# 1.

(a) CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR
AIM:

To plot the characteristics of an SCR and also find the forward resistance, holding current and latching current.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Characteristics study unit 0- 50V DC Voltmeter 0-500 mA DC Ammeter 0-25mA DC ammeter

THEORY:

SCR stands for silicon controlled rectifier which is a PNPN 4 layer device. It is a unidirectional element and whose conduction can be controlled by the gate triggering. The forward characteristics are plotted between VAK and IA at different gate currents. The breakdown occurs at a relatively lower voltage as the gate current increases.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. V-I Characteristics: 1. Make the connections as given in the circuit diagram including meters. 2. Now switch ON the main supply to the unit and initially keep V1 & V2 at minimum. Set load potentiometer R1 in the minimum position. 3. Adjust IG-IG1 say 10 mA by varying V2 or gate current potentiometer R2. Slowly vary V1 and note down VAK and 1A readings for every 5V and enter the readings in the tabular column. 4. Further vary V1 till SCR conducts. This can be noticed by sudden drop of VAK and rise of 1A readings note down this reading and tabulated. 5. Vary V1 further and note down 1A and VAK readings. 6. Draw the graph of VAK V/S 1A. 7. Repeat the same for IG = IG2/IG3 mA and the graph 2. To find VG/IG: 1. Set V2 to zero adjust VAK to V1- 10 Volts. 2. Connect voltmeter between VAK points slowly increase V2 till SCR conducts. 3. Note down the corresponding IG&VAK values. 4. Repeat the procedure 2-3 times to accurately get the V G and IG values.

IG1 (mA) VAK(volts) IA(mA)

3. To

IG2(mA) VAK (volts) IA(mA)

find latching current: 1. Apply about 20 V between Anode and Cathode by varying V 1. Keep the load potentiometer R1 at minimum position. 2. The device must be in the OFF state with Gate open. 3. Gradually increase Gate voltage V2 till the device turns ON. 4. This is the minimum Gate current (ig minimum) required to turn ON the device. 5. Adjust the Gate voltage to a slightly higher. Set the load potentiometer at the maximum resistance position. The device should come to OFF state. 6. Otherwise decrease V1 till the device comes to OFF state. The Gate voltage should be kept constant in this experiment. 7. By varying R1, gradually increase anode current 1A in steps open and close the Gate voltage V2 switch after each step. 8. If the anode current is greater than the latching current of the devise the device says ON even after the Gate switch is opened. 9. Otherwise the devise goes in to blocking mode as soon as the Gate switch is opened. Note the latching current obtain more accurate value of the latching current by taking small steps of 1A near the latching current values.

10. Increase the anode current from the latching current level by load pot R1 or V1. Open the Gate switch permanently. The thyristor must be fully ON. 11. Now start reducing the anode current gradually by adjusting R 1. If the thyristor does not turns OFF even after the R1 at maximum position. 12. Then reduce V1 observe when the device goes to blocking mode. The anode current through the devise at this instant is the holding current of the device. 13. Repeat the steps again to accurately get the Ih normally Ih <IL

EXPECTED GRAPH:

RESULT:

The brake over voltages

= Vb1 = -----------------= Vb2 = ------------------

Latching current = ---------------------Holding current = ----------------------Forward resistance Rf = ∆VAK/∆ IA==------------------------

VIVA VOCE:

1) Draw the characteristics of SCR. 2) Define holding current. 3) Define latching current. 4) What is meant by forward resistance?

1. (b) CHARACTERISTICS OF MOSFET
AIM:

To plot the input and transfer characteristics of MOSFET and to find ON state resistance and Transconductance.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4.
THEORY:

Characteristics study unit 0-50 volts DC voltmeter 0-15 volts DC voltmeter 0-50 mA DC Ammeter

A power MOSFET is voltage controlled device and requires only a small input current. The switching N speed is very high and a switching time is of order of nanoseconds. They are finding increasing application in low power high frequency converters. MOSFETS have the problem of

second break down phenomenon as do BJTS. However, MOSFET have the problems of electrostatic discharge and require special care in handling MOSFETS are of two types (1) Depletion MOSFETS (2) Enhancement MOSFETS. Let us discuss n-channel depletion type MOSFET type MOSFET, which is formed on a P-type silicon subtract, with two heavily doped n silicon for low resistance connections. The gate is isolated from the channel by thin oxide layer. If will have they terminal gate, drain and source. The substrate is normally connected to source. The gate to source voltage VGS could be either + ve or – ve. If VGS is negative, some of the electrons in n- channel area will be repelled and a depletion region will be created below the oxide layer, resulting is a narrower effective channel and high resistance from the drain to source, RDs If VGS made – Ve high, the channel will be completely depleted, offering a high value of RDS, and there will be no current flow from the drain to source, Ids = 0, The value of VGS is made +ve, the channel is called “pinch – off “voltage, Vp. On the other hand, VGS is made + ve, the channel becomes wider and a DS increase due to reduction is Rds this is liner region. In this region, the MOSFET operates as a switch with drain current proportional to drain voltage. This is operative for low drain voltage and high drain current. In pinch – off or saturate region, the device operate as an amplifier having very high current gain which is the ratio or drain current to gate current . ID is independent of VD. Tran conductance, defined as the ratio of drain current to gate voltage , signifies the transfer capabilities of the device. The output characteristic of a MOSFET is plot of drain current as a function of drain source voltage, gate to source voltage is the

