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May 2013 Cover_4/06 Cover 4/16/13 9:29 AM Page C1

May 2013

WELDING JOURNAL VOLUME 92 NUMBER 5 MAY 2013


PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND APPLICATION OF WELDING
AND ALLIED JOINING AND CUTTING PROCESSES WORLDWIDE, INCLUDING BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND THERMAL SPRAYING

select arc_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:52 PM Page C2

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May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:41 AM Page 3

CONTENTS
30

42

May 2013 Volume 92 Number 5

AWS Web site www.aws.org

Features

Departments

30

Not Your Fathers Gas Shielded Flux Cored Electrodes


From general usage to specialized applications, flux cored
electrodes have come a long way since their early
development
T. Myers

36

Welding Resources for When Youre on the Go


Take a look at what is available in welding apps ready for
download to your tablet or smart phone
H. Woodward et al.

42

Improving Surfacing Performance with GMAW


A method of synchronizing polarity is used for applications
that require minimal dilution
J. C. Dutra et al.

48

Exploring the Forces that Shape Droplets during Gas Metal


Arc Welding
The key to improving gas metal arc welding is understanding
the physics of droplet formation
A. Yelistratov

Editorial ............................4
Press Time News ..................6
News of the Industry ..............8
International Update ............12
Stainless Q&A ....................14
RWMA Q&A ......................20
Product & Print Spotlight ......24
Coming Events....................54
Certification Schedule ..........58
Conferences ......................60
Welding Workbook ..............62
Society News ....................65
Tech Topics ......................66
Guide to AWS Services ........86
Personnel ........................88
Classifieds ........................95
Advertiser Index..................96

Welding Research Supplement


133-s Prediction of -Phase Embrittlement in Type 316FR
Weld Metal
The weldability of an advanced stainless steel developed for
the harsh service environment of a fast breeder reactor was
investigated
E. J. Chun et al.
140-s Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties
of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper
Based Multicomponent Steel
The HAZ mechanical properties were studied in the welds of
ultrahigh-strength NUCu-140 precipitation hardened steel
J. D. Farren et al.
148-s Preliminary Investigation on Ultrasonic-Assisted
Brazing of Titanium and Titanium/Stainless Steel Joints
The fracture behavior of dissimilar joints made with an ultrasonicassisted induction heating system were explored
A. Elrefaey et al.
154-s Dynamic Control of the GTAW Process Using a Human
Welder Response Model
The sensory system of a human welder was used as a model for
intelligent welding systems
W. J. Zhang and Y. M. Zhang

Welding Journal (ISSN 0043-2296) is published


monthly by the American Welding Society for
$120.00 per year in the United States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and
$10.00 per single issue for nonmembers and
$14.00 single issue for international. American
Welding Society is located at 8669 Doral Blvd., Ste.
130, Doral, FL 33166; telephone (305) 443-9353.
Periodicals postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Welding Journal, 8669 Doral Blvd.,
Suite 130, Doral, FL 33166. Canada Post: Publications Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to Bleuchip International, P.O. Box
25542,London, ON N6C 6B2
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of
articles for personal, archival, educational or
research purposes, and which are not for sale or
resale. Permission is granted to quote from articles, provided customary acknowledgment of
authors and sources is made. Starred (*) items
excluded from copyright.

On the cover: The fast-freezing slag system of all-position FCAW electrodes allows for better out-of-position welding capabilities. (Photo courtesy of The Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio.)

WELDING JOURNAL

Editorial May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 1:59 PM Page 4

EDITORIAL
Founded in 1919 to Advance the Science,
Technology and Application of Welding

Why You Should Join the


RWMA
My company has a long history in the Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance
(RWMA) with several of its personnel involved since the organizations founding in
1935. As this years RWMA chair, I have the unique opportunity to not only experience
regular member benefits, but also to see the workings inside the group. This scope of
involvement undoubtedly provides my company and me with unique economic value well
worth the cost of membership.
The focus of our volunteer effort in the resistance welding industry is to advance
resistance welding technology, broaden its use, and promote its economic benefits.
Thousands of engineers spanning a time period of more than 100 years have kept resistance welding a highly relevant joining process. Through this collective effort, resistance
welding has remained the most cost-effective process available for joining metals in a
wide range of industries.
RWMA, with the crucial support of AWS, maintains visibility at trade shows and in trade
journals around the world; provides the technical leadership for conducting the Emmet A.
Craig Resistance Welding School held in conjunction with FABTECH each year; provides
nearly every volunteer hour on AWS resistance welding-related technical committees; and
sponsors content-rich meetings with learning and networking opportunities.
The weld school is a mainstay program of the RWMA and AWS. Every year it introduces more people to resistance welding for the first time. Nearly everyone in the resistance welding industry either learned the technology from this school or has helped with
the curriculum and development of the school and the modern foundation of the process
found in the Resistance Welding Manual, 4th Edition (2003).
Membership in RWMA also provides access to a wealth of other educational opportunities. Perhaps most notably, meetings and events feature speakers willing to share
their incomparable and varied industry experience. Speakers at the Spring Annual
Meeting and Fall Working Meetings range from industry leaders dealing with the shortage of skilled labor to engineers and researchers giving highly technical presentations
that introduce and teach some of the latest trends and nuances of the technology. These
meetings draw a variety of resistance welding experts, such as Dr. Jerry Gould of the
EWI, keynote speaker at the annual meeting held in February in Tampa, Fla.
Another major value resulting from your RWMA membership is networking with key
players in the resistance welding industry. The RWMA presents many different venues
to meet suppliers, customers, and competitors in a constructive, positive environment.
With the addition of the deep resources of the AWS, RWMA membership has also
become a window to the world market for resistance welding technology. As you may
already know, AWS has become a leader in presenting welding technology to both developed and emerging markets. The focus on developed markets includes FABTECH,
Essen Welding & Cutting Fair, and Tokyo Welding Show. For more than a decade, AWS
has taken a leading role in emerging markets through participation in the Beijing-Essen
Welding & Cutting Fair, Arabia-Essen Welding & Cutting Fair, Brazil Welding Show,
and further refinement of the successful AWS Weldmex Show. RWMA and AWS have
created a compelling value proposition to the members of the Society and are uniquely
positioned to bring the best of American ingenuity to the world marketplace.
In a time of limited budgets, very busy calendars, and an overdose of media every day,
the RWMA presents clear value to its varied members. With RWMA stepping under the
umbrella of AWS as a Standing Committee in 2005,
the future effectiveness of this industry effort could
not be brighter. Your participation in RWMA will not
only benefit you individually but it will benefit all market participants collectively in a way that otherwise
would not be possible. Its in all of our interests to
keep resistance welding technology visible as the most
cost-effective joining process available for many applications and help our customers compete worldwide.

Mark B. Gramelspacher
Chair, RWMA

MAY 2013

Officers
President Nancy C. Cole
NCC Engineering
Vice President Dean R. Wilson
Well-Dean Enterprises
Vice President David J. Landon
Vermeer Mfg. Co.
Vice President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Treasurer Robert G. Pali
J. P. Nissen Co.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society

Directors
T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Global Welding Tech. Center
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Miami Diver
J. R. Bray (Dist. 18), Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
R. E. Brenner (Dist. 10), CnD Industries, Inc.
G. Fairbanks (Dist. 9), Fairbanks Inspection & Testing Services
T. A. Ferri (Dist. 1), Victor Technologies
D. A. Flood (At Large), Tri Tool, Inc.
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
K. L. Johnson (Dist. 19), Vigor Shipyards
J. Jones (Dist. 17), The Harris Products Group
W. A. Komlos (Dist. 20), ArcTech, LLC
T. J. Lienert (At Large), Los Alamos National Laboratory
J. Livesay (Dist. 8), Tennessee Technology Center
M. J. Lucas Jr. (At Large), Belcan Engineering
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
J. L. Mendoza (Past President), Lone Star Welding
S. P. Moran (At Large), Weir American Hydro
K. A. Phy (Dist. 6), KA Phy Services, Inc.
W. A. Rice (Past President), OKI Bering
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Marinette Marine Corp.
N. Saminich (Dist. 21), Desert Rose H.S. and Career Center
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
T. A. Siewert (At Large), NIST (ret.)
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), ACH Co.
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
M. R. Wiswesser (Dist. 3), Welder Training & Testing Institute
D. Wright (Dist. 16), Zephyr Products, Inc.

esab_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:45 PM Page 5

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PTN May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 1:58 PM Page 6

PRESS TIME
NEWS
GM Invests $332 Million for New Fuel-Efficient Powertrains
General Motors Co., Detroit, Mich., will invest nearly $332 million in four manufacturing sites to produce more fuel-efficient engines and transmissions.
The investment includes $215 million in Flint Engine Operations for a new small
Ecotec gas engine, part of a new engine family that includes three- and four-cylinder
variants with displacements from 1.0 to 1.5 L; $55.7 million in Toledo Transmission Operations for increased capacity and tooling to produce a new eight-speed automatic
transmission and an existing six-speed transmission; $31.7 million in Bay City Powertrain, including $19.2 million to produce components for a new V6 engine and $12.5
million to produce components for the small Ecotec gas engine; and $29.4 million in
Bedford Castings, including $19 million to produce components for the small gas engine and $10.4 million to produce components for the new eight-speed and existing sixspeed transmissions.
Also, GM is increasing powertrain investment in plants in Romulus and Saginaw,
Mich., to $646 million for supporting production of the new V6 engine. This consists of
a $41 million increase to $256 million for Saginaw Metal Castings Operations to produce castings for the new V6 engine and a $5 million increase to $390 million for Romulus Engine Operations to build the new V6 engines.
Combined, the two investments will retain about 1650 jobs at the six facilities.

Indiana Foundry Records One Million Worker Hours


without a Lost Time Accident
Bremen Castings Inc., Bremen, Ind., a family-owned foundry and machine shop, has
recorded one million worker hours without a lost-time accident, which is defined as an
occurrence that resulted in a fatality, permanent disability, or lost time from work of
one day or shift.
Weve implanted strategies and procedures to make sure that each and every employee is accountable for each others safety while at work, said President J. B. Brown.
He added the executive team analyzes near miss reports, filed by employees when
they notice something amiss, to determine changes that would prevent accidents from
occurring in the future.

Broadwind Energy Wins $49 Million in Tower Orders


Broadwind Energy, Inc., Cicero, Ill., recently announced $49 million in tower orders
from U.S. wind turbine manufacturers. This includes the following: $35 million for towers serving various domestic wind projects that will be produced in its Manitowoc, Wis.,
facility for delivery during 2013 and $14 million for producing towers in its Abilene, Tex.,
facility with delivery scheduled for the second half of 2013.
Weve seen a significant improvement in activity, and we are quoting orders for 2014
delivery as the wind energy industry recovers from the downturn at the end of 2012,
said Peter C. Duprey, company president and CEO.

National Safety Council Accepting Submissions


for 2013 Robert W. Campbell Award
The National Safety Council (NSC), Itasca, Ill., invites worldwide organizations to
apply for the 2013 Robert W. Campbell Award. Presented annually, it is given to an organization that integrates environmental, health, and safety management into the core
of its business operations and understands this is critical to its people, planet, and profit.
We are able to capture the best practices of our honorees through the development
of case studies detailing their continuous improvement process...we can then share these
lessons learned in boardrooms and classrooms worldwide, said Janet Froetscher, NSC
president and CEO.
Organizations can take a ten-question quiz at campbellaward.org/ready to determine
whether they are ready to apply for the award. More information can be found at
campbellaward.org along with application criteria. Final submittals must be postmarked
by May 31.

Publisher Andrew Cullison


Editorial
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Associate Editor Howard M. Woodward
Associate Editor Kristin Campbell
Editorial Asst./Peer Review Coordinator Melissa Gomez
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber
Design and Production
Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Senior Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman
Advertising
National Sales Director Rob Saltzstein
Advertising Sales Representative Lea Paneca
Advertising Sales Representative Sandra Jorgensen
Senior Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson
Subscriptions
Subscriptions Representative Tabetha Moore
tmoore@aws.org
American Welding Society
8669 Doral Blvd., Doral, FL 33166
(305) 443-9353 or (800) 443-9353
Publications, Expositions, Marketing Committee
D. L. Doench, Chair
Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair
ESAB Welding & Cutting Prod.
J. D. Weber, Secretary
American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
T. Coco, Victor Technologies International
L. Davis, ORS Nasco
D. DeCorte, RoMan Mfg.
J. R. Franklin, Sellstrom Mfg. Co.
F. H. Kasnick, Praxair
D. Levin, Airgas
E. C. Lipphardt, Consultant
R. Madden, Hypertherm
D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash
J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, Weld-Aid Products
D. Wilson, Well-Dean Enterprises
N. C. Cole, Ex Off., NCC Engineering
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrup Grumman Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
Copyright 2013 by American Welding Society in both printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for any statement made or
opinion expressed herein. Data and information developed by the authors
of specific articles are for informational purposes only and are not intended for use without independent, substantiating investigation on the
part of potential users.

MEMBER

MAY 2013

greiner_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:49 PM Page 7

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Contour beveling capability

At Greiner, weve always been about absolute precision and constant


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Structural Steel Fabrication


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Miscellaneous Metals
Machining
Rolling & Forming Services
Cutting Services
Industrial Coatings
Industrial & Electrical Contracting
Crane Rental & Trucking Services
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Bridge Fabrication)

NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 1:53 PM Page 8

NEWS OF THE
INDUSTRY

DTE Energy Foundation Makes $1 Million Gift to


Support Career Technology Center
The DTE Energy Foundation recently
made a $1 million contribution to support
the capital campaign for a new Career
Technology Center at Monroe County
Community College (MCCC), Monroe,
Mich.
The $17 million, 60,000-sq-ft center is
scheduled to open in the fall.
It will allow updating and expansion
of existing programs now housed in the
East and West Technology buildings. Included are program areas such as welding, nuclear engineering, construction,
computer-aided drafting and manufacturPictured with the presentation check are (from left) Fred Shell, vice president
ing, electronics, mechanical engineering
of corporate and governmental affairs, DTE Energy, and president of the DTE
Energy Foundation; Dr. David Nixon, president, Monroe County Community
and automation, quality assurance, and
College (MCCC); Ron May, senior vice president, major enterprise projects,
automotive engineering and service with
DTE Energy; and William J. Bacarella Jr., chair, board of trustees, MCCC.
an emphasis on hybrid and battery
technology.
Additionally, the center will provide
facilities and equipment for developing programs in advanced manufacturing; renewable energies such as wind, solar,
and fuel cell technology; and sustainable and green technologies.
The center is being built to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver Standards. It will feature the following: a geothermal system; industrial technology division and faculty offices; a computer classroom; and labs for welding, automation, automotive, construction, electronics, manufacturing, materials, mechanical design, metrology, and renewable/nuclear energies.
MCCC Board Chairman William J. Bacarella Jr. added that the college is developing a program to provide more educational opportunities for young people in southeastern Michigan, while helping to diversify the states future work force.
The state of Michigan is financing half the centers construction costs. The college has committed to funding the other
half through existing funds and a capital campaign.
More information is available at www.monroeccc.edu/ctc.

Washington Governor Creates Weld


on States Newest 144-Car Ferry
Washington Governor Jay Inslee kicked off the construction
of M/V Samish, the states newest 144-car ferry, by creating the
vessels first weld with the initials of his grandson, Brody Robert
Inslee, into the keel at Vigor Industrials Seattle shipyard.
Vigor CEO Frank Foti welcomed speakers, including Chris
Morgan, vice president of US Fab, the Vigor company building
the ferry; Patty Lent, Bremerton mayor; David Moseley, Washington State Department of Transportations assistant secretary;
and Paula Hammond, Washingtons secretary of transportation.
More than 200 people will work on this ferry here at Vigor.
Hundreds more skilled craftspeople will build critical components of the boat at our subcontractors around the region, Morgan said.
As he concluded the event, Foti called peoples attention to
the drydock outside the assembly hall where the first 144-car
ferry, Tokitae, is also under construction. US Fab achieved a milestone when workers moved its 270 80 45 ft superstructure
onto the hull while both structures were in floating drydocks.
8

MAY 2013

Washington State Governor Jay Inslee welds the initials of his grandchild at the keel laying ceremony for the states newest ferry, Samish,
at Vigor Industrials Seattle shipyard. (Photo by Stuart Isett/Vigor.)

NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 12:59 PM Page 9

Miller to Invest in Regional Engineering


and Robotics Students
Miller Electric Mfg. Co., Appleton, Wis., recently announced
an initiative to promote engineering and robotics education in
the Fox Valley area. This includes $40,000 in scholarships to students attending the University of Wisconsin-Fox Valley (UWFox)
and employee mentors for these students.
Starting with the fall 2013 semester, scholarships will be
granted for two school years, with $20,000 a year going to provide financial assistance to UWFox engineering and robotics students enrolled through the Fox Valley engineering program. They
are offered through the ITW Foundation, the charitable outreach
of Miller parent company, Illinois Tool Works (ITW), with the
University of Wisconsin-Fox Valley Foundation, Inc.
In addition, Miller and UWFox have established three local
robotics teams with the Boys & Girls Club of Appleton. With the
help of eight Miller employee mentors, they will build robots to
compete in regional VEX Robotics Competitions.

Berry Metal Enhances Developing


Energy-Efficient Ironmaking Technology
Berry Metal Co., Harmony, Pa., in collaboration with AISI
and the University of Utah, is lending its expertise to developing
a flash ironmaking process aimed at establishing an energyefficient and environmentally preferred alternative to the traditional blast furnace process.
The $8.9 million project has been selected by the Department
of Energy as a part of its Innovative Manufacturing Initiative.
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WELDING JOURNAL

NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:00 PM Page 10

This effort has seen support from the government and within the
steel industry due to its potential for cutting down energy use
and environmental emissions, particularly carbon dioxide. The
process utilizes direct gaseous reduction of fine iron concentrates
to make iron and is being powered by natural gas.
Berrys role in the project so far, and in the future, will be
bringing the technology to life through designing and manufacturing the equipment, enabling practical application.

IPC Crowns Winner of Hand Soldering


World Championship

attracted participants from around the globe.


Fu Chunyan of Beijing Railway Signal Co. Ltd. in China earned
first place. She won $1000; a new Metcal soldering station; a Mantis inspection system; and a Sovella ESD footrest. In addition,
second place went to Viengkeo (Gail) Sourivongs of Connecticut-based Imperial Electronic Assembly, and the third place prize
went to Wang He of Chinas Changchun Institute of Optics.
The contestants built a functional electronics assembly within
a 1-h time limit that was judged in accordance with IPC-A-610E
Class 3 criteria, production speed, and overall electrical
functionality.
Upcoming hand soldering competitions are also planned for
Malaysia, Thailand, and India. For more details, visit
www.ipc.org/hsc.

Coxreels Celebrates Its 90th Anniversary

Fu Chunyan of Beijing Railway Signal Co. Ltd. accepts her first


place IPC World Championship hand soldering competition award
from John Mitchell, IPC president and CEO.
The first IPC World Championship hand soldering competition at IPC APEX EXPO in San Diego, Calif., on February 21,

Coxreels, Tempe, Ariz., a manufacturer of hose, cord, and


cable reels, is celebrating its 90th anniversary this year. The thirdgeneration, family owned and operated business was established
in 1923 as Cox Air Gauge. Originally aimed at enhancing the automotive service station market, its offering has grown into a global product
used in more than 24 industries. Many
patents have marked the companys
milestones. It also designs, builds, and
supports all its products in the United
States.
Coxreels has been in business for 90
years. Displayed is one of the companys
oldest known catalogs from when it was
known as Coxwells Inc.

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10

MAY 2013

NI May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 8:28 AM Page 11

Industry Notes
Camfil Farr Air Pollution Control (APC), Jonesboro, Ark., a
producer of dust and fume collectors to clean up industrial
processes, plus an American Welding Society and International
Thermal Spray Association member, will now operate as Camfil Air Pollution Control (APC). The new Web address for the
company is www.camfilapc.com.

Masterweld Products, Coplay, Pa., a provider of gas metal arc,


gas tungsten arc, and plasma torches as well as consumables,
has expanded its repair department to include the Houston,
Tex., location. The facility will begin operations on May 1.

Engine manufacturers, including KOHLER Engines, are warning users of gas-powered lawnmowers and other outdoor power
equipment to be vigilant when fueling. Blends with more than
10% ethanol, such as E15 and E85, should not be used. They
can cause permanent, irreversible damage not covered under
warranty.

The Aluminum Association, Arlington, Va., and Metal Powder


Industries Federation, Princeton, N.J., signed a memorandum
of understanding to share metal powder safety information.

Goodwill Industries of Northwest North Carolina and Forsyth


Technical Community College, Winston-Salem, N.C., have
teamed up to offer welding classes for skills sought by area
companies such as Siemens, Caterpillar, and John DeereHitachi. For more details, visit www.goodwillclasses.org.

Desert NDT, LLC, Odessa, Tex., has acquired T&K Inspection,


Inc., Williston, N.D. Co-owners Jerry Thompson and Ken Kain
will continue to oversee local office operations.

