nq

Nc

(N q 1 ) cot

Nq, Nc

NJ

1 . 80 ( N q 1) tan I

NJ

( N q 1) tan( 1 . 4I )

Nq, NJ

30 May 2008

54

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

27

Square footing

qf

Circular footing

qf

qf

B Breadth

L Length

30 May 2008

55

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30 May 2008

56

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

28

Skemptons values of Nc

for u = 0 (Reproduced

from A.W.Skempton (1951)

Proceedings of the Building

Research Congress,

Division 1, p.181, by

permission of the Building

Research Establishment,

Crown copyright)

30 May 2008

57

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

RECOMMENDED

BEARING

CAPACITY

FACTORS

30 May 2008

58

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

29

ECCENTRICALLYLOADED FACTORS

30 May 2008

59

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

AREA REDUCTION

FACTORS

ECCENTRICALLYLOADED

FACTORS

30 May 2008

60

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

30

N Value

Classification

Id (%)

(NI)60

04

Very loose

0 15

03

4 10

Loose

15 35

38

10 30

Medium dense

35 65

8 25

30 50

Dense

65 85

25 42

> 50

Very dense

85 100

42 58

30 May 2008

61

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Bearing capacity calculations

by Davis and Booker

The bearing capacity can be calculated when the soil profile

is varying linearly with depth

qu

UB

Fr Cuo N c

(1 S c )

4

Sc

NJ B

Nc L

Shape factor

N = 1 for footing at top of soil

Fr = shear strength factor depends on the variation of the soil profile

= rate of increase of shear strength

B = width of footing

30 May 2008

62

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

31

F r - Shear Strength F acto r

1.70

1.60

1.50

1.40

1.30

1.20

1.10

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.000

1.000

2.000

3.000

4.000

5.000

6.000

7.000

8.000

Rho

30 May 2008

63

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS

30 May 2008

64

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

32

Special Foundations

Suction Anchor

(Bucket Foundation)

Gravity Foundation

30 May 2008

65

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

A suction anchor is an inverted top capped hollow

cylinder of fairly large diameter with a length to

diameter ratio (L/D) of 1.0 to 2.0 that is embedded

into the sea bed. Self-weight and differential water

pressure can facilitate easy installation of this type

of anchor into the sea bed. This differential water

pressure (active suction) can be created by

pumping out the water from the interior of the

anchor.

30 May 2008

66

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

33

The main pile advantages of this anchor over tension piles are

due to the weight of the soil plug inside and the freely available

high ambient water pressure which offers two advantages; easy

installation of the anchor with its active suction arrangement and

mobilization of passive suction force at the anchor bottom during

uplift. Further, the large-diameter sealed top provides a

substantial space for additional ballast, which can increase the

breakout resistance

30 May 2008

67

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

From the equilibrium considerations (referring to

figure 1) the uplift pullout capacity of the suction

anchor is given by

Pu = Wa + Fext + Ws + Wb + Rb

Where

Wa = is the weight of the anchor

Fext = is the shear resistance along the external wall

Ws = is the weight of the soil plug

Wb = is the weight of the ballast (if any) at the top

Rb = is the suction-induced reversed end bearing

30 May 2008

68

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

34

30 May 2008

69

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Pu = Wa + Ws + Fext + Rb

Rb1 = Pu (Wa + Ws + Fext)

From consideration of rupture in clay under tensile loading (Vesic, 1971) the

bottom breakwater resistance is expressed in a non-dimensional form as

Fext = Cu Ase

From the plug equilibrium (refer to figure 13) equations can be written as:

Rb2 + Ws - Ps + Fint

Rb2 = Ps + Fint - Ws

Rb2 = Nb2 Cu Ab

Where

Nb1 and Nb2 are bottom breakout factors from overall and plug

equilibrium, respectively, ps is suction pressure measured at the top

of soil plug, Ab is the base area of the anchor, is an adhension

factor, Fint is internal skin friction, Asi is the area of internal skin

friction and Ase is the area of external skin friction

30 May 2008

70

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

35

Buckling

CONTENTS

Introduction

Local Buckling

Necessity of tubular

Effective Length

Design Methods

API RP 2A - ASD

Fabricated Pipes

Applied stresses

Residual stresses

Allowable stresses

Interaction

Material Properties

API RP 2A - LRFD

Modulus of Elasticity

Interaction

Imperfections

Hydrostatic Pressure

Out-of roundedness

Misalignment

Hoop stresses

Straightness deviation

Interaction

Design examples

Ultimate Strength

Factors affecting ultimate strength

Tubular section

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Tubular Members

used for jacket structures commonly due to

their versatility in resisting various forces. The

major reasons are listed below.