parameter. In the cut – off region, the gate voltage is less then the threshold voltage. The device is in the non – conducting state. i) ii) iii) Cut – off region VGS <_VRT Pinch – off; VDS <_ VGS – VT and pinch – off occurs at VDS = VGS – VT Linier Region; VDS = VGS – VT; ID varies in & VDS

MOSFETS: are available in voltage ratings in excess of 1000v, but with

small current ratings and with up to 100 A at small voltage ratings Max. Gate to source voltage is ±20v They can be easily paralleled as their on – state resistance has a + ve temperature co efficient. This causes the device conducting the higher current to heat up and thus forces it to equitably share its current with other MOSFETS in parallel. VCE (sat) decreases with increasing gate emitter voltage. The characteristics show that saturation voltage can have either +ve or – ve temperature co efficient depending up on collector current. At low values of IC device behaves like BJT at high values of Ic device behaves like MOSFET. At a given value of Ic, saturation voltage (on state drop) is less than that of MOSFET and equal to and greater then that of BJT. The transfer characteristic of IGBT is the plot between collector current and gate voltage. If the peak current limit is exceeded even for short time, the device latches on and cannot be controlled by the gate. In this situation, the device can be turned – off by decreasing the load current below the loading current (or) by reversing the polarity of VCE with an external commutation circuit. The switching times during turn – on and turn – off are little affected by gate voltage. The delays during turn – off and fall time are the functions of resistance between gate and emitter, they increase with this resistance.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

Transfer characteristics: 1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram with meters initially keep V1 and V2 zero. Set V1 = VDS1 = say 10v. 2. Slowly vary V2 (VGS) and note down ID and VGS readings for every 0.5 volts enter in the tabular column. 3. The minimum Gate voltage VGS that is required for conduction to start in the MOSFET is called threshold voltage VGS is greater than VGS (Th). 4. If VGS is greater than VGS (Th) the drain current depends on magnitude of the Gate voltage VGS varies from 2 to 5 volts. 5. Repeat the same for different values of VDS and draw the graph of ID/VGS.

TABULAR COLUMN:
VDS1 (volts) 10V VGS (volts) ID (mA) VDS2(volts) VGS (volts) ID(mA)

DRAIN CHARACTERISTICS:

Initially set V2 to VGS 1 = 3.5 volts. Slowly vary V1 and note down ID and VDS. For a particular value of VGS1 there is a pinch off voltage (Vp) between drain and source as shown in figure. If VDS is lower than VP. The device works in the constant resistance region and ID is directly proportional to VDS if VDS is more than Vp. Constant ID flows from the device and this operating region is called constant current region. Repeat the above for different values of VGS and note down ID v/s VDS Draw the graph of ID v/s VDS for different values of VGS.
TABULAR COLUMN:
VGS1 (volts) 10V VDS (volts) ID(mA) VGS1 (volts) VDS (volts) ID(mA)

RESULT:

1. 2.

Rd=∆ Vds/∆ Id =………….Ω Gm = ∆ ID/∆VDS =…….

VIVA VOCE: 1) Difference between MOSFET and SCR. 2) Draw transfer characteristics of MOSFET. 3) Write the formula for ON resistance and Transconductance.

Expected Graph:

1. (c) CHARACTERISTICS OF IGBT
AIM:

To plot the static characteristics of IGBT
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4.
THEORY:

Characteristics study unit 0-50 volts DC voltmeter 0-15 volts DC voltmeter 0-50 mA DC Ammeter

IGBT combines the advantages of BJT and MOSFETS. If has a high input impedance like MOSFETS and low on – state conduction losses, like BJTS. But there is no second break down problem, like BJTS The device has three terminals gate, collector an emitter instead of gate , drain source for MOSFETS the output characteristics of IGBT is the plot between the collector current Ic and collector to emitter voltage – VCE for various values of gate - emitter voltage V CE. The Ic starts flowing beyond a particular gate voltage is called voltage.
Device Power capability Switching speed

BJT MOSFET GTO IGBT MCT
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Medium Low High Medium Medium

Medium Fast Slow Medium Medium

PROCEDURE:

