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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Lecture-18

Shear Walls and Coupling


beams
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Topics Addressed
Shear Wall
Introduction
Behavior
ACI Recommendations
Design Examples

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Topics Addressed
Coupling Beam
Introduction
Behavior
ACI Recommendations
Design Examples

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

SHEAR WALLS

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Shear Walls

The term shear wall is used to describe a wall


that resists lateral (wind or earthquake) loads
acting parallel to the plane of the wall in
addition to the gravity loads from the floors and
roof adjacent to the wall.

Such walls are also referred to as structural


walls.

Non structural walls and partitions, whether


directly considered or not also add to the total
lateral stiffness of the structure.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Difference between Wall and Column

The differentiation between columns and walls in the code is based on the
principal use rather than on arbitrary relationships of height and crosssectional dimensions, ACI 318-02, Chapter 2 Definitions.

While a wall always encloses or separates spaces, it may also be used to


resist horizontal or vertical forces or bending.

A column is normally used as a main vertical member carrying axial loads


combined with bending and shear. It may, however, form a small part of
an enclosure or separation.

The code permits walls to be designed using the principles stated for
column design .

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Difference between Wall, Column and Pier

For the sake of terminology, however, following difference is recognized


by the code.

Column: Member with a ratio of height-to-least lateral dimension


exceeding 3 used primarily to support axial compressive load.

Wall: Though not specifically mentioned in the code, members of heightto-least lateral dimension NOT exceeding 3 are considered as WALLS.

Pier: This is a wall segment and refers to a part of a wall bounded by


openings or by an opening and an edge.

Traditionally, a vertical wall segment bounded by two window openings has


been referred to as a pier, ACI 318 -02, R21.7.4.2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction

Other Definitions

DIAPHRAGM is a horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to


transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. The term
diaphragm includes horizontal bracing systems.

DIAPHRAGM or SHEAR WALL CHORD is the boundary element of a


diaphragm or shear wall that is assumed to take axial stresses analogous
to the flanges of a beam.

BOUNDARY ELEMENT is an element at edges of openings or at


perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms.

COLLECTOR is a member or element provided to transfer lateral forces


from a portion of a structure to vertical elements of the lateral-forceresisting system.

STRUCTURAL DIAPHRAGMS are structural members,


such as floor and roof slabs, which transmit inertial forces
to lateral- force-resisting members.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Other Definitions

1629.6.4 Moment-resisting frame system. A structural system with an


essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads.
Moment-resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by
flexural action of members.

1629.6.5 Dual system. A structural system with the following features:

1. An essentially complete space frame that provides support

for gravity loads.

2. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames and


moment-resisting frames (SMRF, IMRF, MMRWF or steel OMRF). The
moment-resisting frames shall be designed to independently resist at least 25
percent of the design base shear.

3. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total design base shear in
proportion to their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual
system at all levels.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Types of Shear Walls
Shape
Length to height ratio
Seismic demand

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Importance of Shear Walls

Shear walls are extremely important in high-rise buildings. If unaided by walls,


high rise frames could not be efficiently designed to satisfy strength
requirements or to be within acceptable lateral drift limits.

Since frame buildings depend primarily on the rigidity of connections for their
resistance to lateral loads, they tend to be uneconomical beyond a certain
height range.

11 to 14 stories, in regions of high to moderate seismicity

15 to 20 stories, elsewhere.

Many times, however, shear walls are also provided in low rise (1 to 5) or
medium rise frame buildings (6 to 10) in order to reduce sizes of columns.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Locations of Shear Walls

It should be located such that the center of mass and center of rigidity of the
structure coincide.

If there is eccentricity as illustrated in the fig, the building will undergo torsional
distortions. Though the structure can be designed for such effects, it would be
relatively uneconomical.

Center of mass

Center of resistance

Shear wall

Eccentricity
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Locations of Shear Walls

Most multi-story buildings are constructed with a central core area.

The core usually contains, among other things, elevator, plumbing and HVAC
shafts etc.

Walls provided for such core can be used as Shear Walls.

Additional walls can be provided at other appropriate locations.