Good Hydrodynamic Properties (Low Cd and Cm)

good buoyancy to weight ratio

Good resistance against hydrostatic pressure

Uniform property across the section

No torsional buckling

Good Ultimate strength compared to others

Full moment connections possible

susceptible to fatigue cracks and have

fabrication difficulty due to non-linear surfaces

at intersection !.

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Load Categories

Following external forces are applied to

the structure which in turn induce

internal loads on the members.

Gravity loads

Wind Loads

Wave and Current Loads

Seismic Loads

Drilling Loads

The above forces shall be applied to the

structure in a three dimensional analysis.

The member internal loads shall be

extracted from the analysis results.

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Member internal loads

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

FREE BODY DIAGRAM

Following member internal loads may

need to be considered

Bending (In-plane or Out-off plane)

Torsion

Shear (in-plane or Out-off plane)

External Pressure

Following member internal loads

may need to be considered

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Factors Affecting Strength

Following factors affect the strength of the member.

Material properties (E, Fy, Ft )

Imperfections and residual stresses

Production method of tubular

Boundary conditions

Loading

Geometric proportions: L/D, D/t

Stiffeners: circumferential or longitudinal

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Material Properties (Steel)

The physical and mechanical properties of steel used in the design are listed

below.

Density

7850 kg/m3 or 78.5 kN/m3

Tensile stress (Ft)

Varies between 490 to 600 MPa

Yield stress (Fy )

Is in the range of 250 400 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity (E)

Normally taken as 200000 210000 MPa

Strain in elastic range is 0.2%.

Poisson Ratio is in the range of 0.3 to 0.4

Friction coefficient is around 0.3 to 0.4

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Imperfections

cause the reduction in the strength of the

structure and must be minimized. Hence

material and fabrication specifications shall

include control parameters to limit the same.

This is called Tolerances. Following are some

of the imperfections that need to be included.

Variation is cross section

Variation in thickness

Residual stresses

Out-off roundedness

Out-off straightness

Misalignment across thickness

Misalignment along length

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Tubular Production Methods

Tubular or Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) can be made using any one of the

following methods.

extruding techniques

Hot forming steel plate and induction welding along the

longitudinal direction

Cold forming methods coils of plate and resistance welding along

longitudinal direction

Cold forming of coils of plate and resistance welding along radial

direction

Cold forming of flat plates and assemble to make pipes

Each method has its own limitations, advantages and disadvantages. Hence

depending on the availability and technical requirement, production method

shall be selected.

9/16/2015

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Steel Making Process an outlook

IRON ORE

BLAST FURNACE

PIG IRON

PIG IRON

STEEL MAKING

PROCESS

INGOT, BILLETS

INGOT

HEAT

TREATMENT

SLABS

SLABS

ROLLING

01 August 13

10

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Steel Making Process an outlook

01 August 13

11

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

01 August 13

12

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

01 August 13

13

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Pilger and Piercing

The large size bars are

used to produce pipes.

This has been in use for

several decades in the

pipe producing mills.

Both thin and thick pipes

can be made using this

method.

Limiting size for such

production depends on

the mill but generally

diameter larger than 20

is normally not available

by this method.

9/16/2015

14

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Cold Forming Processes and Resistance welding

In this method, sheet coil

of plates is used to form

circular sections using

rollers.

The folded section is then

welded by resistance

welding.

The application of this

method is also limited by

diameter and generally to

20.

9/16/2015

15

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Hot forming and induction welding

This method is very similar

to the forming and welding

method except that this is

done in hot condition.