Transfer characteristics: 1. Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram with meters initially keep V1 and V2 zero. Set V1 = VCE1 = say 10v. 2. Slowly vary V2 (VGE) and note down IC and VGE readings for every 0.5 volts and enter in the tabular column. 3. The minimum Gate voltage VGE which is required for conduction to start in the IGBT is called Threshold voltage VGE is less than VGE (Th). 4. If VGE is less than VGE (Th) only very small leakage current flows from collector to Emitter. 5. If VGE is greater than VGE (Th) the collector current depends on magnitude of the Gate voltage VGE varies from 5- to 6 volts. 6. Repeat the same for different values of VDS and draw the graph of ID/VGS.
TABULAR COLUMN:
VGE1 (volts) VCE (volts) IE (Ma) VGE2(volts) VCE (volts) IE (mA)

COLLECTOR CHARACTERISTICS:

Initially set V2 to VGE1 = 5 volts. Slowly vary V1 and note down IC and VGE. For a particular value of VGE1 there is a pinch off voltage (Vp) between collector and Emitter as shown in figure. If VGE is lower than VP the device works in the constant resistance region and IC is directly proportional to VGE if VGE is more than Vp. Constant IC flows from the device and this operating region is called constant current region. Repeat the above for different values of VGE and note down IC and VGE values. Draw the graph of IC Vs VGE for different values of VGE
TABULAR COLUMN:
VGE1 (volts) VCE IC (mA) (volts) VGE2 (volts) VCE IC (mA) (volts)

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS:

RESULT:

VIVAVOCE:

1) Difference between IGBT, MOSFET, and SCR. 2) What is meant by the word called “static”? 3) Explain switching speed of IGBT more or less compared to SCR.

2. GATE TRIGGERING CIRCUITS
AIM:

To study various firing schemes for triggering SCR’s when they are used in different converter topologies employ line commutation. 1. 2. 3. Resistance firing circuit. Resistance capacitance (RC) firing circuit. UJT firing scheme.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3.

R, RC triggering module and UJT triggering module. Resistive load. 20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes.

SPECIFICATIONS:

1. 2.

SCRs Diodes

: 400V, 4A, type 106 D : 1N4007

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
THEORY:

Diacs Zeners UJTs NPN Transistors PNP Transistors Pulse transformers

: D3202 U : 20 V, 1W : 2N2646 : BC 107 : BC 177 : 1:1:1

This is the most commonly used method for triggering SCR’s. In laboratories almost all the SCR devices are triggered by this process. By applying the positive signal at the gate terminal of the device, it can be triggered much before the specified break over voltage. The conduction period of the SCR can be controlled by varying the gate signal within specified values of the maximum and minimum gate currents.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. 2.

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Vary the control pot and observe the voltage wave forms across load, SCR and at different points in the circuit, using oscilloscope.

3.

Draw the wave forms in the graph at firing angles 0o,45o, 90o, 135oand 180o.

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.NO Resistance (Ώ) Firing angle (o)

PRECAUTIONS:

1. 2. 3.

Make sure all the connections are tight. Ensure all the controlling knobs are kept in fully counter clock wise position before starting experiment. Handle every thing with care

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS:

RESULT:

VIVA VOCE: 1) What is meant by triggering?

2) Why we need to employ different triggering circuit to trigger SCR? 3) What is the use of UJT in UJT triggering circuits? 4) What happens when BJT is used instead of UJT in UJT triggering circuit?

3. SINGLE PHASE CYCLO - CONVERTER
AIM:

To study the module and wave forms of a 1Ф center tapped cyclo - converter with R and RL loads.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. . 5.

1Ф cyclo - converter firing circuit and power circuit units. 1Ф 230 V /230 V -0-230 V center- tapped transformer. 1Ф 230 V / 0-270 V auto transformer. Loading Rheostat: 50 Ohms, 2 A. Loading inductor; 50 mH, 2 A.

6.

20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes.

SPECIFICATIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4.

: 0-230 V 1- Ф AC supply. : 15 A : 25 A, 1200 V, type 25 RIA 120 : two pole 230 V / 16A.

THEORY: In a single phase cyclo - converter employing a center tapped transformer has four thyristers, namely T1,T2,T3,T4 Out of four SCR’s, SCR’s,T1,T2 are responsible for generating there positive halves forming the positive group. The other two SCR’s T3&T4 are responsible for producing negative halves forming the negative group. This configuration is meant for generating 1/3 of the input frequency i.e this generates a frequency of 16 2/3 Hz at its output. Depending upon the polarities of the transformer, SCR’S are gated. Natural commutation process is used for turning off the SCR’S. the circuit configuration is analyzed for purely resistive load.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1.

Switch ON the main supply to the firing circuit and power circuit. Observe the trigger outputs by changing frequency division push buttons and varying the firing angle control knob. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to the respective SCRs in the power circuit. Initially connect the input terminals to the 30V- 0 -30V terminals of the center tapped transformer. Set the frequency division to 2. Switch ON the trigger pulses. And switch ON the MCB. Vary the firing angle potentiometer and observe the voltage wave forms across load using oscilloscope. Note down the reading in the tabular column. After ensuring correct output at low voltage, increase the input voltage to 230V-0-230V in steps and note down the corresponding readings.

