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CHAPTER 1

PREFACE
1.1 Introduction

Nowadays, the total of buildings increase every years. In Kuala Terengganu,


there is small shopping mall in town but dont have more space to park the cars. So,
the government has taken the serious action to overcome the problem. According to
the problem, Kuala Terengganu has taken an action to overcome this problem. They
provide to build a building that consists the parking area, bowling centre and cinema
area. It is located at Jalan Tengku Embong Fatimah, Mukim Bandar, Kuala
Terengganu. It is beside the PB Square, which is consists shopping mall, hotel and
office. Then, PB Sentral is beside the PB Square which is consist parking area can
make an easy to the public to park their cars. Using of Hollow Core Slab (HCS) an
effective solution besides on reasonable cost, it also suitable and easier compare to
any structure system such as in situ concrete, steel frame or steel structure. This
hollow core plank construct hold on size depend on developers. Hollow Core is
needed in construction when the project need a fast completion and maximum space
that not use a lot of column such as office building, car park, and bowling.

1.2 Objective of Case Study


Objective of this case study are:
i.
ii.

To study the construction method of Hollow Core Slab.


To determine the different between Pre-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete and Post

iii.

tensioned Prestressed Concrete.


To identify the machinery & equipment of Hollow Core Slab.

1.3 Scope of Study

The scope of this study is to focus on installation the Precast Hollow Core Slab
(HCS). Installing the Hollow Core Slab has certain method and system. All
installation in construction must follow the method statement that has been prepare,
people must refer to method statement to avoid from failure.
The hollow core slab wide used in construction such as the bridge. But, this project
used the hollow core slab to construct the building to support load such as car, people
and furniture. In detail, will explain it more in chapter 3 on how to install the Precast
Hollow Core Slab (HCS) until finish successfully.

1.4 Method of Study


In this case study the author have done several methods to get the information and to
know the detail of process done. The methods such as:
i. Observation
Information from what had been seen is not same with learn at construction site. It can
make easier to understand. It is because the information in the book more complicated
to understand.
ii. Research
In this method, do a research refer to internet and book to get the information about
the process in more detail. Other than that, the author had research more about the
material that is used to construct the building.
iii. Interview

interview several people who involve in this project, the workers, clerk of work,
supervisor, project manager, and engineer also have interview the staff of PMINT.

CHAPTER 2

COMPANY BACKGROUND

2.1 Introduction
Perbadanan Memajukan Iktisad Negeri Terengganu (PMINT) was established on 1st
April 1965, which is under the enactmen of government. The main purpose of
established is to be a lead agency for the state to carried out the development and
social-economic development in Terengganu state.

Figure 3.1: Logo of PMINT

2.1.1 Function of Organization


i.

Responsible for the design of the buildings, structures, architectures and


surveyors for development the projects to be carried by Perbadanan Memajukan

ii.
iii.

Iktisad Negeri Terengganu (PMINT).


Prepare the preliminary costs and detailed costs of a project.
Review the plan and design of the drawings that are prepared by architect.

2.2 Company Profile


Table 2.1: Company Profile
Sources: www.pmint.gov.my (2014).
Company Logo

Company Name

: Perbananan Memajukan Iktisad Negeri

Company Address

Terengganu(PMINT)
: Tingkat 13, Menara PERMINT, Jalan Sultan
Ismail, 20200 Kuala Terengganu. Terengganu
Darul Iman

Company Mission

Memajukan Pelbagai Sumber dan Sektor


untuk
Pembangunan Ekonomi Negeri Terengganu
Ke Arah
Kesejahteraan Rakyat

Company Vision

: Peneraju Penjana Dan Penyumbang Utama


Pembangunan Sosio-Ekonomi Negeri

Company Motto

: KEPERLUAN & KEPUASAN


PELANGGAN KEUTAMAAN KAMI

Company Email.
Company Phone No.

: admin@pmint.gov.my
: 09 - 627 8000

Company Fax No.

: 09 - 623 3880

2.3 Organization Chart of PMINT


Chart 2.1: Organization Chart of PMINT
6

Sources: www.pmint.gov.my (2014).