The coils of plate is heated

first before it is bent and

rolled to the shape.

The folded section is then

welded by induction

welding.The application of

this method is also limited

by diameter and generally to

20.

9/16/2015

16

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Cold Forming Processes

In this method, the plate

sections of specific length

and width will be rolled to

shapes either in semicircular shape or in quarter

arc of a circle.

The rolled sections of the

circular arc is then joined by

arc welding to form a long

pipe. This method is very

commonly used for making

pipes of any diameter used

in the steel fabrication

industry. Using this method,

pipes of any diameter can be

made for use.

As an alternative to the plates, rolls of plate can be used to form the pipe using

spiral form and then welded, and it is called Spirally welded pipes. Pipes

manufactured using this method is normally not used in the primary structure.

9/16/2015

17

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Fabrication tubulars

plates are rolled to form circular arcs and welded to

form circular section as shown in figure.

form a can (length up to 3m). The longitudinal

seam may be one or more depending on the

width of the plate available. This one piece of pipe

made from plates is called Can.

Several cans can be welded to form a long tube

The long seams shall be arranged such that the

orientation in each can away by 90o.

Welding between Cans is called transverse seam

or circumferential weld.

This method of fabrication introduces out-ofroundness, out of straightness imperfections and

residual stresses in both the longitudinal and

circumferential directions

9/16/2015

18

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Residual Stresses

Residual stresses developed during welding of plates to form pipes and

welding of two pieces of pipes to form length may affect the final strength

unless these stresses are relieved.

stresses depending on the radius of bend and D/t ratio. Larger the

bending radius, smaller the stresses. Larger the D/t ratio, strain will

be smaller.

Heat induced stresses during welding could be large due to

restraint provided by the joining components.

Stresses induced during joining of pipe segments due to restriction

on the expansion during welding.

9/16/2015

19

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Consideration of Residual Stresses in design equations

Consideration shall be given to account for the residual stresses in

members in the design equation.

As these stresses exist even before the member is loaded, these

stresses shall be deducted from the allowable stresses. However,

it will not be practical to account for in each case.

Hence it is better to reduce the yield stress by certain percentage

to account for the residual stresses. DNV codes suggests a 5%

reduction in yield stresses to residual stresses of welded section

9/16/2015

20

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Effective method of including Imperfections in design

The method to include the imperfections in fabrication is a difficult process as

the imperfections will not be known at the stage of design.

Hence certain assumptions has to be made during the design with limitations on

deviations that can be tolerated both with respect to design aspects and

operational aspects.

Design aspects will include change in cross sectional area, moment of inertia,

center of gravity and other geometric properties. On the other hand, the

operational aspects include deviation from verticality, sagging of beams which

affects the daily operation for which the structures are built.

Hence restrictions on these imperfections which may happen during the

construction stage may have to be imposed during the design stage.

These restrictions are called Construction Tolerances which shall be

incorporated in the design equations so that the design need not be revised if

these deviations are within the design tolerances.

9/16/2015

21

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Out-of Straightness

Out-of straightness tolerance o shall be

measured at all points along the length of the

member and the maximum shall be taken for

consideration.

limit of 0.0015L (L/666) as the limit

API Spec 2B specifies a maximum

limit of L/960 or 9.50mm in any

12200mm length (L/1284) whichever

is lower

deviation will lead to eccentric load and

corresponding moment.

9/16/2015

22

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Out-of Roundedness

Out-of roundedness tolerance for fabrication of

tubular sections can be calculated as shown in

figure using Dmean, Dmax and Dmin.

The Dmax and Dmin shall be measured across

diagonals at any angle and not necessarily at 90

degrees. Out-of roundedness is normally

specified as

Dmax Dmin

=

%

D

Dmean

shall not exceed 2% and DNV specifies that the

tolerance shall not exceed 1%.

9/16/2015

23

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Eccentricity due to variation in Wall thickness

Maximum thickness variation = t = tmax - tmin

Effective axial load eccentricity due to t can be calculated and included in

the stress calculation.

9/16/2015

24

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Misalignment in Butt Joint

Misalignment in butt joint is very

important as it induces additional

eccentricity in axial loads and

stresses.