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WELDING JOURNAL

11

May International Update_Layout 1 4/16/13 1:57 PM Page 12

INTERNATIONAL
UPDATE
New Facility Supports Solid-State Laser
Development

the sales organization and customers with technical training seminars and detailed research into material applications. It will also
provide materials analysis for other Sandvik business areas, specifically Sandvik Construction and Sandvik Machining Solutions.

Wall Colmonoy Joins Forces with


Metaglobal

The TRUMPF Development Center, with a total floor space of


6200 sq m, contains office space and development laboratories for
solid-state lasers.
TRUMPF, a manufacturer of lasers for industrial use, has
expanded its primary solid-state laser development facility by erecting a new building in the town of Schramberg-Sulgen, Germany.
TRUMPF Laser GmbH + Co. KG has augmented this corporate site with a structure offering 6200 sq m of floor space. The twostory structure, measuring 52 52 m, houses laser testing laboratories, a climate control chamber, and the buildings utility services
on the first floor. The upper floor consists of offices and conference
rooms. With an investment of $17.5 million and 17 months of construction work, development sections at Schramberg, which were
previously located in a number of different buildings around the
site, are now consolidated under a single roof. The company plans
to use the freed up floor space to expand its production capacities
for solid-state lasers.

Wall Colmonoys European headquarters in Pontardawe, Wales,


has reached a distributor partnership agreement with Portugalbased supplier, Metaglobal LDA, to sell surfacing and brazing
products, and castings to the Iberian region. The agreement will
strengthen Wall Colmonoys presence, market coverage, and support to customers in the Iberian region. Metaglobal LDA was
founded in 2006, and has facilities in Lisbon and Leiria, Portugal.
Its sales offices and staff will offer customers support on products,
services, and technologies in industries such as glass, oil and gas,
automotive, and aerospace.
Richard Shaw, commercial director of Wall Colmonoy Ltd., said,
We are excited to partner with a distributor that can expand our
product reach and deliver technical support that customers can rely
on. Certain global accounts will continue to be managed directly
by Wall Colmonoy Ltd.; however, all new inquiries for Spain and
Portugal will be handled by Metaglobal.

Westinghouse to Support Argentinas


Steam Generator Replacement

Chinese Research Center to Feature


Specialized Laboratories

Westinghouse will provide welding services in support of


project Life Extension Embalse Nuclear Power Plant.
(Photo courtesy of Nucleoelctrica S. A.)
The Sandvik Materials Technology management team and Zhenjiang
local government officials turned the first soil on the site of the new
research center.
Sandvik Materials Technology, a global engineering company, plans to invest in a new high-tech research and development
center adjacent to its manufacturing facilities in Zhenjiang,
China. A symbolic ground-breaking ceremony was held on
March 6. Building work on the 1440-sq-m center is set to begin
this summer, with plans to be operational in early 2014. It will
accommodate specialized laboratories, a learning center,
offices, and an exhibition area.
ZZ Zhang, Sandvik China president, said, The laboratories
will be equipped to the highest standards with modern analytical equipment, including scanning electron microscopes and
advanced mechanical testing facilities.
The center will support not only production units, but also
12

MAY 2013

Westinghouse Electric Co. recently announced that its subsidiary, PCI Energy Services, LLC (PCI), has signed a contract
with Nucleoelctrica Argentina S.A. (NA-SA) to provide engineering, specialty pipe cutting, and welding services in support of
the replacement steam generator program at Argentinas
Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. This work is part of the overall
refurbishment program at Embalse to extend the plants life by
up to an additional 30 years.
Rubn Semmoloni, NA-SA project director, Life Extension
Embalse Nuclear Power Plant, said, NA-SA values the engagement and participation of PCI in the Embalse life extension project, which will further enhance plant safety and operation for
years to come.
Although the engineering scope of the work for the CANDU-6
pressurized heavy water reactor plant is underway, the major site
activities are expected to be executed during 2014.

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Stainless Q+A MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:18 PM Page 14

STAINLESS
Q&A

BY DAMIAN J. KOTECKI

Q: We have fabricated some 304 stainless


steel tanks using ER308LSi filler metal.
Our customer specified the 304, rather
than 304L, out of cost concerns. Ordinary
tap water is corroding the tanks, beside
the welds. One corroded tank was examined and found to be sensitized in the
heat-affected zone (HAZ), where the corrosion is occurring. Can we do anything
about the remaining tanks?

A: Sensitization was previously addressed


in the November 2007 Stainless Q&A column. Briefly, sensitization occurs in those
portions of the heat-affected zone (HAZ)
that reach a peak temperature between
about 480 and 870C (900 and 1600F)
when there is enough carbon (more than
0.03%) available to produce precipitation
of chromium-rich carbides along grain
boundaries. Higher peak temperatures
than 870C either allow chromium to diffuse fast enough to keep up with the carbon in forming carbides, or actually cause
the carbides to dissolve. Peak temperatures below about 480C dont allow
enough carbon diffusion to form significant chromium carbides during welding.
The carbides have the general formula
M23C6, where M is any metallic element,
but chromium is by far the most concentrated metallic element in the carbides.
The carbon atom is a very small atom
that can diffuse rapidly through the stainless steel matrix to the grain boundaries, so
that carbon from anywhere in a grain can
reach the grain boundary in this temperature range. But the chromium atom is a
large atom that diffuses slowly, so that only
chromium from very close to the grain
boundary participates in formation of the
carbides. Formation of the carbides then
tends to produce a chromium-depleted
zone beside the grain boundary. This
chromium-depleted zone, if exposed to a
corrosive medium, is preferentially attacked and dissolved. The corrosion follows the chromium-depleted zones beside
the grain boundaries and a continuous
network of corrosion along grain boundaries causes grains to separate from the
weldment. Figure 1 shows the networks of
chromium carbides along the grain boundaries in a 304 HAZ.
First, one might ask why your customer
would specify 304 instead of 304L. The
concern about cost made sense many years
ago, but it really doesnt now. As recently
as 1955, the only available methods of producing low-carbon stainless steel involved
decarburizing the melt under oxidizing
conditions that removed chromium to the
slag (Ref. 1). As a result, the melt during
14

MAY 2013

Fig. 1 Sensitized 304 stainless steel. The chromium carbides responsible for sensitization
appear as black specks along the austenite grain boundaries.

Fig. 2 Graphic display of the effects of time and temperature on chromium carbide precipitation and intergranular corrosion (IC) in 304 stainless steel.

decarburizing was designed to contain


only about 2% Cr. Then after decarburization, expensive low-carbon ferrochromium was added to the melt to
reach the intended chromium content in
the stainless steel. But around 1955, Dr.

William A. Krivsky and his colleagues at


what was then the Linde Division of Union
Carbide Corp. developed the argonoxygen decarburization (AOD) process.
In the AOD process, much cheaper
high-carbon ferrochromium was intro-

Stainless Q+A MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:19 PM Page 15

The second heat treatment involves


considerably lower temperature, but
much longer time. The idea behind this
second heat treatment is to allow the carbides to form, but to provide enough time
at temperature to also allow chromium to
diffuse back into the chromium-depleted
zones and eliminate them. This can require more than 100 h at a temperature
like 760C (1400F). Figure 2 illustrates
the effect of temperature on chromium
carbide precipitation and on intergranular
corrosion (labeled IC attack in the figure). It can be seen from this figure, reproduced from Folkhard (Ref. 2), that
long times at intermediate temperatures
can be used to heal the damage from sensitization. The advantages of this approach over annealing and quenching is
that distortion will be much less (in part
because no quench is required at the end
of the treatment) and scaling will not
occur although the steel will be oxidized.
So cleanup afterward is less. But 100 h at
760C is not cheap.
In conclusion, use of 304 in a weldment
that will see corrosive service is not a good
idea. The fix is expensive.

References
1. Krivsky, W. A. 1973. Stainless History, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 14391477.
2. Folkhard, E. 1988. Welding Metallurgy of Stainless Steels. Springer-Verlag,
Vienna.

DAMIAN J. KOTECKI is president,


Damian Kotecki Welding Consultants, Inc.
He is treasurer of the IIW and a member of
the A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Filler Metals, D1K Subcommittee on Stainless Steel Structural Welding; and WRC
Subcommittee on Welding Stainless Steels
and Nickel-Base Alloys. He is a past chair of
the A5 Committee on Filler Metals and Allied Materials, and served as AWS president
(20052006). Send questions to damian@
damiankotecki.com, or Damian Kotecki,
c/o Welding Journal Dept., 8669 Doral
Blvd., Ste. 130, Doral, FL 33166.

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duced into the melt and an argon-oxygen


gas mixture was forced into the melt.
Combustion of the carbon raised the temperature of the melt and removed the carbon. As the carbon decreased, the oxygen
content of the gas stream was decreased.
Then ferrosilicon was added to recover
some oxidized chromium from the slag.
The decarburization could be stopped at
whatever carbon level was desired. The
argon cost was more than offset by using
cheap high-carbon ferrochromium instead of expensive low-carbon ferrochromium for the alloying.
It took about 15 years to fully debug the
AOD process, but since about 1970, the
AOD process has been the preferred
method of stainless steel refining. It completely dominates stainless steel refining
in the Western World. Today, I am told
that the price premium for 304L over 304
is about 1.5 to 2 cents/lb. That price difference is hardly worth considering in view
of the likelihood of sensitization when
welding 304.
There is a second reason that 304 might
be specified. Its specified minimum tensile
strength is 75 ksi (515 MPa) vs. 70 ksi (485
MPa) for 304L, and the specified minimum yield strength of 304 is 30 ksi (205
MPa) vs. 25 ksi (170 MPa) according to
ASTM A240. However, you can purchase
stainless steel that is dual certified as both
304 and 304L (i.e., it is below 0.03% carbon but still meets the higher strength requirement of 304). That would take care
of the strength concern.
The above discussion does not solve
your problem, but hopefully it will keep
others from making the same mistake.
Once 304 (or any other nonlow-carbon
stainless steel) has been sensitized, there
are only two ways of removing the sensitization; both involve heat treatment, and
neither is very palatable. The first is a solution anneal followed immediately by
water quench. The annealing temperature
of about 1040C (1900F), for an hour or
so, dissolves all of the chromium carbides
and diffuses chromium back into the
chromium-depleted zones beside the
grain boundaries. The water quench from
the annealing temperature is necessary to
keep the carbon in solution. The problem
with this approach, however, besides cost,
is that the stainless steel oxidizes heavily at
the annealing temperature and tends to
distort both at the annealing temperature
and during the quench. A cylindrical
shape, such as a pipe, lends itself to this approach because the cylindrical shape is
quite stiff, and entering the quench from
one end of an open cylinder greatly limits
distortion. But a tank does not lend itself
readily to this approach. If you were to anneal and quench your tanks, I believe you
would need to rigidly support the tanks to
maintain their present shape, and you
would have to descale after the quench.

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WELDING JOURNAL

15

Fellow Letter 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:11 AM Page 16

Friends and Colleagues:

I want to encourage you to submit nomination packages for those individuals whom you feel
have a history of accomplishments and contributions to our profession consistent with the standards
set by the existing Fellows. In particular, I would make a special request that you look to the most
senior members of your Section or District in considering members for nomination. In many cases,
the colleagues and peers of these individuals who are the most familiar with their contributions, and
who would normally nominate the candidate, are no longer with us. I want to be sure that we take
the extra effort required to make sure that those truly worthy are not overlooked because no obvious
individual was available to start the nomination process.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Fellow nomination form in this issue
of the Welding Journal. Please remember, we all benefit in the honoring of those who have made
major contributions to our chosen profession and livelihood. The deadline for submission is July 1,
2013. The Committee looks forward to receiving numerous Fellow nominations for 2014
consideration.

Sincerely,
Thomas M. Mustaleski
Chair, AWS Fellows Selection Committee

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Fellow Description
DEFINITION AND HISTORY
The American Welding Society, in 1990, established the honor of Fellow of the Society to recognize members for
distinguished contributions to the field of welding science and technology, and for promoting and sustaining the professional
stature of the field. Election as a Fellow of the Society is based on the outstanding accomplishments and technical impact of the
individual. Such accomplishments will have advanced the science, technology and application of welding, as evidenced by:

Sustained service and performance in the advancement of welding science and technology

Publication of papers, articles and books which enhance knowledge of welding

Innovative development of welding technology

Society and chapter contributions

Professional recognition
RULES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

V.

Candidates shall have 10 years of membership in AWS


Candidates shall be nominated by any five members of the Society
Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS Headquarters
Nominations must be submitted to AWS Headquarters no later than July 1 of the year prior to that in
which the award is to be presented
Nominations will remain valid for three years
All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence
No more than two posthumous Fellows may be elected each year

NUMBER OF FELLOWS
Maximum of 10 Fellows selected each year.

Nomination packages for AWS Fellow should clearly demonstrate the candidates outstanding contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology. In order for the Fellows Selection Committee to fairly assess the candidates qualifications, the nomination package must list and clearly describe the candidates specific technical accomplishments, how they contributed to the advancement of welding technology, and that these contributions were sustained. Essential in demonstrating the
candidates impact are the following (in approximate order of importance).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

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AWS Fellow Application Guidelines

Description of significant technical advancements. This should be a brief summary of the candidates most
significant contributions to the advancement of welding science and technology.
Publications of books, papers, articles or other significant scholarly works that demonstrate the contributions cited
in (1). Where possible, papers and articles should be designated as to whether they were published in
peer-reviewed journals.
Inventions and patents.
Professional recognition including awards and honors from AWS and other professional societies.
Meaningful participation in technical committees. Indicate the number of years served on these committees and
any leadership roles (chair, vice-chair, subcommittee responsibilities, etc.).
Contributions to handbooks and standards.
Presentations made at technical conferences and section meetings.
Consultancy particularly as it impacts technology advancement.
Leadership at the technical society or corporate level, particularly as it impacts advancement of welding technology.
Participation on organizing committees for technical programming.
Advocacy support of the society and its technical advancement through institutional, political or other means.

Note: Application packages that do not support the candidate using the metrics listed above
will have a very low probability of success.
Supporting Letters
Letters of support from individuals knowledgeable of the candidate and his/her contributions are encouraged. These
letters should address the metrics listed above and provide personal insight into the contributions and stature of the
candidate. Letters of support that simply endorse the candidate will have little impact on the selection process.
Return completed Fellow nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293
SUBMISSION DEADLINE: July 1, 2013

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FELLOW NOMINATION FORM


DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________

V.

HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
TITLE/POSITION____________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND, AS APPLICABLE:
INSTITUTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SIGNIFICANT WORK EXPERIENCE:

POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
SUMMARIZE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS IN THESE POSITIONS:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IT IS MANDATORY THAT A CITATION (50 TO 100 WORDS, USE SEPARATE SHEET) INDICATING WHY THE NOMINEE SHOULD BE
SELECTED AS AN AWS FELLOW ACCOMPANY NOMINATION PACKET. IF NOMINEE IS SELECTED, THIS STATEMENT MAY BE INCORPORATED WITHIN THE CITATION CERTIFICATE.
SEE GUIDELINES ON REVERSE SIDE
SUBMITTED BY: PROPOSER_______________________________________________AWS Member No.___________________
Print Name___________________________________
The Proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. Signatures on this nominating form, or
supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition to the Proposer. Signatures may be acquired
by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should
be submitted.
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
AWS Member No.______________

SUBMISSION DEADLINE July 1, 2013

PAGE 2

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01

weld engineering_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:55 PM Page 19

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RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 2:30 PM Page 20

RWMA
Q&A
Q: I am trying to make resistance welding seams using a single-phase constant
current welding control and am having a
hard time holding the tolerance required
for this military project. We are using a
150-kVA seam welding machine with 38in.-wide welding wheels on 0.040-in. CRS.
The welding transformer tap switch is set
to the #1 position. I checked the learn

Fig. 1 99% weld heat.

BY ROGER HIRSCH
table in the control and see that we are in
the 2530% range so I know I am not overworking the welding machine. Do you
have any suggestions?

A:

The problem here is a misunderstanding of how a resistance welding machine works. Because you are using the
control in this very low heat percentage

Fig. 2 50% weld heat.

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20

MAY 2013

range, the output of the welding transformer is a series of very small heat pulses
and a lot of spaces in between. This
makes control of the process very sensitive. No matter how good your control is,
it will be very difficult to achieve the desired results with this welding machine.
Welding machine size is also often misunderstood. The idea that you need a

RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:01 PM Page 21

Fig. 3 30% weld heat.

welding machine large enough to join the


thickest metal can also mean it will be way
too large to do the smaller thickness combinations. Some of this problem can be
overcome by using the welding machine
with the transformer tap switch set at the
high settings for the thicker metal welding, and then going to the low tap switch
setting for thin metals. Sadly, many of the
newer U.S.-made welding machines and
most of the imported welding machines
do not have a transformer tap switch and,
therefore, lose this ability.
To understand why using a welding machine at a very low heat percent setting is
a problem, you have to understand how a
welding control provides heat in response
to the program settings. The process is
called phase shifting. This is accomplished
by having the welding control fire the SCR
contactor (solid-state switch that conducts
voltage to the welding transformer) at different time delays in each half cycle of the
line power.
If you want to use all of the line voltage, the control will turn on the SCR contactor just after the current in the welding transformer goes to zero. Since a welding transformer is an inductive device, this
will happen a little after the line voltage
goes to zero.
Figure 1 shows a welding machine operating at a 99% heat setting. The lower
red trace shows the current going into the
welding transformer primary. Note that
the current is conducted over the entire
sine wave of line power less a small notch
at each zero crossing. This would be about
the same as if you shorted the SCR contactor and put the entire available line
voltage into the welding machine transformer. The upper blue scan shows the
RMS current created by this AC firing.
This RMS current is proportional to the
output of the welding transformer.
Figure 2 shows a current scan for a heat
setting of 50%. Note that about half of the
sine wave is being used, and the other half

Fig. 4 460-V welding machine operating on a 230-V line


at 60% weld heat.
has no heat. The upper scan shows the
RMS current that results from this firing.
Figure 3 shows what happens with a
heat setting of 30%, which is similar to
your setup. Note that the amount of time
that voltage is being conducted to the
welding transformer is very small compared to the time of no voltage flow in

each half cycle. The upper scan shows the


RMS current from this setting. A very
small change in this heat setting makes a
large change in the RMS current, and a
control working in this range will be unstable and cannot be accurate.
A good rule of thumb is to use a resistance welding machine with a transformer

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WELDING JOURNAL

21

RWMA May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:01 PM Page 22

tap switch setting that will produce the desired RMS welding current when the controls heat setting is between 60 and 90%.
The recommended upper limit of 90% is
to allow the welding control to have the
ability to increase heat to compensate for
incoming line voltage variations. It also
allows for changes in the welding machine
secondary impedance as ferrous metal of
the part is being pushed into the welding
machine throat.
There are several solutions to this type
of control problem:
The first is to set the welding machine
transformer tap switch to a lower number
and then use a higher weld heat setting.
Unfortunately, in your case, you are already at the lowest setting.
Next, use the correct size welding machine for the job. If you have a smaller
kVA seam welding machine, move the job
there. As an example, a 75-kVA seam
welding machine will probably find the
proper heat setting in the 60% range to
give control back to the system.
If this is not possible, and if you are
working on a 460-V power line, connect
the welding machine to a 230-V line with
the results as shown in Fig. 4. Be sure to
change the voltage select jumpers in the
control to 230 V. Now you will be in the
60% range since the line voltage amplitude will be lower and you will be using
more of each cycle of this line voltage
to create the desired RMS current for
welding. This will not increase the load on
the power lines since the turns ratio of the
welding transformer will remain the same.
Note that you can operate a 460-V
transformer on a 230-V line, but you cannot operate a 230-V transformer on a 460V line without damaging the transformer.
Compare this to Fig. 3, which shows
the same transformer operating on 460 V
at a 30% weld heat setting. You can easily see how much more stable the process
is when more of each half-cycle of current
is being used.

Q: I have a project to join a small hanger


strap to the top bell of a fire extinguisher.
The hanger strap has two flat welding
tabs. Each tab has a flat welding area of
about 12 34 in. The drawing specifies four
small spot welds on each tab. I tried doing
this and cannot get very strong welds.
What am I doing wrong?
A: The problem here is in the hands of the
designer. Many people who design sheetmetal parts do not have a full understanding of how spot welding works and, as a
result, specify parts that cannot be successfully welded. This part seems to be
such a case.
When you make the first of the four
small spot welds, you fuse the metal to
22

MAY 2013

form a nugget. When you try to make the


second spot weld, some of the voltage
being conducted from the upper to the
lower electrode finds an easy path through
the fused metal of the first weld nugget.
This is called shunting. Because of shunting, the second weld will be considerably
weaker than the first weld. When you do
the third and fourth welds, the same problem continues, but at an even greater level
of strength loss.
Making four welds this close together
will, if you are lucky, produce a total
strength of about 112 times that of a single
weld. And since the diameter of each weld
nugget will be small enough to fit into this
tab, the total strength of all four welds will
be very low as you have observed.
The solution is to use welding projections on the tabs. This will allow the welding current to make good separate welds
at each projection in one pass of the welding machine, and the strength of the overall joint will be much closer to the strength
of a single projection multiplied by the
number being used.
In this case, since you are welding a flat
tab to a curved surface, it would be best
to use two oval-shaped projections placed
at right angles to the radius of the part.
This will allow the maximum weld area

and compensate for any slight misalignment of the parts.