9.

Follow the above procedure for frequency divisions 3 to 9.

10.

Draw the wave forms in the graph at firing angles 0o, 45o, 90o, 135oand 180o..

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.NO. Input voltage(V) Frequenc y divisions Firing angle (o) Output voltage (V) Output current (A)

PRECAUTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counter clock wise position before starting experiment. Handle everything with care. Change the frequency divisions only when the trigger pulse switches at OFF position. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. If the out put is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and adjust interchange AC input connections to the power circuit. This is to make the firing circuit and power circuit to synchronize.

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS:

RESULTS:

VIVA VOCE:

1) Define cyclo converter? 2) Which commutation process is used in cyclo converters? 3) Applications of cyclo converters?

4. SINGLE PHASE FULLY CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER
AIM:

To study the module and waveforms of a 1Ф Full Bridge converter with R, RL and RLE loads.

SPECIFICATIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Input Load Thyristor Diodes MCB Fuses Field supply

: 0 -230 V 1- phase AC supply : R RL and RLE load : 25A, 1200V, type 25 RIA 120. : 25A 1200V. : Two pole 230 V/16A. : 16A HRC. : 220 V ±10 %

Field supply Bridge rectifier: 10A, 600 V.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1Ф Full Bridge converter firing circuit and power circuit units. 1Ф auto transformer 1Ф isolation transformer Loading inductor Loading Rheostat DC Motor load (RLE) Volt meter Shunt : 230V/0-270V, 10A : 230V/230V. : 50 mH, : 50 Ohms 2A. : 230 V, 1 hp, Field 220 V @ 2A. : 0 – 300 V, MI. : 0.1 Ohm, 5W.

20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes.

THEORY:

In the single phase full bridge circuit, diagonally opposite pair of thyristor are made to conduct and are commutated simultaneously. The advantage of single phase bridge converter over single phase mid-point converter is i) ii) SCR’s are subjected to a peak inverse voltage of 2Em in mid-point In midpoint configuration each secondary should be able to converter K Em is fully converter – bridge converter. supply the load power. As such, the rating in mid-point converter is double the load-rating this however is not the case in single phase bridge converter.

PROCEDURE:

1. 2.

Make the connection as per the circuit diagram. Switch ON (SW1) the main supply to the firing circuit. Ensure switch SW2 in OFF position as a precaution. Identify different blocks of the triggering circuit and different waveforms may be observed at the test points provided on left hand side of the panel.

3.

Now ensure that the lamp load is to the twelve pin socket provided on The front panel of the controller and the potentiometer marked “SPEED CONTROL” is in minimum position.

4. pot P1 (infect

Switch ON SW2 i.e power circuit. Press the speed control armature voltage control pot) slightly in the anti-

clockwise direction. This turns ON the soft start relay and output d.c voltage is made 5. clockwise direction. The lamp intensity increases with the increase with the output voltage. 6. transformer at point TP (test point).You may connect isolating transformer provided along with to the 5 amp 3-pin socket located on the right hand side panel. Do not touch the metallic parts of the CRO. Keep CRO in minimum sensitivity position that is Connect the CRO to main supply to the isolating available to the load. Vary the speed control pot in smooth fashion in the

about 20V per division. Now you may observe waveforms of the output voltage. 7. Now switch OFF SW1, SW2. Connect the twelve pin Johnson plug into the twelve pin socket at the centre of the front panel. Switch SW3 may be kept in NO choke position that is most anticlockwise position (this is very much important and 8. it should be always checked before switching SW2).Keep no load on the motor. Switch on SW1 first and then SW2 .The motor parts rotating at low speed. Vary the speed control pot in smooth and slow fashion. We can get a speed variation from 10% to 90%.Gently increase the load on. 9. Observe waveform on CRO.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.NO.

Input voltage(v)

Firing angle (o)

Output voltage(V)

Output current (A)

PRECAUTIONS:

1.

Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counter clock wise position before starting experiment. Handle everything with care. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.

2. 3. 4.

5.

If the output is zero even after all power connections, switch OFF the MCB and just interchange AC input connections to the power circuit this is to make the firing circuit and the power circuit to synchronize.

RESULTS:

VIVA VOCE:

1) What is meant by phase controlled rectifier? 2) In which quadrants we can operate this converter? 3) What are the advantages of fully controlled converter compared to semi controlled converter?