API allows an eccentricity e of

0.2t1

e < 3.2mm for welding from

one side

e < 6.4 mm for welding from

both side.

When the eccentricity in construction exceeds this limit, the design must be revied

adequate modifications shall be carried out to assure the d=safety of design.

9/16/2015

25

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Ultimate Strength

Ultimate strength of a section or

member depends on the efficiently

of the section to redistribute the

stresses when the stresses exceed

yield.

Increase

load

carrying

capacity after reaching elastic limit

is called Ultimate Strength.

Premature failure before reaching

elastic limit is called Buckling.

Buckling strength of a member is

found to be considerably less than

the theoretical elastic capacity.

Hence in order to determine the ultimate strength, first it is necessary to establish

that the section / member has sufficient buckling capacity to reach elastic capacity.

The ultimate strength of the section / member can be computed based on the

section property and member boundary conditions.

9/16/2015

26

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Buckling Theory

Buckling is a phenomenon that the bifurcation of equilibrium to unstable state

under axial load when the slenderness exceeds 50. This was explained by

Leonhard Euler in 1757 even if there is no axial load.

The column at its unstable

bifurcation of equilibrium, fails due

to lateral displacement for a

particular load called Critical Load

or Buckling Load.

The critical load differs if the end

of the column is restrained in

lateral direction. This is evident

from the photograph showing the

experiment.

Slenderness is the ratio of its

length to the radius of gyration of

the section.

9/16/2015

27

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Effective Length Factors (K)

Effective length factor is

defines as the ratio of

buckling strength of a column

with simple pin-pin end

conditions to that of a actual

column with any other

boundary conditions.

Buckling capacity of a column

with pin-pin end conditions is

given by

Pcr =

2 EI

( KL )

In which K is called Effective length factor and is 1.0 for pin-pin end

conditions of the column. For other cases, it is shown in the table above.

9/16/2015

28

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Local and Global buckling

Buckling of thin walled tubes (D/t > 20) can be

classified in to the following.

Global buckling due to slenderness

is the wall thickness.

Local buckling is governed by the D/T ratio and the

global buckling is governed by the KL/r ratio. Local

buckling may also happen due to bending of large

diameter tubular.

Local

9/16/2015

29

Global

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Factors influencing Ultimate strength

Following factors influences the ultimate strength of a column or beam

Cross section

Boundary condition at the ends

Load distribution

Stress strain characteristics of the material

condition affects the redistribution of stresses across the length.

The stress strain relationship affects the ultimate load depending on the strain

hardening range of the material. i.e. the gap between the yield point and the

ultimate point the stress strain curve.

All the factors put together, a beam or column can sustain larger load compared

to its load capacity at elastic range.

9/16/2015

30

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ELASTIC AND PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY RECTANGULAR SECTION

h

Pp = Fy b

2

Fy

h

P= b

2 2

Fy h 2h

bh 2

M = b = Fy

6

2 2 3

15th April 2009

31

h h

bh 2

M p = Fy b 2 = Fy

2 4

4

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ELASTIC AND PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY CIRCULAR SECTION

Elastic moment capacity of solid cross

section is give below.

Fy 1 D 2

P=

2 2 4

4D

3

D3

M = Fy

32

1 D2

Pp = Fy

2 4

15th April 2009

D2 4D

D3

M p = Pa = Fy

= Fy

8 3

6

32

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY HOLLOW CIRCULAR SECTION

A hollow circular section of diameter D

and wall thickness t is divided in to

four symetric segments.

Consider a small arc of ds with area

of a in the first quadrant of the pipe

as shown in figure.

The area of the segment can be

calculated as tds where ds can be

calculated

using

small

angle

approximation.