Another big advantage to using projections on this part is that you can use flat
electrodes. These electrodes will have
much longer life than a small spot welding electrode, and weld strength will not
be dependent on how well the electrodes
are dressed.

ROGER HIRSCH is past chair of the


RWMA, a standing committee of the
American Welding Society. He is also
president of Unitrol Electronics, Inc.,
Northbrook, Ill., a manufacturer of resistance welding controls and process
water chillers. Send your comments
and questions to Roger Hirsch at
Roger@unitrol-electronics.com, or
by mail to Roger Hirsch, c/o Welding
Journal, 8669 NW Doral Blvd., Suite
130, Doral, FL 33166.

Change of Address?
Moving?
Make sure delivery of your Welding Journal is not interrupted. Contact the Membership Department with your new address information (800) 443-9353, ext. 204; mtrujillo@aws.org.

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Request for quotes can be faxed to (219) 874-2849.
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sales@fostereprints.com.

otc daihen_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 3:09 PM Page 23

RO TSS
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Hand welded samples using the DP-400 pulsed MIG welding machine

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P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:08 PM Page 24

PRODUCT & PRINT


SPOTLIGHT

Wire Feeder Designed for Heavy-Duty GMAW and FCAW


The SuitCase X-Treme 12VS voltage-sensing wire
feeder has been designed for welding in heavy-duty
field applications such as construction, structural
steel erection, heavy equipment repair, and mobile
fabrication. A wire delivery system eases wire loading and provides minimal resistance in feeding. The
drive motor assembly and integrated tachometer ensures the wire feed speed accuracy throughout the
day so it performs to precise parameters, whether
welding with small-diameter solid wires (0.023 in.) or
large-diameter cored wires (564 in.). The wire delivery
system makes it easier to load the 12-in. wire spools
and reduces drag on the wire by eliminating the inlet
guide and allowing the wire to roll over the large radius of the drive rolls. It also features a visual scale
on the wire pressure knob and allows welders to dial
in tension settings. Other features include a redesigned placement of the shielding gas inlet (for
GMAW and dual-shielded FCAW applications) to better protect the fitting from damage, and a wire speed dual schedule
feature that reduces wire feed speed to 87.5% of standard speed; this feature requires a dual schedule gun or switch (sold
separately). Additional highlights include SunVision digital meters; a portable polypropylene case with built-in slide
rails and ability to open the door to change wire in a vertical position; and potted/trayed main printed circuit boards. It is
compatible with CC or CV DC power sources or engine-driven welding machines/generators.
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
www.millerwelds.com
(800) 426-4553

System Transforms GMA


Gun into Stud Welding Tool

hammer, 100 2-mm pins, and a replacement slide hammer knurled locking cam.
The Eastwood Co.
www.eastwood.com
(800) 343-9353

GMAW Gun Handle Reduces


Strain on Shoulders, Arms

The companys GMA stud weld system


transforms any Tweco-style GMA gun
into a stud welding tool, which enables
users to remove dings in doors, hoods,
deck lids, or quarter panels. After the pins
are welded into place using the product,
pull the metal flush with the slide hammer, cut and grind the pins, and a properly shaped surface ready to finish is
achieved. It includes a GMA stud nozzle
attachment, precision-balanced slide
24

MAY 2013

gonomics have been developed and tested


with professional welders and the Finnish
Institute of Occupational Health. When
a welder uses the pistol grip with the handle, its cable passes above the wrist and
its center of gravity is closer to the elbow.
When welding with the product in a horizontal or vertical position, the upper arm
is lower. The pistol grip does not require
any squeezing of the handle; it allows a
relaxed hold. The cable passing over the
lower arm balances the handle. It is compatible with most Abicor Binzel, Tbi,
and Kemppi torches.
Ergowelder Oy Ltd.
www.ergowelder.com
+358 (0)44 2779953

Catalog Showcases Line


of Womens Welding Gear
The companys GMAW gun handle allows two working positions, traditional
and pistol grip. It also reduces strain on
shoulders and arms. The handles er-

The 2013 Welding Gear catalog introduces the new Jessi Combs womens line,
which includes the VIKING 1840 Series

P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:09 PM Page 25

Amp Angel autodarkening welding helmet, Womens Shadow welding jacket,


and several glove options sized for female
hands. New offerings include custom embroidery, a new facial protection category,
welding brushes, welding curtains, and
welding blankets. The catalogs latest edition may be requested from the contact
information below.

Welding Machine Useful


for Shipyards

Two-Gas Adjustable Mixer


Configured for Hydrogen

The portable VR 5000 case has been


developed for dusty, damp, and salty environments. Used in combination with
GMA power sources from the TransSteel
series for separate wire feed units, it gives
welders a system for shipbuilding, oil-rig
construction, railway-vehicle manufacturing, and site erection. With external
dimensions of 507 200 320 mm, it fits
through any manhole of up to 350 mm in
diameter. The unit weighs less than 22 lb
and has interconnecting hose packs of up
to 229 ft long (for gas-cooled welding systems). It is designed for use with an
11-lb wire spool 200 mm in diameter. The
feeder unit is offered in water- or gascooled, or synergic versions.

The companys SuperFlash Mini-PGM


t two-gas adjustable mixer can now be configured for use with hydrogen. Users can
customize hydrogen/argon or hydrogen/
nitrogen mixes to best support their
process, creating their own mixed gas for
GMAW, GTAW, or plasma gouging/cutting/welding. Weighing 7.5 lb and using
less than 1 ft3 of space, the Mini-PGM
provides enough gas for eight welding machines at approximately 4050 ft3/h per
machine. Each mixer is fully adjustable
and comes standard with a mounting
bracket.

The Lincoln Electric Co.

Fronius International GmbH

SuperFlash

www.lincolnelectric.com
(888) 355-3213

www.fronius.com
(877) 376-6487

www.oxyfuelsafety.com
(888) 327-7306

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

WELDING JOURNAL

25

P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:10 PM Page 26

Materials Testing Company


Updates Web Site

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

The company has launched an updated


Web site with new features that provide
easier access to frequently used materials, as well as all of the information and
tools found on the previous site. Calibration customers will now find a tabbed section dedicated to the capabilities and services provided by LTI Metrology, the calibration and dimensional inspection division of the company. The Quick Service
Form, accessible under the contact tab or
with the contact us button, provides a convenient way to request information on materials testing, calibration, quality assurance, billing, pickup, and delivery service.
The new site provides easy navigation and
access through the homepage to information targeted to specific customers.
Laboratory Testing, Inc.
www.labtesting.com
(800) 219-9095

Fluids Eliminate Hazards


from Mineral Deposits

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The companys new welding chemical


products include a heavy-duty antispatter
and two glycol-based cooling fluids. The
antispatter, which is nonflammable and
solvent based, quickly evaporates to provide an effective surface coating and
eliminates the need to grind or brush the
surface after welding. The cooling fluids,
designed for use in plasma, GTAW,
GMAW, and resistance welding systems,
eliminate the hazards
of mineral deposits.
The coolants also
lubricate the pump,
liner, and gasket and
seal. They are thermally stable and have
dielectric properties
that make them suitable for plasma and
arc welding systems.
Thermacut, Inc.
www.thermacut.com
(800) 932-8312

26

MAY 2013

P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:10 PM Page 27

Earplugs Available in
Three Damping Levels
The DI Red 25 dB is
a CE-certified industrial hearing protection
earplug that incorporates DEC sound technology. Available in
three damping levels,
this universal plug provides acoustic protection in a discrete miniature package and is designed for noisy environments, either at work or leisure. The
product allows air to enter the ear, reducing the occlusion effect normally experienced when using earplugs. All of the
companys products are designed to be interchangeable and upgradable to custom
fit molds.

Manufacturin
Manufacturing
uring

Flux Cored
Welding
elding Wire
W

Abrasives Catalog Includes


Video Demonstrations

off wheels, mounted points, and other


types of grinding, blending, deburring,
and finishing products. The catalog includes usage tips; easy-to-read charts with
sizes, shapes, and specifications; and QR
codes to video demonstrations. New products include Type 27 Max Flex cotton-fiber
wheels and rubber-mounted points. The
catalog can be requested from the information below or can be downloaded from
the Web site.

The companys 20132014 Time Saving Solutions catalog features nonwoven


cotton-fiber abrasive grinding wheels, cut-

www.rexcut.com
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P and P May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:11 PM Page 28

Grinders Feature
High Power-to-Weight Ratio

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

The companys line of CP3850 industrial angle grinders and sanders offers a
high power-to-weight ratio with a 2.8-hp
motor. The CP3850, available in both 7and 9-in.-capacity models, weighs less
than 6 lb, allowing easier handling. Many
ergonomic features have been incorporated to improve operator comfort, safety,
and productivity, including a vibrationdamping multiposition side handle, auto
balancer, and integrated silencer. Safety
features include a double-action safety
lever and 270-deg swivel guard to protect
the operator from debris. The series is engineered for aggressive use in contouring,
deburring, cutting, and sanding in the metalworking, transformation, manufacturing, and energy industries.
Chicago Pneumatic
www.cp.com
(800) 624-4735

Magnetic Boards Track


Lean Initiative Projects

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Teams focusing on productivity,


process, quality, 5S, and other lean manufacturing improvements use the DoDone StepTracker whiteboard as a point
for project management coordination.
Boards come with 6, 12, 25, 42, or 65 project step-stage columns for up to 128 project line items. Titles and project column
headings can be custom printed directly

on the board. It arrives ready to use with


magnets and is built to stay like new for a
lifetime of daily use with heat-fused printing on porcelain-like steel and whiteboard
construction.
Magnatag Visible Systems
www.magnatag.com/steptracker
(800) 624-4154

28

MAY 2013

harris_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:51 PM Page 29

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:53 PM Page 30

BY TOM MYERS
TOM MYERS is a senior
applications engineer,
The Lincoln Electric Co.,
Cleveland, Ohio,
www.lincolnelectric.com.

Not Your Fathers


Gas Shielded
Flux Cored
Electrodes

Fig. 1 In years
past, a limited
number of FCAW-G
electrode options
were offered to
fabricators.

FCAW-G consumables have steadily evolved into


application-specific productivity workhorses

lectrodes for the gas shielded, flux


cored arc welding (FCAW-G)
process were first developed in the
late 1950s. Over the next 40 years or so,
manufacturers refined and improved
these products, offering a fairly limited
line of carbon steel and low-alloy steel
electrodes for either all-position welding
or flat and horizontal only (i.e., in-position) welding Fig. 1.
During this time, there also were rel-

30

MAY 2013

atively few variations in the formulations


of electrodes within a specific American
Welding Society (AWS) classification. In
many cases, one particular electrode was
intended to be used for a variety of applications. Oftentimes it was intended to
be used with either 100% carbon dioxide
(CO 2) shielding gas or a mixed argon
(Ar)/CO2 shielding gas.
Back then, the general manufacturing
philosophy was to develop an electrode

that was in essence a one-size-fits-all


product. This philosophy was partially
successful in meeting the demands of the
welding market during this time. However, todays structural engineers and industrial designers are increasingly specifying higher-strength, lower-weight steels
for cost savings and productivity considerations, making these base materials a
popular choice in many industries.
These new specifications demand the

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:53 PM Page 31

Fig. 2 The fast-freezing slag


system of all-position FCAW
electrodes allows for better outof-position welding capabilities.

need for low-alloy FCAW-G electrodes


that produce welds with increased tensile and yield strengths (compared to carbon steel electrodes) for welding these
higher-strength steels. Other applications require electrodes that produce
welds with improved impact properties.
Generally, electrodes needed to produce
welds with low-temperature toughness of
at least 20 ftlbf (27 J) at a test temperature of 0F (18C) or 20F (29C).
Some applications now require these
same absorbed energy values at temperatures of 40F (40C) or even lower.
Similarly, operator demand for just
the right application-specific, flux
cored electrode has steadily increased
over the past five to ten years to keep up
with a growing desire for increased weld
productivity, performance, and quality,
not to mention aesthetics.
Because of this increased specifica-

tion of new materials, combined with demands for more customized, efficient
electrodes, manufacturers have been returning to their R&D drawing boards to
develop new gas shielded, flux cored consumables.

Fundamentals and
Advantages of FCAW
Electrodes
Flux cored electrodes were originally
developed as a higher productivity extension of shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW) electrodes. They are, in fact,
like a SMAW electrode turned inside out.
They consist of a steel tube (i.e., outer
steel sheath) with flux inside the tube or
at the electrodes core, hence the name,
flux core. Because of this design, the
electrode can be wound onto a coil or

spool, and with the use of a wire feeder


and welding gun, be fed continuously into
the weld joint.
Flux cored electrodes fall into two
fundamentally different categories: selfshielded, flux cored electrodes (FCAWS) and gas shielded, flux cored electrodes
(FCAW-G).
Gas shielded, flux cored electrodes incorporate a double shielding system by
using an external shielding gas as well as
a slag system. The shielding gas is required to protect the arc and molten
metal from the atmosphere. It also results in exceptionally smooth arc characteristics, compared to self-shielded electrodes. They use either a rutile slag system or a basic slag system. The rutile system is the most common and is characterized by a smooth arc with complete
slag coverage of the weld. The basic slag
system, while producing a globular metal
WELDING JOURNAL

31

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 32

Fig. 3 While the use of a one-sizefits-all electrode for a wide range of


applications can deliver adequate
arc performance, a single electrode
cannot perform well in every application.

transfer and thinner slag coverage, can


be more resistant to weld cold cracking.
Most FCAW-G electrodes are ideal
for all-position welding and all deliver
great mechanical properties with high
deposition rates. They are used effectively in general shop fabrication, structural steel (including seismic applications), shipbuilding, offshore, pipeline,
and other applications.
Flux cored arc welding electrodes can
be used similarly to SMAW electrodes
with a few notable benefits in the process
itself. First, SMAW electrodes must be
fed manually into a weld joint, making
only short welds and resulting in a lot of
stop and restart areas in the weld. Restart
areas generally have a higher chance of
containing a weld defect than any other
part of the weld. With the FCAW process,
the weld can be made for as long as
welders can comfortably reach before
having to stop the arc and reposition
themselves. This results in fewer restart
areas in the weld and, ultimately, fewer
chances for weld defects.
The FCAW process also has a higher
operating factor than the SMAW process
(where operating factor (%) equals arc
time divided by total fabrication time).
Its also easier to use. It operates at
higher current levels, which yields higher
deposition rates and higher productivity.
Finally, FCAW electrodes have higher
electrode efficiency than SMAW electrodes. This means that more of the purchased pounds (kg) of electrode end up
as deposited weld metal and less is lost
through stubs.
Flux cored electrodes, with their slag
systems, also have inherent advantages
over slagless processes, such as gas metal
arc welding (GMAW). The fast-freezing
slag system of all-position-classified
FCAW electrodes allows for better outof-position welding capability, including
vertical and overhead, as the slag helps
hold the molten metal against gravity
Fig. 2. Flux cored electrodes produce
higher deposition rates when welding out
of position than do GMAW consumables.
In addition, many in-position-classified
FCAW electrodes have good penetration

32

MAY 2013

characteristics, making them ideal for


thicker sections of steel plate.
Flux cored arc welding electrodes also
handle surface contaminants on steel
plate better than solid GMAW electrodes. Not only are deoxidizers present
in the outer carbon steel sheath of FCAW
electrodes, but deoxidizers, denitrifiers,
and scavenger elements are also added
to the core elements, while solid GMAW
electrodes can only rely on the deoxidizers that are present in the raw green rod
material, which is drawn down to make
them.

Flux cored arc welding electrodes are


considered to be fabricated electrodes
and, thus, provide a good platform for
manufacturing new low-alloy electrodes.
The outer sheath on FCAW electrodes
even low-alloy types are fabricated
from types of carbon steels that are either
strip-based or green rod-based, both of
which are commonly available from steel
mills. As such, the core ingredients for
various FCAW electrodes then can be altered to produce low-alloy weld deposits
with differing mechanical properties.
In contrast, low-alloy solid GMAW

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 33

Fig. 4 Some industries, such as


pipeline fabrication, often require
FCAW-G electrodes that produce
welds with a minimum low-temperature toughness of 20 ft-lbf (27 J)
at 40F (40C).

wire cannot be fabricated. The final


chemistry of the electrode can only be
achieved by purchasing it as the raw
green rod steel. Low-alloy green rod can
be more expensive and difficult to source
than carbon-steel green rod.

Concerns with One-SizeFits-All Electrodes


The traditional multipurpose approach toward FCAW-G electrodes has
proven to be increasingly ineffective over

the years. While the use of a one-sizefits-all electrode for a wide range of applications can deliver adequate arc performance, the reach for a single electrode
to perform well in every application is
just too broad Fig. 3. As a result, the
arc is never optimized.
Why? One electrode used with both
100% CO 2 and mixed gas (i.e., 75%
Ar/25% CO2) has to have a fine chemical balance in order to meet the minimum and maximum mechanical property
requirements of its AWS classifications
with either type of shielding gas. Carbon

dioxide is an active gas, meaning that it


actively reacts with some of the electrodes alloys. Less alloy recovery from
the electrode occurs in the weld pool, resulting in a slight decrease in mechanical properties, such as ultimate tensile
strength and yield strength. Argon, an
inert gas, is nonreactive in the arc. Therefore, the more argon in a mixed gas, the
more alloy recovery that occurs in the
weld pool. This results in a slight increase
in both tensile and yield strengths.
Hydrogen levels also play a role in why
FCAW-G electrodes are becoming more
specific, moving away from the one-sizefits-all design structure of the past. Lower
levels of diffusible hydrogen in weld deposits means that such welds will have
higher resistance to hydrogen-induced
cracking.
Welding consumables can be classified with an optional diffusible hydrogen
designator. These designators include
the letter H and a number, which indicate maximum milliliters of diffusible hydrogen per 100 g of weld metal. Most
FCAW-G electrodes today meet a diffusible hydrogen rating of H8, with some
meeting a very low rating of H4.
Some industries, such as shipbuilding/barge building, have increasingly
pushed the deposition rate capabilities
of all-position FCAW-G electrodes. Generally, when welding in position or with
gravity, welders can utilize faster wire
feed speed procedures to produce higher
deposition rates than they can when
welding out of position or against gravity. However, because of remote welding
locations and limited access to their welding equipment, welders often cannot easily turn up their procedures when they
transition from out-of-position to in-position welding. Therefore, they need one
set of welding procedures for FCAW-G
electrodes that produce maximum deposition rates for out-of-position welding
and still produce high deposition rates
for in-position welding. Many of the original one-size-fits-all FCAW-G electrodes
could only be pushed so far before the
slag system would not support the additional molten weld metal. Therefore, new

WELDING JOURNAL

33

Myers Feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:54 PM Page 34

FCAW-G electrodes were needed with a


different type of slag system. These highdeposition or HD electrodes have very
fast freezing slag systems that better support higher wire feed speed welding
procedures.
Additionally, many industries have
had increased requirements for weld
metal with improved impact properties.
The original one-size-fits-all FCAW-G
electrodes were designed to produce
welds with a minimum low-temperature
toughness of 20 ft-lbf (27 J) at 0F or 20
ft-lbf (27 J) at 20F. Some industries,
such as offshore and pipeline fabrication
(Fig. 4), often require FCAW-G electrodes that produce welds with a minimum low temperature toughness of 20
ft-lbf (27 J) at 40F. These more stringent requirements have necessitated the
need for new FCAW-G electrodes with
improved impact properties.
In other cases, FCAW-G electrodes
have been increasingly used on weldments that must be stress relieved after
welding. In general, after postweld heat
treatment (PWHT), the tensile and yield
strength of the weld drops to a certain
degree. When the weld from a one-sizefits-all FCAW-G electrode is stress relieved, you can run the risk of the tensile
and yield strengths dropping below the
minimum specified levels. Therefore,
PWHT applications have led to the need
for more specialized FCAW-G electrodes
that have an altered chemical formulation. These electrodes are designed to
have a minimal drop in tensile and yield
strength after stress relief.
With such changeable factors as
shielding gas, diffusible hydrogen levels,
deposition rate needs, and mechanical
property requirements, as well as different grades of steel, coming into play in
the FCAW-G arena, the scope and versatility of a one-size-fits-all electrode has
become increasingly narrower. This challenges manufacturers to meet stringent
mechanical properties on a consistent
basis with traditional multipurpose
FCAW-G electrode design.

