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Lecture-18

beams

By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

CE 5115

Topics Addressed

Shear Wall

Introduction

Behavior

ACI Recommendations

Design Examples

CE 5115

Topics Addressed

Coupling Beam

Introduction

Behavior

ACI Recommendations

Design Examples

CE 5115

SHEAR WALLS

CE 5115

Introduction

Shear Walls

that resists lateral (wind or earthquake) loads

acting parallel to the plane of the wall in

addition to the gravity loads from the floors and

roof adjacent to the wall.

walls.

directly considered or not also add to the total

lateral stiffness of the structure.

CE 5115

Introduction

Difference between Wall and Column

The differentiation between columns and walls in the code is based on the

principal use rather than on arbitrary relationships of height and crosssectional dimensions, ACI 318-02, Chapter 2 Definitions.

resist horizontal or vertical forces or bending.

combined with bending and shear. It may, however, form a small part of

an enclosure or separation.

The code permits walls to be designed using the principles stated for

column design .

CE 5115

Introduction

Difference between Wall, Column and Pier

by the code.

exceeding 3 used primarily to support axial compressive load.

Wall: Though not specifically mentioned in the code, members of heightto-least lateral dimension NOT exceeding 3 are considered as WALLS.

openings or by an opening and an edge.

been referred to as a pier, ACI 318 -02, R21.7.4.2

CE 5115

Introduction

Other Definitions

transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. The term

diaphragm includes horizontal bracing systems.

diaphragm or shear wall that is assumed to take axial stresses analogous

to the flanges of a beam.

perimeters of shear walls or diaphragms.

from a portion of a structure to vertical elements of the lateral-forceresisting system.

such as floor and roof slabs, which transmit inertial forces

to lateral- force-resisting members.

CE 5115

Introduction

Other Definitions

essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads.

Moment-resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by

flexural action of members.

moment-resisting frames (SMRF, IMRF, MMRWF or steel OMRF). The

moment-resisting frames shall be designed to independently resist at least 25

percent of the design base shear.

3. The two systems shall be designed to resist the total design base shear in

proportion to their relative rigidities considering the interaction of the dual

system at all levels.

CE 5115

Introduction

Types of Shear Walls

Shape

Length to height ratio

Seismic demand

CE 5115

10

Introduction

Importance of Shear Walls

high rise frames could not be efficiently designed to satisfy strength

requirements or to be within acceptable lateral drift limits.

Since frame buildings depend primarily on the rigidity of connections for their

resistance to lateral loads, they tend to be uneconomical beyond a certain

height range.

15 to 20 stories, elsewhere.

Many times, however, shear walls are also provided in low rise (1 to 5) or

medium rise frame buildings (6 to 10) in order to reduce sizes of columns.

CE 5115

11

Introduction

Locations of Shear Walls

It should be located such that the center of mass and center of rigidity of the

structure coincide.

If there is eccentricity as illustrated in the fig, the building will undergo torsional

distortions. Though the structure can be designed for such effects, it would be

relatively uneconomical.

Center of mass

Center of resistance

Shear wall

Eccentricity

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

12

Introduction

Locations of Shear Walls

The core usually contains, among other things, elevator, plumbing and HVAC

shafts etc.

CE 5115

13

Introduction

Frame-Wall Interaction

distribute the lateral loads to the vertical framing

elements in proportion to their rigidities.

depend on the relative rigidities of walls and columns,

the structural walls usually being substantially stiffer

than the columns attract major portion of the lateral

loads, leaving only small portion for the frame

members.

considered as non-sway for column design.

CE 5115

14

Introduction

Frame-Wall Interaction

The analysis and design of the structural system for a building frame of moderate

height can be simplified if the structural walls are sized to carry the entire lateral

load.

Members of the frame (columns and beams or slabs) can be proportioned to resist

the gravity loads only.

Neglecting frame-wall interaction for buildings of moderate size and height will result

in reasonable member sizes and overall costs.

