You are on page 1of 25

IT6501- GRAPHICS AND MULTIMEDIA

III YEAR / V SEMESTER


UNIT III

PREPARED BY,
Mr.M.KARTHIKEYAN, M.E., AP / IT

VERIFIED BY

HOD

PRINCIPAL

CEO/CORRESPONDENT

SENGUNTHAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,TIRUCHENGODE 637 205.


DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

UNIT III
1

MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS DESIGN


Multimedia basics
Multimedia applications
Multimedia system architecture
Evolving technologies for multimedia
Defining objects for multimedia systems
Multimedia data interface standards
Multimedia databases.

LIST OF IMPORTANT QUESTIONS


UNIT III
MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM DESIGN
PART - A
Define abstract images.(Nov/Dec 2013)
How does holography differ from hologram ?(May /Jun 2012)
Bring out the difference between the HDTV and UHDTV.(May /Jun 2012)
State the applications of multimedia systems (Nov/Dec 2011) (May /Jun 2012) (May/Jun
2013)
5. State any two advantages of multimedia. (May /Jun 2012)
6. What do you mean by Multimedia? (May/June-2007) May/June-2011)(May/Jun 2013)
7. List the components of multimedia. (May/June-2007) Or
List any four hardware requirements of Multimedia. (May/June-2007)
8. What is hypermedia document? (Nov/Dec 2010)
9. What are the elements of multimedia?
10. Define Holography?
11. What is hologram?
12. State the important processes in image processing?
13. Name the complex image enhancement capabilities?
14. What is DVI?
15.What is Hypertext?
1.
2.
3.
4.

PART - B
1. Describe the objects of multimedia systems.(10) (Nov/Dec 2010) or How Multimedia objects
are classified? (Apr /May 2011)Discuss the basic data type and object used in multimedia
systems (8) ?(May /Jun 2012) Describe various building blocks of multimedia system.(8)
(Nov/Dec 2007)
2. List the Multimedia applications. Explain them briefly(12)(May/June-2007) (Nov/Dec 2010) or
Give an overview on the applications of multimedia.(6) (May /Jun 2012)
Suggest with reasons 5 potential applications of multimedia other than the applications in the
field of entertainment and education.(10)(Nov/Dec 2007)
3. Explain the characteristics of MDBMS.(10) (May/June-2007)
4. Write short notes on multimedia system architecture.(6) (May/June-2007) or
With a neat block diagram explain multimedia architecture(8) (Apr/May 2010) Or Depict
multimedia system architecture. (Nov/Dec 2010) (Apr /May 2011) (10) (Nov/Dec 2011) (May
/Jun 2012) (May/Jun 2013) Explain in detail about IMA architectural framework(10) )
(Nov/Dec 2009)
5. Explain the evolving technologies in multimedia systems.(8) (Apr/May 2010) (Nov/Dec 2011)
(Nov/Dec 2013)

NOTES
UNIT III
MULTIMEDIA SYSTEM DESIGN
PART A
1. Define abstract images.(Nov/Dec 2013)
Abstract images are really not images that ever existed as real -world objects or
representations. Rather they are computer -generated images based on some arithmetic
calculations. e.g. fractals.
2. How does holography differ from hologram ?(May /Jun 2012)
Holography is defined as the means of creating a unique photographic image without the
use of lens. The photographic recording of the image is called a Hologram
3. Bring out the difference between the HDTV and UHDTV.(May /Jun 2012)
Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Super Hi-Vision, Ultra HD television, UltraHD,
UHDTV, or UHD) includes 4K UHD (2160p) and 8K UHD (4320p), which are two digital
video formats proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and defined
and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
High-definition television (HDTV) provides a resolution that is substantially higher than that
of standard-definition television.
HDTV may be transmitted in various formats:

1080p: 19201080p: 2,073,600 pixels (~2.07 megapixels) per frame

1080i: 19201080i: 1,036,800 pixels (~1.04 MP) per field or 2,073,600 pixels (~2.07 MP)
per frame

4. State the applications of

multimedia systems (Nov/Dec 2011) (May /Jun 2012)

(May/Jun 2013)