Expected Waveforms

5. SINGLE PHASE PARALLEL INVERTER
AIM:

To study module and waveforms of a 1- φ parallel inverter power circuit with R and RL loads.
SPECIFICATIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Input Load Thyristors Diodes Capacitor Inductor Fuses

: 230V, 50Hz, 1- φ AC supply : Rand RL : 10 A, 600V. : 10A, 600V. : 6.8µ f, 100V. : 300 µ H, 2A. : 2A Glass fuse

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. 25V-30V

1- φ parallel inverter firing circuit and power circuit unit Inductor Capacitor Output transformer : 300mH, 2A. : 6.8µ f, 100V. : Primary - 30V-25V-0-

20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes

THEORY:

A Parallel inverter is used top produce a square wave from a DC source is connected in alternative sense to the two halves of the transformer primary, there by inducing a square wave voltage across the load in the transformer secondary. In this inverter, the commutating capacitor comes in parallel with the load during the operation of the inverter and hence this inverter is called as a parallel inverter. The capacitor in the given figure is required for commutation, but as the capacitor is effectively in parallel with the load via the transformer, an inductor L is required in series with the DC source to prevent the instant discharge of capacitor C via the source when thyristor switching occurs.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1.

Switch ON the main supply to the firing circuit. Observe

the trigger outputs in the firing circuit by varying frequency potentiometer and by operating ON/OFF switch. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. 2. 3. 4. supply. 5. Switch ON the DC supply, set input voltage to 15 V and switch ON the trigger pulses by operating ON/OFF/ switch in the firing circuit. 6. 7. 8. 9. Observe the voltage waveform across load using Vary the frequency, load and observe the voltage Draw the waveforms in the graph at different oscilloscope. waveform across load with and with out freewheeling diode. frequencies. To switch OFF the inverter, switch OFF the input supply first and then trigger pulses. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect the firing pulses from the firing circuit to the Connect the DC input from 30V, 2A regulated power

respective SCRs in the power circuit.

10.

Since

the

parallel

inverter

works

on

forced

commutation, there is a chance of failure. If the commutation fails, switch OFF the DC supply and then trigger outputs. Check the connections and try again.
PRECAUTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counter clock Handle everything with care. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before Make sure to connect firing pulses from the firing circuit Ensure switch OFF the input supply first and then trigger

wise position before starting experiment.

connecting to the power circuit. to their respective SCRs in the power circuit. pulses to avoid short circuit.
EXPECTED WAVE FORMS:

RESULT: VIVA VOCE: 1) 2) 3) Define inverter. Explain different types of inverters. Difference between inverter and converter.

6. FORCED COMMUTATION CIRCUITS
AIM:

To study the module and waveforms of forced commutation circuits. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Class A commutation – Self commutation by resonating load Class B commutation – self commutation by IC circuit Class C commutation – Complementary commutation. Class D commutation – Auxiliary commutation. Class E commutation – External commutation.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Forced commutation unit. Loading Rheostat : 50 Ohms, 2A. : 0-30VDC, 2A.

Regulated power supply

20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes.

SPECIFICATIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 1m H. 7.

Thyristors Diodes Transistor Capacitor Inductor Fuses

: TYN 612. : BYQ 28-200 : TIP 122. : C1= 6.8µ f , 100V C2= 10µ f , 100V : L1=250 µ H, 2A. L2=500 µ H, 2A.L3 = : 2A Glass fuse

THEORY:

i). Class A- self commutation by resonating load: This is also known as resonant commutation. This type of commutation circuit using L - C components in series with load.

In this process of commutation, the forward current passing through the device is reduced to less then the level of holding current of the device. Hence this method is also known as the current commutation method.

ii). Class B- self commutating by an LC circuit: In this method, the LC resonating circuit is across the SCR and not in series with the load. Initially as soon as the supply voltage Edc is applied, the capacitor C starts getting charged with it’s upper plate positive and lower plate negative, and it charges up to the voltage Edc. When thyristor T is triggered, the circuit current flows in two directions: i) ii) the load current IL flows through the path Edc+ –T-RL-EdcCommutating current Ic.

iii) Class D – auxiliary commutation: In this commutation method, an auxiliary thyristor is required to commutate the main thyristor (T1), assuming ideal thyristor and the lossless components; here inductor L is necessary to ensure the correct polarity on capacitor C. Thyristor T1 and load resistor RL from the power circuit, Where as LDK T2 from the commutation circuit. iv) Class E – External pulse commutation: In this type of commutation method, the reverse voltage is applied to the current carrying thyristor from an external pulse source. Here, the commutating pulse is applied through a pulse – transformer which is suitably designed to have tight coupling between the primary and secondary

This type of commutation method is capable of very high efficiency as minimum energy is required and both time ratio and pulse width regulation are easily incorporated.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1.

Switch ON the mains supply to the firing circuit. Observe the trigger outputs in the firing circuit by varying frequency potentiometer and duty cycle potentiometer. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit.

2. points. 3. of all SCRs. 4. cathode of SCRs. 5. polarities. 6. 7.

Check the DC power supply between the DC input Check the resistance between anode and cathode Check the resistance between the Gate and Check the diode and Transistor and their

Check the fuse in series with the DC input. Make sure that all the components are good and firimg pulses are correct before starting the experiment. CLASS A&B: 1. 2. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit

to the Gate and cathode of SCR T1.

3. 4.