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Frame-Wall Interaction

In a RC frame structure, the floor systems (RC slabs)


distribute the lateral loads to the vertical framing
elements in proportion to their rigidities.

Though the actual distribution of lateral loads will


depend on the relative rigidities of walls and columns,
the structural walls usually being substantially stiffer
than the columns attract major portion of the lateral
loads, leaving only small portion for the frame
members.

With adequate wall bracing, the frame can be


considered as non-sway for column design.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Frame-Wall Interaction

The analysis and design of the structural system for a building frame of moderate
height can be simplified if the structural walls are sized to carry the entire lateral
load.

Members of the frame (columns and beams or slabs) can be proportioned to resist
the gravity loads only.

Neglecting frame-wall interaction for buildings of moderate size and height will result
in reasonable member sizes and overall costs.

When the walls stiffness is much higher than the stiffness of the columns in a given
direction within a story, the frame takes only a small portion of the lateral loads.

Thus, for low-rise buildings, neglecting the contribution of frame action in resisting
lateral loads and assigning the total lateral load resistance to walls is an entirely
reasonable assumption.

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Introduction
Frame-Wall Interaction

In contrast, frame-wall interaction must be considered for high-rise structures


where the walls have a significant effect on the frame: in the upper stories,
the frame must resist more than 100 % of the story shears caused by the
wind loads.

Thus, neglecting frame-wall interaction would not be conservative at these


levels. Clearly, a more economical high-rise structure will be obtained when
frame-wall interaction is considered.

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Behavior of Shear Walls


A typical shear wall, which is part of a
lateral

load

resisting

system,

is

subjected to following actions.

In-plane

shear

and

bending

moment

(along major axis)

Out-of-plane shear and bending moment


(along minor axis)

Axial Load

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Behavior of Shear Walls


In-plane

shear

and

bending

moment (along major axis)


In-plane shear

A variable shear, which reaches


a maximum at the base.

Both

horizontal

and

vertical

reinforcement are provided for


shear.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Behavior of Shear Walls


In-plane shear and bending moment (along
major axis)
In-plane bending moment

A variable bending moment which reaches a


maximum at the base and tends to cause
vertical tension near the loaded edge and
compression at the far edge.

Vertical distributed reinforcement (fig a) or


reinforcement at the edges in boundary
zones (fig b) will be required against this
action

Fig a

Fig b
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Behavior of Shear Walls


Out-of-plane shear and bending moment (along
minor axis)
Out-of-plane bending moment

Depending on a number of parameters, the wall may


bend in an out-of-plane mode either

as a whole from top to bottom called global bending or

as Individual wall segments in a story called local


bending

In both cases vertical reinforcement distributed all


along the length of the wall shall be provided.

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Behavior of Shear Walls


Out-of-plane shear and bending moment (along
minor axis)
Out-of-plane shear

Out-of-plane shear is not usually a problem in shear


walls.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Types of Walls according to Seismic Hazard (Definitions,
Chapter 21)

Walls located in regions of low to moderate seismic hazard (zones 1, 2a


and 2b UBC 97), shall comply with the requirements of ordinary reinforced
concrete structural walls of the chapter 14 of ACI 318-02.

There are no special requirements for structural walls located in regions of low to
moderate seismic hazard, except for the connection requirements.

Walls located in regions of high seismic hazard (zones 3 and 4 of UBC 97),
shall comply with the requirements of Special reinforced concrete
structural wall of chapter 21 of the ACI 318-02,, in addition to the
requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Types of Walls according to Seismic Hazard (Definitions,
Chapter 21)
The provisions for the design of Ordinary reinforced concrete
structural wall from chapter 14 will be presented first. Special
provisions for Special reinforced concrete structural wall from
chapter 21 will be presented next.

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

According to section 14.2.3, walls subjected to shear forces shall


be designed in accordance with the provisions of chapter 11,
section 11.10 on provisions of shear reinforcement for
structural walls.