Document imaging

Image processing and Image recognition

Full-Motion Digital Video Applications

Electronic Messaging

5. State any two advantages of multimedia. (May /Jun 2012)


o Enhancement of Text Only Messages: Multimedia enhances text only presentations
by adding interesting sounds and compelling visuals.
o Improves over Traditional Audio-Video Presentations: Audiences are more attentive to
multimedia messages than traditional presentations done with slides or overhead
transparencies.
o Gains and Holds Attention: People are more interested in multimedia messages
which combine the elements of text, audio, graphics and video. Communication
research has shown that the combination of communication modes (aural and visual)
offers greater understanding and retention of information.
o Good for "computer-phobics": Those who are intimidated by computer keyboards and
complex instructions are more comfortable with pressing buttons with a mouse or on
a screen.
o Multimedia is Entertaining as Well as Educational:

6. What do you mean by Multimedia? (May/June-2007) May/June-2011)(May/Jun 2013)


Multimedia is the use of the computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and
video with links and tools that lets the user to navigate, interact, create and communicate.
7. List the components of multimedia. Or List any four hardware requirements of
Multimedia. (May/June-2007)
Capture devices
Video Camera, Video Recorder, Audio
Microphone, Keyboards, mice, graphics tablets, 3D input
devices, tactile sensors, VR devices. Digitising Hardware
Storage Devices
Hard disks, CD-ROMs, DVD-ROM, etc
Communication Networks
Local Networks, Intranets,
Internet, Multimedia or other special high speed networks.
Computer Systems
Multimedia Desktop machines,
Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP Hardware
5

Display Devices
CD-quality speakers, HDTV,SVGA, Hi-Res
monitors, Colour printers etc.
8. What is hypermedia document? (Nov/Dec 2010)
The linking of media for easy access is called Hypermedia. The media may be of any type
such as text, audio, video etc. A hypermedia document contains a text and any other sub
objects such as images, sound, full-motion video etc. (or)
A set of documents in which a given document can contain text, graphics video and audio
clips as well as embedded references to other documents world wide web pages are
hypermedia documents.
9. What are the elements of multimedia?
Text, Graphics, Animations, Audio and Video.
E.g. Facsimile, Document images, Photographic images, Geographical information system
maps, Voice commands and voice synthesis, Audio messages, Video messages, Full-motion
stored and live video, Holographic images, Fractals.
10. Define Holography?
It is defined as the technique that allows the light scattered from an object to be recorded
and later reconstructed so that when an imaging system (a camera or an eye) is placed in
the reconstructed beam, an image of the object will be seen even when the object is no
longer present. The image changes as the position and orientation of the viewing system
changes in exactly the same way as if the object were still present, thus making the image
appear three-dimensional.
11. What is hologram?
A hologram was a projected three-dimensional representation of a person or object, normally
used in communication or entertainment.
The photographic recoding of the image is called a hologram, which appears to be an
unrecognizable pattern of stripes and whorls but which when illuminate by coherent light as
by a laser beam, organizes the light in to 3D representation of the original object.
12. State the important processes in image processing?
Image recognition
image enhancement
image synthesis
6

image reconstruction.
13. Name the complex image enhancement capabilities?
Image calibration
Real-time alignment
Gray-scale normalization
RGB hue
intensity adjustment
Color separation
Frame averaging.
14. What is DVI?
The Digital Video Interface (DVI) standard was defined to provide a processor independent
specification for a video interface that could accommodate most compression algorithms for fast
multimedia displays.
15. What is Hypertext?
The linking of associated data for easy access is called Hypertext. It is an application of
indexing text to provide a rapid search of specific text strings in one or more documents. It is an
integral component of Hypermedia. Hypermedia document is the basic object and text is sub
object. (or)
Hyper text is an application of indexing text to provide a rapid search of specific text strings in
one or more documents. Hypertext is an integral part of hypermedia documents. In multimedia
applications, a hypermedia documents is the basic complex object of which text is a sub-object.
Other sub-objects in the basic object include images, sound, and full-motion video.
16. What is Apple's Quick time?
The QuickTime standard, developed by Apple Computer, is designed to support multimedia
applications. Apple\'s QuickTime is viewed as a multimedia interface that is evolving to become
a standard part of the Apple as well as MS-Windows based systems.
17. What is JPEG?
The Joint Photographic Experts Group, formed as a joint ISO and CCITT working committee,
is focused exclusively on still-image compression.
18. What is called Asymmetrical compression based on Compression?
These are applications that need to be compressed once but are read many times.
7