General Manager
Dato Haji Osman b. Muda

Deputy General Manager (P & P)

Deputy General Manager (HEK)

Tuan Haji M. Harith b. Hassan

Tuan Haji A.Aziz b. Che Talib

Technical Senior Manager

Housing Senior Manager

Tuan Haji Wan Salehuddin b. Wan Ishak Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman b. Mohd Yusof

Corporate Senior Manager


Tuan Haji Razaki b. Puteh

Management
Property Maintenance Senior Manager
Encik Mohamed b. Latef

Audit Manager

Town Planning Manager

Cik Norma bt. Rafie

Encik Mahadi b. Ibrahim

Property Management

Financial Manager
Encik Nor Azam b. A.
Rahman @ Yusof

Survey Design &


Administration & Human

Material Manager

Resources Manager

Puan Hajah Siti Marina

Puan Zawiah binti Zakaria

bt. Sulaiman

Technical Services

Information Technology

Housing of RAKR

Manager

Manger

Manager

Manager
Encik Wan Muhammad
Zulkifli bin Wan Ismail

Tuan Haji Mohd Safee b.


Ab Latiff

Encik Wan Muhd Masyhum Tuan Haji Wan Yussoff


bin Wan Harujan

b. Wan Ismail

Law Enforcement

Property Maintenance

Manager

Manager

Tuan Haji Azmal b.

Puan Hajah Norriah bt.

Azaddin

Abdullah

Commercial Housing &


Shop Manager
Tuan Haji Hamzah b.
Muda

Industrial Development &


Entrepreneurship
Manager
Puan Norzihan bt. Abdul Karim

2.4 List of Projects


Table 2.2: List of Projects

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

List of project
Unit
Perumahan KP Perdana 1A
14
Perumahan KP Perdana 3A
36
Perumahan KP Perdana 3B
36
Perumahan Permint Putera III
26
Perumahan Seberang Paka II
55
Perumahan Gong Badak 8
16
Perumahan KP Perdana Fasa 4
36
Paya Bunga Square
1
Paya Bunga Sentral
1
Sources: www.pmint.gov.my (2014).

cost (RM)
5,622,733.26
6,949,381.92
8,200,599.72
5,419,342.00
10,632,938.02
5,845,930.00
12,847450.00
95,000,000.00
89,968,577.00

2.4.1 Completed Projects


Table 2.3: Completed Projects
Sources: www.pmint.gov.my (2014).
No.
1
2
3
4

List of projects
Paya Bunga Square
Perumahan Kg. Cabang, Kerteh
Perumahan KP Perdana Fasa IV
Gong Badak 8

Cost (RM)
RM 95,000,000.00
RM 425,245.00
RM488,900.00
RM550.700.00

5
6
7

Taman Seri Binjai II, Binjai Rendah


Bengkel Perindustrian Jakar 3 (Fasa 3A)
Bengkel IKS Chendering, Kuala

RM 307,300.00
RM 1,381,900.00
RM 863,000.00

Terengganu
Bengkel IKS Teres 1 Tingkat Teluk

RM 438,160.00

Kalung

Bengkel IKS Berkembar 1 Tingkat


Teluk Kalung

2.4.2 Project in Progress


10

RM 833,880.00

Table 2.4: Project in Progress


Sources: www.pmint.gov.my (2014).
No.
1
2
3
4

List of projects
Housing KP Perdana 1A
Housing KP Perdana 3A
Housing KP Perdana 3B
Cadangan
merancang,
merekabentuk,

Cost (RM)
5,622,733.26
6,949,381.92
8,200,599.72

membina, menyiapkan, menguji, mentauliah


dan menyelenggara pusat rekreasi (10 lapis)

89,968,577.00

yang mengandungi 7 unit lot kdai ( 1 lapis),


parking bertingkat (6 lapis) pusat bowling ( 1
lapis), cineplax (2 lapis serta kerja-kerja
berkaitan.

CHAPTER 3

PRECAST HOLLOW CORE SLAB (HCS)

3.1 Introduction of Case Study


This project is developed by Perbadanan Memajukan Iktisad Negeri Terengganu
(PMINT) and KIP Sdn. Bhd. PB Central is a building that consist parking and also
have cinema (Cineplex), shop and entertainment for public.
PB central will make Kuala Terengganu best state in Malaysia as a Bandaraya
Warisan Pesisir Pantai. It was design by AHS Architecture Sdn. Bhd. The design is
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inspired as a traditional design to look vintage and quality traditional art of


Terengganu. (RM 89,968,577.00)

Photo 3.1: Front View Of PB Central


Sources: Zamily mohamad (2014).