New Approach to Design


To meet various industry-specific requirements and operator demands for
mechanical properties, performance, and
aesthetics, manufacturers now are
designing and producing applicationtargeted, next-generation FCAW-G consumables with specific industries in mind.
In addition, many of the FCAW-G
electrodes today have been designed for
use with only one type of shielding gas in
34

MAY 2013

Fig. 5 Manufacturers must balance three components when they


design an FCAW-G electrode operability, mechanical properties,
and diffusible hydrogen levels.
order to produce optimum operator appeal and the targeted mechanical properties. They either will be for use with
100% CO2 or a mixed blend, consisting
of 75 85% Ar/balance CO 2 (with 75%
Ar/25% CO2 the most popular blend).
The required shielding gas is now also
incorporated into the electrodes AWS
classification number. For example, the
C in an E71T-1C classified electrode
specifies that it is for use with CO2 shielding gas, while the M in an E71T-1M
classified electrode specifies that it is for
use with mixed shielding gas. Electrodes
that are still designed for use with either
type of shielding gas are dual classified,
such as E71T-1C/E71T-1M.
Furthermore, operator appeal of lowalloy FCAW-G electrodes also has improved. A welder can weld with a carbon
steel FCAW-G electrode or a low-alloy
FCAW-G electrode and not really see a
difference in arc performance. This results from the fact that manufacturers
have succeeded in coming up with a standard slag system for families of electrodes. Individual electrodes can be modified for different applications by tweaking the alloy formulation in the electrodes core so that welders and fabricators will see similar operating characteristics, no matter the application.

that produces mechanical properties that


are so robust that they tip the scale on
operability.
Think of the three key components of
electrode design as a triangle Fig. 5.
On one side, you have operability. On the
second side, you have mechanical properties. On the third side, you have diffusible hydrogen levels.
Targeted product development has allowed manufacturers to design families
of FCAW-G electrodes, each aimed for
different applications in specific industry segments. Each family balances the
three sides of the design triangle to avoid
compromising any one of those components and, thus, delivers a robustly performing electrode.

Application-Specific
FCAW Electrodes
Today, manufacturers of FCAW electrodes offer broad product lines, with
many electrodes designed for specific applications and industries. Examples of
more specialized FCAW-G electrodes include ones designed for the following
uses:
with one specific type of shielding gas
such as UltraCore 71C and UltraCore 71A85 from The Lincoln Electric Co.
for higher-strength steels (i.e., 80-,
90-, and 100-ksi minimum tensile
strength).
HD type for high-deposition, out-ofposition capability (i.e., UltraCore
HD-C and HD-M).
for exceptionally high deposition rates
in the flat and horizontal positions.
for improved low-temperature toughness properties.
SR type for stress-relieved applications.
for pipe welding applications such as
Pipeliner 81M, 101M, and 111M.

Electrode Design

for chromium-molybdenum (Cr-Mo)


steels.

Producing a successful FCAW-G electrode comes down to balance in the design and manufacture of the electrodes.
Manufacturers have worked to develop
FCAW-G consumables that consistently
meet mechanical properties, without
compromising quality and aesthetics.
They do so without taking it to the extreme. They avoid creating an electrode

Welders now have a broad choice of


electrodes designed for a variety of specific applications and industries, expanding the range of use, as well as overall
quality and productivity. With improved
operating characteristics and performance, these enhanced, highly efficient
products are truly not our fathers flux
cored electrodes.

weld aid_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:55 PM Page 35

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:26 AM Page 36

Welding Resources
for When Youre
on the Go
A search found plenty
of free, easy-to-use,
welding-related apps

BY HOWARD WOODWARD, MARY RUTH JOHNSEN,


CARLOS GUZMAN, AND KRISTIN CAMPBELL

ure you can play games, work on a


crossword puzzle, count calories,
track your exercise regimen, and
manipulate photos through any number
of applications (apps) on your smart
phone or tablet, but can your work benefit from the use of an app? It so happens
that when you Google welding apps,
youll discover a lengthy list for download
to both Android and Apple smart phones
and tablets.
Many apps are intuitive and require
no instruction to use. The topics include
selecting equipment, inspection data,
weld joint design, calculators, code standards, test questions, safety, etc. After
the initial downloading, most apps function without an Internet connection.
Apps usually begin by asking you to
answer a few questions to define your situation, then open a scroll-down page
with the answers or recommended settings, data chart, a table, equipment settings, required filler metals, etc.
The apps offered by equipment and
consumables manufacturers make it easy
to compare the features and capabilities

of each of their offerings to clarify the important features to consider when shopping for these items.
While many full-featured apps can be
downloaded free of charge, some free
apps are Lite versions that offer basic
versatility to promote purchasing the
Full version. Although some are limited in scope, a Lite version may be worth
checking out since the information it offers may be all you require for your daily
needs.
A bonus to using mobile apps is their
potential educational value. You can easily experiment with different metals,
material thicknesses, processes, etc., to
get a feel for how various processes work.
Following are brief descriptions of a
cross section of welding-related apps
available for free downloading onto your
smart phone or tablet. To search for these
and other apps, just Google your topic
or the apps name. You can often find
useful apps offered on welding equipment manufacturers Web sites. Check
for new apps online occasionally, since
they are added and updated daily.

Help for Selecting


Power Generators.

This well-organized, easy-to-use app


details Multiquips line of MQ Power
WhisperWatt Super-Silent portable 5- to
450-hp generators designed to provide
power under the harsh conditions at construction sites, entertainment venues,
and disaster-recovery operations. The
data are intuitively organized into compact files that permit uncluttered viewing
of images and text on the small smartphone screens.
Opening the app for the first time
(Fig. 1) reveals a Begin button. Once
tapped, it opens a screen that scrolls
through 19 sizes of generators from 5 to
450 hp.
Tapping the hp size of your choice
opens a screen showing the several voltage ranges available for that size generator. Tapping a voltage range opens a page
illustrating the recommended generator
including its prime, standby, and voltage
dip ratings. Tapping that page opens a

HOWARD WOODWARD (woodward@aws.org) is associate editor, MARY RUTH JOHNSEN (mjohnsen@aws.org) is editor, and KRISTIN
CAMPBELL (kcampbell@aws.org) is associate editor of the Welding Journal. CARLOS GUZMAN (cguzman@aws.org) is editor of the
Welding Journal en Espaol.
36

MAY 2013

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:26 AM Page 37

Fig. 1 Multiquip MQ Power Generator Selector app as it appears on a


smart phone.
menu listing pages detailing this generators specifications, dimensions, weights,
engine specifications, trailer requirements, various options, plus a Documents file that opens to offer a number
of PDF spec sheets and equipment
brochures. A Contact Us button also
appears on this page that when touched
opens into a short form for writing an email message to the company.

Calculator Fine Tunes


Your Welding Machine.

This calculator (Fig. 2) from Miller


Electric Mfg. Co. is designed to help you
tune your welding machine for optimal
results based on your answers to a few

simple questions. After entering the


metal information, the calculator will display the suggested wire size, wire feed
speed and shielding gas settings, and voltage and current ranges.
The opening page of this app displays
a screen with four large icons labeled
MIG (Solid Wire), MIG (Flux Cored),
STICK, and TIG, plus a row of icons for
accessing YouTube, Facebook, Twitter,
and e-mail contact.
For example, touching the MIG (Solid
Wire) icon asks you the following two
questions: 1. What material are you welding? (The choices are aluminum, stainless steel, and steel); and 2. How thick is
the material? (The choices range from 18
to 12 in. and up.) After entering these
data, touch the Get Settings icon to
view the recommended settings and
other suggestions.

This app from 3M is designed for industrial hygienists and safety professionals who want rapid access to respirator
guide information on their smart phones.
The guide identifies facepieces, cartridges, and filters including an overview
of qualitative fit-testing protocols and
how to conduct the fit tests for a variety
of specific contaminants found in industrial environments Fig. 3A.
After the user enters the chemical
name, the app presents the companys
recommendations for the appropriate
type of respiratory protection for that
contaminant Fig. 3B. Included is a frequently asked questions section and
product catalog. Currently available for

Fig. 2 The opening screen of Miller


Electrics weld setting calculator.

App Provides Fast


Access to Respirator
Info.

Fig. 3A and B The 3M app offers


a guide for protecting yourself
against a variety of specific industrial airborne contaminants.

the iPhone, this app is expected to be


available in December for Androidbased smart phones.

Pipefitters Reference
App.

The opening screen details (Welded)


Flange Dimensions. The tabs shown are
Series 150, 300, 600, 900, and 1500; Valve
Dimensions; 12 Dimensions; Reducing
Tees; Pipe Schedules; and Abbreviations.
Touching the Series Flange 600 tab, for
example, opens a table cross-referencing
Pipe Size, Wrench Size, Stud Length,
Raised Face, Gasket, and Ring Joint.
Touching the Pipe Schedules tab
opens a table displaying Nominal Wall
Thicknesses for commonly used pipes.

Ultrasound Calc Lite


Version App.

The first page presents three tabs labeled Transducers Physical Principles,
Characteristics of Ultrasonic Waves, and
Fundamental Principles of Ultrasonic
Wave Propagation.
Touching the Fundamental Principles
tab reveals three tabs for Snells Law Calculations, Geometry Calculations, and
Basic Skip Calculations. Touching the
Basic Skip tab, for example, opens a
screen for the user to enter wall thickness of the piece, refracted angle in the
piece, half skip, full skip, and sound path
numbers to complete the calculations.

WELDING JOURNAL

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Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:27 AM Page 38

Phased Array Wizard


Lite.

This app offers a wealth of information beginning with five opening tabs labeled PA Transducer Parameters, Wedge
Calculation, PA Inspection, Acoustic Parameters of Materials, and Glossary.
Touching the Parameters of Materials
tab opens tabs for selecting aluminum,
brass, copper, glycerine, lead, nickel,
Plexiglass, Rexolite, steel, titanium, and
water. Touching a materials tab presents
its long and transverse velocities, density
in g/cc, and the longitudinal and transverse acoustic impedances.

ISMT Tube Calc Limited.

This basic app is an easy-to-use


Tube/Bar Weight Calculator. The opening screen prompts you to enter two values from the menu of Diameter, Thickness, Inside Diameter, and Length. As
an example, typing in 6-in. diameter,
0.25-in. wall, and 25-ft length displays a
table listing the parameters with a total
weight of 384.9 lb.

Check Live Welding


Machine Status
Reports.

The Lincoln Electric Co.s CheckPoint app allows viewing live welding
machine status and production reports
on mobile devices Fig. 4.

Once installed, it has a login process


for the programs users to input their existing username/password.
Features include the following: a list
of companies to see machine data and production details; an overview of all machines and live status indicator; dashboard
widgets for each machine, an alerts history, and lists of all events/alarms generated by the machine; downloadable documents and manuals; historical trending
data for potential issues while walking the
shop floor; and scanning barcodes using
the phones camera for operator ID, part
serial number, and consumable lot code.
The app works for Blackberry (supports OS 5.0 and greater), iPhone (supports iOS 4.3 and greater), and Android
phones.

Discover Wheel Speed


Calculations.

The Norton Abrasives grinding app offers calculators for a coolant, dressing parameter, and wheel speed. The portable
grinder product selector has areas for selecting the application, material, and primary/secondary attributes. Postal codes
can be entered in the distributor locator
lookup. The application inquiry features
options for general information, machine
tool, abrasive and dressing products, work
material, and operational factors. Also
provided are sections for logging into an
abrasive connection site and contacting
the company Fig. 5.
The app is available for iOS and
Android operating systems on mobile
devices.

Fig. 5 Among Nortons app offerings


are calculators for a coolant, dressing
parameter, and wheel speed.

10
Fig. 4 Lincolns app enables exploration of a robots in limit, out of limit,
and total welds.

38

MAY 2013

Discuss Welding and


Metalworking Topics.

The ShopFloorTalk (SFT) app by End


of Time Studios, LLC, provides a discussion forum for users interested in weld-

Fig. 6 The ShopFloorTalk app has


many forums, including one for welding
processes.
ing, fabrication, machining, and general
metalwork of all kinds Fig. 6.
The welding and metalworking forums offer the following topics: fabrication; equipment, suppliers, and original
equipment manufacturers; welding
processes; machining; metallurgy and
materials; shop safety; shop; general
welding information; SFT information,
workshops, and support; and business.
These sections have numerous posts,
including photos of finished, painted artworks; questions and answers from what
welding process to use and when; tips for
getting customers; and much more.
There is also a members only forum.
To post messages, users must register;
provide profile information; and then activate their account.
The app is compatible with the
iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad; requires
iOS 4.3 or later; is optimized for the
iPhone 5; and Android (1.5 and up).

11

Select Job Materials for


the Metalworking
Industry.

The Tool Steel Selection Guide app


by Lindquist Steels, Inc., is for tool makers and designers, engineers, and users
interested in selecting and utilizing the
companys materials Fig. 7.
The build tab asks users the following
question: What would you like to create

Woodward et al feature May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 8:27 AM Page 39

type in the thickness of the weld and it


calculates the most common discontinuities including cracks, incomplete penetration, internal porosity, slag, undercutting, and concave root. It also calculates
the sizes of image quality indicators
(IQIs) needed. The IQI area has three
sections for welds with no reinforcement
and welds reinforced on one or both
sides.
Lance Henderson, the apps developer, offers four other free apps: X-Ray
Timer, Density, Ug Calc, and Barricade.
Information is available at www.lancehenderson.com as well as through the
Apple app store.

14
Fig. 7 Lindquists app acts as a reference guide to work around tool production needs.
today? An AZ list has keywords from
aluminum extrusion tooling to zinc die
cast dies. By clicking on each term, suggested materials from low to high production value are found. Another area
for materials can also be explored.
In addition, users can obtain a
quote/order, discover the companys history, and find contact details.
The app is compatible with the iPhone
(3GS, 4, 4S, and 5); iPod touch (3rd, 4th,
and 5th generations); and iPad.

12

Fig. 8 Users plug a few pieces of information into ESABs Welding Parameters Set-Up Guide and receive data that
can be used to set up their welding machine and adjust it to their specific application requirements.

13

Help with Interpreting


Industrial Radiographs.

The Code 313 app (Fig. 9) is a calculator for interpreting industrial radiographs in accordance with ASME B31.3,
Process Piping. The apps developer
warns that the app does not replace the
code itself, nor the need to have the code,
but is a calculator to help you verify your
own interpretation. To use the app, you

Identify the Welding


Parameters for Your
Next Job.

The Welding Parameters Set-Up


Guide app from ESAB Welding & Cutting Products provides users with the
welding parameters they need for a particular job, including wire feed speed,
voltage, current, and inductance Fig.
8. The first step is to select solid wire or
flux-cored wire at the bottom of the
screen. If the user selects solid wire, it
will then ask what type of material, thickness, wire type, and gas type will be used
(each of these are selected through
scroll-down listings). The guide then lists
the recommended settings. If flux-cored
wire is chosen, the guide asks users to select material thickness and wire type before listing the settings.
The app is compatible with iPhone,
iPod touch, iPad, Blackberry, and Android devices.

Fig. 9 Code 313 helps with interpretations of industrial radiographs.

Calculates Weld Costs.

The Welding Pro app by Certilas Nederland BV, a maker of welding consumables in The Netherlands, provides weld
cost calculations for fillet welds, and single-V, double-V, and double bevel butt
joints Fig. 10. It allows users to quickly
compare labor, gas, and filler metal costs.
Users pick the type of weld they will be
making (fillet or groove), then select
welding process, amperage, duty cycle,
type of electrode, etc. Users also designate whether they are welding steel,
stainless steel, or aluminum. While the
app is set up for metric units and euros,
a tap on the settings button allows users
to switch to Imperial Standard units and
dollars. It also displays the most recent
calculations and users can designate certain calculations as favorites that can
be stored and retrieved later. Requires
Android 2.2 and up or iOS 4.3 or later.

Fig. 10 Welding Pro allows users to


quickly compare labor, gas, and filler
metal costs.
WELDING JOURNAL

39

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15

Troubleshoot
Resistance Spot
Welding.

The Resistance Spot Welding Troubleshooting App by Miyachi Unitek offers a quick guide to solving common
problems found in the RSW process
Fig. 11. The sharp interface is simple to
use and is well laid out. There are four
main menus or tabs: Instructions, Guidelines, Troubleshoot, and Info. By tapping
on the Troubleshoot tab, the user is able
to choose from a variety of possible symptoms or problems: overheating of weldment, discoloration, weak weld, insufficient nugget, metal expulsion, sparking,
inconsistent welds, electrode damage,
and electrode sticking. Solutions are presented in four categories: material, electrode, weldhead, and power supply.
Additionally, the user selects one of
four priority levels, according to the most
likely cause of the problem. For example, if overheating of weldment is the
most likely cause of the problem, select
Priority 1 and the app reveals that it may
be caused by excess time. This suggestion
appears in the Power Supply Related
field. Tap on this field and a possible solution is shown (in this case, Decrease
weld time in steps of 510% ...).
Although the solutions presented in
this app are brief and may not cover all
variables, its a good starting point for
professionals and a worthwhile tool for
educational purposes. This Miyachi
Unitek app is available for iPad, iPhone,
and Android.

16

Growing Catalog of
Welding Calculators.

AxonCalc has developed a series of


app calculators for welding, mechanical,
and materials engineering Fig. 12. The
Welding AxonCalc app includes the following calculators: Carbon Equivalent
and Composition Parameter (PCM), PreHeat and Interpass Temperature, Maximum Hi-Lo at Internal Diameter for
Pipes, Hi-Lo at Internal Diameter at Specific Location for Pipes, and Arc Welding Heat Input Calculator.
Designed with a legible and attractive
interface, the AxonCalc calculators are
easy to navigate and use. For example,
the Arc Welding Heat Input calculator

17

Look Up Cut Charts


and Error Codes.

The Thermal Dynamics Cut Chart is


designed for the companys Ultra-Cut
series of high-precision automated
plasma systems Fig. 13. The app offers a cut chart for Ultra-Cut with
DPC3000 and error codes for all UltraCut as well as Auto-Cut systems Fig.
13.
Under the best cut division, users can
select the appropriate material type, including aluminum, mild steel, and stainless, along with the thickness (gauge, in.,
or mm). Corresponding options will appear, and some materials have multiple
options. Entering error codes will enable
viewing troubleshooting suggestions.
Also, there are sections linking to the
Victor Technologies Cutting & Welding
YouTube channel and locating technical

Fig. 12 AxonCalc welding calculators


have a clean interface that is easy to
use.

Fig. 11 By tapping on the Troubleshoot


tab, the user is able to choose from a variety of possible symptoms or problems.

40

MAY 2013

has fields for inputting current, voltage,


and travel speed alone or travel speed
and time. The results, which can be
copied onto the devices memory or
e-mailed directly from the application,
are displayed in both kJ/in. and kJ/mm.
This free app contains demos of all
the welding calculators, which lets the
user try them before committing to buy,
and the company has plans to expand the
collection regularly. Additional app
demos can be found on the companys
Web site: www.axoncalc.com.