19. What is MIDI?


This is the interface standard for file transfer between a computer and a musical
instrument such as a digital piano.
20. What are the sub-systems in DSP?
Memory management, hardware-interrupt handling, Multitasking, Inter task
synchronization and communication, Multiple timer services, Device-independent I/O.
21. What are the types of images based on multimedia?
Visible images, non-visible images, abstract images.

22. What does non-visible images refer?


Non-visible images are those that are not stored as images but are displayed as
images e.g. pressure gauges, temperature gauges.
23. What are abstract images?
Abstract images are really not images that ever existed as real-world objects or
representations. Rather they are computer-generated images based on some
arithmetic calculations. e.g. fractals.

24. What are the important processes in image processing?


Image recognition, image enhancement, image synthesis, and image
reconstruction.
25. What are complex image enhancement capabilities?
Image calibration, Real-time alignment, Gray-scale normalization, RGB hue
intensity adjustment, Color separation, Frame averaging.
26. Give some Networking Standards?
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface

PART-B
1. Describe the objects of multimedia systems.(10) (Nov/Dec 2010) or How Multimedia
objects are classified? (Apr /May 2011)Discuss the basic data type and object used in
multimedia systems (8) ?(May /Jun 2012) Describe various building blocks of
multimedia system.(8)(Nov/Dec 2007)

Multimedia Building Blocks


Any multimedia application consists any or all of the following components:
i)

Text :

Text and symbols are very important for communication in any medium. With the recent
explosion of the Internet and World Wide Web, text has become more the important than
ever. Web is HTML (Hyper text Markup language) originally designed to display simple
text documents on computer screens, with Occasional graphic images thrown in as
illustrations.
ii)

Audio :

Sound is perhaps the most element of multimedia. It can provide the listening pleasure
of music, the startling accent of special effects or the ambience of a mood-setting
background.
iii)

Images :

Images whether represented analog or digital plays a vital role in a multimedia. It is


expressed in the form of still picture, painting or a photograph

taken through a digital

camera.
iv)

Animation :

Animation is the rapid display of a sequence of images of 2-D artwork or model positions
in order to create an illusion of movement. It is an optical illusion of motion due to the
phenomenon of persistence of vision, and can be created and demonstrated in a number
of ways.

v)

Video :

Digital video has supplanted analog video as the method of choice for making video for
multimedia use. Video in multimedia are used to portray real time moving pictures in a
multimedia project.

2. List the Multimedia applications. Explain them briefly(12)(May/June-2007) (Nov/Dec


2010) or
Give an overview on the applications of multimedia.(6) (May /Jun 2012)
Suggest with reasons 5 potential applications of multimedia other than the
applications in the field of entertainment and education.(10)(Nov/Dec 2007)

Applications of Multimedia
Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to,
advertisements, art, education, entertainment, engineering, medicine, mathematics,
business, scientific research and spatial, temporal applications.

10

A few application areas of multimedia are listed below:


Creative industries
Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to
entertainment, to commercial art, to journalism, to media and software services provided for
any of the industries listed below. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum
throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical and to
creative.
Commercial
Much of the electronic old and new media utilized by commercial artists is multimedia.
Exciting presentations are used to grab and keep attention in advertising. Industrial,
business to business, and interoffice communications are often developed by creative
services firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell
ideas or liven-up training. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for
governmental services and nonprofit services applications as well.