According to section 14.4, Walls subjected to flexure load, axial


load or combined flexure and axial load shall be designed in
accordance with the provisions for flexure and axial loads of
chapter 10. (like column design)

Walls shall be properly anchored into all intersecting elements, such


as floors, columns, other walls, and footings.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Wall sizing

A minimum of 6 in thickness will be required for a wall with a single


layer of reinforcement and 10 in for a wall with double layer.(ACI
14.3.4)

Moreover, according to (ACI 318-89) the shear wall must have a total
stiffness of at least six times the sum of stiffness of all columns in a
given direction within the story
I(walls) > 6I(columns)

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Shear: (Section 11.10, ACI 318-02)

Shear Wall Capacity contributed by concrete alone is given as

Vc =0.75 x 2 x fc x h x d

where d = 0.8 lw

(ACI 11.10.4)
( ACI 11.10.4)

Vu

hw

lw
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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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13

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Shear: (Section 11.10, ACI 318-02)


Minimum reinforcement for shear

Both horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement shall be provided as per


following criterion.

Conditions

Horizontal Shear Reinforcement

Vertical Shear Reinforcement

Vu Vc /2
(11.10.8)

h = 0.0020 for #5 and smaller


h = 0.0025 for other bars
(14.3)

n = 0.0012 for #5 and smaller with fy>60ksi


n= 0.0015 for other bars
(14.3)

Vc/2 Vu Vc
(11.10.8)

h = 0.0025

n = 0.0025 (11.10.9.4)

Vu > Vc
(11.10.8)

s =0.75 x Av x fy x d / (Vu Vc)

(11.10.9.2)

n = 0.0025 +0.5(2.5-hw / lw )(h - 0.0025)


(11.10.9.4)

h = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of vertical section
n = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Shear: (Section 11.10, ACI 318-02)

Maximum Spacing of Shear reinforcement

Horizontal Shear reinforcement

Spacing of horizontal shear reinforcement shall not exceed

Vertical Shear reinforcement

Spacing of vertical shear reinforcement shall not exceed

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Iw/5 , 3h nor 18 inch, (whichever is less)

CE 5115

Iw/3 , 3h nor 18 inch, (whichever is less )

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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14

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Shear: (Section 11.10, ACI 318-02)

The ACI code additionally requires that

Vu < 10f c h(0.8lw ) ( ACI 318-02,11.10.3)

Increase thickness of wall, if this happens

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Flexure (14.2, 14.3)

Walls must be designed as compression members by the strength


design provisions in Chapter 10 for flexure and axial loads.

Vertical reinforcement, however, need not be enclosed by lateral ties if


vertical reinforcement area is not greater than 0.01 times gross
concrete area.

Minimum ratio of vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area


shall be

(a) 0.0012 for deformed bars not larger than No. 5 with a specified yield
strength not less than 60,000 psi; or

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

(b) 0.0015 for other deformed bars

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Placement of Reinforcement (14.3.4)

Walls more than 10 in. thick, except basement walls, shall have
reinforcement for each direction placed in two layers parallel with faces
of wall in accordance with the following:

(a) One layer consisting of not less than one-half and not more than twothirds of total reinforcement required for each direction shall be placed not
less than 2 in. nor more than one-third the thickness of wall from the exterior
surface;

(b) The other layer, consisting of the balance of required reinforcement in


that direction, shall be placed not less than 3/4 in. nor more than one-third
the thickness of wall from the interior surface.

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Code Recommendations


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Reinforcement around openings (14.3.7)

In addition to the minimum reinforcement, not less than two No. 5 bars
shall be provided around all window and door openings. Such bars shall
be extended to develop the bar beyond the corners of the openings but
not less than 24 in.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
General

In the case of low-rise walls, shear requirements usually govern, so


a preliminary thickness can be determined based on shear.

In high-rise structures, a preliminary wall thickness is not as


obvious. In such structures, the wall thickness can vary a number of
times over the height of the structure, and a thickness is usually
determined from experience.

While fire resistance requirements will seldom govern wall


thickness, the governing building code requirements should not be
overlooked.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
General

The size of openings required for stairwells and elevators will


usually dictate minimum wall plan layouts. Thus, the lengths of
walls are usually dictated by architectural considerations.

Therefore, the first step in the design procedure is to determine a


preliminary thickness of the wall.

