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Original Title: Lect12 2Tri State

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Implementation Technology:

Buffers, Tri-state gates,

Transmission gates

Buffers

• In circuits where a logic gate has to drive a

large capacitive load, buffers are often used

to improved performance

• Buffers can be created with different amounts

of drive capability (depending on the size of

the transistors used to construct them)

– Larger transistors => more current handling

capability

– A common use of a buffer is to control a light-

emitting diode (LED)

• Buffers have greater fan-out than other

(regular) logic gates

Electrical & Computer Engineering Dr. D. J. Jackson Lecture 12-2

1

Buffers

x f x f

f=x f=x’

• A tri-state buffer (gate) has

– One input (x)

– One output (f)

– One control input (e)

e

x f

f=x if e=1

A tri-state buffer

2

Tri-state Buffers (Gates)

• When e=1, the buffer drives the value of x

onto f, causing f=x

• When e=0, the buffer is completely

disconnected from the output f

e=0 e=1

x f x f

Equivalent circuit

• In truth table form, • For the rows where e=0, the

output is denoted by the

logic value Z

e x f • This Z is called the high-

0 0 Z impedance state

0 1 Z • The name tri-state derives

1 0 0 from the fact that there are

two normal states for a logic

1 1 1

signal (0 and 1) and Z

represents a third state that

has no output

3

Four type of tri-state buffers

• There are four possible configurations of tri-

state buffers

– based on two types of outputs

• Inverting and non-inverting outputs

– and two types of control signals (e)

• Active high and active low enables

• Active low enables implies the output is

active (f=x) when the enable is low (e=0)

e e x f e e x f

0 0 Z 0 0 Z

x f 0 1 Z x f 0 1 Z

1 0 0 1 0 1

1 1 1 1 1 0

e e x f e e x f

0 0 0 0 0 1

x f 0 1 1 x f 0 1 0

1 0 Z 1 0 Z

1 1 Z 1 1 Z

4

Tri-state buffer application

s x1 x2 f

x1 0 0 0

0 0 1

0

0

0 1 0 1

s f 0 1 1

1 0 0

1

0

1 0 1 1

x2 1 1 0 0

1 1 1 1

together

– This is possible only because we know that (in this

configuration) one or the other of the tri-state gates will be

in the high impedance (Z) state

– This type of wired connection is not possible with ordinary

logic gates

Transmission gate

• A transmission gate acts as a switch, connecting

an input (x) to an output (f)

– Commonly used to implement XOR gate and multiplexer

circuits

s’

s=0

x f=Z s f

x f 0 Z

s=1 1 x

x f=x

s

5

Multiplexer with transmission

gates

x

1

x f

2

x

1

x

2

f =x ⊕x

1 2

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