Entertainment and Fine Arts


In addition, multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to
develop special effects in movies and animations. Multimedia games are a popular pastime
and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online. Some video games also
use multimedia features.Multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate
instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information are called Interactive
Multimedia.
Education
In Education, multimedia is used to produce computer-based training courses
(popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopaedia and almanacs. A CBT lets
the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated
illustrations in various information formats. Edutainment is an informal term used to describe
combining education with entertainment, especially multimedia entertainment.
Engineering

11

Software engineers may use multimedia in Computer Simulations for anything from
entertainment to training such as military or industrial training.Multimedia for software
interfaces are often done as collaboration between creative professionals and software
engineers.
Industry
In the Industrial sector, multimedia is used as a way to help present information to
shareholders, superiors and coworkers. Multimedia is also helpful for providing employee
training, advertising and selling products all over the world via virtually unlimited web-based
technologies.
Mathematical and Scientific Research
In Mathematical and Scientific Research, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and
simulation. For example, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance
and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.Representative research can be found in
journals such as the Journal of Multimedia.
Medicine
In Medicine, doctors can get trained by looking at a virtual surgery or they can
simulate how the human body is affected by diseases spread by viruses and bacteria and
then develop techniques to prevent it.
Multimedia in Public Places
In hotels, railway stations, shopping malls, museums, and grocery stores,multimedia
will become available at stand-alone terminals or kiosks to provide information and help.
Such installation reduce demand on traditional information booths and personnel, add value,
and they can work around the clock, even in the middle of the night, when live help is off
duty.
A menu screen from a supermarket kiosk that provide services ranging from meal
planning to coupons. Hotel kiosk list nearby restaurant, maps of the city, airline schedules,
and provide guest services such as automated checkout.
Printers are often attached so users can walk away with a printed copy of the
information. Museum kiosk are not only used to guide patrons through the exhibits, but when
installed at each exhibit, provide great added depth, allowing visitors to browser though
richly detailed information specific to that display.

12

3. Explain the characteristics of MDBMS.(10) (May/June-2007)


Characteristics of an MDBMS
An MDBMS can be characterized by its objectives when handling multimedia data:
1. Corresponding Storage Media Multimedia data must be stored and managed according
to

the specific

characteristics of the available storage media. Here, the storage

media can

be both computer integrated components and external devices. Additionally,

read-only

(such as a CD-ROM), write-once and write-many storage media can be

used.
2. Descriptive Search Methods
During a search in a database, an entry, given in the form of text or a graphical
found using different queries and the corresponding search methods.
multimedia

image, is

query

of

data should be based on a descriptive, content- oriented search in the form, for

example, of The picture of the woman with a red scarf. This kind search of relates to all
media, including

video and audio.

3. Device-independent Interface
The interface to a database application should be device-independent. For example, a
parameter could specify that the following audio and video data will not change in the future.
4. Format-independent Interface
Database queries should be independent from the underlying media format,
that

the interfaces should be format-independent. The programming

be

format-independent, although in some cases, it should be

meaning

Itself should also

possible

to

access

details of the concrete formats.


5. View-specific and Simultaneous Data Access
The same multimedia data can be accessed (even simultaneously) through different
queries by several applications. Hence, consistent access to shared data
(e.g.,shared editing of a multimedia document among several users) can be
Implemented.
6. Management of Large Amounts of Data

13

The DBMS must be capable of handling and managing large amounts of data and
satisfying queries for individual relations among data or attributes of relations.
7. Relational Consistency of Data Management
Relations among data of one or different media must stay consistent
their specification. The MDBMS manages these relations and
and data output. Therefore, for example, navigation
managing relations among individual parts of

corresponding to

can use them for queries

through a document is supported by

a document.

8. Real-time Data Transfer


The read and write operations of continuous data must be done in real-time. The data
transfer

of continuous data has a higher priority than other database management

actions. Hence, the primitives of a multimedia operating system should be used to support
the real-time transfer of

continuous data.

9. Long Transactions
The performance of a transaction in a MDBMS means that transfer of a large amount of data
will take a long time and must be done in a reliable fashion. An example of a long
transaction

is the retrieval of a movie.

