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W A L S H *
CHARACTERIZING
THE VERTEX NEIGHBOURHOODS POLYHEDRA
OF SEMIREGULAR
I. I N T R O D U C T I O N
A polyhedron [4, p. 4] or a plane tessellation [4, p. 58] is called semiregular if its faces are regular polygons (thus all its edges are equal) and its vertices are all surrounded alike. This implies that the cyclic sequence S= (Pl,P2, ...,P~) representing the degrees of the faces surrounding a vertex must be the same for each vertex to within rotation and reflection. In this paper, we show that the cyclic sequence S=(pl, P2,...,Pq) represents the degrees of the faces surrounding each vertex of a semiregular convex polyhedron or tessellation of the plane if and only if: (1) (2)
i=l
q>~ 3, and every member of S is at least 3;
q
. >/~  1, with equality in the case of a plane tessellation,"
(3)
and for every odd number p in S, S contains a segment b, p, b.
Condition (1) is necessary because if q~<2, the figure consists of a single polygon; while any polygon with straight sides must have at least 3 of them. Condition (2) is necessary because the sum of the interior angles at a vertex must be equal to one rotation if the figure is to lie in a plane, and must be less than one rotation if the figure is to be strictly convex (convex with no two adjacent faces lying in the same plane). The usual way in which all the semiregular convex polyhedra and plane tessellations are found is to eliminate solutions of (1) and (2) using separate arguments for each of several sets of solutions [6, pp. 11626; 2, pp. 2532; 3, p. 394; 7, pp. 2023], and then to prove that the solutions not eliminated represent semiregular tessellations of the plane or sphere. In [5], there appear: a short proof of the existence of these figures [pp. 4058], a table [p. 434] and pictures [p. 439] of all but one of the semiregular convex polyhedra (the remaining one appears in [1, p. 137]) as well as the known nonconvex ones, and a table [p. 438] of all the semi* The author wishes to thank Prof. H. S. M. Coxeter for his numerous helpful suggestions during the preparation of this paper, and M. Burt for his assistance in preparing the plates.
Geometriae Dedicata 1 (1972) 117123. All Rights Reserved Copyright © 1972 by D. Reidel Publishing Company, DordrechtHolland
118
T.R.S. WALSH
regular plane tessellations. Pictures of all but two of the plane tessellations appear in [7, pp. 199 and 2047, figures 75, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 94]. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a semiregular map. We deduce the necessity of conditions (2) and (3) by showing that they hold for all semiregular maps on planelike or spherelike surfaces provided that every face is of degree at least 3. We then find all solutions of (1), (2), (3) and identify each with a known semiregular convex polyhedron or plane tessellation. The properties established in the course of this proof may be useful for enumerating semiregular maps on other types of surfaces.
II. S E M I  R E G U L A R MAPS
A map [cf. 4, p. 6] is a partition of a connected, unbounded twodimensional surface into simplyconnected polygonal regions (faces) by means of pairwise disjoint simple curves (edges) joining pairs of points (vertices). Every polyhedron is a map, while a map whose faces are plane polygons is a polyhedron if the number of edges is finite, and a degenerate polyhedron (like, for example, a plane tessellation) otherwise. A map is called semiregular if the cyclic order of the degrees of the faces surrounding each vertex is the same to within rotation and reflection. This cyclic order determines a cyclic sequence S = (Pl, P2 ..... p~), which we call the cycle of the map. Every vertex is incident with mp pgons, where mp is the multiplicity of p in S. Everypgun is incident with p vertices. So if v (the number of vertices) is finite and fp is the number ofpgons,
(4) fp = ( ~ ) v.
Every vertex is incident with q edges (where q is the length of S) and every edge is incident with 2 vertices. So if e is the number of edges, (5) e =(2)v.
I f f is the total number of faces,
(6)
fpeS
f
=v×
i=1
.
A convex body is spherelike, and its surface is, like the plane, simply
SEMIREGULAR POLYHEDRA
119
connected. Hence we may restrict our attention to maps on a simplyconnected surface (an orientable surface of genus 0) and use Euler's formula [4, p. 9] to find v: (7)
fe+v=v
(8)
Letting D =
( 2
q i=l
q
12+
i=l
=2.
, Pi
we have either D > 0 and
2
(9) v = ~,
q
e = ~, fP =
2(mp/p)
D
as in the case of the convex polyhedra, or else D = 0 and o, e, fp are all infinite, as in the case of the plane tessellations. This proves the necessity of condition (2).
III. RESTRICTIONS O N T H E C Y C L E OF A S E M I  R E G U L A R MAP
Given any semiregular map (not necessarily one which obeys Euler's formula) with cycle S, consider any face (of degreep, say), and let b 1.... , bp be the degrees of the faces which share consecutive edges with the pgon. The b~gon, the pgon, and the b~+xgon are consecutive faces surrounding their common vertex (see Figure 1);
\
p
/0,
Fig. 1.
so S contains a segment bi, p, bi+ 1. This is true for 1 <~i<~p (bp+1 means, of course, bl ), and for every p in S. So we have
120
T.R.S. WALSH
L E M M A 1 : If S is the cycle for a semiregular map, then for any p in S, S must contain the segments bx, p, b2; b2, p, ba ;... ; bp_ 1, P, bp; bp, p, b 1for some bl, b2,..., bp in S. These p segments are not necessarily distinct. In fact, i f p is even, it need only be the middle term of a single segment bl, p, b2; letting b3 =bs . . . . . =bp1 = b l and b4=b 6 . . . . . bp=bz will satisfy Lemma 1. If S contains a segment bl, p, b~, then letting b2=b a . . . . . bp=bl will satisfy Lemma 1 whether p is even or odd. But these are the only cases where a single segment suffices. If p is the middle term of exactly two distinct segments b~,p, bz and bz, p, ba, then b4=b6 . . . . . bp=b2; so p must be even. Therefore, i f p is odd and no segment b, p, b exists in S, p must be the middle term of at least 3 distinct segments in S, which means that the multiplicity of p in S is at least 3 [cf also 8, p. 161] and S m u s t contain at least two other numbers distinct from each other and from p. For example, the cycle of the semiregular map in Figure 2 is (3, 4, 3, 2, 3), in which no segment b, 3, b exists.
Fig. 2.
However, if we insist that every face must have at least 3 sides (which is necessary if the sides are to be straight, and which implies that every member of S is at least 3), then D is maximized by letting p = 3 occur three times and the other two elements of S be 4 and 5. The sequence (3, 4, 3, 5, 3) satisfies Lemma 1; however, D =  ~ o . So we have L E M M A 2: l f S is the cycle of a semiregular maps without faces of degree 1 or 2 on a simplyconnected surface, then for every odd number p in S, S must contain a segment b, p, b. This proves the necessity of condition (3).
SEMIREGULAR
POLYHEDRA
121
IV. T H E S O L U T I O N S OF
(1), (2), (3)
We now find all the solutions of (1), (2), (3), and show that each solution is the cycle of a known regular or semiregular convex polyhedron or plane tessellation. In the process, we reconstruct part of the tables in [5, pp. 434, 438] giving for each S the common name (for the convex polyhedra  no commonlyaccepted names exist for the plane tessellafions) and the common symbol. The values of v, e, andfp can be computed from (8) and (9). Pictures of these figures appear in the plate in the same order as they are introduced below. If q = 3, (2) becomes (lO)   +   +   t> Pl P2 Pa 2
i I 1 1
and (3) becomes: if S contains an odd number p, the other two elements of S must be equal, and must be either equal to p or even. If 3~S, S=(3, x, x), where by (10), x~<12; so we have (3, 3, 3) tetrahedron {3, 3} (3, 4, 4) triangular prism t{2, 3} (3,6,6) truncated tetrahedron t{3, 3} (3, 8, 8) truncated cube t{4, 3} (3, 10, 10) truncated dodecahedron t {5, 3} (3, 12, 12) (plane tessellation) t {6, 3}. If 3 ¢ S and 4 occurs at least twice, we have (4, 4, n) ngonal prism t {2, n} which satisfies (3) and (10) for every n, and reduces when n = 4 to (4, 4, 4) cube {4, 3}. If 4 occurs exactly once, the other two numbers must be even. If 6~S, then by (10), the third number ~<12, and we have (4, 6, 6) truncated octahedron t {3, 4} (4, 6, 8) truncated cuboctahedron t {~} (4, 6, 10) truncated icosidodecahedron t{~} (4, 6, 12) (plane tessellation) t{6a}. If 6¢S, the second largest term must be at least 8. But by (10), the remaining term must then be at most 8; so we have only (4, 8, 8) (plane tessellation) t {4, 4}, which exhausts the solutions of (10) which contain 3 or 4. If 3 ¢ S and 4 ~ S but 5 s S, S = (5, x, x), x = 5 or an even number i> 6. But by (10), x~<6~; so we have only (5, 5, 5) dodecahedron {5, 3} (5, 6, 6) truncated icosahedron t {3, 5}
122
T.R.S. W A L S H
Finally, if 5 ¢ S, the smallest number in S is at least 6. But then by (10), the largest number in S must be at most 6; so the only remaining solution of (10) is (6, 6, 6) (plane tessellation) {6, 3} If q = 4 , (2) becomes
(11) 1