Using the symetry, the moment

capacity can be integrated for first

quadrant and multiplied by 4.

a = tds

15th April 2009

33

D

ds = rd =

d

2

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

PLASTIC MOMENT CAPACITY CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION

MP = 4

0

D

AFy cos

2

D D

M P = 4 Fy t d cos

2

2

0

2

M P = Fy D 2t cos d

0

Pp = Fy dt

15th April 2009

M P =Fy D 2t

34

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Load category, Factors and combinations

Load category and the corresponding load factors are listed below

D2 Dead Load 2, e.g. equipment weight

L1 Live Load 1, e.g. weight of fluids

L2 Live Load 2, e.g. operating forces

We Extreme wind, wave and current loads

Wo Operating wind, wave and current loads

Dn Inertial Load correspond to Wo

Variable Load: 1.3 1.5

Environmental load: 1.3 1.4

Load combinations and the associated load factors required as per API RP 2A LRFD

Factored gravity loads

1.3D1 + 1.3D2 + 1.5L1 + 1.5L2

Wind, wave and current loads

1.1D1 + 1.1D2 + 1.1L1 + 1.35(We + 1.25Dn)

0.9D1 + 0.9D2 + 0.8L1 + 1.35(We + 1.25Dn)

1.3D1 + 1.3D2 + 1.5L1 + 1.5L2 + 1.2(Wo + 1.25Dn)

Earthquake

1.1D1 + 1.1D2 + 1.1L1 + 0.9E

0.9D1 + 0.9D2 + 0.8L1 + 0.9E

9/16/2015

55

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Comparison of ASD and LRFD a beam column design with uniformly

distributed lateral load and axial load

Axial Load = P kN

Span = L m

Self Wight = kN/m

Yield Strength = Fy MPa

Applied

stresses

P + L

fa =

A

Interaction

Fb = 2 Fy

fa fb

+

1.0

Fa Fb

Bending

0.66 stress

Interaction

the buckling and slenderness effects

9/16/2015

fa =

1P + 2 L

A

wL

Allowable Axial Fc = c Fy

2

stress

1 0.6

Allowable

Fb = b Fy

fb =

Allowable Axial Fa = 1 Fy

stress

Allowable

Bending

stress

Applied

stresses

56

fb =

3wL2

2

c = 0.85

b = 0.95

fc

f

+ b 1.0

c Fy b Fy

buckling and slenderness effects. 1, 2 and 3

are load factors 1.5, 1.3 and 1.5 respectively

for live, dead and wind loads

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ASD DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR TUBULAR MEMBERS

Divide the member in to sections and calculate the axial, bending and shear forces in

each section along the length. At-least 3 sections shall be checked.

The variation in section property

such as diameter or wall thickness

shall also be taken in to

consideration for calculating the

section property along the member

length in each section.

The axial buckling capacity shall be

calculated using the variable cross

section along the length.

Variation of internal forces shall

also be computed for various

sections along the length.

Free Body Diagram with member internal forces

9/16/2015

57

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ASD DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR TUBULAR MEMBERS

Divide the member in to sections and calculate the axial, bending and shear forces in

each section along the length. At-least 3 sections shall be checked.

Establish geometric properties such as sectional area, moment of inertia, effective

length factors, radius of gyration for each section.

Calculate the applied axial(fa), bending(fbx, fby), hoop (fh) and shear stresses (fs)

using the geometry of the section and the applied axial, bending, hydrostatic and

shear forces.

Establish the slenderness ratio(kL/r) and calculate the allowable axial stress (Fa)

and calculate the elastic buckling stress (Fxe) and inelastic buckling stress (Fxc)

Establish the D/t ratio and calculate the allowable bending stress (Fb)

Compute the allowable stresses for hoop using Elastic Hoop buckling stress (Fhe) and

critical hoop buckling stresses (Fhc).

The combined effect of loads is obtained using interaction of these loads in an

appropriate manner using axial, bending, hoop and shear interaction formulae for

the following cases.

Axial

Axial and bending

Bending

Axial and hoop

Shear

Shear and bending

Hoop

9/16/2015

58

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Applied Stresses in Tubular members

Following method shall be used in calculation of applied stresses in members.

P

A

M xY

f bx =

I xx

fa =

Axial Stress

Bending Stresses

Shear Stress

fs =

V

0.5 A

Hoop Stress

fh =

Ph D

2t

A=

and

D 2 ( D 2t )

4

f by =

I xx = I yy =

M yY

I yy

D 4 ( D 2t )

64

Where P, V, Mx, My and Ph (= h) are the axial load, shear, in-plane and out-of

plane moments and hydrostatic pressure respectively. Y is the half diameter.