4. Write short notes on multimedia system architecture.(6) (May/June-2007) or


With a neat block diagram explain multimedia architecture(8) (Apr/May 2010) Or
Depict multimedia system architecture. (Nov/Dec 2010) (Apr /May 2011) (10) (Nov/Dec
2011)

APPLICATIONS
(May /Jun 2012) (May/Jun
2013) Explain in detail about IMA architectural

framework(10) )(Nov/Dec 2009)

Graphical User Interface


Design
Operating System

Multimedia Extensions
Software Drivers

System Hardware
(Multimedia enabled)

14

Multimedia driver
support

Add-on
Multimedia devices and
Peripherals

Overview of Multimedia System Architecture


A multimedia processing system architecture performs a plurality of multimedia tasks on
multimedia data using a plurality of multimedia processing blocks, at least one
communication bus to carry the flow of multimedia data between the multimedia processing
blocks. An application interface manages the multimedia processing blocks. For each
multimedia task, the application interface creates a subset of multimedia processing blocks
to be assembled in order to run the multimedia task.
We can change the settings by
Change an objects display performance
Display performance options
Set default display performance
Change an objects display performance
High Resolution Graphics Display:
Document always opens using the default Display Performance preferences. You can
change the display performance of a document while it is open, but the setting wont be
saved with the document. If youve set the display performance of any images separately,
you can override the settings so all objects use the same settings.
Choose View > Display Performance, and select an option from the sub menu. To force
objects that you have set individually to display using the document setting, deselect View
Display Performance Allow Object Level Display Settings. (A check mark indicates it is
selected)
Display performance options:
Here options control how graphics are displayed on the screen, but they do not affect the
print quality or exported output. Use Display Performance preferences to set the default
option used to open all documents, and customize the settings that define those options.
Each display option has separate settings for displaying raster images, vector graphics, and
transparencies.
Fast:
Draws a raster image or vector graphic as a gray box (default). Use this option when you
want to quickly page through spreads that have lots of images or transparency effects.
Typical:
Draws a low resolution proxy image default appropriate for identifying and positioning an
image or vector graphic. Typical is the default option, and is the fastest way to display an
identifiable image.
15

High Quality:
Draws a raster image or vector graphic at High Resolution default This option provides the
highest quality but the slowest performance. Use this option when you want to fine-tune an
image.
The IMA Architectural Framework:
Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) represent real-time computer network airborne systems.
This network consists of a number of computing modules capable of supporting numerous
applications of differing criticality levels.
The I M A concept proposes an integrated architecture with application software portable
across an assembly of common hardware modules. An (IMA) architecture imposes multiple
requirements on the underlying Operating System.
Network Architecture for Multimedia Systems:
The I P Multimedia Subsystem I M S is an architectural framework for delivering Internet
Protocol I P multimedia services. It was originally designed by the wireless standards body
third Generation Partnership Project 3 G P P, as a part of the vision for evolving mobile
networks beyond G S M. Its original formulation 3 G P P R 5represented an approach to
delivering Internet services over GPRS. This vision was later updated by 3 G P P [P] 3 G P P
2 and TISPAN by requiring support of networks other than G P R S, such as Wireless LAN,
C D M A 2000 and fixed line.
Networking standards:
All networking technologies have standards associated with them. These are usually highly
technical documents, and often presume that the reader has a fair bit of knowledge about
networking. If you aren't an expert, you will probably have some difficulty understanding
networking standards. (Some people seem to think I am an expert, but I too have trouble
with most of the details in a typical networking standard). In fact, many technologies have
quite a number of standards associated with them.
A networking technology may have more than one standard for any or all of the following
reasons:
The original standard has been revised or updated
The technology is sufficiently complex that it needs to be described in more
than one document
The technology borrows from or builds on documents used in related technologies
More than one organization has been involved in developing the technology Standards
documents created in the United States are usually developed in English, but are also
routinely translated into other languages. European standards are often published
simultaneously in English French and German, and perhaps other languages as well. Today,
virtually all networking standards are open standards, administered by a standards
organization or industry group.