From a practical standpoint, a minimum thickness of 6 inches will


be required for a wall with a single layer of reinforcement, and 10
inches for a wall with a double layer.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

34

17

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
General

In low-rise walls,

which are typically governed by shear

requirements, it is common practice to determine the amount of


vertical and horizontal reinforcement based on the shear provisions
of Section 11.10.

The flexural and axial force requirements of the appropriate design


method are then checked based on the reinforcement for shear.

It is not uncommon for low-rise walls to have minimum amounts of


reinforcement over their entire height.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
General

In the case of high-rise walls, wall sections at the base of the


structure will usually, but not always, be governed by the
requirements for flexure and axial load. Once the required amount
of reinforcement is established for those requirements, the shear
requirements of Section 11.10 are checked.

The amounts of reinforcement are typically varied over the height of


high-rise walls.

In no case shall the provided areas of reinforcement be less than


the minimum values prescribed in the code.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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18

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Shear

Vn = Vc + Vs

Vs =Vu Vc = 0.75 x Av x fy x d/ s

Therefore s = 0.75 x Av x fy x d /(Vu Vc)

s is center to center to center spacing of horizontal reinforcement in


inches

Av is single bar area for one curtain and two times bar area for two
curtains of reinforcement.
Vu
hw

lw
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Shear

Horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement Ash & Asv from minimum
reinforcement ratio can be calculated as follows

Ash or Asv = (inch2 per foot ) = x 12 x h ; h is thickness of wall

Spacing s (inch c/c) = (Av /Ash ) x 12

s = Av /( x 12 x h ) x 12 (substituting Ash )

s = Av /( x h )

= Av /(s x h )

hw

h
h
lw

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

In general, when designing a wall as a compression member, an


interaction diagram needs to be constructed for sections subjected to
combined flexure and axial load, and the applied factored moments
must be magnified to account for slenderness effects.

Details on how to construct such a diagram have been discussed


earlier.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

For buildings of moderate height, walls with uniform cross-sections and


uniformly distributed vertical and horizontal reinforcement are usually the
most economical.

Concentration of the reinforcement at the extreme ends of a wall or small


segment (boundary zones) is usually not required except in high and
moderate seismic zones (special walls).

Uniform distribution of the vertical wall reinforcement required for shear


wall usually provides adequate moment strength as well.

Minimum amounts of reinforcement will usually be sufficient for both


shear and moment requirements.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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20

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

In general, walls that are subjected to axial load or combined axial and
flexure load need to be designed as compression members according to
the provisions given in ACI Chapter 10.

For rectangular shear walls containing uniformly distributed vertical


reinforcement and subjected to an axial load smaller than that producing
balance failure, the following approximate equation can be used to
determine the nominal moment capacity of the wall. ( Cardens A.E et. al,
Design Provisions for Shear walls, Journal of the ACI, Vol 70, No. 3
March 1973, pp 221-230)

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

Where

0.5

= total area of vertical reinforcement, in.2


= horizontal length of wall, in.
= factored axial compressive load, kips
= yield strength of reinforcement = 60 ksi

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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21

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

43

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

45

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Approximate procedure for design of In-plane bending

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

As wall is mostly slender along its minor axis, moment magnification


shall be done before wall is designed for out-of-plane bending

Once moment is magnified, wall shall be designed for this moment


either using interaction diagram or approximate procedure.

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

Moment Magnification

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced Concrete


Structural Wall
Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

Moment Magnification

Cracked moment of inertia, Icr

Es
Icr =

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

Ec

CE 5115

As +

Pu
fy

(d

c)2

w c3
3

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

50

25

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Ordinary Reinforced


Concrete Structural Wall
Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

out-of-plan deflection requirements

s =

5Mc2
48EcIe

CE 5115

c
150

Msa

M=

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

5Psc2
48EcIe

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Provisions for Special reinforced


concrete structural walls

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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26

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Provisions for Special reinforced


concrete structural walls

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

ACI Provisions for Special reinforced


concrete structural walls

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

27

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Provisions for Special Boundary