Fig. 13 The Thermal Dynamics Cut


Chart features areas for looking up a cut
chart along with error codes.

support in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, South East Asia, and the United
States.
The app is compatible with the iPhone
(3GS, 4, 4S, and 5); iPod touch (3rd, 4th,
and 5th generations); and iPad. It requires iOS 5.0 or later.

arc one_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:43 PM Page 41

For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:55 PM Page 42

Improving Surfacing
Performance with GMAW
The synchronized polarity gas metal
arc welding technique shows
promise for applying coatings where
the risk of perforating the base
material is a critical factor

new technique for the production


of a coating using the gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) process is presented in this article. The technique
fulfills two important requisites for this
type of operation: low dilution and high
productivity.
In order to carry out a welding task,
some characteristics associated with the
process and its respective procedure
need to be sought in order to fulfill the
technical requirements specified. In the

BY JAIR CARLOS DUTRA,


EDUARDO BIDESE PUHL,
NELSO GAUZE BONACORSO, AND
REGIS HENRIQUE GONCALVES E SILVA
JAIR CARLOS DUTRA, EDUARDO BIDESE PUHL
(eduardopuhl@labsolda.ufsc.br), and
REGIS HENRIQUE GONCALVES E SILVA are with
Federal University of Santa Catarina UFSC
Mechanical Engineering Department, Florianpolis,
Brazil. NELSO GAUZE BONACORSO is with Federal
Institute of Education, Science and Technology of
Santa Catarina, Metal Mechanics Department,
Florianpolis, Brazil.

case of coating applications, beside the


absence of defects in the weld beads and
in their overlaps, penetration and dilution must be minimized in order to guarantee the intended quality.
Despite the fact that this study encompasses the parameters mentioned
above, the intention herein is not to apply
them as comparison parameters. What is
of fundamental relevance is the possibility of using the GMAW process with direct current electrode negative (DCEN)

polarity, a welding condition traditionally considered inappropriate due to the


instability of the arc and a weld bead
geometry that is completely unsuitable.
The instability is currently resolved
through the use of a specific gas composition within a certain range of electrical
current. The geometry of the deposit is
then solved by the synchronized polarity
gas metal arc welding (SP-GMAW) technique proposed here, which consists of
the synchronization of the welding power

Table 1 Weld Beads Obtained in the Flat Position on an ABNT 1020 Carbon Steel Plate (AWS ER70S-6) Wire with Diameter of
1.2 mm, Mixture of Ar and O2, Welding Speed of 348 mm/min, and Current of 250 A
Test

Polarity

DCEP

7.2

DCEN

11.7

42

MAY 2013

Feed Speed (m/min)

Weld bead appearance

Cross section

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 43

source output polarity with the torch position in relation to its oscillatory motion.
Welders discard the use of DCEN with
solid electrodes as an option because of
the allegation that the electric arc is unstable and produces a globular metal
transfer with a significant amount of spatter. The geometry of the bead deposited
is unsuitable due to the low wettability,
which results in an almost circular cross
section that can lead to discontinuities
due to incomplete fusion at the joints
with adjacent weld beads. However, for
coating operations, other characteristics,
such as low levels of penetration and dilution, are required.
Recent studies on the GMAW process
with DCEN polarity have verified, via
high-speed digital filming, that the type
of shielding gas has a significant influence on metal transfer behavior and weld
bead geometry (Ref. 1). Good results
were obtained with an appropriate composition of argon and oxygen. The metal

transfer was globular at 150 A and axial


spray at 250 A without drop repulsion, in
contrast to descriptions in the classical
literature. The bead profile has low wettability (inappropriate format) but acceptable penetration, as shown in Test 2
(Table 1).
The use of DCEN in the GMAW
process is a real possibility for tubular
electrodes with a slag-forming flux, but
in the case of solid electrodes, it is limited only to the context of alternating current. In this latter case, the frequency of
the polarity switching is associated with
the frequency of the drop transfer and,
coincidently, is close to the frequency (50
or 60 Hz) the electricity-generating companies provide. One sought-after property is the greatest amount of molten
electrode material for a certain arc
power. This provides the process with
particular characteristics in order to
achieve specific objectives. For example,
researchers at Fronius, a manufacturer

Fig. 1 Electric arc showing the behavior


of the GMAW arc in the following polarities: A DCEP; B DCEN.

of welding power sources including CMT


Advanced (cold metal transfer), revealed
the gap-bridging capacity of the molten
material of the joint faces in root passes,
which they designated as the bridgeability (Ref. 2).
Another important characteristic of
DCEN that is favorable for the application of the coating is the high wire-melting rate for a certain current in comparison with direct current electrode positive
(DCEP) polarity. This distinctive melting rate, also represented by the differentiated wire feed speed in Table 1, can
be explained by the behavior of the electric arc. In DCEN polarity, the electric
arc does not anchor only at the end of the
electrode as in DCEP (Fig. 1A), but instead, widely embraces the electrode
(Fig. 1B), seeking points where the electron emission is favorable for the presence of oxides. This characteristic leads
to a greater parcel of the arc energy being
transferred to the electrode, enhancing
its relative melting at the expense of the
melting of the workpiece (Refs. 3, 4).
The objective of the new SP-GMAW
technique is to minimally affect the base
material and provide high productivity
with a reduced amount of defects. A potential application for this technology is
the repair of in-service pipelines that undergo a reduction in wall thickness due
to corrosion. In this application, more
than the need for low dilution, the obtainment of highly reduced penetration
and the possibility of carrying out the repair in a short time are of fundamental
importance. However, this type of coating is still carried out with coated electrodes, where the result is fundamentally
dependent on the ability of the welder
and the execution time is long.

The SP-GMAW Technique


The developed technique was given
the denomination of synchronized polarity (SP) due to the characteristic of the
change in polarity during the GMAW
process in synchrony with the torch po-

Fig. 2 Functioning strategy for the


SP-GMAW technique (Ref. 5).
WELDING JOURNAL

43

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 44

sition in the trajectory of the weld bead


execution. Robots or manipulators automatically execute the weld beads, and
combine the qualities of both polarities
in the GMAW process. The negative polarity is used in the center of the bead trajectory in order to obtain greater melting rate and welding speed, and lower dilution and penetration. The positive polarity is used only at the ends of the oscillation trajectory to prepare the weld
bead for adequate overlapping with another that will be deposited alongside it,
thus avoiding fusion defects. In the qualification of the procedure the values for
Yt and Yp of the transversal Y axis (Fig.
2) need to be appropriately considered.
The aim is to obtain weld beads with
the geometric characteristics shown in
Fig. 3.
The task of synchronizing the polarities with the oscillation trajectory of the
gun is carried out via a digital synchronization signal generated in the manipulator controller and recognized at the
welding source, as shown in Fig. 4. Thus,
the welding equipment involved manipulator and power source must be
based on digital technology with the possibility for the programming and parametrization of electrical signals.
For a certain weld speed and oscillation amplitude/frequency, configured at
the programming interface of the manipulator, the position of the transversal Y
axis is constantly compared with the transition amplitudes Yt and +Yt, as shown
in Fig. 5. When the position of the Y axis
surpasses one of the transition amplitudes, Yt or +Yt, the synchronization
signal shifts to logic level 1, which, in
turn, commands the welding power
source to impose the I+ current on the
electric arc through the application of
DCEP polarity. If the position of the Y
axis is between these transition amplitudes, the synchronization signal
switches to logic level 0, and commands
the welding source to impose the I current on the electric arc through the application of DCEN polarity.
The value in the current module imposed by the source, I+ or I, must be in
agreement with the respective wire feed
speeds established, since the melting
rates are different for each polarity when
the current values are the same. If the reaction dynamics of the wire feeder used
is low, then the same wire speed can be
applied for the two polarities. In this
case, the process equilibrium is achieved
through the adjustment of the intensity
of each current, I+ and I.

44

MAY 2013

Fig. 3 Characteristics expected of the


weld bead cross section.

Fig. 4 Functioning diagram of the


SP-GMAW technique.

Fig. 5 Synchronization logic of the


SP-GMAW technique.

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:56 PM Page 45

Fig. 6 The equipment setup for demonstrating the validity of the synchronized polarity gas metal arc welding technique.

Setting up the System


The tests performed to demonstrate
the validity of the SP-GMAW technique
simulated the recovery of the thickness
of a worn low-carbon steel workpiece
through the addition of 1.2-mm-diameter ER70S-6 wire in the flat welding position. The equipment used for the tests
consisted of a microprocessor-controlled
welding power source (Model IMC Inversal 450) with its respective wire
feeder, a Cartesian XY manipulator
(Model SPS Tartlope V2F), and a
portable data-acquisition system (Model

IMC SAP-V4.01) (Ref. 6) Fig. 6.


The welding power source was programmed to operate in GMAW mode
with the current imposed instead of the
voltage. This produces better dynamics
for the alternating polarities. The shielding gas used was a mixture of 98%Ar
+ 2%O 2 with a flow rate of 13 L/min
that was recommended by researchers
(Ref. 1).
Table 2 shows the parameters of the
movement and of the welding used to
produce the weld bead shown in Fig. 6.
This deposit was obtained using the push
technique with an angle of 10 deg. The

Table 2 Values for the Parameters Applied in SP-GMAW


Parameters
Weld speed (mm/min)
Oscillation frequency (Hz)
Oscillation amplitude, 2.Yp (mm)
Polarity amplitude DCEN, 2.Yt (mm)
Wire feed speed (mm/min)
Electric current in DCEP polarity, I+ (A)
Electric current in DCEN polarity, I (A)

Values
436
1.5
12.0
8.0
11.5
270
250

application time for DCEN was twice


that of DCEP. Despite the occurrence of
spattering (Fig. 7A), a regular weld bead
with an average width of 15.4 mm and
maximum height of 3.1 mm was obtained.
The maximum penetration (Fig. 7B) was
only 0.5 mm and the dilution was approximately 13%.
The oscillograms of the voltage and
current of the electric arc, as well as the
wire feed speed (Fig. 8), were captured
during the production of this particular
weld bead. The temporal behavior of the
electric arc voltage indicates that short
circuiting does not occur. The spattering
observed can be explained by the projection of drops of the electric arc to the outside of the weld pool due to the inversion
of the direction of the weld torch movement. This inversion of movement occurs
during the application of DCEP polarity
and at both lateral ends of the trajectory
of the torch oscillation.
It can also be observed that in DCEP
polarity, when the I+ current reaches its
reference value (270 A), the voltage gradually reduces. This signals the decrease
in the length of the electric arc due to a
lack of wire consumption. When the po-

WELDING JOURNAL

45

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larity is switched to DCEN, the length of


the electric arc is reestablished, indicated
by an increase in its voltage. In this case,
the electric arc is stable, but operating
close to the limit of instability. To make
the process more stable, the DCEP current of the DCEP polarity (I+) must be
corrected, that is, increased until an appropriate wire feed speed is reached.
Also, other factors, such as nonlinear
electromagnetic force variations of the
arc, influence the transitory characteristics that can contribute to the previously
mentioned voltage variation.
Another unstable and undesirable situation is when one or both currents, I+
and I, are higher than the currents suitable for a certain wire feed speed. In this
case, the arc length increases excessively
and melts the contact tip of the torch.
The same set of parameters used in
the previous test (Table 2) was applied to
make the weld shown in Fig. 9. In order
to ensure the overlap of the weld beads
only in the region of DCEP polarity, the
following criteria were applied: distance
between the longitudinal axes of two adjacent weld beads equal to the value of
the oscillation amplitude, that is, 12.0
mm. The layer obtained (Fig. 9A) has
good superficial appearance with a maximum height of 3.1 mm and a maximum
undulation of less than 0.3 mm. Its cross
section (Fig. 9B) reveals a shallow penetration and the absence of weld defects.

Fig. 7 A The weld bead obtained with the SP-GMAW technique; B cross section
of the weld bead.

Conclusions
The SP-GMAW technique offers a
real possibility for the application of
coatings where the risk of perforating the
base material is a critical factor. This is
due to the achieved appropriate geometric characteristics for the task of coating
surfaces, such as shallow penetration, a
surface with almost no undulation, and
good dimensional ratio (width/height) of
the weld beads.
The coating criteria adopted in the SPGMAW technique for the overlap of adjacent beads produced good results in the
flat welding position. There is no increase
in the height of the weld layer due to this
overlap. The maximum undulation generated was lower than 0.3 mm. The weld
layers produced do not present discontinuities and have an excellent visual
aspect with the presence of very little
spatter.
The use of DCEN polarity during
times that extend beyond the period of
drop transfer should not be discarded. If
used with certain wires in conjunction
46

MAY 2013

Fig. 8 Behavior of the main variables of the SP-GMAW technique.

Puhl et al May 2013_Layout 1 4/12/13 2:57 PM Page 47

Fig. 9 A The coating obtained with the SP-GMAW process; B a cross section of
the coating.

with adequate gas mixtures and a suitable current range, it can represent a
good alternative for specific cases of
welding. However, this technology requires pieces of equipment that communicate with each other and considerable
dedication in the qualification of the set
of variables and parameters for the
GMAW process as well as for automatic
torch displacement.

Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to the team
at Labsolda/UFSC whose efforts made
this multidisciplinary task possible and
to the Brazilian government agency
CNPq and the company Tractebel Energia for financial support.

References
1. Souza, D., Rezende, A. A., and
Scotti, A. 2009. A qualitative model to
explain the polarity influence on the fu-

sion rate in the MIG/MAG process. Revista Soldagem & Inspeo 14(3):
192198.
2. Pickin, C. G., Willams, S. W., and
Lunt, M. 2011. Characterization of the
cold metal transfer (CMT) process and
its application for low dilution cladding.
Journal of Materials Processing Technology 211(3): 496502.
3. Ueyama, T., Tong, H., Harada, S.,
and Passmore, R. 2005. AC pulsed
GMAW improves sheet metal joining.
Welding Journal 84(2): 4046.
4. Cirino, L. M. 2009. Study on the effects of polarity in direct and alternate
current TIG and MIG/MAG welding
processes. Masters thesis. PosMec/
UFSC, Florianpolis, Brazil.
5. Puhl, E. B. 2011. Development of
MIG/MAG welding technologies for
productivity and quality enhancement by
means of negative polarity. Masters thesis. PosMec/UFSC, Florianpolis, Brazil.
6. Labsolda: Operation Manuals.
Available at www.labsolda.ufsc.br/projetos/manuais/manuais.php. Instituto de
Mecatrnica. Accessed June 14, 2012.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

WELDING JOURNAL

47

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:54 AM Page 48

Exploring the Forces that


Shape Droplets during
Gas Metal Arc Welding
A model is presented to better understand the
physics of drop formation

ew, effective variations of the gas


metal arc welding (GMAW)
process are emerging. Some of
these methods, such as variations of controllable drop transfer, pulse welding
methods, etc., are based on controlling
the drop transfer mode. These methods
improve the performance of GMAW for
thin-metal, root-pass welding by applying
controllable pulses of current and
thereby changing conditions for forming

the liquid metal drops. Because of this,


the physical processes causing the drop
transfer mode changes are of key importance for further development of GMAW
technologies, which attracts the attention
of multiple researchers (Refs. 1, 2, 4).
The application of gas mixtures of
argon (Ar) with carbon dioxide (CO2) or
oxygen (O 2) expands the arc and increases the anode spot size while decreasing droplet diameter (Refs. 1, 3). By

BY ALEXEI YELISTRATOV
ALEXEI YELISTRATOV
(alexeiyel@yahoo.com) is a
research associate.

gradually increasing the welding current


(A), the transition to spray mode occurs
sharply, within a transition current range
of 5080 A Fig. 1A.
For GMAW in Ar-rich gas mixtures,
the transition current density is 120190
A/mm2 (Ref. 3). When Ar + oxidizing gas
(1 to 5% O2 or 5 to 8% CO2) mixtures are
used with a steel wire, the stability and
the range of technological modes demonstrate marked improvement when com-

Fig. 1A Effect of welding current and shielding gas on droplet frequency for GMAW with 116in. (1.6mm) welding wire
(Ref. 3); B effect of welding current (current density) on drop transfer mode for GMAW with 116in. (1.6mm) welding
wire ER70S3 in shielding gas mixture Ar + 5% O2 (Ref. 7).
48

MAY 2013

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:54 AM Page 49

Fig. 2 Directions of the electromagnetic force acted on


molten droplet at globular and spray modes. Currentcarrying
areas at the bottom of the electrode correspond to areas of
the arc anode spot.

pared to an arc with single-gas shielding.


According to multiple observations,
anode spot expands with increased current (this provides its constant current
density), and in spray mode it envelops
the droplet and the tapered bottom part
of the wire Fig. 1B.
In pulsed GMAW of aluminum, controllable droplet and spray modes can be
achieved (Ref. 6). In this study, an abrupt
transition from pulsed-globular to
pulsed-spray transfer is mentioned (see
conclusion #3 and Ref. 6).

The Metal Transfer Forces


The physical forces in the electric arc
zone that are mainly responsible for
droplet transfer at the transition current
range are electrodynamic (pinch-effect)
and surface tension (Ref. 8).
The electrodynamic force acts as a
squeezing force, constricting the conductor when the current-carrying cross sec-

Fig. 3 Experimental setup for hydraulic modeling of


droplet formation. 1 Upper vessel; 2 thermocouple;
3 extension; 4 lower vessel with water; 5 elec
trical heater. A Position of lower vessel (with boiling
water) that corresponds to highest vapor concentration
at the droplet forming zone; B initial position of the
lower vessel.

tions are the same. There is, however, another important feature of this constricting force: When current-carrying cross
sections are different, an axial electrodynamic force is created. This force directs
from lesser cross section to the larger
one. Welding current undergoes change
in the current-carrying cross sections during its path from the welding wire to the
anode spot Fig. 2. This is similar to
conduction angle (Refs. 3, 5).
Electrodynamic forces can be directed
up (Fig. 2) when the anode spot size is
smaller than the diameter of the electrode at low-current globular transfer in
GMAW. In this case, the electrodynamic
force and surface tension force acted
jointly to support the droplet on the tip of
the electrode (wire). This force can be directed down when the anode spot area
becomes larger than the cross section of
the electrode at high-current, spray
transfer with GMAW in Ar+CO 2/O 2
mixtures (Refs. 4, 5).

During GMAW with Ar+O 2/CO 2


mixtures, the anode spot is stabilized at
the bottom of the metal droplet (Refs. 1,
3), and heat energy is transferred from
the arc to the electrode through the bulk
of the droplet. With a further increase in
the welding current, the anode spot size
becomes larger than the external surface
of the droplet, eventually expands to include the cylindrical surface of the electrode, and melting occurs radially, creating a taper (Refs. 1, 4).
The temperature inside the anode
spot is approximately the metal boiling
point (Ref. 4), resulting in intensive evaporation of the metal. The increased
droplet temperature (Ref. 7) and increased metal vapor concentration in the
arc zone could lead to increased electrical conductivity in the arc zone and result
in sharpening the electrode tip (Ref. 8).
In summary, the electrodynamic force
changes direction and becomes directed
downward during GMAW in Ar-rich
WELDING JOURNAL

49

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:55 AM Page 50

Fig. 4 Water modeling. A


Droplet diameter vs. vapor concen
tration; B droplet frequency vs.
vapor concentration.

shielding gases when the welding current


exceeds the transition current. There is
no information about variation of surface
tension force for GMAW at the transition
current range. The purpose of the following experiments was to study the relationship between welding current and
anode spot size, and the influence of surface tension on droplet formation in conditions similar to ones at the tip of the
molten electrode within transition current range.

Experimental Procedures
The experiments were performed
using direct current, electrode positive
(DCEP) GMAW head with constant voltage (CV) power supply. Used throughout
these experiments were mild steel plates
7.87 2.36 0.39 in. (200 60 10
mm), AWS ER 70S-3 welding wire 116 in.
(1.6 mm) diameter, and various shielding
gases (100% CO2; 20% CO2 + 80% Ar;
10% CO2 + 90% Ar; 5% CO2 + 95%
Ar). The shielding gas mixture flow rate
was 42 ft3/h (20 L/min). The welding current and voltage were recorded. Highspeed photography (4000 f/s) was used to
capture droplet measurements. The geometrical sizes of the droplets and droplet
frequency were measured from the image
on the screen. The anode spot size was
measured from the image on the screen
by measuring the size of the bright spot
on the outer side of the droplet. This indirect method is acceptable for evaluation of low-scale objects in the electric arc
zone (Ref. 4). The variations in measured
droplet size were 5%, and in anode spot
size were 1015%.

Computational Model of
the Surface Tension Force
Significant measurement errors can
occur when studying the arc zone conditions using direct methods such as
probes, thermocouples, etc. Practical calculation of the surface tension force for
GMAW conditions is impossible because
there are no reliable supporting data.
Therefore, in this work, a qualitative
method was used to study the influence of

50

MAY 2013

the surface tension force physical


modeling of liquid droplet formation.
The physical model is not a model for
GMAW, nor a model for GMAW metal
drop transfer; instead, it is just the distinguishing group of physical interactions
where the surface tension force predominates. This model allows investigating
only the effect of surface tension and
eliminates the influence of forces related
to electrical current. Selection of the
modeling liquid and analog model dimensions were made in accordance with
theory of similarity.
Although calculations have been made
for a number of liquids, water was selected as the most suitable for these experiments. Water and low-melting alloys
are used to study the flow of liquid steel in
molds and feed head systems in the metallurgical industry; also, a water/alcohol
model was used (Ref. 9) to study droplet/
molten pool interaction in GMAW.

This computation objective is to study


the surface tension variations in conditions similar to real welding, using water
as a modeling liquid. Conditions that are
similar in forming both, real arc welding
metal drop, and water drop are:
Drop temperature is close to the boiling point.
The growing drop is surrounded by
the drops liquid vapors.
Since both liquids, molten steel and
water, have negative coefficients of
surface tension, they react similarly to
variations in the temperature of the dropforming zone: The higher the temperature (closer to boiling), the lower the surface tension. The surface tension is
caused by cohesion forces inside the
liquid and acts on any liquid surfaces in
accordance with the liquids physical
properties.
To investigate the influence of surface
tension on water droplet transfer, the

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:55 AM Page 51

Fig. 5 Droplet external surface and


anode spot area at GMAW. A 100%
CO2; B 95%Ar + 5%CO2.O2.

tration of vapor around the drop, not the


surrounding temperature.
For evaluation of the water vapor concentration, additional experiments were
conducted to measure the vapor concentration (humidity) with a portable thermohygrometer Testo 605-H1, which was
used in parallel with measuring the temperature in the drop-forming zone. According to results, the hygrometer cannot
provide accurate readings due to the restricted space for measurements (less
than 1 cm 3), but for larger spaces the
readings from the hygrometer and thermocouple correlated to 5 to 7% at a fixed
distance for the thermocouple of a few
millimeters from the drop surface. Also,
it was found the correlation between
vapor concentration and temperature
improved with approaching the boiling
point. Because of that, temperature readings from the thermocouple were accepted to evaluate the vapor concentration present in the small drop-forming
zone.