16

5. Explain the evolving technologies in multimedia systems.(8) (Apr/May 2010) (Nov/Dec


2011)
(Nov/Dec 2013)
Evolving Technologies for Multimedia Systems
Hypermedia Documents:
When someone turns on a computer, puts a C D compact disc in its C D drive, and
listens to her favorite music while she works on a paper, she is experiencing multimedia.
Other examples of multimedia usage include looking at pictures taken from a digital camera.
In contrast, surfing the World Wide Web, following links from one site to another, looking for
all types of information, is called experiencing hypermedia. The major difference between
multimedia and hypermedia is that the user is more actively involved in the hypermedia
experience, whereas the multimedia experience is more passive.
Technology:
Multimedia applications need computers that support multi sensory I O devices. In
these systems, the output devices can present visual material in the form of text, graphics,
or video, as well as voice and music components. Multimedia computer systems are
providing specialized devices to enter data into the computer system. For example, a
scanner can be used to capture still images, voice can be recorded with a microphone and
digitizer, and video can be handled with a camera and digitizer. To store multimedia files,
which take up a lot of storage, most systems use C D ROMs (compact disc read only
memory). However, high end systems accomplish video decompression with add on boards
that continue to decrease in price. Evolving
standards for image and video compression include J P E G (Joint Photographic Experts
Group) for still image compression, and M P E G (Motion Picture Coding Experts Group) for
motion picture image compression.
HDTV and UDTV
You have been watching television all of your life, and all of a sudden, along comes HD T V.
This new technology might seem incredibly costly, confusing, and unnecessary,but for the
space of this article, we will ask you to take a deep breath and try to forget all of that. H D T
V does not need to be an incomprehensible morass of technical terms, jargon, and
marketing hype, because at heart, it is pretty darn simple H D T V is a better picture. It does
have some unique requirements, however, so we'll guide you through what to expect.

17

As of today most new televisions sold in the United states are HDTV . In fact, It is probably
just a matter of time before we all decide to do away with the cumbersome H D and go back
to referring to all H D T V as simply.
That process will still take awhile though First, Americans will have to replace their old
televisions with new high definition models, T V stations and providers need to phase out
standard definition. Broadcasts in favor of high definition ones, and TV producers will need
to make all of their shows in high definition.
3D - Technologies and holography
Holograms are images capable of recording 3 D information on a flat piece of film by using
the interference of light, typically laser light. While a picture captures one image of a scene,
a hologram can capture thousands of images from a scene. This is what you are seeing
when you look at a 3 D scene: as you look around the object, you see many different images
of the object, each from a different point of view. Because a hologram can capture more than
just one image, it is capable of replaying the many different points of view, giving you the
look around effect of 3 D. A hologram can also use these many different captured images to
create motion, as well as 3 D.
HOLOGRAPHIC MOVIES and our latest development:
3-DIMENSIONAL DIGITAL CINEMA AND T V. Until very recently, it was just a dream, just a
bunch of laboratory experiments. Now these technologies are ready for commercial use, and
our Laboratories are introducing exciting projects and investment opportunities:
The Worlds First Holographic Movie Theater
The Worlds First 3 D Digital Movie Theater
Holographic Advertising Technology
Holographic Business Presentations
New 3 D Computer Displays
3 D Digital Television
Instant 3 D Stage Sets for Drama Ballet Theaters, Opera Houses, Musicals and
Rock Concerts
Dynamic Interference Control System
Fuzzy logic :
This is the first in a series of intended to share information and experience in the
realm of fuzzy logic F L and its application. This will introduce F L. Through the course of this
series, a simple implementation will be explained in detail.
The concept of Fuzzy Logic, It as a way of processing data by allowing partial set
membership rather than crisp set membership or non-membership. This approach to set
18

theory was not applied to control systems until the 70's due to insufficient small computer
capability prior to that time.
The numerical information input, and yet they are capable of highly adaptive control. If
feedback controllers could be programmed to accept noisy, imprecise input, they would be
much more effective and perhaps easier to implement. Unfortunately, United-states.
Manufacturers have not been so quick to embrace this technology while the Europeans and
Japanese have been aggressively building real products around it.
In this context, F L is a problem solving control system methodology that lends itself to
implementation in systems ranging from simple, small, embedded micro controllers to large,
networked, multi channel P C or workstation based data acquisition and control systems. It
can be implemented in hardware, software, or a combination of both. FL provides a simple
way to arrive at a definite conclusion based upon vague, ambiguous, imprecise, noisy, or
missing input information. F L's approach to control problems mimics how a person would
make decisions, only much faster.
Digital Signal Processing (DSP) :
Digital signal processors (D S P) are special microprocessors designed for digital signal
processing, usually in real time. D S Ps can also be used to perform general purpose
computations; however, they are not optimized for this function. Instead, D S Ps use an
instruction set architecture I S A that is optimized for rapid signal processing. Important I S A
features include deep pipelining to enhance microprocessor performance and the ability to
act as a direct memory access device D M A for the host environment. Digital signal
processors also use Harvard architecture with separate program and data memory. In
addition, D S Ps use saturation arithmetic so that overflow operations accumulate at the
maximum or minimum
values that the register can hold instead of wrapping around. With D S Ps, the maximum
remains the maximum. By contrast, with many general-purpose CPUs, the
Sum of the maximum plus one equals the minimum.