Elements

The minimum reinforcement ratio for both the longitudinal and transverse
reinforcement is 0.0025, unless the design shear force does not exceed Acv fc , where
Acv is the net area of concrete bounded by the web thickness and the length of the
wall in the direction of analysis; in this case, the minimum reinforcement must not be
less than that given in 14.3. The reinforcement provided for shear strength must be
continuous and distributed uniformly across the shear plane with a maximum spacing
of 18 in. At least two curtains of reinforcement are required if the in-plane factored
shear force assigned to the wall exceeds Acv fc

n = ratio of area of distributed reinforcement parallel to the plane of Acv to gross


concrete area perpendicular to that reinforcement.(horizontal, denoted by h in
chapter 14)

v = ratio of area of distributed reinforcement perpendicular to the plane of Acv to gross


concrete area Acv.(vertical, denoted by n in chapter 14)

Acp = area of concrete section, resisting shear, of an individual pier or horizontal wall
segment, in.2

Acv = gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section
in the direction of shear force considered, in.2

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Provisions for Special Boundary


Elements
21.7.2.1:1.
ordinary

If Vu Acv

, provide minimum reinforcement as given for

reinforced structural walls, where Acv is the net area of concrete

bounded by the web thickness and the length of the wall in the direction of
analysis
Acv = h lw

lw

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Provisions for Special Boundary


Elements
21.7.2.2: 2. If Vu>
Acv
, both the longitudinal (v)and transverse
reinforcement (n ) must not be less than 0.0025
21.7.2.2: 3. If Vu>2 Acv
both directions.

Two curtains of reinforcement are required in

21.7.2.3:4. Anchoring or splicing of reinforcement as per 21.5.4


21.7.4: Shear Strength.
Vn = Acv (c

+ n fy)

c = 3 (for hw/lw 1.5) &c= 2 (for hw/lw 2.0) & varies linearly for
other values.

(c = 2.0 conservatively)

21.7.4.3: Walls shall have distributed reinforcement providing resistance in two


orthogonal directions in the plane of the wall. If the ratio hw/lw does not exceed
2.0 then reinforcement v shall not be less than n
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Provisions for Special Boundary


Elements
R 21.7.4: The ratio hw/lw may refer to overall dimensions of a wall, or of a
segment of the wall bounded by two openings or an opening and an edge.
To restrain the inclined cracks effectively, reinforcement included in n and v
should be appropriately distributed along the length and height of the wall.
Chord reinforcement provided near wall edges in concentrated amounts for
resisting bending moments is not to be included in determining n and V.
21.7.5:

Design of flexure and axial loads.

21.7.5.1:
21.7.5.2:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls
21.6.3. Compression zones shall includes special boundary elements where the
maximum extreme fiber stress corresponding to the factored forces, including
earthquake effects, exceeds 0.2 fc (see Fig. 29-21).

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls

Fig 29-21: Special Boundary Element Requirements per 21.7.6.3

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls
When special boundary elements are required, they must extend horizontally
from the extreme compression fiber a distance not less than the larger of c 0.1
lw and c/2 (21.7.6.4(a); see Fig. 29-20).
In the vertical direction, the special boundary elements must extend from the
critical section a distance greater than or equal to the larger of lw or Mu/4Vu
(21.7.6.2). This distance is based on upper bound estimates of plastic hinge
lengths, and is beyond the zero over which concrete spalling is likely to occur.
From earlier codes, it is 0.15 to 0.25 lw
See chapter 6 simplifired approach.

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CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls

Fig 29-20: Special Boundary Element Requirements per 21.7.6.2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls
Section 21.7.6.4 contains the details of he reinforcement when special
boundary elements are required by 21.7.6.2 or 21.7.6.3. The transverse
reinforcement must satisfy the same requirements as per special moment
frame members subjected to bending and axial load (21.4.4.1 through
21.4.4.3), excluding Eq. (21-3) (21.7.6.4(c); see Fig. 29-22). Also, the
transverse reinforcement shall extend in the support a distance not less
than the development length of the largest longitudinal bar in the special
boundary element; for footing or mats, the transverse reinforcement shall
extend at least 12 in. into the footing or mat (21.7.6.4(d)). Horizontal
reinforcement in the wall web shall be anchored within the confined core of
the boundary element within the confined core of the boundary element to
develop its specified yield strength (21.7.6.4(c)). To achieve this anchorage,
90-deg hooks or mechanical anchorages are recommended. Mechanical
splices and welded splices of the longitudinal reinforcement in the
boundary elements shall conform to 21.2.6 and 21.2.7, respectively
(21.7.6.4(d) )