Switch ON the DC supply and switch ON the trigger Observe the voltage waveform across load using

pulses by operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit oscilloscope by varying the frequency potentiometer. Duty cycle potentiometer is of no use in this experiment. 5. 6. and C. 2. 3. 4. 5. CLASS C: Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect the trigger output T1 &T2 from the firing Switch ON the DC supply and switch ON the trigger Observe the voltage waveform across R1, R2 and C Repeat the same for different values of R, L and C. Draw the waveforms in the Graph for different R, L

circuit to the Gate and cathode of SCR T1 &T2. pulses by operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit. using oscilloscope by varying the frequency and duty cycle potentiometers. 6. 7. 8. Repeat the same for different values of R & C. L is of no use in this circuit. Draw the waveforms in the graph for different R & C. CLASS D: 1. 2. 3. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect the trigger outputs T1 and T2 from the firing Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF switch at OFF This can be observed by

circuit to gate and cathode of SCRs T1 & T2. position to charge the capacitor. connecting CRO across the capacitor. 4. 5. Switch ON the DC supply and switch ON the trigger Observe and note down the voltage waveform across pulses by operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit. the load. T1, T2 and C using oscilloscope by varying the frequency and duty cycle potentiometers.

6. CLASS E: 1. 2. unit. 3. 4. 5. 6. the load. 7. 8.

Repeat the same for different values of load. L & C.

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect V2 supply from an external DC power supply Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit Connect T2 to the transistor base and emitter points. Switch ON the DC supply, external DC supply and the Observe and note down the voltage waveform across Repeat the same by varying the frequency and duty Draw the waveforms in the graph for different

to gate and cathode of SCR T1.

trigger pulses by operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit.

cycle potentiometers. frequency and duty cycle.
PRECAUTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counter clock Handle everything with care. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before Make sure to connect firing pulses from the firing Ensure switch OFF the input supply first and then

wise position before starting experiment.

connecting to the power circuit. circuit to their respective SCRs in the power circuit. trigger pulses to avoid short circuit.

EXPECTED WAVE FORMS:

RESULT: VIVA VOCE:

) ) )

What is meant by commutation? Generally how to turn off a SCR? Generally how to turn on a SCR?

7. DC JONE’S CHOPPER
AIM:

To study the module and waveforms of a DC June’s chopper power circuit with R, RL loads.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. @2A 5. probes.
SPECIFICATIONS:

Jone’s chopper firing circuit unit and power circuit unit Loading Rheostat Loading Inductor DC motor load (RLE) : 50 Ohms, 2A. : 50 mH, : 220V, 1hp, Field 220V,

20MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
THEORY:

Input Load Thyristor Diodes Communicating capacitors Commutating Inductor MCB Fuses

: 0 -230V 1-φ AC supply. : R, RL and RLE loads. : 25A, 1200V, type 25 RIA 120. : 25A, 1200V. : 25µ f, 440 V. : 500 – 0 - 500µ H, 10A. : Two pole 230V/16A. : 16A HRC.

This chopper circuit is an example of class D commutation. In the circuit, SCR T1 is the main thyristor where as SCR T2 is the auxiliary thyristor. The special feature of this circuit is the tapped autotransformer. If the main thyristor T1 is on for a long period then the motor will reach the maximum steady state speed determined by the battery voltage, the motor, and the mechanical load

characteristics. If the thyristor T1 is off, the motor will not rotate. Now, if thyristor T1 is alternatively on and off in a cyclic manner, the motor will rotate at some speed between maximum and zero.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. the

Switch ON the mains supply to the firing circuit. Observe trigger outputs by varying duty cycle and frequency

potentiometer by keeping the control switch in `INT` position. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before connecting to the power circuit. 2. 3. 4. 5. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Connect firing pulses from the firing circuit to the Initially set the input DC supply to 5V. At the beginning, keep the ON/OFF switch in the firing

respective SCRs in the power circuit.

circuit in OFF position.

6. 7. 8.

Switch ON the DC supply and now switch ON the trigger Observe the DC chopped voltage waveform across load If the commutation fails, pure DC voltage can be observed

pulses by operating ON/OFF switch in the firing circuit. using oscilloscope. across the load; then switch OFF the DC supply and trigger pulses, Check the connections and try again. 9. main, 10. 11. 12. Observe the voltage waveforms across load, capacitor, SCR and auxiliary SCR by varying the duty-cycle

potentiometer and frequency potentiometer, using oscilloscope. Now, vary the DC supply up to the rated voltage, 30VDC. Note down the readings in the tabular column. Draw the waveforms in the graph at different duty cycle

and at different frequency.
PRECAUTIONS:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Make sure all the connecting links are tightly fixed. Ensure all the controlling knobs in fully counter clock Handle everything with care. Make sure the firing pulses are proper before Make sure to connect firing pulses from the firing

wise position before starting experiment.

connecting to the power circuit. circuit to their respective SCRs in the power circuit.