19

D S P Fundamentals:
Most D S P techniques are based on a divide and conquer strategy called superposition.
The signal being processed is broken into simple components, each component is
processed individually, and the results reunited. This approach has the tremendous power of
breaking a single complicated problem into many easy ones.
Superposition can only be used with linear systems, a term meaning that certain
mathematical rules apply. Fortunately, most of the applications encountered in science and
engineering fall into this category. This chapter presents the foundation of D S P: what it
means for a system to be linear, various ways for breaking signals into simpler components,
and how superposition provides a variety of signal processing techniques.

6. Explain the various multimedia data interface standards.(6)(Nov/Dec 2007) .(Nov/Dec 2013)
Or Present an outline on various multimedia data interface standards. Compare and contrast
them. (Nov/ Dec 2012) (May/Jun 2013)
File formats for multimedia systems:
The present invention relates to an integrated multimedia file format
and a multimedia service system and method based on the integrated
format

structure; and, more particularly, to an


20

structure,

multimedia

file

integrated multimedia file format

structure and an

integrated multimedia service system and method suitable for

generating and

providing

integrated contents based on the integrated multimedia

format structure
Video processing standards:
Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems treats a number of critical topics
in multimedia systems, with respect to image and video processing techniques and their
implementations. These techniques include:
Image and video compression techniques standards
Image and video indexing and

retrieval techniques.

Video and Image Processing in Multimedia Systems is divided into three parts. Part
one

serves as an introduction to multimedia systems, discussing basic concepts,

multimedia

networking and synchronization, and an overview of multimedia applications. It

presents

comprehensive coverage of image and video compression techniques and

standards, their

implementations and applications. Because multimedia data specifically

video and images

require efficient compression techniques in order to be stored and

delivered in real -time, video

and image compression is a crucial element of an effective

multimedia system. In Part three attentions are focused on the semantic nature of image
and video source material, and how

that

retrieved. Topics discussed include static

material may be effectively indexed and


images, full - motion video, and the manner

in which compressed representations can facilitate

structural

analysis

Microsoft AVI :
QuickTime is an extensible proprietary multimedia framework developed by Apple
Inc.,
Mac

capable

of handling various formats of digital video, picture, sound, panoramic

images,

and interactivity.

It is available for Mac OS classic (System 7 onwards),

OS X and

Microsoft Windows operating systems. The latest version is QuickTime X

(10.0) and is currently only available on Mac OS X v10.6.


Quick Time, is defined by Apple Computer, refers to both the extensions to the Mac
operating

system and to the compression / decompression functionality of the

environment. File formats that QuickTime supports natively (to varying degrees) include
AIFF, WAV, DV-DIF, MP3, and

MPEG program stream. With additional QuickTime

Components, it can also support ASF, DivX


and many others.

21

Media Format, Flash Video,Matroska, Ogg,

Intels DVI
DVI is an acronym of digital video Interface. DVI standard is to provide a processor
Independent specification for a video interface. That video interface should accommodate
most compression algorithms for fast multimedia displays.
The wide range of requirements for displays from low-resolution text only to fast fullmotion

video GUI displays, require a range of different solutions, from using the

workstations or PCs

CPU to dedicated chips and processors designed to support DVI.

An example of custom designed chip which supports DVI is Intels i750B. This chip is
designed

for enhancing low-end, software based PC video.