3.2 Project Background

The project is about to proposed the parking area and recreation area at Kuala
Terengganu. It is located at 4133-4140, 5035-5038, 3068-3071, at Tengku Embong
Fatimah Road, Mukim Bandar, Kuala Terengganu. This project start 27 th January 2013
and will finish on 7th November 2015. This project period about 145 week.

Next, this project purpose in building is to provide a parking about 6 storey, bowling 1
storey and cineplex 2 storey. First objective is to provide a parking to avoid from
crowded parking at that area. PB Sentral consist a bridge that link to Lembaga Hasil
Dalam Negeri (LHDN), Perbananan Memajukan Iktisad Negeri Terengganu (PMINT)
and PB Square to give a contentment to public.
12

Photo 3.2: Construction Site of PB Central

3.2.1 Company Organization (PB Central Project)


Chart 3.1: Organization of PMINT (PB central project)
Sources: Kip structure Sdn. Bhd (2014)

13

3.2.2 Project Organization


Table 3.1: Project Organization
Sources: Monthly Project Report (2014)
OWNER

PERBADANAN MEMAJUKAN
IKTISAD NEGERI TERENGGANU

PROJECT DIRECTOR

(PMINT)
PENGURUS BESAR, PMINT,JALAN
SULTAN ISMAIL,20200 KUALA

CHECKED

TERENGGANU
MOHD ASBI & ASSOCIATES
TINGKAT 1 LOT PT 2024 K
PERKEDAIAN TAMAN PERMINT
JASA FASAL 2, CHENDERING
21280 KUALA TERENGGANU
14

TEL : 609 617 8000


ARCHITECT

FAX : 609 617 9000


AHS ARCHITECT SDN. BHD.
NO. 219, TINGKAT 2, WISMA MCA
JALAN SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN
20000 KUALA TERENGGANU
TEL : 609 622 8541

CIVIL AND STRUCTURE

FAX : 609 622 8542


ENTECH CONSULT
3187K, TINGKAT 2,
KOMPLEKS PERMINT HARMONI
JALAN BATAS BARU
20300 KUALA TERENGGANU
TEL : 609 625 1757
FAX : 609 625 1785

MECHANICAL AND

EMECH CONSULTING

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING
3484-B, JALAN PANJI ALAM
21100 KUALA TERENGGANU
TEL : 609 626 7336
FAX : 609 626 7335

QUANTITY SURVEY

PERUNDING NFL SDN. BHD.


219, TINGKAT 3, WISMA MCA
JALAN SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN,
20200 KUALA TERENGGANU.
TEL : 09-6318150
FAX : 09-6318150

CONTRACTOR

KIP STRUCTURE SDN. BHD


UNIT NO. 5, TING 2, BLOK C,
15

BISTARI CENTRE, JALAN HILIRAN,


20300 KUALA TERENGGANU.
TEL : 09-631 6554

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3.2.3 Organization Chart PB Central Project


Chart 3.2: Organization of PB Central Project
Source: Zamily Mohamad (2014).

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3.2.4 Contract Information


Contract No.

: 1/2013

Contract Value

: RM 89,968,577.00

Date Approvel

: 9 Januari 2013

:
Project Start

: 27 Januari 2013

Project finish

: 07 November 2015

Contract period

: 145 Minggu

Mentainence period

: 2 Thn, 3 Bln, 28 Hari

Jkkp Regerister No

: Tg/13/03/1802

Insuran

ce

: Contractors All Risks (CAR)

Policy No

: TECR-PC655604-BRTEKTG

Insurance Period

: 27/01/2013 - 07/11/2015

Maintenance Period

: 08/11/2015 - 21/02/2018

Workmen Compensation

Policy No

: TLWC-PC656660-BRTEKTG

Insurance period

: 27/01/2013 - 07/11/2015

Maintenance period

: 08/11/2015 - 21/02/2018

PERKESO Register No.