TABULAR COLUMN:

S.N O

Input voltage(V)

Ton( s)

Toff( s)

Duty cycle (%)

Output voltage (V)

Output current (A)

EXPECTED WAVEFORMS:

RESULT: VIVA VOCE:

1) 2) 3)

Define chopper. Types of choppers. Explain the operation of DC Jones chopper.

8. SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER
AIM:

To study the module and waveforms of a 1Ф Half Bridge converter with R, RL and RLE loads.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1Ф Half Bridge converter firing circuit and power circuit units. 1Ф auto transformer 1Ф isolation transformer Loading inductor Loading Rheostat DC Motor load (RLE) Volt meter Shunt : 230V/0-270V, 10A : 230V/230V. : 50 mH, : 50 Ohms 2A. : 230 V, 1 hp, Field 220 V @ 2A. : 0 – 300 V, MI. : 0.1 Ohm, 5W.

9.

20 MHz dual trace oscilloscope with 1:10 BNC probes.

Specifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
THEORY:

Input Load Thyristor Diodes MCB Fuses Field supply

: 0 -230 V 1- phase AC supply : R RL and RLE load : 25A, 1200V, type 25 RIA 120. : 25A 1200V. : Two pole 230 V/16A. : 16A HRC. : 220 V ±10 %

Field supply Bridge rectifier: 10A, 600 V.

The phase controlled converter circuit are capable of operating with both positive and negative mean voltages at the dc terminals, many applications actually require operation only with a positive voltage, that is only in the rectifying mode. In such cases it is generally advantageous to connect uncontrolled diodes into certain parts of the circuits. When one pair of SCR’s is replaced by diodes in single phase fully controlled bridge circuit, the resultant circuit obtained is called as a half controlled bridge circuit.
PROCEDURE:

1. 2.

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram. Ensure Switch SW2 in the off position. Plug in the supply and withSW1 on. Observe the trigger outputs by varying firing angle potentiometer. Use CRO through an isolating transformer.

3.

Keep the speed control knob in the minimum position. Ensure that a lamp bank is connected to the front side of the panel in the 12 pin socket. Switch on SW2, keep SW3 in NO CHOKE position. (upward position).

4.

Vary the speed control pot in smooth and gentle fashion to observe variation in the lamp intensity. This completes initial testing of the system.

5.

To observe the wave forms at the attenuated test point, connect a CRO through an isolating transformer as a source of its supply. Observe poarity.

6.

Now switch off the power circuit of the unit and connect the 12-pin Johnson plug in the socket on the front panel provided along with the DC motor.( Motor is optional with the system). Ensure pot P1 is in most anticlockwise position. Now keep SW3 in upward position. Switch on the power circuit (SW2 ON). Increase speed of the motor in gentle fashion. Observe the effect of load change on the output voltage. Apply load in a very slow fashion. Do not put load in a jerky manner.

7.

Now reduce the speed to minimum level and switch on SW3. Ensure motor load is about 1.5A. Start increasing of the load in a smooth fashion and note down the effect of load variation on the output voltage and speed motor also.

8.

Load the motor slowly with max. current up to 4A. Observe the wave forms in the CRO.

TABULAR COLUMN:
S.NO. Input voltage(v) Firing angle (o) Output voltage(V) Output current (A)

PRECAUTIONS:

1. the motor. 2. 3. 4. 5.
RESULTS: VIVA VOCE:

Switch SW3 should be operated with minimum speed of Motor should be provided with the good earthing. Motor loading should be done carefully. Unit should not be turned on with motor loaded. Ensure that armature and field cable of the motor is not damaged by rotating parts of the motor.

1) What is meant by phase controlled rectifier? 2) In which quadrants we can operate this converter? 3) What are the disadvantages of half controlled converter compared to fully controlled converter?

9. LAMP DIMMER USING DIAC AND TRIAC
AIM:

To study lamp dimmer circuit using Diac and Triac.

APPARATUS:

1. Lamp dimmer using Diac and Triac circuit, 2. 40W, 230Vlamp, 3. CRO.
THEORY:

A DIAC is a two electrode, bidirectional avalanche diode which can be switched from the off state to the on state for either polarity of applied voltage. The two leads are labeled as terminals T1 and T2 instead of the conventional anode-cathode designations. DIAC is mainly used as a trigger device for triacs which require either positive or negative gate pulse to turn on. DIAC-TRIAC pairs are available in the market for various types of control circuits. Two thyristors may be connected in inverse parallel, but at moderate power levels the two antiparallel thyristors can be integrated into a single device structure.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the bulb (40w) witch form load. 2. Switch on the experiment board by connecting the power cord to the AC mains. 3. By varying the 250 K potentiometer the gate current and there by the firing angle of the TRIAC varies. 4. Finally the intensity of lamp varies as the potentiometer is moved from clock wise potentiometer to the vice versa.

5. Now observe the wave form at different positions by connecting C R O through 10:1 through resistance allowed alternator prob. 6. Compare the wave forms with expected and note down the readings.
OBSER VATIONS :

S L NO.