Advantages if DVI Chip:


(i) It can operate software video processing in real time.
(ii) It can share the processing with the host CPU
(iii) It can handle additional vector-quantization-type algorithms in conjunction with
host processing.
DVI silicon chip relies on a programmable video processor. It gives potential to DVI
Chips to run a range of compression algorithms.

7. Explain in detail about multimedia data base. List out the various challenges of multimedia
database.(16) (May/June 2011) (Nov/ Dec 2012)
Multimedia Database Systems
The multimedia database systems are to be used when it is required to administrate huge
amounts of multimedia data objects of different types of data media (optical storage,
videotapes, audio records, etc.)
so that they can be used (that is, efficiently accessed and searched)for as many applications
as needed.
The Objects of Multimedia Data are: text, images. Graphics, sound recordings, video
recordings, signals, etc., that are digitalized and stored.
Multimedia Data are to be compared in the following way: Medium Elements Configuration
Typical size Time dependent Sense
The need and efficiency of MM-DBS are to be defined by following requirements:
Basic service:
To be used for multiple applications
Not applicable as a real end-user system (like program interface)
Storage and retrieval of MM-Data:
22

For the Storage:


input of MM objects
composition (to multimedia objects) (example: authoring systems)
Archive of data (in hardware and format independent way)
For the Retrieval:
Support of complex search
Efficiency (indices etc.)
Evaluation (aggregation, filtering)
Preview
Also conversions (needed to gain or lead to hardware and format independence)
For the Update
Only replace or also edit? (the complexity depends on).

Multimedia Database Systems have to be capable:


1. Support of multimedia data types, i.e. data types as data structures, including type of data
and operations
2. Capability to manage very numerous multimedia objects, store them and search for them
3. To include a suitable memory management system, to improve performance, high
capacity,
cost optimization
4. Database system features:
Persistency
Transaction concept
Multi-user capability
Recovery
Ad-hoc queries
Integrity constrains (which leads to consistency)
Safety
Performance
5. Information retrieval features:
Attribute-based search
Content-based search

23

Integrity Constrains for MM-DB Applications


The following features are typical for MMDB:
Unique, Primary-key Constraints
Referential integrity
Via foreign keys (RM)
Via OIDs (OO)
Existential integrity
NOT NULL constraints
Integrity rules (check clauses)
Trigger
Specifically for OO:
Pre- and post conditions for methods
Constraints of the class hierarchy
Partition conditions (Disjointness constraints)
Advantages of Multimedia Database Systems
integrated administration of huge amounts of multimedia data
optimized storage
Efficient access
manyfold complex search possibilities
Referential integrity of links
Transaction protected multiuser mode
Recovery etc.
Multimedia-DB applications
Fields of application:
Static/passive:
Retrieval / Information / Archive

(Libraries, video on demand, information systems, press,

hospitals)
Databases, information retrieval
Static/active
Education / Commercials/ Entertainment (School, university, professional training, games,
commercials)
CSE, Teach ware, Courseware, CBT,
24

Dynamic/passive
Writing / Publications/ Design(Press, engineering, architecture)
Editors, layout generators, CAD-systems
Dynamic/active
Controlling/Monitoring (Factories, traffic, weather forecast, military)
Transaction management for multimedia systems
A database transaction comprises a unit of work performed within a database
management system or similar system against a database, and treated in a coherent
and reliable way independent of other transactions. Transactions in a database
environment have two main purposes:
1. To provide reliable units of work that allow correct recovery from failures and
keep a database consistent even in cases of system failure, when execution
stops completely or partially and many operations upon a database remain
uncompleted, with unclear status.
2. To provide isolation between programs accessing a database concurrently.
Without isolation the programs outcomes are typically erroneous.
A database transaction, by definition, must be atomic, consistent, isolated and
durable.

Database

practitioners

often

refer

to

these

properties

of

database

transactions using the acronym ACID.


Transactions provide an all or nothing proposition, stating that each work unit
performed in a database must either complete in its entirety or have no effect
whatsoever.

Further,

the

system

must

isolate

each

transaction

from

other

transactions, results must conform to existing constraints in the database, and


transactions that complete successfully must get written to durable storage.

25