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls
when special boundary elements are not required, the provisions of
21.7.6.5must be satisfied. For the cases when the longitudinal
reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is greater than 400/fy, transverse
reinforcement, spaced not more than 8 in. on center, shall be provided that
satisfies 21.4.4.1(c), 21.4.4.3, and 21.7.6.4(c)(21.7.6.5(a)). This
requirement helps in preventing bucking of the longitudinal reinforcement
that can be caused by cyclic load reversals. The longitudinal reinforcement
ratio to be used includes only the reinforcement at the end of the wall as
indicated in Fig. R21.7.6.5. Horizontal reinforcement terminating at the
edges of structural walls must be properly anchored per 21.7.6.5(b)in order
for the reinforcement to be effective in resisting shear and to help in
preventing buckling of the vertical edge reinforcement. The provisions of
21.7.6.5(b)are not required to be satisfied when the factored shear force Vu

is less than Acv

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.6 Boundary Elements of Special Reinforced


Concrete Structural Walls

Fig 29-22: Reinforcement Details for Special Boundary Elements

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.7 Coupling Beams


When adequately proportioned and detailed, coupling beams between
structural wall can provide an efficient means of energy dissipation under
seismic forces, and can provide a higher degree of overall stiffness to the
structure. Due to their relatively large depth to clear span ratio, ends of
coupling beams are usually subjected to large inelastic rotations. Adequate
detailing and shear reinforcement are necessary to prevent shear failure
and to ensure ductility and energy dissipation.
coupling beams with ln/h 4 shall satisfy the requirement of 21.3for flexure
members of special moment frames, excluding 21.3.1.3and 21.3.1.4(a)if it
can be shown that the beam has adequate lateral stability (21.7.7.1). When
ln/h < 4, coupling beams with two intersecting groups of diagonally-placed
bars symmetrical about the midspan is permitted (21.7.7.2). The diagonal
bars are required for deep coupling beams (ln/h < 2) with a factored shear
force Vu greater than 4
Acp, unless it can be shown otherwise that
safety and stability are not compromised (21.7.7.3). Experiments have
shown that diagonally oriented reinforcement is effective only if the bars can
be placed at large inclination.
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.7 Coupling Beams


Note that in 2002 code, h replaces d in the definition of the aspect ratio
(clear span/depth) and Acp replaces bwd in the shear equations. The first
change simplifies the code requirements, since d is not always readily
known for beams with multiple layers of reinforcement. The second change
removes an inconsistency between 21.6.4.5 and 21.6.7.4 of the 1999 code;
Acp is now consistently used in 21.7.4.5and 21.7.7.4.
Section 21.7.7.4 contains the reinforcement details for the two intersecting
groups of diagonally placed bars. Figure 29-23 provides a summary of
these requirements. The requirement on side dimensions of the cage and
its core is to provide adequate toughness and stability when the bars are
stressed beyond yielding. The nominal shear strength of a coupling beam is
computed from the following (21.7.7.4(b)):
Vn = 2Avdfysin 10

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

AcpEq. (21-9)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

21.7.7 Coupling Beams


The additional reinforcement specified in 21.7.7.4(f) is used to confine the
concrete outside of the diagonal cores.

Fig 29-23: Coupling Beam with Diagonally Oriented Reinforcement

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

References
ACI 318-02
Design of Concrete Structures (13th Ed.) by Nilson,
Darwin and Dolan
PCA Notes on ACI 318-02

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

The End

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Design of Shear Wall


Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall

Flexure

Wall design is further complicated by the fact that slenderness is a


consideration in practically all cases of out-of-plane bending.

The approximate evaluation of slenderness effects prescribed in Section


10.11 may be used

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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36

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Ash
Asv

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Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

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37