1 1 1 +   +   +   I> 1.
Pl
P:z
P3
P4
If 3 occurs in S at least 3 times, we have (3, 3, 3, n) ngonal antiprism s {2} which satisfies (3) and (11) for all n, and reduces when n = 3 to (3, 3, 3, 3) octahedron {3, 4}. If 3 occurs in S exactly twice, the two occurrences cannot be adjacent otherwise, neither 3 satisfies condition (3)  and the other two numbers must be equal. So S=(3, x, 3, x), where x~>4. By (11), x~<6; so we have (3, 4, 3, 4) cuboctahedron {4 a} (3, 5, 3, 5) icosidodecahedron {a} (3, 6, 3, 6) (plane tessellation) {a}. If 3 occurs in S exactly once, the two numbers adjacent to it must be equal (and even: otherwise the remaining number must be a 3). So S=(3, y, x,y), where y is even. If y~>6, then by (11), x ~ 3 ; so y = 4 and S=(3, 4, x, 4). But then by (11), x~<6 and we have (3, 4, 4, 4) rhombicuboctahedron r {a} and pseudorhombicuboctahedron [1, p. 137] (3, 4, 5, 4) rhombicosidodecahedron r{as} (3, 4, 6, 4) (plane tessellation) r{a}. If 3¢S, the smallest number in S must be i>4. But then by (11), the remaining numbers must be ~<4; so the only remaining solution of (11) is {4, 4}. (4, 4, 4, 4) (plane tessellation) If q = 5, (2) becomes
1
( 1 2 )  
+
1
 