: F820

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3.2.5 Project Location


3.2.5.1 Location Plan

Figure 3.2: Location Plan

3.2.5.2 Site Plan

Figure 3.3: Site Plan

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3.3 Case Study


3.3.1 Hollow Core Slab (HCS)
A Hollow Core Slab (HCS) can be defined as a voided slab or hollow core
plank, it is a precast slab of prestressed concrete typically used in the construction.
The precast concrete slab has tubular void extending the full length of the slab, this
make the slab much lighter than a massive floor slabs of equal thickness or strength.
Hollow Core is needed in construction when the project need a fast completion
and maximum space that not use a lot of column such as office building, car park, and
bowling.

Photo 3.3: Hollow Core Slab

20

3.3.2 Characteristic of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)


Following below is the characteristic were given in one unit of hollow core plank such
as:
i.

Scale about > 6 m until 18 m long.

ii.

Consist 1200 mm of width and consist 150 mm, 200 mm, 250 mm, and 300 mm
deep or height.

iii.

Consist of steel reinforcement and strand wire.

iv.

Consist of void or drainage hole.

Photo 3.4: Hollow Core Serial Number And Spec

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Photo 3.5: Plastic Plug


Plastic plug is a plastic that protect the hollow in HCS from allow thing go inside the
hollow. The plastic plug function in concreting process is to avoid the concrete slurry
go inside into the hollow core slab void.

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3.3.3 Different between Pre-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete and


Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete
3.3.3.1 Pre-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete
Pre-tensioned concrete always done in precast plant. A pre-tensioned
prestressed concrete member is cast in a performed casting bed. The bonded wires
(tendons) are tensioned prior to the concrete hardening.after the concrete hardens to
approximately 75% of the specified compressive strength. The tendons are released
and axial compressive load is then transmitted to the cross-section of the member.

Figure 3.4: Pre-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete


Sources :AECT(2002)

3.3.3.2 Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete


A post-tensioned member has uncoated tendons cast into concrete in draped
patterns. After the concrete hardens to about 75% of the specified compressive
strength. The tendon are tensioned and try to straighten out. This creates an upward
chamber of the member which offsets anticipated downward deflection due to gravity
loads. Post-tensioning can be accomplished on-site as necessary.
23

Figure 3.5: Post-Tensioned Prestressed Concrete


Sources: AECT (2002)

3.3.4 Safety and Health

24

Following below is procedure for safety and health such as:


i.

All workers are required to wear Personnel Protective Equipment (PPE) i.e.
safety helmets, safety boots and safety vest when working on site.

ii.

Site personnel shall be well briefed and versed with all site safety equipment.

iii.

Site personnel shall be in proper safety working attire (PPE).

iv.

A crane shall only be operated by competent operator.

v.

A safety belt of the lifting device must be always used when lifting and it is
always tightened and secured by locking.

vi.

The lifting device is fixed so that the safety belt can be released from the already
installed side of the floor.

Photo 3.6: Worker Wear A Proper PPE

3.3.5 Advantages Using of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)

25

Following below is an advantages of utilization of Hollow Core Slab at construction


site such as:
i.

Fast installation, can save a time and save a cost of construct.

ii.

Consist of stability on slab platform and can be used for another work.

iii.

Consist high Fire resistance force and good sound insulated.

iv.

Consist high capacity of load and can be used for a long period.

3.3.6 Disvantages Using of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)


Following below is disvantages of utilization of Hollow Core Slab at construction site
such as:
i.

Need high caution and high supervision.

ii.

Order Hollow Core Slab need to make sure size and quantity is correctly to
place on.

iii.

Skilled worker need to take risk on installation of Hollow Core Slab because it
have heavy weight.

iv.

Controlling from Tower Crane need to make sure safety first to avoid injure
happen.

Photo 3.7: Crack on HCS

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3.3.7 Equipment and machinery of Hollow Core Slab


Table 3.2: Equipment and Machinery
No.
1

Equipment and Tool of HCS

Function
To lift the hollow core slab that not
exceeding than 8 tons.

Photo 3.8: Tower crane


2

To brought the hollow core slab form


factory to site. Length of lorry about 13
meters.

Photo 3.9: Lorry


3

To ensure that a pour is even and free of


air bubbles so that the concrete will
remain strong and have a smooth finish
even after the formwork is removed.

Photo 3.10: Vibrator

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To make the surface smooth at flat


finishes for concrete slab.

Photo 3.11: Power floating


5

To clamp the hollow core slab at groove


line.

Photo 3.12: Clamper


6

To support the load of hollow core slab.