When the walls stiffness is much higher than the stiffness of the columns in a given

direction within a story, the frame takes only a small portion of the lateral loads.

Thus, for low-rise buildings, neglecting the contribution of frame action in resisting

lateral loads and assigning the total lateral load resistance to walls is an entirely

reasonable assumption.

CE 5115

15

Introduction

Frame-Wall Interaction

where the walls have a significant effect on the frame: in the upper stories,

the frame must resist more than 100 % of the story shears caused by the

wind loads.

levels. Clearly, a more economical high-rise structure will be obtained when

frame-wall interaction is considered.

CE 5115

16

A typical shear wall, which is part of a

lateral

load

resisting

system,

is

In-plane

shear

and

bending

moment

(along minor axis)

Axial Load

CE 5115

17

In-plane

shear

and

bending

In-plane shear

a maximum at the base.

Both

horizontal

and

vertical

shear.

CE 5115

18

In-plane shear and bending moment (along

major axis)

In-plane bending moment

maximum at the base and tends to cause

vertical tension near the loaded edge and

compression at the far edge.

reinforcement at the edges in boundary

zones (fig b) will be required against this

action

Fig a

Fig b

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

19

Out-of-plane shear and bending moment (along

minor axis)

Out-of-plane bending moment

bend in an out-of-plane mode either

bending

along the length of the wall shall be provided.

CE 5115

20

10

Out-of-plane shear and bending moment (along

minor axis)

Out-of-plane shear

walls.

CE 5115

21

Types of Walls according to Seismic Hazard (Definitions,

Chapter 21)

and 2b UBC 97), shall comply with the requirements of ordinary reinforced

concrete structural walls of the chapter 14 of ACI 318-02.

There are no special requirements for structural walls located in regions of low to

moderate seismic hazard, except for the connection requirements.

Walls located in regions of high seismic hazard (zones 3 and 4 of UBC 97),

shall comply with the requirements of Special reinforced concrete

structural wall of chapter 21 of the ACI 318-02,, in addition to the

requirements for ordinary reinforced concrete structural walls.

CE 5115

22

11

Types of Walls according to Seismic Hazard (Definitions,

Chapter 21)

The provisions for the design of Ordinary reinforced concrete

structural wall from chapter 14 will be presented first. Special

provisions for Special reinforced concrete structural wall from

chapter 21 will be presented next.

CE 5115

23

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

be designed in accordance with the provisions of chapter 11,

section 11.10 on provisions of shear reinforcement for

structural walls.

load or combined flexure and axial load shall be designed in

accordance with the provisions for flexure and axial loads of

chapter 10. (like column design)

as floors, columns, other walls, and footings.

CE 5115

24

12

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Wall sizing

layer of reinforcement and 10 in for a wall with double layer.(ACI

14.3.4)

Moreover, according to (ACI 318-89) the shear wall must have a total

stiffness of at least six times the sum of stiffness of all columns in a

given direction within the story

I(walls) > 6I(columns)

CE 5115

25

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Vc =0.75 x 2 x fc x h x d

where d = 0.8 lw

(ACI 11.10.4)

( ACI 11.10.4)

Vu

hw

lw

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

26

13

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Minimum reinforcement for shear

following criterion.

Conditions

Vu Vc /2

(11.10.8)

h = 0.0025 for other bars

(14.3)

n= 0.0015 for other bars

(14.3)

Vc/2 Vu Vc

(11.10.8)

h = 0.0025

n = 0.0025 (11.10.9.4)

Vu > Vc

(11.10.8)

(11.10.9.2)

(11.10.9.4)

h = ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of vertical section

n = ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section

CE 5115

27

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

CE 5115

28

14

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

CE 5115

29

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

design provisions in Chapter 10 for flexure and axial loads.

vertical reinforcement area is not greater than 0.01 times gross

concrete area.

shall be

(a) 0.0012 for deformed bars not larger than No. 5 with a specified yield

strength not less than 60,000 psi; or

CE 5115

30

15

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

Walls more than 10 in. thick, except basement walls, shall have

reinforcement for each direction placed in two layers parallel with faces

of wall in accordance with the following:

(a) One layer consisting of not less than one-half and not more than twothirds of total reinforcement required for each direction shall be placed not

less than 2 in. nor more than one-third the thickness of wall from the exterior

surface;

that direction, shall be placed not less than 3/4 in. nor more than one-third

the thickness of wall from the interior surface.