IN PUT VOLTAGE

FIRNG ANGLE θ°

Expected Waveforms:

RESULT: VIVA VOCE:

1) What is DIAC. 2) What is TRIAC. 3) Dereference between DIAC and TRIAC.

10. STUDY OF MORGANS CHOPPER

AIM:

To study the module and wave form for DC Morgans chopper.
APPARATUS:

1. Morgans chopper firing circuit and power circuit unit.

2. 40w lamp load. 3. 20 M H Z Dual trace Oscilloscope with 1:10 B N C Probe.
THEORY:

The following figure shows the power circuit of Morgan Chopper. In this circuit, T1 is the main thyristor where as capacitor , saturable reactor SR and diode, forms the commutating circuit. The exciting current of the saturable reactor is assumed to be negligible small. When the saturable reactor is saturated, it has very low inductance. When the main SCR T1 is off, capacitor C will be charged to the supply voltage. When the core flux reaches the negative saturation, the capacitor discharges through the SCR T1 and the post saturation inductance of SR.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect 250 V

D C Power supply to approximate terminals of

the Morgan chopper circuit. 2. Connect isolated firing pulse G1 K1 and G2 K2 to the S C R i gate and in minimum frequency portion. 3. Connect 40w lamp load and switch ON the system.

4. Observe the wave form across load, SCR ON CRO by increasing the frequency. 5. Compare the wave forms.
OBSERVATIONS:
SL NO INPUT VOLTS T. ON T. OFF % DUTY CYCLE

RESULT: VIVA VOCE:

1) Define chopper. Types of choppers. Explain the operation of MORGAN’s chopper.

11. A.C PHASE CONTROL FULL WAVE (USING SCR)
AIM:

To study the principle of half wave and full wave phase control using RC triggered Circuits and SCR.
APPARATUS:

1. Power electronics Kit - 1No 2. Lamp,230V,60W - 1No

3. CRO
THEORY:

- 1No

Because of the unidirectional characteristics of the SCR it conducts current in only one direction. so SCR individually will not control both the positive and negative cycles. So for this purpose a bridge rectifier is formed. So the out put of the bridge rectifier is having only positive halves and is able to control both positive and negative cycles. Firing of the scr depends upon the RC time constant and firing of the DIAC which is on the gate circuit of the SCR.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

1. Switch on the experimental kit. 2. Connect isolated A.C source (230V) to the input of the half wave control circuit. 3. Connect the external lamp load provided on the trainer board in place of load.

4. Vary the potentiometer in clockwise direction and observe the light intensity is varying. 5. Observe the waveforms (by using attenuators).Note down the readings. 6. Now connect isolated A.C source (230V) to the input of full wave control circuit. 7. Connect the external lamp load provided on the trainer board in place of load. 8. Vary the potentiometer in clockwise direction and observe the varying. 9. Observe the waveforms (by using attenuators).Note down the readings.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sl.No Input voltage(V) (Volts) Firing Angle(Ө) (Radians) Firing Angle(Ө) (Degrees)

RESULT:

VIVA VOCE:

1) What is power electronics? 2) Compare half and full wave converter. 3) Which commutation process is used in phase controlled rectifier?

11. A.C PHASE CONTROL HALF WAVE (USING SCR)

AIM:

To study the principle of half wave and full wave phase control using RC triggered Circuits and SCR.
APPARATUS:

4. Power electronics Kit - 1No 5. Lamp,230V,60W 6. CRO
THEORY:

- 1No - 1No

The simple RC circuit for triggering SCR’s by means of gate control is shown below. The gate current magnitude can be changed by varying R the SCR triggers when there is a sufficient gate current. A control on the firing angle can be easily attained when the applied voltage is AC. Capacitor C gets charged through diode D2 to the negative peak value of the applied AC voltage during every negative half cycle charging in the positive direction takes place in the following positive half cycle. The charging rate is controlled by resistance R when there is a sufficient positive voltage across capacitor C, the SCR fires. Diodes D1 is used for preventing reverse break down of the gate to cathode junction in the negative half cycle.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Switch on the experimental kit. Connect isolated A.C source (230V) to the input of the half Connect the external lamp load provided on the trainer Vary the potentiometer in clockwise direction and observe Observe the waveforms (by using attenuators).Note down

wave control circuit. board in place of load. the light intensity is varying. the readings. 15. Now connect isolated A.C source (230V) to the input of full wave control circuit. 16. Connect the external lamp load provided on the trainer board in place of load. 17. 18. Vary the potentiometer in clockwise direction and observe Observe the waveforms (by using attenuators).Note down the varying. the readings.
OBSERVATIONS:
Sl.No Input voltage(V) (Volts) Firing Angle(Ө) (Radians) Firing Angle(Ө) (Degrees)

RESULT: VIVA VOCE:

4) What is power electronics? 5) Compare half and full wave converter. 6) Which commutation process is used in phase controlled rectifier?