9/16/2015

59

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Allowable Stresses for Tubular members

Following method shall be used in calculation of allowable stresses in members.

Axial Stress Allowable axial stress in compression shall include the effect of

slenderness ratio (kL/r) to determine whether yielding or global buckling govern the

design. This is applicable for compression where as in tension it is taken as 0.6Fy

The effect of local buckling of tubular sections due to axial loads is taken in to

consideration by computing the limiting values of Fy using critical hoop buckling

stress (Fxc).

Bending Stresses Allowable bending stress depends on the D/t ratio and the

maximum value is to be limited to 0.75Fy.

Shear Stress Allowable shear stress is to be taken as 0.4Fy

Hoop Stress The allowable hoop stress is computed based on local buckling

effects due to external hydrostatic pressure. This is done by computing critical

elastic buckling stress (Fhe) and inelastic buckling stress (Fhc).

9/16/2015

60

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Allowable Axial Stress

(Compression)

Allowable Axial

Stress (Tension)

should be determined from the following

formulae for members with a D/t ratio

equal to or less than 60. Effect of local

buckling

shall

be

considered

by

substituting Fy with local buckling stress.

( KL / r ) 2

1 2C 2 Fy

c

Fa =

for KL / r < Cc

3

3( KL / r ) ( KL / r )

5/ 3+

8C c

8Cc3

12 2 E

Fa =

23( KL / r ) 2

where

2 E

Cc =

F

y

2

9/16/2015

for KL / r Cc

for cylindrical members

subjected to axial tensile loads

should be determined from

Fa = 0.6 Fy

E = Youngs Modulus of elasticity

and imperfections, Fy shall be

replaced by minimum of Fxe

and Fxc.

61

L = unbraced length

r = radius of gyration

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Local Buckling Stress Due to Axial Load

The local buckling stress for use with axial stress limits

shall be calculated in stages using elastic buckling stress

The elastic local buckling stress, Fxe for columns subjected to axial loads

when D/t ratio greater than 60 and less than 300 should be determined

from:

Fxe = 2CE t/D

Where

C = Critical elastic buckling coefficient to be taken as 0.3 (instead of 0.6) to

account for imperfections as per API Spec 2B.

D = outside diameter

t = wall thickness

The inelastic local buckling stress, Fxc, should be determined from:

Fxc = Fy x [1.64 0.23 (D/t)]

Fxe

Fxc = Fy

for (D/t) 60

16 July 2007

62

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Effective length factor K as specified in API RP 2A

Deck Truss

chord members

members

Superstructure

Legs

Jacket Braces

Jacket Legs

9/16/2015

72

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Axial Tension and Hydrostatic Pressure

When member longitudinal tensile stress and hoop compressive stresses

(collapse) occur simultaneously, the following interaction equation should be

satisfied.

f

f + fb (0.5 f h )

( SFx )

A= a

Fy

A + B + 2 A B 1.0

2

B =

Fhc

(SFh )

f a = absolute value of acting axial stress

Fy = Yield Strength

f h = absolute value of hoop compression stress SFh = safety factor for hoop compression

Factor of Safety against Hydrostatic collapse with other loads

Axial

Tension

(SFx)

Bending

Axial

Comp.

Hoop Comp.

(SFh)

Operating

1.67

Fy/Fb

1.67 to 2.00

2.00

Storm

1.25

Fy/1.33Fb

1.25 to 1.50

1.50

Load case

9/16/2015

81

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Axial Compression and Hydrostatic Pressure

When longitudinal compressive stresses and hoop compressive stresses occur

simultaneously, the following equations should be satisfied.