+
1
 
+
1
 
+
1
 
3
Pl
P2
Pa
P4
Ps
2
If 3 occurs in S at least 4 times, condition (3) is automatically satisfied. S=(3, 3, 3, 3, x), and by (12), x~<6. So we have (3, 3, 3, 3, 3) icosahedron {3, 5} (3, 3, 3, 3, 4) snub cuboctahedron s{a} (3, 3, 3, 3, 5) snub icosidodecahedron s{5 a} (3, 3, 3, 3, 6) (plane tessellation) s{~}. The last three figures occur in lefthanded and righthanded form. If 3 occurs in S at most 3 times, the second smallest number must be at
SEMIREGULAR POLYHEDRA
123
least 4, and by (12), the remaining number must be at most 4; and 3 cannot occur less than 3 times. So the only remaining solutions of (12) are (3, 3, 3, 4, 4) (plane tessellation) no symbol (3, 3, 4, 3, 4) (plane tessellation) s {~} If q >/6, then since every element in S is at least 3, by (2) every element in S is at most 3 and there are exactly 6 of them. Thus the only remaining solution of (1) and (2) is (3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3) (plane tessellation) {3, 6}, which also satisfies (3). This exhausts the solutions of (1), (2), (3) and, together with Lemma 2 and the existence proof in [5, pp. 40581, proves the result quoted in the second paragraph. Now suppose the restriction that every member of S is at least 3 is lifted. The conclusion of Lemma 2 is no longer valid (see Figure 2), but Lemma 1 still holds. Some solutions of (2) which satisfy Lemma 1 cannot possibly be the cycle of a semiregular map because from (8) and (9), at least one of v, e, and fp turns out not to be an integer. However, of all the solutions of (2) so far investigated which satisfy Lemma 1 and make v, e, and fp integers, every one represents at least one semiregular map. Is this generally true; and if not, is there a reasonably simple characterization of the vertex neighbourhoods of any semiregular planar map? BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Ball, W. W. R., Mathematical Recreations and Essays (revised by H. S. M. Coxeter), MacMillan, New York 1956. [2] Catalan, E; 'M6moire sur la Th6orie des Poly~dres', J. l'l~cole Polytechnique (Paris) 41 (1865), 171. [3] Coxeter, H. S. M., 'Regular and SemiRegular Polytopes I', Math. Z. 46 (1940), 380407. [4] Coxeter, H. S. M., Regular Polytopes (2nd edition), Macmillan, New York 1963. [5] Coxeter, H. S. M., LonguetHiggins,M. S., and Miller, J. C. P., 'Uniform Polyhedra', Proc. Roy. Soc. London 246 (1954), 40150. [6] Kepler, J., 'Harmonice Mtmdi', Opera Omnia, Vol. 5, Frankfurt 1864, pp. 75334. [7] Kra'itchik, M., Mathematical Recreations, Dover Publications Inc., New York 1942, pp 199207. [8] Lines, L., Solid Geometry, Macmillan, London 1935.
Address of the author:
T. R. S. Walsh, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (Received July 25, 1971)
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