Effects of Water Vapor

model (Fig. 3) included an upper vessel


with water, an extension wherein the
droplets form, and a lower vessel with
boiling water and an electric heater. The
experimental setup included a thermocouple, which was fixed closely to the
outer end of the extension to measure the
temperature at the droplet-forming zone.
The extension used a special porous insert to provide the laminar flow of the
water during droplet formation. The concentration of the water vapor was determined indirectly, by temperature in the
droplet-forming zone, i.e., the temperature of boiling water (100C) corresponds
to 100% vapor concentration near the
surface. The formation of the water
droplets was observed using a 25
microscope.
The water model for studying surface
tension effect in conditions compatible to
that at transition current range in
GMAW has several features:

1. In the model, the drop is formed by


water flowing from top, while in real
welding, wire melts from its bottom by action of an electric arc. Current-caused
forces (pinch-effect, plasma jets, etc.)
make the real drop formation more complicated, but the resulting effect of that is
variations in the drop temperature and
surface tension since they are the main
forces that support the drop.
2. When the heater moved up, radiated heat could heat the upper vessel
with water. But with the thermocouple
installed near the drop, the total surrounding temperature was registered
without relation to ways of heating. To
minimize that effect, the time for the experiment was limited and each set of experiments was repeated 8 to 10 times.
3. The method for evaluating the
vapor concentration by temperature in
the drop-forming zone cannot be accurate but what is important is the concen-

In this set of experiments, the lower


vessel with boiling water was moved up,
closer to the droplet-forming zone. This
allowed the temperature and vapor concentration in the droplet-forming zone to
reach 100C (100% vapor). The temperature in the droplet formation zone and
the droplet transfer parameters (diameter and frequency) was determined at
various vapor concentrations Fig. 4.
When the concentration of the water
vapor approached 100%, sharp changes
in droplet transfer parameters were observed. The drop diameter decreased
from 0.177 to 0.039 in. (4.5 to 1 mm), and
the drop transfer frequency increased
from 40 to 90/s.

Effects of Temperature
An electrical heater without the lower
vessel was installed below the droplet formation extension and moved up toward
the extension. When the heater was in the
upper position, the size of the droplets
changed. The droplets lengthened in the
direction of the heater from 0.019 to

WELDING JOURNAL

51

Yelistratov GMAW_Layout 1 4/15/13 9:56 AM Page 52

0.047 in. (0.5 to 1.2 mm), and their diameters decreased from 0.177 to 0.149 in.
(4.5 to 3.8 mm). The drop transfer frequency increased from 4043/s to
5053/s.

Effects of Adding Dyes and


Ceramic Powders
Aniline dye, which is a soluble liquid,
was deposited on the surface of a droplet.
In a fraction of a second, the dye had
spread through the bulk of the drop. The
amount of aniline dye used did not affect
the diameter or the frequency of droplet
transfer.
Mineral oil, a nonsoluble liquid, collected at the bottom of a water droplet,
and formed an independent drop. When
the oil was injected into the water droplet
(through a thin pipe), an independent oil
sphere formed inside the water droplet.
There were no noticeable changes in
drop transfer.
When dry ceramic powder was deposited on the surface of a water droplet,
it occupied only the surface of the
droplet. The powder, previously soaked
in aniline dye, penetrated through the
bulk of the water droplet. Powder, previously soaked in mineral oil, occupied only
the surface of the droplet.
When a mixture of ceramic powders
preliminarily soaked in aniline dye and in
mineral oil was used, penetration into the
bulk of the water droplet depended on the
composition of the mixture. When there
was more than 30 to 50% dyed powder in
the mixture, the powder began to penetrate into the bulk of the water droplet,
carrying the oiled powder. There were no
noticeable changes in drop transfer.
From the modeling experiments,
droplet transfer parameters and therefore surface tension are not dependent
considerably on temperature in the
droplet-forming zone until the temperature in drop forming zone approaches the
boiling point. After that, the high concentration of vapor causes the droplettransfer parameters to change in a
marked degree because of the drastic decrease in the surface tension force.
An analysis of the high-speed photographs of the droplet transfer during
GMAW in different gas mixtures (Fig.
5A, B) confirmed that change in droplet
transfer mode from globular to spray
(Fig. 1) occurred at the instant the anode
spot on the droplets surface became
greater than the droplet external surface
(Fig. 5B). In this study, this occurred
when the following parameters were
52

MAY 2013

used: gas mixture 95% Ar+5% CO 2,


welding current 290 to 310 A, and current
density 145 to 160 A/mm2.

Model Explains Iron


Powder Effect on Stability
The modeling experiments developed
in this study explain the change in droplet
transfer mode when welding within the
transition current range as follows:
As the axial electrodynamic (pincheffect) force is directed down and gradually increases, the anode spot size becomes larger than the cross section of the
electrode and larger than the external
surface of the droplet.
At this moment, the value of the surface tension decreases drastically because formation of the droplet occurs
completely inside the arcs anode active
spot, within the zone with high metal
vapor concentration.
Together, those two factors lead to an
abrupt change in droplet size, changing
the transfer mode from globular to spray.
Experiments confirmed that any method
that increases the metal vapor concentration in the arc zone would decrease the
surface tension force of liquid metal. For
example, the addition of iron powder into
the flux core (or in the electrode coating),
in conjunction with increased deposition
rate, will probably decrease the droplet
diameter through the intensive metal vaporization, thus providing a more stable
process.
Also, modeling experiments with ceramic powder mixtures (conditions similar to flux core and shielded metal arc
welding) demonstrated that interaction
between liquid metal and slag are dependent on the composition of the slag.

Some Interesting Results


1. For GMAW with Ar-rich shielding
gas, increasing the anode spot size above
the droplet external surface provides
high metal vapor concentration in the
droplet-forming zone.
2. The main cause of transfer mode
change from globular to spray is the increase in the electrodynamic (pinch effect) force and the sharp decrease of the
liquid metal surface tension force on the
tip of the melted welding wire.
3. During GMAW in the globular
transfer mode, the surface tension force
and the electrodynamic force are two important factors in forming of the metal
drops. In the spray mode, when welding
current exceeds the transition value, the

influence of the surface tension force on


droplet formation becomes insignificant
and the electrodynamic force governs the
liquid metal transition to the molten
pool.
4. The surface tension force can be another effective tool for controlling the
droplet transfer, arc stability, and alloying efficiency.

Acknowledgment
The author would like to acknowledge
Dr. A. Lesnewich for reviewing the manuscript and for his valuable suggestions.

References
1. Soderstrom, E. J., and Mendez, P.
F. 2008. Metal transfer during GMAW
with thin electrodes and Ar-CO2 shielding gas mixture Welding Journal 87(5):
124-s to 133-s.
2. Hu, J., and Tsai, H. L. 2006. Effects
of current on droplet generation and arc
plasma in gas metal arc welding. Journal
of Applied Physics, 100, Article No.
053304.
3. Rhee, S., and Kannatey-Asibu, E.
Jr. 1992. Observation of metal transfer
during gas metal arc welding. Welding
Journal 71(10): 381-s to 386-s.
4. Kim, Y. S., McEligot, D. M., and
Eagar, T. W. 1991. Analysis of electrode
heat transfer in gas metal arc welding.
Welding Journal 70(1): 20-s to 31-s.
5. Jones, L. A., Eagar, T. W., and Lang,
J. H. 1998. Images of a steel electrode in
Ar-2%O2 shielding gas during constant
current gas metal arc welding. Welding
Journal 77(4): 135-s to 141-s.
6. Subramaniam, S., White, D. R.,
Jones, J. E., and Lyons, D. W. 1998.
Droplet transfer in pulsed gas metal arc
welding of aluminum. Welding Journal
77(11): 458-s to 464-s.
7. Soderstrom, E. J., Scott, K. M., and
Mendez, P. F. 2011. Calorimetric measurement of droplet temperature in
GMAW. Welding Journal 90(4): 77-s to
84-s.
8. Wang, F., Hou, W., Kannatey-Asibu,
E., Schultz, W., and Wang, P. 2003. Modelling and analysis of metal transfer in gas
metal arc welding. Journal of Physics D:
Applied Physics 36, pp. 11431152.
9. Choo, R. T. C., Mukai, K., and
Toguri, J. M. 1992. Marangoni interaction of a liquid droplet falling onto a liquid pool. Welding Journal 71(4): 139-s to
146-s.

trumpf_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:53 PM Page 53

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CE MAY_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:07 AM Page 54

COMING
EVENTS

NOTE: A DIAMOND ( ) DENOTES AN AWS-SPONSORED EVENT.

12th Annual Great Designs in Steel Seminar. May 1. Laurel


Manor Conf. Center, Livonia, Mich. Sponsored by The Steel Market Development Institute. www.sasft.org/en/sitecore/content/Autosteel_org/Web%20Root/Great%20Designs%20in%20Steel.aspx.

JOM-17, Intl Conf. on Joining Materials. May 58. Konventum


Lo Skolen, Helsingr, Denmark. Institute for the Joining of Materials (JOM) in association with the IIW. Cosponsored by AWS,
TWI, Danish Welding Society, Welding Technology Institute of
Australia, University of Liverpool, Cranfield University, Force
Technology, and Brazilian Welding Assn. www.jominstitute.com/
side6.html.
AISTech 2013, Iron and Steel Technology Conf. and Expo. May
69, Pittsburgh, Pa. www.aist.org/aistech/.
INTERTECH 2013, Superabrasive Materials, Principles, and
Applications for the Aerospace and Defense Industries. May 68.
Hyatt Regency Baltimore Harbor Hotel, Baltimore, Md. Industrial Diamond Assn. www.intertechconference.com.

American Welding Society, Fabricators and Manufacturers Assn,


Intl, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, and Precision Metalforming Assn. www.aws.org/show/weldmex2013.html.
Intl Thermal Spray Conf. and Expo. May 1315. Busan, Republic of Korea. Sponsored by ASM International. www.asminternational.org/content/Events/itsc/.
Intl Conf. on Materials for Renewable Energy & Environment.
May 15, 16. Nanjing, China. www.mree-conf.org.
IIE Annual Conf. and Expo. May 1822. Caribe Hilton, San Juan,
Puerto Rico. www.iienet2.org/annual2.
44th Steelmaking Seminar Intl. May 1922. Tau Grande
Hotel Termas & Convention Arax, Estncia Parque do Barreiro,
s/n Arax - Minas Gerais, Brazil. Held by Brazilian Metallurgical, Materials, and Mining Assn. www.abmbrasil.com.br.
LPPDE-Europe. June 35. Park Plaza Hotel, Amsterdam Airport, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Lean Product & Process Development Exchange, Inc. Address e-mail to lppde@leanfront.com.

POWER-GEN India & Central Asia, Renewable Energy World


Conf. & Expo, and HydroVision India. May 68. Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai, India. www.power-genindia.
com/index.html.

Pipeline Conf. June 4, 5. Houston, Tex. Sponsored by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 264;
www.aws.org/conferences.

AWS Weldmex Show, FABTECH Mexico, METALFORM


Mexico. May 79. Cintermex, Monterrey, Mexico. Sponsors:

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18th Beijing-Essen Welding & Cutting Fair. June 1821. New International Expo Center, Shanghai, China. www.beijing-essenwelding.com/en/index.htm.
Third VDI Congress, Lightweight Design Strategies in Vehicles. July 3, 4. Wolfsburg, Germany. Sponsored by VDI Wissensforum, Assn. of German Engineers. www.vdi.de/leichtbau.

Codes and Standards Conf. July 16, 17. Orlando, Fla. To include
AWS D1, Structural Welding Code Steel, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, API pipeline codes, MIL specs and ISO standards. Sponsored by the American Welding Society (800/305) 4439353, ext. 264; www.aws.org/conferences.
59th Annual UA Assn. of Journeymen and Apprentices of the
Plumbing and Pipefitting Industrys Instructor Training Program. Aug. 1117, Washtenaw Community College, Ann Arbor,
Mich. www.visitannarbor.org/news/detail/ann-arbor-welcomes-the59th-annual-united-association-instructor-training-p.
12th Intl Conf. on Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive
Testing in Engineering. Sept. 46. Grand Hotel Metropol, Portoroz, Slovenia. Sponsored by The Slovenian Society for Non-Destructive Testing. www.fs.uni-lj.si/ndt.
LPPDE-North America. Sept. 911. Savannah, Ga. Lean Product
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66th IIW Annual Assembly. Sept. 1117. Essen, Germany. Organized by DVS (German Welding Society). www.dvsev.de/IIW2013/.

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GAWDA Annual Convention. Sept. 1518. Orlando, Fla. Gases


and Welding Distributors Assn. www.gawda.org.
ASM Heat Treating Society Conf. and Expo. Sept. 1618. Indiana
Convention Center, Indianapolis, Ind. www.asminternational.org/
content/Events/heattreat/.
IIW Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding. Sept. 16, 17. Essen,
Germany. www.iiw2013.com. Event in the IIW Annual Assembly.
Schweissen & Schneiden 2013 Intl Trade Fair Joining, Cutting,
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16th Annual Aluminum Conf. Sept. 17, 18. Chicago, Ill. Sponsored by the American Welding Society (800/305) 443-9353, ext.
264; www.aws.org/conferences.

Educational Opportunities
Brazing School Fundamentals to Advanced Concepts. May
1416 (Hartford, Conn.); Oct. 2224 (Greenville, S.C.); Nov.
1921 (Simsbury, Conn.). www.kaybrazing.com/seminars.htm;
dan@kaybrazing.com; (860) 651-5595.
CWI Preparation Courses: June 37, Aug. 1923, Nov. 1115.
D1.1 Endorsement: June 7, Aug. 23, Nov. 15; D1.5 Endorsement:
May 31, Aug. 16; API Endorsement: May 30, Nov. 8. All courses
and endorsements held at Welder Training & Testing Institute,
1144 N. Graham St., Allentown, Pa. www.wtti.com; (610) 8209551, ext. 204.

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

image of welding_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:14 AM Page 57

An Association of Welding Manufacturers

Know an individual, company, educator, or educational facility that


exemplifies what welding is all about?

Nominate them!
The Image of W
Welding
eld
ding A
Awards
w
wards Program recogn
recognizes
nizes outstanding
achievement in the following categories:


Individual

Section

Large Business

(you or other individual)




(welding products)

(A
WS local chapter)
(AWS


Small Business

(less than 200 employees)

Educator

(welding teacher at an institution, facility


facility,, etc.)

(200 or more employees)




Distributor

Educational Facility

(any or
organization
ganization that conducts welding
education or training)

Media

(open to industry and business publications)

Entry deadline is July

31, 2013

For more
more informatio
information
on and to submit a nomination
nomin
nation form online,
visit www.aws.org/awards/image.html
www.aws.org/awards/image.html
/awards/image.html or call
ca 800-443-9353.

Cert Schedule MAY_Layout 1 4/12/13 1:05 PM Page 58

CERTIFICATION
SCHEDULE
Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)
LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
Birmingham, AL
June 27
Hutchinson, KS
June 27
Spokane, WA
June 27
Miami, FL
Exam only
Bakersfield, CA
June 914
Pittsburgh, PA
June 914
Beaumont, TX
June 914
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Hartford, CT
June 2328
Orlando, FL
June 2328
Memphis, TN
June 2328
Jacksonville, FL
July 712
Omaha, NE
July 712
Cleveland, OH
July 712
Miami, FL
Exam only
Phoenix, AZ
July 1419
Los Angeles, CA
July 1419
Louisville, KY
July 1419
Waco, TX
July 1419
Milwaukee, WI
July 1419
Corpus Christi, TX
Exam only
Sacramento, CA
July 2126
Kansas City, MO
July 2126
Denver, CO
July 28Aug. 2
Miami, FL
July 28Aug. 2
Philadelphia, PA
July 28Aug. 2
Chicago, IL
Aug. 49
Baton Rouge, LA
Aug. 49
Portland, ME
Aug. 49
Las Vegas, NV
Aug. 49
Mobile, AL
Aug. 1116
Charlotte, NC
Aug. 1116
Rochester, NY
Exam only
San Antonio, TX
Aug. 1116
Seattle, WA
Aug. 1116
San Diego, CA
Aug. 1823
Minneapolis, MN
Aug. 1823
Salt Lake City, UT
Aug. 1823
Anchorage, AK
Exam only
Miami, FL
Sept. 1520
Idaho Falls, ID
Sept. 1520
St. Louis, MO
Sept. 1520
Houston, TX
Sept. 1520
New Orleans, LA
Sept. 2227
Fargo, ND
Sept. 2227
Pittsburgh, PA
Sept. 2227
Indianapolis, IN
Sept. 29Oct. 4

Certification Seminars, Code Clinics, and Examinations


EXAM DATE
June 8
June 8
June 8
June 13
June 15
June 15
June 15
June 29
June 29
June 29
June 29
July 13
July 13
July 13
July 18
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 20
July 27
July 27
July 27
Aug. 3
Aug. 3
Aug. 3
Aug. 10
Aug. 10
Aug. 10
Aug. 10
Aug. 17
Aug. 17
Aug. 17
Aug. 17
Aug. 17
Aug. 24
Aug. 24
Aug. 24
Sept. 21
Sept. 21
Sept. 21
Sept. 21
Sept. 21
Sept. 28
Sept. 28
Sept. 28
Oct. 5

9Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI


(No exams given.) For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet
education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be
taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
Pittsburgh, PA
June 27
San Diego, CA
July 712

Miami, FL
Orlando, FL
Denver, CO
Dallas, TX

July 2126
Aug. 1823
Sept. 1520
Oct. 611

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)


LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
Minneapolis, MN
July 1519
Miami, FL
Sept. 2327
Norfolk, VA
Oct. 1418
CWS exams are also given at all CWI exam sites.

EXAM DATE
July 20
Sept. 28
Oct. 19

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)


LOCATION
SEMINAR DATES
EXAM DATE
Dallas, TX
Aug. 1923
Aug. 24
Chicago, IL
Sept. 2327
Sept. 28
Pittsburgh, PA
Oct. 1418
Oct. 19
The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)
CWSR exams will be given at CWI exam sites.
Certified Welding Educator (CWE)
Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).
Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)
The course dates are followed by the location and phone number
June 1721, Dec. 913 at
ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
May 2024, Aug. 1923, Dec. 26 at
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Oct. 14 at
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
July 1519, Oct. 2125 at
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800
Training: May 2022, July 2224, Sept. 2325, Nov. 1820
Exams: May 2324, July 2526, Sept. 2627, Nov. 2122 at
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at
MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 297-6996
Certified Welding Engineer; Senior Certified Welding
Inspector Exams can be taken at any site listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. No preparatory seminar is offered.
International CWI Courses and Exams Schedules
Please visit www.aws.org/certification/inter_contact.html.

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change without notice. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the
seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after that time will be assessed a $250 Fast Track fee. Please verify application
deadline dates by visiting our website www.aws.org/certification/docs/schedules.html. Verify your event dates with the Certification
Dept. to confirm your course status before making travel plans. For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or
to register online, visit www.aws.org/certification or call (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.
Apply early to avoid paying the $250 Fast Track fee.
58

MAY 2013

awo metallurgy_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:06 AM Page 59

awo.aws.org

METALLURGY
ME
TA
ALL
LURGY
G

for the Non-Metallurg


Non-Metallurgist:
ist: Fundamentals
Metallurgy is the science that deals with the internal
internal structure of
metals, the relationship between metals, and the properties of metals.
In welding, a basic understanding of metallurgy provides insight into
the positive and negative changes that occur in metals when joined
by welding.
From the properties of an atom to the behaviors
behaviors of metals during
the welding process, you are introduced to the properties of metals
and will gain an understanding of why metals behave the way they do.
Concepts covered include the anatomy of atoms,
atoms, the periodic table,
chemical bonding, including ionic bonding, covalent bonding, and
metallic bonding, as well as the properties of metals. This seminar
contains interactive exercises to reinforce key points and includes
summaries and quizzes to help prepare you for the completion exam.
The seminar is approximately five hours long and concludes with a
proficiency test.

Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/metallurgy

Conferences May 2013_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:04 PM Page 60

CONFERENCES
Pipeline Conference
June 4, 5
Houston, Tex.
The transportation of oil and natural gas through cross-country pipelines has never been as vigorous as it is now, and greater
growth lies ahead with welding in the thick of it. For many
decades, the stick electrode has been a driving force behind the
construction of these lines, and it is still very much in the drivers
seat. But in order to cut costs, owners have started to use X80, a
lighter-weight, higher-strength linepipe steel. The same cellulosic electrodes used on the more conventional steels are inadequate for X80 steel. This has opened the door for low-hydrogen
electrodes and mechanized welding.
The keynote address to this important AWS conference will
be delivered by Brian Laing, president of CRC-Evans Pipeline
International. A seasoned veteran of the pipeline industry, Laing
once worked for NOVA (now TransCanada), as a welding
engineer. Following is a breakdown of the other speakers and
their topics.
Robin Gordon, senior vice president of Microalloying International Inc., will present the current status of Grade X80 pipeline
technology and highlight the technical challenges that must be
addressed before considering its use.
Paul Tewss presentation on Specimen Quality for Fatigue
Test Girth Welds should be of interest to every pipeline owner.
Tews, who is operating out of the UK at present, is the principal

welding engineer for Subsea 7.