Photo 3.13: Rope/Sling

To provide a secondary support if the


hollow core slab flip from clamper.

Photo 3.14: Safety chain

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To avoid from NIB beam touch to the


hollow core slab.

Photo 3.15: Neophrene strip


9

To transport mix concrete from industrial


to site.

Photo 3.16: Ready mix concrete


lorry

3.3.8 Construction Method of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)


3.3.8.1 Preparation before installation of Hollow Core Slab
Before installation of Hollow Core Slab proceed. There is a matter to attention.
Therefore, preparation work need to do such as:

29

i.

Drafting an installation plan first. Choice a suitable lifting device on site and
weight of Hollow Core Slab.

ii.

Make sure the worker wear a Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) at


construction site.

iii.

Prepare a suitable exist and entrance for lorry

iv.

Check a lifting device before starting a work.

v.

Store the Hollow Core Slab onto a horizontal hard base.

Photo 3.17: Lorry (13 meters)

3.3.8.2 Checking of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)


After preparation work done. Checking work on Hollow Core Slab (HCS) also must
be done to make sure it on good condition such as:

30

Compare the Hollow Core Slab (HCS) at site and plan, checking a label, size, length,
and quantity. Checking an equipment such as cables, clamper, safety chain, and belt in
good condition. Dont lifting if equipment is broken.

Photo 3.18: Clamper and Safety Chain

Photo 3.19: Rope

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Photo 3.20: Tag of Rope

3.3.8.3 Inspection works


Firstly, prior to the commencement of hollow core slab (HCS) installation,
check the spacing between supports/ nib (CIS beam) to make sure that it is sufficient
for HCS to seat on. The setting out of the HCS is measure and mark on the supports/
nib. Neoprene strip must be laid on the top surface of the supports/ nib for the HCS to
seat on.

32

Photo 3.21: Inspections Work

Photo 3.22: Laid the Neoprene Strip

3.3.8.4 Lifting and Installation of Hollow Core Slab (HCS)

The workers on the trailer will put the clamper across the HCS at both ends and
that the key of the clamper must be fit into the horizontal groove on the side of HCS.

Photo 3.23: Prepare to Lift the HCS

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3.3.8.5 Install the clamper to HCS


The signal men will instruct the tower crane slowly hoist up the HCS. The tower
crane stops immediately when a gap appears underneath the HCS. Workers will install
the safety chain around the HCS and tie it back to the clampers.

Photo 3.24: Adjust the Clamper

34

Photo 3.25: Tie Safety Chain


Tighten and lock a clamper to make sure it compact before lifting work. Hollow Core
Slab lifting slowly by operator luffing tower crane after get an order by site
supervisor. Operator must carefully with movement or swing plank.

3.3.8.6 Lifting the HCS


Next, for the Tower Crane 1 which are located at GL: B-C/4-5, the working radius of
installation of HCS (45 pcs) had been covered for GL: A-B/1-8.For the Tower Crane 2
which are located at GL: B-C/11-12, the working radius of installation of HCS (45
pcs) had been covered for GL: A-B/8-15.

Photo 3.26: Tower Crane 1 and 2

Other than that, Tower Crane will pick up a HCS from the trailer by using a special
lifting tool. The lifting tool consists of a long spreader beam with 2 clampers and
attach to it at both ends with 2 short wire ropes. Each clamper will be equipped with a
safety chain.

35

The workers will stay away from the HCS when the crane starts to hoist it to the
install location.

Photo 3.27: Lifting Work


The tower crane will start to slow down when the HCS is approaching the install
location so that the workers can hold it to the correct orientation & position. Next,
safety chains are then removed from the HCS. The signal men will instruct the crane
to lower down the HCS. The crane stop immediately when the HCS is touch on the
neoprene strip on the supports.

Refer to the engineer, angle of between three quarter end point of plank not more than
60.Supervisor give an order to operator tower crane to place a Hollow Core Slab on
NIB beam.

36

Photo 3.28: Put the HCS Slowly

Safety chain were open from plank about 100 mm from support (beam).
Handling plank with installation bar to make sure a plank in suitable and correct
place.
Make sure there is no crack on plank. If crack happen, that plank must be reject to
avoid an injure

Photo 3.29: release the safety chain

3.3.8.7 Checking on HCS seating place


37

The workers will check the seating of the HCS to ensure that it is comply with the
specification.