CE 5115

31

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall (Chapter 14)

In addition to the minimum reinforcement, not less than two No. 5 bars

shall be provided around all window and door openings. Such bars shall

be extended to develop the bar beyond the corners of the openings but

not less than 24 in.

CE 5115

32

16

Concrete Structural Wall

General

a preliminary thickness can be determined based on shear.

obvious. In such structures, the wall thickness can vary a number of

times over the height of the structure, and a thickness is usually

determined from experience.

thickness, the governing building code requirements should not be

overlooked.

CE 5115

33

Concrete Structural Wall

General

usually dictate minimum wall plan layouts. Thus, the lengths of

walls are usually dictated by architectural considerations.

preliminary thickness of the wall.

be required for a wall with a single layer of reinforcement, and 10

inches for a wall with a double layer.

CE 5115

34

17

Concrete Structural Wall

General

In low-rise walls,

vertical and horizontal reinforcement based on the shear provisions

of Section 11.10.

method are then checked based on the reinforcement for shear.

reinforcement over their entire height.

CE 5115

35

Concrete Structural Wall

General

structure will usually, but not always, be governed by the

requirements for flexure and axial load. Once the required amount

of reinforcement is established for those requirements, the shear

requirements of Section 11.10 are checked.

high-rise walls.

the minimum values prescribed in the code.

CE 5115

36

18

Concrete Structural Wall

Shear

Vn = Vc + Vs

Vs =Vu Vc = 0.75 x Av x fy x d/ s

inches

Av is single bar area for one curtain and two times bar area for two

curtains of reinforcement.

Vu

hw

lw

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

37

Concrete Structural Wall

Shear

Horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement Ash & Asv from minimum

reinforcement ratio can be calculated as follows

s = Av /( x 12 x h ) x 12 (substituting Ash )

s = Av /( x h )

= Av /(s x h )

hw

h

h

lw

CE 5115

38

19

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

interaction diagram needs to be constructed for sections subjected to

combined flexure and axial load, and the applied factored moments

must be magnified to account for slenderness effects.

earlier.

CE 5115

39

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

uniformly distributed vertical and horizontal reinforcement are usually the

most economical.

segment (boundary zones) is usually not required except in high and

moderate seismic zones (special walls).

wall usually provides adequate moment strength as well.

shear and moment requirements.

CE 5115

40

20

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

In general, walls that are subjected to axial load or combined axial and

flexure load need to be designed as compression members according to

the provisions given in ACI Chapter 10.

reinforcement and subjected to an axial load smaller than that producing

balance failure, the following approximate equation can be used to

determine the nominal moment capacity of the wall. ( Cardens A.E et. al,

Design Provisions for Shear walls, Journal of the ACI, Vol 70, No. 3

March 1973, pp 221-230)

CE 5115

41

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

Where

0.5

= horizontal length of wall, in.

= factored axial compressive load, kips

= yield strength of reinforcement = 60 ksi

CE 5115

42

21

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

CE 5115

43

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

CE 5115

44

22

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

CE 5115

45

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

CE 5115

46

23

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

CE 5115

47

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

shall be done before wall is designed for out-of-plane bending

either using interaction diagram or approximate procedure.