Bill Bruce, U.S. director of Welding and Materials Technology for Det Norske Veritas, will discuss new revisions for pipeline
repair in API 1104.
Two popular processes, hybrid laser arc welding and friction
stir welding, are waiting their turns for acceptance in some applications. Matt Boring, senior welding engineer, Knieper & Associates, will speak on the situation from the standpoint of ASME
Section IX.
Ian Harris, technical leader, Arc Welding, EWI, will give a
detailed presentation on the hybrid laser arc welding process and
how it is suited for pipeline construction work.
Another speaker from EWI, Connie Reichert, will talk about
automated corrosion repair of pipelines. Reichert is principal
engineer, Design, Controls & Automation.
Michael Lang, senior construction engineer, Bechtel Corp.,
has lean welding as his topic. Lang is chairman of the AWS D10
Committee on Piping and Tubing.
Russel Fuchs, senior technical manager, Bohler Welding
Group USA, will offer a comparison of one cellulosic electrode
and two low-hydrogen electrodes.
SMAW: The Evolution of Stick Welding, from a Welders
Perspective is the title of Lori Kuipers talk. She is offshore &
pipeline segment manager, Euroweld, Ltd.
Derick Railling, product manager, Global Onshore Pipeline,
ITW Welding, is basing his presentation on understanding the
sources and remedies of hydrogen-induced cracking in pipeline
welds.
Scott Funderburk from CRC-Evans Pipeline International
will talk about overcoming such operational challenges as leak
detection and automatic shut-off valves.
Chris Penniston, welding and materials engineer, RMS Systems in Canada, has chosen the topic of innovations in mechanized welding.
Olivier Jouffron, technical manager, Serimax North America,
will discuss the steps that can be taken in welding corrosionresistant alloy pipe.
Win Wijnholds, president of Magnatech International BV in
The Netherlands, will discuss dual-process methodology.
Ryan Lewis, a consumables product manager at The Lincoln
Electric Co., will discuss some of the welding activities used in
oil shale environments.

Codes and Standards Conference


July 16, 17
Orlando, Fla.
This conference will feature information about the AWS D1
Structural Welding Code Steel, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, and API pipeline codes, plus MIL and ISO standards, potentially the most valuable documents available to manufacturers
and fabricators of welded products. Information will be provided
about the planning and execution of various welding processes, as
well as useful data for designers, inspectors, and QC specialists.

For more information, please contact the AWS Conferences and Seminars Business Unit at (800) 443-9353, ext.
223, or e-mail ablanco@aws.org. You can also visit the Conference Department Web site at www.aws.org/conferences
for upcoming conferences and registration information.
For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

60

MAY 2013

essen_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 2:48 PM Page 61

Join together.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE FAIR


JOINING CUTTING SURFACING
1621 SEPT. 2013 ESSEN GERMANY
MESSEESSEN GmbH
Tel. 001-914-962-1310
karen@essentradeshows.com
www.schweissen-schneiden.com

Meet over 1,000 exhibitors and experts from all over the world.
Discover innovative solutions in joining, cutting and surfacing.
Take advantage of the opportunities in the industrys hot spot.
Join your industry in Essen!
For Info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Welding Workbook May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:22 PM Page 1

WELDING
WORKBOOK

Datasheet 340

Selecting Shielding Gases for Gas Metal Arc Welding


The primary function of the shielding gas in gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) is to exclude the atmosphere from contact with
the molten weld metal. This is necessary because most metals,
when heated to their melting point in air, exhibit a strong tendency to form oxides, and, to a lesser extent, nitrides. Oxygen
also reacts with carbon in molten steel to form carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide. These reaction products may result in weld
discontinuities such as slag inclusions, porosity, and weld metal
embrittlement. Reaction products are easily formed in the at-

mosphere unless precautions are taken to exclude nitrogen and


oxygen.
Besides providing a protective environment, the shielding gas
and flow rate have a pronounced effect on arc characteristics,
mode of metal transfer, penetration and weld bead profile, speed
of welding, undercutting tendency, cleaning action, and weld
metal mechanical properties. The principal gases used in the
spray arc mode are shown in Table 1 and those for short-circuit
GMAW are shown in Table 2.

Table 1 GMAW Shielding Gases for Spray Transfer


Metal

Shielding Gas

Characteristics

Aluminum

100% argon
35% argon/65% helium
25% argon/75% helium

Best metal transfer and arc stability; least spatter; good cleaning action.
Higher heat input than 100% argon; improved fusion characteristics on
thicker material; minimizes porosity.
Highest heat input; minimizes porosity; least cleaning action.

Magnesium

100% argon
Argon + 2070% helium

Excellent cleaning action; stable arc.


Improved wetting; less chance of porosity.

Carbon steel

15% oxygen, balance argon

Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld pool;
good fusion and bead contour; minimizes undercutting; permits higher
speeds than pure argon.
High-speed mechanized welding; low-cost manual welding.

515% carbon dioxide (CO2); balance


argon
Low-alloy steel

98% argon/2% oxygen

Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.

Stainless steel

99% argon/1% oxygen

Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld pool;
good fusion and bead contour; minimizes undercutting on heavier
stainless steels.
Provides better arc stability, coalescence, and welding speed than
1% oxygen mixture for thinner stainless steel materials.

98% argon/2% oxygen

Nickel, copper, and


their alloys

100% argon
Argon/helium

Provides good wetting; decreases fluidity of weld metal.


Higher heat inputs of 50 and 75% helium mixtures offset high heat
dissipation of heavier gauges.

Titanium

100% argon

Good arc stability; minimum weld contamination; inert gas backing is


required to prevent air contamination on back of weld area.

Table 2 GMAW Shielding Gases for Short-Circuiting Transfer


Metal

Shielding Gas

Characteristics

Carbon Steel

75% argon/25% CO2

High welding speeds with minimum melt-through; minimum spatter; clean


weld appearance; good pool control in vertical and overhead positions.
Deep penetration; faster welding speeds; high spatter levels.

100% CO2
Stainless steel

90% helium/7.5% argon/2.5% CO2

No effect on corrosion resistance; small heat-affected zone; minimizes


undercut.

Low-alloy steel

6070% helium/2535% argon/


4.5% CO2
75% argon/25% CO2

Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting


characteristics, and bead contour; little spatter.
Fair toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics, and bead
contour; little spatter.

Aluminum, copper
magnesium, nickel, and
their alloys

Argon and argon/helium

Argon satisfactory on sheet metal; argon-helium preferred for thicker


base material.

Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol. 2, ninth edition.


62

MAY 2013

buyers guide_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 8:21 AM Page 63

pipeline conference_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:09 AM Page 64

AWS Conferences & Exhibitions:

Pipelines Conference
June 4th 5th / Houston, TX
Join us in Houston for the debut of the AWS Pipeline Welding Conference! Our featured
speakers will cover a multitude of topics including the welding of high strength X80 pipe
steels, orbital processes used in pipeline construction throughout the world, the new FRIEX
system from Belgium and many other exciting topics.
Highlights
 Learn about the progress of new and innovative developments

in pipeline welding.
 Network with industry peers to find the best solutions for

business growth.
 AWS Conference attendees are awarded 1 PDH (Professional

Development Hour) for each hour of conference attendance.


These PDH's can be applied toward AWS recertifications
and renewals.

For the latest conference information and registration visit our web site at
www.aws.org/conferences or call 800-443-9353, ext. 224.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 65

SOCIETYNEWS
BY HOWARD WOODWARD
woodward@aws.org

D1 Committee Convenes in Doral

The D1 Committee on Structural Welding met at AWS World Headquarters the week of Feb. 25.

Shown are (from left) AWS Vice President David McQuaid, past D1 Chair Donald Rager,
AWS Executive Director Ray Shook, D1 Chair Duane Miller, and Allen Sindel, D1 vice chair.

On March 1, a rare copy of the first-edition of the forerunner


to the D1.1, Structural Welding Code Steel, all 20 pages of it, was
presented to Ray Shook, AWS executive director, for permanent
loan and preservation in the D. Fred Bovie Library and Museum
at AWS World Headquarters in Doral, Fla. The presenters included
Duane K. Miller, D1 chair; David McQuaid, D1 chair (19962002)

and AWS vice president; Donald D. Rager, D1 chair (20022008),


and Allen W. Sindel, D1 vice chair. The Code for Fusion Welding
and Gas Cutting in Building Construction includes general application, definitions, materials, permissible unit stresses, design, workmanship, erection, gas cutting, and an appendix. The document was
donated to the Society by Paul E. Masters, Cape Coral, Fla.
WELDING JOURNAL

65

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 66

AWS President Nancy Cole (left) presents


Anne Rorke a special AWS award for her
many years of service at WTIA (Welding Technology Institute of Australia) where she currently is editor of the Australasian Welding
Journal. The presentation was made at the
March WTIA conference in Perth, Australia.

David McQuaid (left), an AWS vice president


and a past chair of the D1 Committee, receives recognition for his 30 years of service
from D1 Committee Chair Duane Miller.

Damian J. Kotecki (right) receives his 30year service award pin from Harry Wehr,
chairman, A5 Committee on Filler Metals
and Allied Materials, on March 5, during the
annual meetings in Orlando, Fla. Kotecki
was cited for his many contributions to the
A5 Committees.

Tech Topics
New Standards Projects
Development work has begun on the
following revised standards. Affected individuals are invited to contribute to their
development. Contact Staff Secretary A.
Diaz, adiaz @aws.org; ext. 304. Participation on AWS Technical Committees is open
to all persons.
B2.1-1/8-010:20XX, Standard Welding
Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Gas
Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon Steel to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1, P-1, or S-1
to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge,
in the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing. Stakeholders: Manufacturers,
welders, CWIs, engineers.
B2.1-1/8-231:20XX, Standard Welding
Procedure Specification (SWPS) for Gas
Tungsten Arc Welding with Consumable Insert Root followed by Shielded Metal Arc
Welding of Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1,
Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic Stainless Steel
(M-8/P-8/S-8, Group 1), 18 through 112 Inch
Thick, IN309, ER309, and E309-15,-16, or
-17, or IN309, ER309(L), and ER309(L)15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications. Stakeholders: Manufacturers, welders, CWIs, and welding engineers.
D9.1M/D9.1:20XX, Sheet Metal Welding
Code. Stakeholders: Those involved in the
production and qualification of nonstructural sheet metal applications such as heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, food processing equipment, architectural sheet metal, and in the acceptance of
welding and braze welding of nonstructural
sheet metal components.

66

MAY 2013

ANSI Approved Revised Standards


A5.16/A5.16M:2013 (ISO 24034:2010
MOD), Specification for Titanium and Titanium-Alloy Welding Electrodes and Rods.
Approved 2/19/13.
F1.2:2013, Laboratory Method for Measuring Fume Generation Rates and Total
Fume Emission of Welding and Allied
Processes. Approved 2/25/13.
ANSI Approved Reaffirmed Standards
B2.1-1-003:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting
Transfer Mode) of Galvanized Steel (M-1),
18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or without Backing. 3/7/13.
B2.1-1-004:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting
Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel (M-1, Group
1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded
Condition, with or without Backing. 3/7/13.
B2.1-8-005:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting
Transfer Mode) of Austenitic Stainless Steel
(M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through 10 Gauge, in
the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing. 3/7/13.
B2.1-1/8-006:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Metal Arc Welding (Short Circuiting
Transfer Mode) of Carbon Steel to Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18
through 10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or without Backing. 3/14/13.
B2.1-1-007:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Galvanized


Steel (M-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in the AsWelded Condition, with or without Backing.
3/7/13.
B2.1-1-008:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
(M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in
the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing. 3/11/13.
B2.1-8-009:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, or S-8), 18 through
10 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with
or without Backing. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1-011:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Galvanized
Steel (M-1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in the AsWelded Condition, with or without Backing.
3/11/13.
B2.1-1-012:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
(M-1, P-1, or S-1), 18 through 10 Gauge, in
the As-Welded Condition, with or without
Backing. 3/11/13.
B2.1-8-013:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8, P-8, S-8, Group 1), 10
through 18 Gauge, in the As-Welded Condition, with or without Backing. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1/8-014:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS) for
Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
to Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-1 to M-8/P8/S-8, Group 1), 10 through 18 Gauge, in the

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:42 PM Page 67

As-Welded Condition, with or without Backing. 3/11/13.


B2.1-1/8-227:2002-AMD1 (R2013),
Standard Welding Procedure Specification
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of
Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel ( M-8/P-8, Group
1), 116 through 112 Inch Thick, ER309(L),
As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1/8-228:2002 (R2013), Standard
Welding Procedure Specification (SWPS)
for Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Carbon
Steel (M-1/P-1/S-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel ( M-8/P-8/S-8,
Group 1), 18 through 112 Inch Thick,
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1/8-229:2002-AMD1 (R2013),
Standard Welding Procedure Specification
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding followed by Shielded Metal Arc Welding of
Carbon Steel (M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to
Austenitic Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group
1), 18 through 112 Inch Thick, ER309(L) and
E309(L) -15, -16, or -17, As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13.
B2.1-1/8-230:2002-AMD1 (R2013),
Standard Welding Procedure Specification
(SWPS) for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with
Consumable Insert Root of Carbon Steel
(M-1/P-1, Groups 1 or 2) to Austenitic
Stainless Steel (M-8/P-8, Group 1), 116
through 112 Inch Thick, IN309 and

ER309(L), As-Welded Condition, Primarily Pipe Applications. 3/11/13.

are available from your national standards


body, which in the United States is ANSI,
25 W. 43rd St., 4th Fl., New York, NY,
10036; (212) 642-4900. Send comments
regarding ISO documents to your national
standards body. In the United States, if
you wish to participate in the development
of International Standards for welding,
contact A. Davis, adavis@aws.org.

Standards for Public Review


B5.17:20XX, Specification for the Qualification of Welding Fabricators. Revised.
$25. 5/20/13.
C1.5:20XX, Specification for the Qualification of Resistance Welding Technicians.
Revised. $25. 5/20/13.
D15.1/D15.1M:2012-AMD1, Railroad
Welding Specification for Cars and Locomotives. Amendment standard. $129.
5/13/13. 2nd BSR-8.
AWS was approved as an accredited
standards-preparing organization by the
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as approved
by ANSI, require that all standards be
open to public review for comment during the approval process. The above standards are submitted for public review with
the closing dates shown. A draft copy may
be obtained from R. ONeill,
roneill@aws.org.

Technical Committee Meetings


All AWS technical committee meetings are open to the public. Persons wishing to attend a meeting should contact the
committee secretary listed.
May 1, D8 Committee on Automotive
Welding. Livonia, Mich. E. Abrams, ext.
307.
May 79, D17 Committee on Welding
in the Aircraft and Aerospace Industries.
Los Angeles, Calif. A. Diaz, ext. 304.
May 16, Safety and Health Committee. Cleveland, Ohio. S. Hedrick, ext. 305.
May 2830, D14 Committee on Machinery and Equipment. Dallas, Tex. E.
Abrams, ext. 307.
June 5, C2 Committee on Thermal
Spraying. Ogden, Utah. E. Abrams, ext.
307.
June 18, G2D Subcommittee on Reactive Alloys. Seattle, Wash. A. Diaz, ext.
304.

ISO Standard for Public Review


ISO/DIS 5826.2, Resistance welding
equipment Transformers General
specifications applicable to all transformers
ISO/DIS 17533, Welding for aerospace
applications Welding data in design
documents
Review copies of the above documents

Share Your Technical Expertise


Volunteers are sought to contribute to the following technical committees
Visit www.aws.org/technical/jointechcomm.html
AWS Safety and Health Committee
seeks educators, users, general interest,
and consultants to help develop standards
on welding safety. S. Hedrick,
steveh@aws.org.
B4 Committee on Mechanical Testing
of Welds seeks professionals in the area
of standard methods for tension, shear,
bend, fracture toughness, hardness, weldability, and other mechanical testing of
welds. B. McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org.
B2B Subcommittee on Welding Qualifications, seeks members to update B2.1,
Specification for Welding Procedure and
Performance Qualification. A. Diaz,
adiaz@aws.org.
D17J Subcommittee seeks professionals to update specification for friction stir
welding of aluminum alloys for aerospace
applications. A. Diaz, adiaz@aws.org.
C2 Committee on Thermal Spraying,
C4 Committee on Oxyfuel Gas Welding

and Cutting, and D8 Committee on Automotive Welding seek educators, general


interest, and end users to update its documents. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.
A5L Subcommittee on Magnesium
Alloy Filler Metals seeks professionals to
revised its filler metal document. R.
Gupta, gupta@aws.org.
D10P Subcommittee for Local Heat
Treating of Pipe seeks heat treating professionals to help update its documents.
B. McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org.
D14 Committee on Machinery and
Equipment and D14H Subcommittee on
Surfacing and Reconditioning of Industrial Mill Rolls seeks professionals in design, production, engineering, testing, and
safe operation of machinery to prepare
recommended practices for surfacing and
reconditioning of industrial mill rolls. The
next meeting of the D14 Committee is
May 28 in Dallas, Tex. To attend, contact
E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.

D16 Committee on Robotic and Automatic Welding seeks members in the general interest and educational fields to help
revise its documents. B. McGrath, bmcgrath@aws.org.
G2D Subcommittee on Reactive Alloys
seeks volunteers to update guides for the
fusion welding of titanium and titanium
alloys, and fusion welding of zirconium
and zirconium alloys. A. Diaz,
adiaz@aws.org.
J1 Committee on Resistance Welding
Equipment seeks educators, general interest, and users to develop standards on
controls, installation and maintenance,
calibration, and resistance welding fact
sheets. E. Abrams, eabrams@aws.org.
A5K Subcommittee on Titanium and
Zirconium Filler Metals. Seeks professionals in the field to update specifications
for welding electrodes and rods of titanium, zirconium, and their alloys. A. Diaz,
adiaz@aws.org.

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Three Student Chapter Advisors Announce Awards


Roy Ledford Jr., advisor, Lawson State
Community College Student Chapter,
Bessemer, Ala., has selected Benjamin Vining and Randall Standridge to receive the
Student Chapter Member Award. Vining,
who is Chapter treasurer, will represent the
college at the 2013 Louisiana State SkillsUSA competition. He has passed several
welding procedure qualifications while
maintaining a 4.0 GPA. He has been named
the Outstanding Student in the Welding
Technology Program, and is named on this
years Presidents List. Standridge, 2012
13 Student Chapter chair, represented the
Chapter at the Meet the President event.
He serves as a volunteer tutor for several
subjects, has directed student activities, and
coordinated field trips and other events.

William Burns, advisor, Savannah Technical College Southern Welders Student


Chapter, Savannah, Ga., has selected
Dustin Bolgrign to receive the 201213
Student Chapter Member Award. Bolgrign
served as the 201213 Chapter chair and
earned a 3.95 GPA in his final semester in
the welding program. He served nine years
in the U.S. Army, completing four combat
tours, and continues to serve in the Army
Reserves.
Huck Hughes, advisor, Columbiana
County Career and Technical Center Student Chapter, Lisbon, Ohio, has selected
Paige Lawrence, Chapter chair, to receive
the Student Chapter Member Award.
The AWS Board of Directors established the Student Chapter Member Award

to recognize AWS Student Members whose


Student Chapter activities have produced
outstanding school, community, or industry achievements. This award also provides
an opportunity for Student Chapter advisors, Section officers, and District directors to recognize outstanding students affiliated with AWS Student Chapters, as well
as to enhance the image of welding within
their communities.
To qualify for this certificate award, the
individual must be an AWS Student Member affiliated with an AWS Student Chapter. The criteria and nomination form can
be downloaded from www.aws.org/sections/awards/student_chapter.pdf, or request
a copy from the Membership Dept. (800)
443-9353, ext. 260.

Name Your Candidates for These AWS Awards


The deadline for nominating candidates for the following awards is December 31 prior to the year of the awards presentations.
Contact Wendy Sue Reeve, wreeve@aws.org; (800/305) 443-9353, ext. 293.
William Irrgang Memorial Award
This award is given to the individual who has done the most
over the past five years to enhance the Societys goal of advancing the science and technology of welding. It includes a $2500
honorarium and a certificate.
Honorary Membership Award
This award acknowledges eminence in the welding profession,
or one who is credited with exceptional accomplishments in the
development of the welding art. Honorary Members have full
rights of membership.
Nat. Meritorious Certificate Award
This award recognizes the recipients counsel, loyalty, and
dedication to AWS affairs, assistance in promoting cordial rela-

tions with industry and other organizations, and for contributions of time and effort on behalf of the Society.
George E. Willis Award
This award is given to an individual who promoted the advancement of welding internationally by fostering cooperative participation in technology transfer, standards rationalization, and promotion of industrial goodwill. It includes a
$2500 honorarium.
International Meritorious Certificate Award
This honor recognizes recipients significant contributions to
the welding industry for service to the international welding community in the broadest terms. The award consists of a certificate
and a one-year AWS membership.