f a + (0.5 f h )

fb

( SFx ) + ( SFh ) 1.0

Fy

Fxc

fh

1.0

SFh

Fhc

Fxe = Member elastic local buckling stress due

to axial compression

Fxc = Member inelastic local buckling stress

due to axial compression

f x 0.5 f ha f h

1.0

for f ha > 0.5 f x

+

Faa 0.5 Fha Fha

where

SFx = safety of factor for axial compression

Fxe

Faa =

,

SFb = safety of factor for bending

SFx

F

Fha = he ,

SFh

9/16/2015

fx = fa+fb+(0.5 fh)

82

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Ring Design

Circumferential stiffening ring size may be selected on the following

approximate basis.

tLD 2

Ic =

Fhe

8E

Where

Ic = required moment of inertia

for ring composite section

L = ring spacing

D = diameter of pipe

t = thickness of pipe

Fhe = Elastic buckling stress

9/16/2015

83

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Ring Spacing

The ring spacing is defines as the distance

between supports or between the actual

ring location. Hence the following procedure

shall be adopted in designing a ring

stiffened cylinders against combined axial

and hoop stress.

a) Compute the axial and bending stresses

using unstiffened cylinders

b) Assume the spacing of rings as initial

member length L between the supports

or nodal connection as shown in figure

c) Determine the critical elastic hoop stress

(Fhe) and compute the inelastic hoop

stress (Fhc).

d) Determine the interaction ratio using

appropriate factor of safety.

e) Repeat the above steps (b) to (d) using a

reduced spacing S and stop if the UC is

less than 1.0

9/16/2015

84

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Moment of inertia of Ring stiffeners

Effective

shell width

beff = 1.1 Dt

Neutral axis

yna =

(b

eff

t + twh + bt f )

Moment of inertia

I xx =

9/16/2015

85

beff t 3

12

2

th 3

+

+ th ( 0.5h + t f yna )

12

bt f 3

2

+

+ bt f ( yna 0.5t f )

12

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Verify a jacket brace of diameter 762mm x 15.88mm against axial loads of 1200 kN, and

in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment of 800 and 600 kNm respectively. The unbraced

length of the member is 15m and yield strength is 345 Mpa.

DESIGN OF A TUBULAR MEMBER AS PER API RP 2A (WSD)

INPUT DATA

Diameter of brace

D := 762 mm

Wall thickness

t := 15.88 mm

Yield Strength

Fy := 345 MPa

Weight density

:= 78.5

kN

3

m

5

Modulus of elasticity

E := 2.0 10 MPa

Unbraced length

Ls := 15 m

Ky := 0.9

Axial Load

P := 1200 kN

My := 800 kN m

Mz := 600 kN m

9/16/2015

86

Kz := 0.9

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES

2

2

D ( D 2 t)

As = 3.7 10 mm

64

4

4

D ( D 2 t)

Iy = 2.6 10 mm

Sectiona area

As :=

Iy :=

Zy :=

Ry :=

Iz := Iy

2 Iy

Iy

Zz := Zy

KLRz :=

Ry = 263.9 mm

As

KLRy :=

Zy = 6.8 10 mm

Ky Ls

Ry

Kz Ls

Rz := Ry

KLRy = 51.165

KLRz = 51.165

Rz

2

12 E

Fe :=

Cm := 1

9/16/2015

87

23 KLRz

Fe = 393.4 MPa

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ALLOWABLE BENDING STRESS AS PER API RP-2A SECTION 3.2.3

Diametr to wall thickness ratio

Ratio :=

Fb :=

D

t

0.75 Fy if Ratio

Ratio = 47.985

10340

Fy

1.74 Fy D

10340

20680

< Ratio

0.84

Fy if

Fy

Fy

E t

0.58 Fy D

20680

Ratio 300

0.72

Fy if

F

E

y

Fb = 240.1 MPa

9/16/2015

88

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

ALLOWABLE AXIAL STRESS AS PER API RP-2A SECTION 3.2.2

Critical elastic buckling coeficient Ceb := 0.3

Elastic local buckling stress

Fxe := 2 Ceb E

t

D

Fxc :=

D

60

t

Fy if

D4

D

> 60

minFxe , 1.64 0.23 Fy if

t

compression

Cc :=

2 2E

min( Fy , Fxc)