Photo 3.30: Check A Spacing From NIB Beam

3.3.8.8 Release the HCS


The tower crane then will release the wire ropes to let the HCS fully seat on the
supports. The clampers will be removed.

Photo 3.31: Release A Wire Ropes

3.3.8.9 Bending and patching work


38

After that, the shear key grouting start shortly after completion of HCS and
installation of shear key reinforcement bars at every groove. The workers will patch
the gap at the bottom of shear key groove with dry mixed of shear key grout (mortar
form). When the mortar is set, the workers will the dampened shear key groove by
spray water on the side surface (vertical) of HCS.

Photo 3.32: Bend The Shear Key

Photo 3.33: Patching The Shear Key

3.3.8.10 Grouting work


39

After the shear key groove is dampened, the shear key grout will be mixed with
water at the correct ratio by concrete mixer. The shear key grout will be poured into
the shear key groove after complete the mixing process. The height of the shear key
grout shall be 20-25mm below the top surface of HCS.
The top and bottom surface of HCS will be cleaned immediately after shear key
grouting complete.
The Shear Key Grout shall achieve a minimum strength of 20 MPa after 28 days.

Photo 3.34: Grounting Work

3.3.8.11 Installation of RD7 and bend the topping bar


40

Put the BRC type RD7, laid on the hollow core slab and the topping bar reinforcement
will be bend, and tie to the RD7.make sure put a spacer below the RD7

Photo 3.35: Install The RD7

Photo 3.36: Bend The Topping Bar

Photo 3.37: Tie The Topping Bar To RD7

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3.3.8.12 Concreting and finishes work


Other than that, Concreting work will operate when all installation has been
done. Usually, using grade 30N for slab, make sure that concrete must fulfill the
requirement, make sure that concrete mix correctly by using vibrator to avoid from
void. Lastly, put the floor hardener to make the slab surface smooth and flat.

Photo 3.38: Ready Mix Concrete lorry

Photo 3.39: Concreting Work


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3
4

CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

As a conclusion, there several process of hollow core slab. For example, lifting the
hollow core slab that involving the installation and construction of precast slab. Each
step must have a high safety to avoid any injure happen. Its take about 30 minutes
from start process to finished process. There are several test runs on the gaps between
beam and hollow core slab as purpose to know the stability, quantity and control
during installation. These tests allow the next hollow core slab can be proceed. Lastly,
installation of hollow core have done. Concrete work will be proceed to make sure
that surface is smooth by using a cement render by using machinery for complete a
work such as vibrator machine and power floating.
The several problem has been occurs on this site and several solution need to be taken
by management team. For examples, the problem that happened by worker which is
late come to work and have been give the effect against period of contract. The
solution need to be taken by management team such as appoint a believable worker to
monitor the worker that late come to site. Then give the punishment such as cut their
salary or give the warning.
The next problem is fast lifting caused crack of hollow core slab given by surveying.
Approved effect is that crack more than half of slab force to be rejected. All of this
will cause waste against money and materials. Therefore, this solution is all of the
data given from surveying must be rechecked by engineer.

43

REFERENCE

Azhar B. Y. (Resident engineer PB Central, Jun 15, 2014)


Mohamed K. (Safety Officer PB sentral, Jun 15, 2014)
Zamily M. (Project manager PB Central, Jun 15, 2014)
Norziha I. (Site Engineer PB central, Jun 15, 2014)
pHollow core floor slab (http://www.hollowcore.com.au/products/hcore) (n.d)
Different of pre-tensioning and post-tensioning
(http://theconstructor.org/concrete/prestressed/pre-tensioning-and-posttensioning/3291/) (n.d)
Advantage of hollow core slab (http://www.sirbegovic.com/index.php?
lang=en&sel=82) (n.d)
Collin, & Michael P. (1990). Prestressed Concrete Structure, Englewood
dddddCliffs,NJ.: Prentice Hall
Eilliot K. S. (2002). Precast Concrete Structure. Jordan: Oxford.
Gilbert R. I., & Mickle B. (1990). Design of Prestressed Concrete, London:
dddddHyman Ltd
Kong F. K., & Evans R. H. (1987). Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete,
dddddCambridge, ELBS Edition
Raju, N. K. (1989). Prestressed concrete, New Delhi: Tata Mcgraw-hill.

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