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A x displacement of the magnetic core between the two coils which is in fact the
differential inductive transducer, generates variations in opposite directions of their
inductances (fig 1.). The coils extremities are powered in alternative current with 2 harmonic
voltages in antiphase, +Va and Va, with pulsation . The output voltage Vm, measured at
the median grip of the transducer, has the value:
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Because, usually
Equality (5) shows an important result: the output voltage is directly proportional with
the displacement of the magnetic core.
Although the transducer follows a linear dependence of the coils inductances of the
magnetic core, this dependence results nonlinear in practice:
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It is observed that the square term is reduced at the nominator of the equality and in the
worst case it determines a decrease in sensitivity by the increase of the denominator in the
case in which k2 isnt small enough. The nonlinearity is determined mostly by the 3rd order
term which doesnt have an influence on stability, because right terms are reduced at the
nominator.
By differential measurement linearity is improved with respect to direct measurement
because usually the coefficients k2 and k3 are much smaller than 1. In the same time, the
weight of the 3rd order term is small because x/x0 is smaller than .
By displacement the core is modifies in opposite directions and the resistances of
the coil, R1 and R2, determined by magnetic losses and Focault currents. By choosing a
magnetic core with a narrow hysteresis cycle and high resistivity this effect becomes
negligible.
Bigger variations can appear due to temperature variation. These variations have a small
impact as long as:
2.2.
The displacement measurement convertor has a STAB voltage stabilizer which supplies
7.5 V to the OSC oscillator.
The Oscillator provides alternative with a frequency of approx. 5 kHz in order to supply
the transducer (windings S1 and S2 of transformer TR1) and a reference voltage (winding S3)
in order to command the phase sensitive detector DSF.
The voltage Vm measured at the transducer output is amplified by the ATA
transconductance amplifier tuned on oscillator frequency. Through TR2 transformer, its
current output stimulates the signal input of the DSF phase sensitive detector. The output
current from DSF is filtered by a LPF which ensures a constant direct voltage proportional
with Vm and is shown by voltmeter V.
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2.3.
The STAB voltage stabilizer is of derivative type. The stabilizing derivative element is
given by T5, Z1, R4, R5 and C6.
The OSC Oscillator is of LC type in 3 points. The oscillation frequency is determined
by the P, C3 circuit; amplitude limitation is done by the divider R2, R3 and C4.
In the windings S1 and S2 of the transformer, supply voltage +Va, Va, of the
transducer are produced.
The transducer can connect through terminal 1 at P1 for maximum sensitivity of
measurement or through terminal 2 and R1 for decreased sensitivity. Sensitivity is adjusted
using P1. The transconductance amplifier ATA is built out of the filtering circuit R11, C2, T2,
R6, T1 ,R7, R8 and transformer TR2 with secondary S2 tuned through C5 on the oscillator
frequency.
The input of this amplifier is the alternative voltage from P transmitted through C1 at
the base of transistor T2, and the output is the current from S2 at the input of DSF. Through
4
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the secondary winding S1 a seriesseries feedback takes place which determines an increase in
the circuits impedance both at input and output.
The halfwave DSF is built using T3 and T4 which open for only a halfwave of the
voltage Vr. These transistors are reverse connected, thus resulting a residual voltage much
lower than in the case of normal connection.
LPF is built out of R11 and C7.
3. Laboratory Work
We will determine the characteristics xME(x), L1(x), L2(x) where xME is the
displacement measured with the voltmeter at the output of PR 9309, L1 and L2 the coils
inductances of the transducer (PR 9314/05), and x the displacement mechanically measured
with the help of the micrometric screw. For this purpose, the micrometric screw is set to 0,00
and the displacements are from 2 to 2 mm until 20mm. The inductances L1 and L2 are
measured with a RLC bridge.
The results are place in the table below:
x[mm
]
xME[
V]
L1[m
H]
L2[m
H]
L1L2
L1L2
x[mm
]
xME[
V]
L1[m
H]
L2[m
H]
L1L2
L1L2
10
12
14
0,537
0,391
0,246
0,1
0,03
0,176
0,323
0,47
2,36
3,11
4,11
5,19
6,13
6,8
7,23
7,49
7,79
5,43
7,69
4,58
7,39
3,28
6,81
1,62
5,89
0,24
4,72
2,08
3,56
3,67
2,63
4,86
5,43
4,58
3,28
1,62
0,24
2,08
3,67
4,86
16
18
20
0,616
0,762
0,84
7,59
7,53
7,3
2,04
5,55
1,76
5,77
1,68
5,62
5,55
5,77
5,62
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xME[V]=f(x)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
xME[V]
0
0.2 0
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
L1[mH]=f(x)
8
7
6
5
L1[mH]
4
3
2
1
0
0
10
12
14
16
18
20
L2[mH]=f(x)
9
8
7
6
L2[mH]
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
10
12
14
16
18
20
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L1L2=f(x)
8
6
4
L1L2
2
0
2
10
12
14
16
18
20
4
6
L1L2=f(x)
7
6
5
L1L2
4
3
2
1
0
0
10
12
14
16
18
20
3.2. We visualize on CH2 of the scope and we draw the waveforms of the voltages in the
points TP2, TP4, TP5, TP3, TP7 (TP6 connected to TP0) having as reference on CH1, signal
TP1.
We calculate the nonlinearity of characteristics xME(x), L1(x), L2(x), L1(x) L2(x)
with respect to the point 3.1.
TP2:
antiphase
blue: input
red: output
x=6mm
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TP3:
blue: input
red: output
x=4mm
Vo=180mm (pp)
blue: input
red: output
x=20mm
Vo=280mm (pp)
TP7:
blue: input
red: output
x=4mm
Vo=700mm (pp)
blue: input
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red: output
x=20mm
Vo=7000mm (pp)
Slopes:
xME=f(x):  =
0,537(0,762 )
100=7
018
100=50
3,116,13
28 
6,812,63
 =
100=52
L2=f(x):
614 
3,283,67

=
100=86
L1L2=f(x):
412 
L1=f(x):
 =
4. Questions
4.1.
Why should the oscillation amplitude of OSC be settled?
The oscillation amplitude should be settled because the oscillator gives an alternative
voltage to supply the transductor and a reference voltage for the phase sensitive
detectors command. The alternative voltage Va should have a stable oscillation
amplitude because the transductors output voltage Vm should be proportional to the
magnetic cores displacement.
4.2.
Is the purity of the applied sine wave important?
The applied sine wave should be pure such that the output signal to be pure too,
because the output signal is proportional to the magnetic core displacement and it is
also amplified by the transconductance amplifier which is tuned on the oscillators
frequency.
4.3.
Which of the oscillograms distinguishes the disacord between the oscillators
frequency and the frequency on which the transconductance amplifier is tuned?
The required oscillogram is TP7 because the oscillator gives an alternative voltage for
the transductors supply and this voltage is proportional with the output voltage Vm.
This voltage is the input voltage for the transconductance amplifer, whose output
current is the current at the DSFs input.
4.4.
Which are the design criteria for the LPFs elements?
The LPFs elements are designed such that the cutoff frequency of the filter to be
higher than the oscillators frequency, so the higher harmonics of the oscillators
spectrum to be removed if the signal is not pure (contains perturbations).