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CONSOLIDATION TEST

OBJECTIVE:
Determination of one-dimensional consolidation parameters of given remolded soil
sample.
EQUIPMENT:
Consolidation cell, Oedometer ring, Porous stones, Loading frame and dial gauge, Filter
paper, Apparatus for moisture content determination.
PROCEDURE:
1. Take the soil sample and add the (OMC-Hygroscopic water) water to soil sample and mix
it thoroughly.
2. Do the light compaction for the soil sample with 3 layers of soil sample and 25 blows for
each layer with 2.6 kg rammer.
3. Clean the consolidation ring and measure its inside diameter, height and weight.
4. Press the ring gently into the soil sample until soil projects above the top of the ring, take
the ring with extreme care, and trim the soil surfaces flush both at the top and bottom of
the ring. Remove any excess soil sticking outside, and weigh the specimen with ring.
5. Place the porous stones on the top and bottom surfaces of the soil specimen with filter
paper in between them. Press lightly to ensure that the stones adhere to the specimen.
6. Assemble the specimen carefully into the consolidation cell, mount the cell on the
loading frame, and set the dial gauge. Connect the system to a water reservoir, and allow
the water to flow into till the specimen is completely covered and saturated.
7. Adjust and record initial dial gauge reading. Apply normal load to give a pressure
intensity of 0.05 kg/cm2 on the soil specimen.
8. Note the dial gauge readings at elapsed times of 1 min and 24 hrs.
9. Increase the normal load and take dial gauge readings at the same elapsed time intervals
Use a loading sequence of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8,2, 4, 8 kg/cm2, etc.
10. On completion of the final loading stage, decrease the load to 4 kg/cm2 and allow it to
remain for 24 hours, and then note the dial gauge reading. Reduce further the load to 2
kg/cm2 and repeat the observations.
11. After recording the final time and dial reading remove water out of the consolidation cell,
release the load, quickly disassemble the cell, remove the ring, and blot the specimen
surfaces dry with paper.
12. Weigh the specimen with ring, and place in the oven for determination of final water
content.
13. Calculate the consolidation parameters by plotting the graphs between void ratio versus
effective pressure and void ratio versus logarithmic effective stress.

42 0.02 9 -0.493238 0.524264 -0.4 9.11 0.05 10 final dial gauge reading 10.51 5.30103 4 8.468576 0.84 0.530628 -0.607001 0.96 8.8 8.8 Applied Pressure(kg/cm²) Initial dial gauge reading 0.74 8.08 19.RESULT: Diameter of the consolidation ring is 6cm.30103 .53222 -0.88 9.23 18.51074 0.90309 4 8.23 -0.45 8.30103 -1.2 0.39794 0.74 -0.26 6.60206 2 8.02 19.79 8.472554 0.16 6.09691 2 8.69897 0.88 -0.2 Log(σ) 0.05 7.2 10 9.17 18.24 6.31 18. Intial water content 23% Hygroscopic water content reading for final water content R= 19.17 0.74 6.22 18.63 Final void ratio (H-Hs)/ Hs 0.99 6.67 0.490851 0.59 0.06 -0.2 ΔH(Change in Height) Height (H) 20.77 6.94 0.05 18. of voids (H-Hs) 7.69 0.57 -0. Intial height of the specimen is 2cm.46 5.89 0.60206 8 8.94 19.2 Ht.

2 0.5 0.4 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 PRESSURE (KG/CM^2) Void ratio Vs. Effective stress plot 7 8 9 .7 0.6 VOID RATIO 0.Void Ratio vs Pressure Series1 Series2 0.3 0.

e vs Log(σ) 0.5 VOID RATIO 0.23.57 mm From this value the void ratios can be calculated Now.6 0.5 -1 -0. Therefore Ws = 95. av.7 0.5 1 1. So the difference in void ratio will be the Cc For calculation of av a particular stress is taken and calculated at that difference of stresses Mv = av/1+eo . Cc = Δe/log10(σ2/σ1) . take pressure values such that log10(σ2/σ1) is 1.C) = Ww/Ws =0.1 0 -1.2 0. mv.5 LOG(PRESSURE) Void ratio Vs.3 0.94 gm and Hence the height of the solids is 12. water content (W. Cv The formula for the height of solids is Hs is = Ms/G*ρw*A Ww + Ws =118 gm (The total weight of the sample taken excluding container weight) But. Log Effective stress plot CALCULATION: The consolidation parameters are Cc.4 0.5 0 0.

.0215 The value of av was calculated to be = 0. Arora.007767 cm2/Kg The value of Cv was calculated to be = 244. R. K. the permeability is assumed to be 10-6cm/sec and Cv is calculated by using the formula Cv=k/(mv*γw) DISCUSSIONS: Consolidation is a very important phenomenon in the case of saturated clays as clayey soils take more time to consolidate and it is a time dependent phenomena and there is non-linear stress strain relationship Usually consolidation in clays continues over years and the settlement due to consolidation might create unwanted stresses in the super structure CONCLUSION: The value of Cc was calculated to be = 0.9401 cm2/Year REFERENCES: Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineeirng by Dr.As the soil was found to be low plastic clay known previously by conducting compaction test.0119 cm2/Kg The value of mv was calculated to be = 0.