CE 5115

48

24

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

Moment Magnification

CE 5115

49

Structural Wall

Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

Moment Magnification

Es

Icr =

Ec

CE 5115

As +

Pu

fy

(d

c)2

w c3

3

50

25

Concrete Structural Wall

Flexure

Out-of-plane bending

s =

5Mc2

48EcIe

CE 5115

c

150

Msa

M=

5Psc2

48EcIe

51

concrete structural walls

CE 5115

52

26

concrete structural walls

CE 5115

concrete structural walls

CE 5115

27

CE 5115

Elements

The minimum reinforcement ratio for both the longitudinal and transverse

reinforcement is 0.0025, unless the design shear force does not exceed Acv fc , where

Acv is the net area of concrete bounded by the web thickness and the length of the

wall in the direction of analysis; in this case, the minimum reinforcement must not be

less than that given in 14.3. The reinforcement provided for shear strength must be

continuous and distributed uniformly across the shear plane with a maximum spacing

of 18 in. At least two curtains of reinforcement are required if the in-plane factored

shear force assigned to the wall exceeds Acv fc

concrete area perpendicular to that reinforcement.(horizontal, denoted by h in

chapter 14)

concrete area Acv.(vertical, denoted by n in chapter 14)

Acp = area of concrete section, resisting shear, of an individual pier or horizontal wall

segment, in.2

Acv = gross area of concrete section bounded by web thickness and length of section

in the direction of shear force considered, in.2

CE 5115

28

Elements

21.7.2.1:1.

ordinary

If Vu Acv

bounded by the web thickness and the length of the wall in the direction of

analysis

Acv = h lw

lw

CE 5115

Elements

21.7.2.2: 2. If Vu>

Acv

, both the longitudinal (v)and transverse

reinforcement (n ) must not be less than 0.0025

21.7.2.2: 3. If Vu>2 Acv

both directions.

21.7.4: Shear Strength.

Vn = Acv (c

+ n fy)

c = 3 (for hw/lw 1.5) &c= 2 (for hw/lw 2.0) & varies linearly for

other values.

(c = 2.0 conservatively)

orthogonal directions in the plane of the wall. If the ratio hw/lw does not exceed

2.0 then reinforcement v shall not be less than n

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

29

Elements

R 21.7.4: The ratio hw/lw may refer to overall dimensions of a wall, or of a

segment of the wall bounded by two openings or an opening and an edge.

To restrain the inclined cracks effectively, reinforcement included in n and v

should be appropriately distributed along the length and height of the wall.

Chord reinforcement provided near wall edges in concentrated amounts for

resisting bending moments is not to be included in determining n and V.

21.7.5:

21.7.5.1:

21.7.5.2:

CE 5115

Concrete Structural Walls

21.6.3. Compression zones shall includes special boundary elements where the

maximum extreme fiber stress corresponding to the factored forces, including

earthquake effects, exceeds 0.2 fc (see Fig. 29-21).

CE 5115

30

Concrete Structural Walls

CE 5115

Concrete Structural Walls

When special boundary elements are required, they must extend horizontally

from the extreme compression fiber a distance not less than the larger of c 0.1

lw and c/2 (21.7.6.4(a); see Fig. 29-20).

In the vertical direction, the special boundary elements must extend from the

critical section a distance greater than or equal to the larger of lw or Mu/4Vu

(21.7.6.2). This distance is based on upper bound estimates of plastic hinge

lengths, and is beyond the zero over which concrete spalling is likely to occur.

From earlier codes, it is 0.15 to 0.25 lw

See chapter 6 simplifired approach.

CE 5115

31

CE 5115

Concrete Structural Walls

Section 21.7.6.4 contains the details of he reinforcement when special

boundary elements are required by 21.7.6.2 or 21.7.6.3. The transverse

reinforcement must satisfy the same requirements as per special moment

frame members subjected to bending and axial load (21.4.4.1 through

21.4.4.3), excluding Eq. (21-3) (21.7.6.4(c); see Fig. 29-22). Also, the

transverse reinforcement shall extend in the support a distance not less

than the development length of the largest longitudinal bar in the special

boundary element; for footing or mats, the transverse reinforcement shall

extend at least 12 in. into the footing or mat (21.7.6.4(d)). Horizontal

reinforcement in the wall web shall be anchored within the confined core of

the boundary element within the confined core of the boundary element to

develop its specified yield strength (21.7.6.4(c)). To achieve this anchorage,

90-deg hooks or mechanical anchorages are recommended. Mechanical

splices and welded splices of the longitudinal reinforcement in the

boundary elements shall conform to 21.2.6 and 21.2.7, respectively

(21.7.6.4(d) )