Fa :=

2 Cc 2

if KLRz < Cc

3

5 + 3 KLRz KLRz

3

8 Cc

8 Cc 3

12 2 E

2

23 KLRz

9/16/2015

89

Cc = 107

if KLRz Cc

Fa = 166.7 MPa

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

APPLIED STRESSES AND COMBINED AXIAL AND BENDING INTERACTION RATIO

Computed Axial Stress

fa :=

fby :=

fbz :=

P

As

UC :=

fa = 32.2 MPa

My

fby = 117.6 MPa

Zy

Mz

Zy

fa

Fa

if

+

fa

Fa

fby2 + fbz2

if

Fb

fa

Fa

0.15

> 0.15

UC1

UC2

fa

Fa

Cm fby2 + fbz2

fa

0.6 Fy

fa

Fb

F

e

Fb

9/16/2015

90

fby + fbz

UC = 0.86

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Verify a buoyancy tank of diameter 2000mm x 15mm for a hydrostatic pressure of 100m

depth. The spacing of rings is 2m and yield strength is 250 Mpa.

Input

Water Depth

Wd := 100 m

Outer Diameter

D := 2000 mm

Thickness of shell

t := 15 mm

Fy := 250 MPa

Young's Modulus

E := 2.0 10 MPa

D

= 133.333

t

Sp := 2 m

9/16/2015

:= 78.5

kN

3

w :=

10.25

kN

3

91

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Buckling Coefficient

Maximum hydrostatic pressure

ph := w Wd

fh :=

Buckling Coefficient

ph D

fh = 68.3 MPa

2t

Sp 2 D 0.5

M :=

D t

Geometric parameter

Ch :=

0.44

ph = 1.025 MPa

M = 16.33

t

D

if M 1.6

D

t

D

t

t

M4

M 0.636

t

M 0.559

9/16/2015

92

Ch = 0.0469

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Hoop Stress Check

Fhe := 2 Ch E

Stress

Critical Hoop

Buckling Stress

Fhc :=

t

D

0.45 Fy + 0.18 Fhe if 0.55 Fy Fhe < 1.6 Fy

1.31 Fy

Fy

1.15 + F

he

Fhc = 137.8 MPa

Factor of Safety against

hydrostatic collapse

SFh := 2.0

UC2 :=

Unity Check

9/16/2015

93

fh

Fhc

SFh

UC2 = 0.992

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Stiffener Design

Moment of inertia of rings required

t Sp D

Irq :=

Fhe

8E

Irq = 1.055 10 mm

Since the thickness of shell is given as 16mm, the thickness of the stiffener shall not exceed 16mm

due to welding limitations.

Assume a stiffener thickness

and dimension as

ts := 15 mm

ds

ts

Nutral axis distance from bottom

ds := 150 mm

= 10

Beff := 1.1 ( t D)

0.5

Beff = 190.5 mm

2

y :=

Iwp :=

y = 121.2 mm

ts ds + Beff t

ts ds

12

Beff t

+ ts ds ( 0.5ds y)

+ Beff t ( ds + 0.5 t y)

Ifp :=

Ip := Iwp + Ifp

12

Ip = 1.284 10 7 mm4

9/16/2015

94

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

Questions

1. Check the axial load on the jacket leg of diameter 1524mm and wall thickness

of 50mm with yield strength of 345 MPa. The bending moment acting on the leg

is 200 Tonne.m. The unsupported length is 15m. The effective length factor K

and moment reduction factors Cm shall be taken as 1.0.

2. Calculate safe axial load that can be carried by the jacket leg of diameter

1524mm and wall thickness of 50mm with yield strength of 345 MPa. The

bending moment acting on the leg is 200 Tonne.m. The unsupported length is

15m. The effective length factor K and moment reduction factors Cm shall be

taken as 1.0.

3. Design a buoyancy tank of 2.2m diameter subjected to hydrostatic pressure

at design water depth of 120m. The maximum thickness of the tank shall not

exceed 16mm and the spacing of rings shall not be less than 1m. The material

of construction is ASTM A36. The initial unsupported length shall be taken as

20m.

16 July 2007

95

Dr. S. Nallayarasu

Department of Ocean Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-36

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