CE 5115

32

Concrete Structural Walls

when special boundary elements are not required, the provisions of

21.7.6.5must be satisfied. For the cases when the longitudinal

reinforcement ratio at the wall boundary is greater than 400/fy, transverse

reinforcement, spaced not more than 8 in. on center, shall be provided that

satisfies 21.4.4.1(c), 21.4.4.3, and 21.7.6.4(c)(21.7.6.5(a)). This

requirement helps in preventing bucking of the longitudinal reinforcement

that can be caused by cyclic load reversals. The longitudinal reinforcement

ratio to be used includes only the reinforcement at the end of the wall as

indicated in Fig. R21.7.6.5. Horizontal reinforcement terminating at the

edges of structural walls must be properly anchored per 21.7.6.5(b)in order

for the reinforcement to be effective in resisting shear and to help in

preventing buckling of the vertical edge reinforcement. The provisions of

21.7.6.5(b)are not required to be satisfied when the factored shear force Vu

CE 5115

Concrete Structural Walls

CE 5115

33

When adequately proportioned and detailed, coupling beams between

structural wall can provide an efficient means of energy dissipation under

seismic forces, and can provide a higher degree of overall stiffness to the

structure. Due to their relatively large depth to clear span ratio, ends of

coupling beams are usually subjected to large inelastic rotations. Adequate

detailing and shear reinforcement are necessary to prevent shear failure

and to ensure ductility and energy dissipation.

coupling beams with ln/h 4 shall satisfy the requirement of 21.3for flexure

members of special moment frames, excluding 21.3.1.3and 21.3.1.4(a)if it

can be shown that the beam has adequate lateral stability (21.7.7.1). When

ln/h < 4, coupling beams with two intersecting groups of diagonally-placed

bars symmetrical about the midspan is permitted (21.7.7.2). The diagonal

bars are required for deep coupling beams (ln/h < 2) with a factored shear

force Vu greater than 4

Acp, unless it can be shown otherwise that

safety and stability are not compromised (21.7.7.3). Experiments have

shown that diagonally oriented reinforcement is effective only if the bars can

be placed at large inclination.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

CE 5115

Note that in 2002 code, h replaces d in the definition of the aspect ratio

(clear span/depth) and Acp replaces bwd in the shear equations. The first

change simplifies the code requirements, since d is not always readily

known for beams with multiple layers of reinforcement. The second change

removes an inconsistency between 21.6.4.5 and 21.6.7.4 of the 1999 code;

Acp is now consistently used in 21.7.4.5and 21.7.7.4.

Section 21.7.7.4 contains the reinforcement details for the two intersecting

groups of diagonally placed bars. Figure 29-23 provides a summary of

these requirements. The requirement on side dimensions of the cage and

its core is to provide adequate toughness and stability when the bars are

stressed beyond yielding. The nominal shear strength of a coupling beam is

computed from the following (21.7.7.4(b)):

Vn = 2Avdfysin 10

AcpEq. (21-9)

CE 5115

34

The additional reinforcement specified in 21.7.7.4(f) is used to confine the

concrete outside of the diagonal cores.

CE 5115

References

ACI 318-02

Design of Concrete Structures (13th Ed.) by Nilson,

Darwin and Dolan

PCA Notes on ACI 318-02

CE 5115

70

35

The End

CE 5115

71

Ordinary reinforced concrete structural wall

Flexure

consideration in practically all cases of out-of-plane bending.

10.11 may be used

CE 5115

72

36

Ash

Asv

CE 5115

73

37

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