New Award Category Created: AWS Distinguished Welder


The AWS Distinguished Welder Award has been created to
recognize professionals with a minimum of 15 years experience
as a welder and/or supervisor whose welding skills and experience warrant this special recognition. August 1 is the deadline
for submitting your completed nomination form.
The nomination packet should include information addressing the Definition and candidates Application Criteria as detailed in the AWS Distinguished Welder Award Nomination
Form. The focus of the nomination packet should include specifics
of the individuals skills. For details on the full description, selection criteria, and nomination form, visit the AWS Web site

and select the awards category or e-mail Wendy Sue Reeve, senior manager, awards programs, wreeve@aws.org.
A maximum of ten individuals per year may be selected as
Distinguished Welders as determined by the Selection Committee. Nominations shall remain valid for three years. If the maximum number of Distinguished Welders allowed under the rules
is reached, the remaining candidates will be deferred for consideration the next year, consistent with their time eligibility. If less
than the maximum number are awarded, the remaining candidates will be deferred for consideration the following year, consistent with their time eligibility.

Candidates Sought for Annual Masubuchi Award


November 1, 2013, is the deadline for submitting nominations
for the 2014 Prof. Koichi Masubuchi Award. This award includes
a $5000 honorarium. It is presented each year to one person, 40
years old or younger, who has made significant contributions to
the advancement of materials joining through research and development. Nominations should include a description of the can-

68

MAY 2013

didates experience, list of publications, honors, and awards, and


at least three letters of recommendation from fellow researchers.
The award is sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dept. of Ocean Engineering. E-mail your nomination
package to Todd A. Palmer, assistant professor, The Pennsylvania State University, tap103@psu.edu.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:43 PM Page 69

New AWS Supporters

New Sustaining Members


Babcock & Wilcox
Nuclear Energy, Inc.
11525 N. Community House Rd.
Charlotte, NC 28277
Representative: Daniel E. Applegate
www.babcock.com
Bluescope Building
North America, Inc.
7440 Doe Ave.
Visalia, CA 93291
Representative: Thomas Andersen
www.bluescopesteel.com
Greenville Technical College
738 S. Pleasantburg Dr.
Greenville, SC 29607
Representative: Jerry D. Norris
www.gvltec.edu
Greenville Techs welding program delivers a strong combination of hands-on
experience with classroom instruction. Its
graduates are fully trained to enter the
workforce and are prepared to advance
into supervisory positions.
Linear Controls, Inc.
10712 Commission Blvd.
Lafayette, LA 70508
Representative: Mckenna Bergeron
www.linearcontrols.net
Multi-Contact USA
100 Market St.
Windsor, CA 95492
Representative: Jocelyn Owen
www.multi-contact-usa.com
Pulverman
1170 Lower Demunds Rd.
Dallas, PA 18612
Representative: Scott Stephenson
www.pulverman.net
The Japan Welding Engineering Soc.
Qualification & Certification Dept.
4-20 Kanda Sakuma-Cho,Chiyoda-Ku
Tokyo 101-0025, Japan
Representative: Masaharu Sato
www.jwes.or.jp

Affiliate Companies
Big B Welding Service
64016 Arcola Railroad Ln.
Roseland, LA 70456
Cab Construction Co.
1532 1st Ave.
Mankato, MN 56001
ESGA Ingenieria en Estructura S.A. de
C.V., Prolongacior de Recursos
Hidraulicos #6
La Loma Tlalnepantla 54060, Mexico
FM Stainless, LLC
1524 Ray Mountain Rd.
Ellijay, GA 30536
JRV Construction Enterprises, Inc.
891 Aura Rd.
Glassboro, NJ 08028
Leading Edge Mfg.
303 Chemin Metairie Rd.
Youngsville, LA 70592
McMenimen Design and Fabrication
3100 Cedar Bay Dr.
Melbourne, FL 32934
Webb Diving Services
6409 Rutledge Pike
Knoxville, TN 37924
Westar d.b.a. Quik-Shor
13217 Laureldale Ave.
Downey, CA 90242
Supporting Companies
Al Yousuf Enterprises
215, Aisha Bldg., Office No. 1
SVP Rd., Dongri, Mumbai
Maharashtra 400009, India
Hickey Metal Fabrication
873 Georgetown Rd.
Salem, OH 44460

Educational Institutions
ARPEC (Air Conditioning, Refrigeration & Pipefitting Education Center)
13201 NW 45th Ave.
Opa-locka, FL 33054
Birmingham Ironworkers
Training Program Trust
2828 4th Ave. S.
Birmingham, AL 35233
Carrollton Area Career Center
305 E. 10th St.
Carrollton, MO 64633
Cerro Coso Community College
3000 College Height Blvd.
Ridgecrest, CA 93555
Mastbaum AVTS High School
3116 Frankford Ave.
Philadelphia, PA 19134
Midlands Technical College
1260 Lexington Dr.
West Columbia, SC 29170
Muskegon Community College
221 S. Quarterline Rd.
Muskegon, MI 49442
Nueces Canyon High School
200 Taylor St.
Barksdale, TX 78828
Pitt Community College
2064 Warren Dr.
Winterville, NC 28590
Tennessee Technology Center at Crump
3070 Hwy. 64, PO Box 89
Crump, TN 38327
White Deer ISD - Agriculture Dept.
604 Doucette
White Deer, TX 79097

H & R Welding, LLC


307 Drum Point Rd.
Brick, NJ 08723

Welding Distributors
ACIT (USA), Inc.
6333 Hazelwood Ln. SE
Bellevue, WA 98006

Sureway Tool & Engineering Co.


2959 Hart Dr.
Franklin Park, IL 60131

Consolidated Steel Services, Inc.


632 Glendale Valley Blvd.
Fallentimber, PA 16639

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Member-Get-A-Member Campaign
Listed are the members participating in
the 20122013 campaign. Standings as of
March 18, 2013. See page 83 of this Welding Journal for campaign rules and prize list
or visit www.aws.org/mgm. For information,
call the Membership Department
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 480.
Winners Circle
Sponsored 20 or more Individual Members per year since June 1, 1999. The superscript denotes the number of times the member achieved this status if more than once.
E. Ezell, Mobile10
J. Compton, San Fernando Valley7
J. Merzthal, Peru2
G. Taylor, Pascagoula2
L. Taylor, Pascagoula2
B. Chin, Auburn
S. Esders, Detroit
M. Haggard, Inland Empire
M. Karagoulis, Detroit
S. McGill, NE Tennessee
B. Mikeska, Houston
W. Shreve, Fox Valley
T. Weaver, Johnstown/Altoona
G. Woomer, Johnstown/Altoona
R. Wray, Nebraska
Presidents Guild
Sponsored 20+ new Individual Members
M. Pelegrino, Chicago 30
E. Ezell, Mobile 22
Presidents Roundtable
Sponsored 919 new Individual Members
R. Fulmer, Twin Tiers 10
W. Blamire, Atlanta 9
A. Tous, Costa Rica 9
P. Strother, New Orleans 9
Presidents Club
Sponsored 38 new Individual Members
D. Galigher, Detroit 7
W. Komlos, Utah 7
J. Smith, San Antonio 6
C. Becker, Northwest 5
L. Webb, Lexington 4
D. Wright, Kansas City 4
T. Baber, San Fernando Valley 3
J. Bain, Mobile 3
A. Bernard, Sabine 3
J. Blubaugh, Detroit 3
P. Brown, New Orleans 3
D. Buster, Eastern Iowa 3
C. Daon, Israel Section 3
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 3
B. Hackbarth, Milwaukee 3
S. Jaycox, Long Island 3
D. Jessop, Mahoning Valley 3

70

MAY 2013

D. Saunders, Lakeshore 3
J. Turcott, Rochester 3
A. Winkle, Kansas City 3
R. Wright, San Antonio 3
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 3
Presidents Honor Roll
Sponsored 2 Individual Members
G. Cornell, St. Louis
M. Depuy, Portland
D. Hayes Jr., Louisville
J. Helfrich, Tri-River
P. Host, Chicago
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley
J. Kline, Northern New York
L. Kvidahl, Pascagoula
W. Larry, Southern Colorado
G. Lawrence, N. Central Florida
J. Mansfield, Philadelphia
E. Norman, Ozark
A. Sam, Trinidad
D. Saunders, Lakeshore
C. Shepherd, Houston
G. Solomon, Central Pennsylvania
A. Sumal, British Columbia
C. Villarreal, Houston
J. Vincent, Kansas City
A. Vogt, New Jersey
J. Vorstenbosch, International
M. Wheeler, Cleveland
L. William, Western Carolina
W. Wilson, New Orleans
J. Winston, St. Louis
Student Member Sponsors
Sponsored 4+ new Student Members
H. Hughes, Mahoning Valley 106
A. Theriot, New Orleans 47
B. Scherer, Cincinnati 39
D. Saunders, Lakeshore 36
W. England, Western Michigan 33
R. Bulthouse, Western Michigan 31
R. Hammond, Greater Huntsville 28
T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 24
S. Siviski, Maine 24
R. Zabel, SE Nebraska 24
B. Cheatham, Columbia 23
C. Kochersperger, Philadelphia 23
M. Arand, Louisville 22
D. Bastian, NW Pennsylvania 21
G. Gammill, NE Mississippi 21
F. Oravets, Pittsburgh 20
J. Theberge, Boston 20
J. Johnson, Madison-Beloit 19
V. Facchiano, Lehigh Valley 18
J. Falgout, Baton Rouge 18
R. Munns, Utah 18
S. Lindsey, San Diego 17
R. Richwine, Indiana 17

AWS Member Counts


April 1, 2013
Sustaining ......................................573
Supporting .....................................335
Educational ...................................619
Affiliate..........................................503
Welding Distributor........................53
Total Corporate ..........................2,083
Individual .................................58,817
Student + Transitional .................9,471
Total Members .........................68,288

J. Russell, Fox Valley 17


M. Anderson, Indiana 16
E. Norman, Ozark 16
M. Anderson, Indiana 16
C. Donnell, NW Ohio 14
R. Hutchinson, Long Bch./Or. Cty. 14
D. Pickering, Central Arkansas 13
C. Daily, Puget Sound 12
J. Daugherty, Louisville 12
C. Morris, Sacramento 12
S. Robeson, Cumberland Valley 12
A. Duron, Cumberland Valley 11
K. Coxe, Palm Beach 11
J. Boyer, Lancaster 10
G. Seese, Johnstown-Altoona 10
C. Schiner, Wyoming 9
C. Galbavy, Idaho/Montana 8
C. Gilbertson, Northern Plains 8
R. Vann, South Carolina 8
J. Dawson, Pittsburgh 7
R. Udy, Utah 7
A. Badeaux, Washington, D.C. 6
T. Buckler, Columbus 6
R. Fuller, Green & White Mountains 6
T. Shirk, Tidewater 6
K. Temme, Philadelphia 6
P. Host, Chicago 5
R. Ledford, Birmingham 5
P. Strother, New Orleans 5
W. Wilson, New Orleans 5
C. Chifici, New Orleans 4
L. Clark, Milwaukee 4
J. Ginther, International 4
C. Griffin, Tulsa 4
J. Johnson, Northern Plains 4
J. Reed, Ozark 4
G. Rolla, L.A./Inland Empire 4
E. Shreve, Pittsburgh 4
G. Siepert, Kansas 4
P. Strother, New Orleans 4
T. Sumerix, Dayton 4
R. Zadroga, Philadelphia 4

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:44 PM Page 71

SECTIONNEWS

Shown at the Connecticut Section event are


Treasurer Walter Chojnacki (left) and Welding Instructor Joseph Hanlon.

Shown at the Central Mass./R.I. Section vendors night event are from left (front row) Chair
Paul Mendez, District 1 Director Tom Ferri, Douglas Desrochers, and Robert Winschel,
(back row) Brendon Pequita, and Tim Kinnaman.

Shown at the Green & White Sections tour of Structal-Bridges are (from left) Sherry Morin, Jennifer Eastley, Ann Thompson, Richard
Mann, Gerry Ouelette, Geoff Putnam, District 1 Director Tom Ferri, Ernie Plumb, Rich Fuller, tour guide Daryl Hastings, Gary Buckley,
Phil Witteman, Feona Lund, John Steel, Perley Lund, and Chris Young.

District 1

Thomas Ferri, director


(508) 527-1884
thomas_ferri@victortechnologies.com

CENTRAL MASS./R.I.
FEBRUARY 28
Activity: The Section held its fourth annual welders and vendors night event at
Greater New Bedford Vo-Tech High
School. Featured were hands-on demonstrations of new welding and cutting equipment and presentations by local steel and
welding-supply companies. The presenters
included New Bedford Vo-Tech welding instructors Paul Mendez and Brendon Pe-

quita, Section chair and vice chair, respectively. District 1 Director Tom Ferri participated in the event.

CONNECTICUT
FEBRUARY 26
Activity: The Section held a students night
program at Bristol Technical High School
in Bristol, Conn., for 65 attendees. The
schools culinary department provided the
meals. Attending were representatives
from local businesses who discussed their
products and services and answered the
students questions. Assisting with the
event were Section Chair Steve Goodrow,
Treasurer Walter Chojnacki, Joseph Han-

lon, welding department head, and Tom


Ferri, District 1 director.

GREEN & WHITE MTS.


FEBRUARY 14
Activity: The Section members toured the
Structal-Bridges facility in Claremont,
N.H., to study its operations. They observed submerged arc welding of 212-in.thick flanges to the web of 8- 100-ft
bridge beams. They also toured the welder
training area and an environmentally controlled building for painting and thermal
spraying. The guide was Daryl Hastings,
production trainer.
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District 2

Harland W. Thompson, director


(631) 546-2903
harland.w.thompson@us.ul.com

LONG ISLAND
FEBRUARY 21
Speaker: Tom Gartland, Section vice chair
Affiliation: Trilogy Lab, LLC
Topic: Welding Kooks headers
Activity: The program was held in Wantagh, N.Y. District 2 Director Harland
Thompson attended the program.

PHILADELPHIA

Shown at the Long Island Section program are from left (front row) Tom Gartland, Chair
Brian Cassidy, and Alex Duschere, (back row) Barry McQuillan, Ray OLeary, Jessie Provler,
District 2 Director Harland Thompson, and Ken Messemert.

Shown at the March Philadelphia Section program are (from left) District 2 Director Harland Thompson, with Dave Schaffer, Bert Riendeau, Charlie Minnick, Chair Ken Temme,
and Tim Stott.

FEBRUARY 7
Speaker: Frank Hauser
Affiliation: Divers Academy International
Topic: Techniques for testing underwater
welds
Activity: Members of the local chapter of
ASNT attended this program. District 2
Director Harland Thompson and Chair
Ken Temme presented the District Director Certificate Award to Mike Chomin, immediate past chair. The program was held
at the Crown Plaza in Trevose, Pa.
MARCH 13
Speakers: Dave Schaffer, Airgas East; Bert
Riendeau, Airgas Northeast; Charlie Minnick, Miller Electric; and Tim Stott, Miller
Electric
Topics: Schaffer discussed AC balance
control; Riendeau spoke on welding codes
made friendly; Minnick talked about traditional welding machine technology; and
Stott detailed advances in modern inverter
machines
Activity: Philadelphia Section Chair Ken
Temme presented the District CWI of the
Year Award to Bill Mowbray of Scheck
Mechanical Contractors; and Section Educator of the Year Awards to Walt Emerle,
training director, Plumbers and Pipefitters
Local 322; Dan Roskiewich, Gloucester
County Institute of Technology; and Charlie Minnick from Miller Electric. The
event was hosted by Plumbers and Pipefitters Local 322, a Section supporter, represented by Jim Kehoe, business manager.

District 3

Michael Wiswesser, director


(610) 820-9551
mike@wtti.com

Mike Chomin (left) receives the District Director Award from District 2 Director Harland Thompson at the February Philadelphia Section event.
72

MAY 2013

Shown at the February Philadelphia Section


February meeting are (from left) District 2
Director Harland Thompson, Chair Ken
Temme, and ASNT Vice Chair Tony Gatti.

District 4

Stewart A. Harris, director


(919) 824-0520
stewart.harris@altec.com

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:45 PM Page 73

Philadelphia Section members display their awards (from left) Dan Roskiewich, Charlie
Minnick, Bill Mowbray, Chair Ken Temme, Walt Emerle, and Harland Thompson, District
2 director.

Frank Hauser (left) receives a speaker gift


from Ken Temme, Philadelphia Section
chair, at the February program.

Tidewater Section members are shown during their tour of Catalina Cylinders in February.

Attendees are shown at the ASME-Triangle Section career panel program in February.

CHARLOTTE
CALENDAR
MAY 3
13th Annual Intercollegiate
Welding Competition
Central Piedmont C. C., Charlotte, N.C.
Contact Chair Ray Sosko
(704) 330-4487

TIDEWATER
FEBRUARY 21
Activity: The Section members visited
Catalina Cylinders East, Cliff Impact

Division, Hampton, Va. Following dinner,


hosted by the company, Joe Wolff guided
the 22 members on a plant tour. The company produces high- and low-pressure aluminum compressed gas cylinders.
MARCH 14
Speaker: Charlie Pennington
Affiliation: ITW Welding North America
Topic: Manufacturing filler metals
Activity: This Tidewater Section program
was held at Smoke BBQ in Newport News,
Va., for 28 attendees.

TRIANGLE
FEBRUARY 5
Activity: A career panel consisting of six
senior members of the local chapter of
ASME and Russell Wahrman from the
AWS Triangle Section convened at North
Carolina University in Raleigh, N.C., to
share their experiences in the industry and
answer questions for the college students.
District 4 Director and Section Chair Stuart Harris expressed an interest in making the career panel program with ASME
an annual event.

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Florida West Coast golfers get ready to tee off at the Sections 21st annual tournament.

Participants are shown at the North Central Florida Section-sponsored welding contest.

Working the Florida West Coast Section raffle-ticket fund-raiser were (from left) Walt Arnold,
Bill Machnovitz, Raymond Monson, and Al Sedory.

The top-scoring welders, student category, in


the North Central Florida Section contest
were Jacob Underhill (right) and Tommy
Taylor.

First-place team members at the Florida West Coast tournament are (from left) Walt Arnold,
Jack Garrison, Don Chadwell, and Mike Gates.

District 5
Carl Matricardi, director
(770) 979-6344
cmatricardi@aol.com

Joey Pyles and Chair Jennifer Skyles took


top honors in the professional category at the
North Central Florida Section competition.
74

MAY 2013

Dave Parker (left) is shown with speaker


Gerry Crawmer at the Northern New York
Section meeting.

FLORIDA WEST COAST

NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

MARCH 2
Activity: The Section hosted its 21st annual golf outing to raise funds for its scholarship program to assist local welding students. More than 50 members, guests, and
sponsors participated in the event. The
first-place team members, scoring 14
under par, were Walt Arnold, Jack Garrison, Don Chadwell, and Mike Gates.

FEBRUARY 12
Activity: The Section conducted a welding
contest at Community Technical Adult Education Center in Ocala, Fla., for 11 student and 8 professional welders. Joey Pyles
from Townley Industries won the professional title with runner-up Jennifer Skyles,
Section chair, with SPX Industries. Jacob
Underhill from Bradford Union Area Ca-

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:46 PM Page 75

Pittsburgh Section and ASNT members are shown at the March program.

Shown at the Tri-State Boy Scout merit badge training session are (kneeling) Allen Black
and (from left) Calvin Roach, Xristopher Popoff, Devin Ames, John Saunders, David Hay,
Cody Finley, Andy Hall, Sean McKinley, Fred Hammers, and Chad Bowen.
reer Technical Center earned the top student welder honor with Tommy Taylor taking second place. Sebastian Rodriguez
from Tech Simulation showed attendees
how to test their skills using a virtual arc
welding training system.

District 6
Kenneth Phy, director
(315) 218-5297
kenneth.phy@gmail.com

NORTHERN NEW YORK


MARCH 5
Speaker: Gerry Crawmer, welding engineer
Affiliation: General Electric (ret.)
Topic: Welding steam turbine rotors
Activity: The event was held at Shaker
Ridge Country Club in Latham, N.Y.

District 7

Uwe Aschemeier, director


(786) 473-9540
uwe@miamidiver.com

COLUMBUS
MARCH 19
Speaker: Angie Rybalt, outreach manager
Affiliation: American Electric Power
(AEP)
Topic: How AEP support services can help
businesses reduce power consumption
Activity: The program was held at La Scala
Restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.

Shown at the Pittsburgh Section program are


(from left) Chair John Menhart, speaker Wes
Williams, and Robert Saunders, ASNT
Chapter chair.

DAYTON

TRI-STATE

FEBRUARY 12
Activity: The Section conducted a Boy
Scout welding merit badge workshop at
Miami Valley Career Technology Center
in Clayton, Ohio, for 66 Scouts. Career
Center students assisted the Section members to instruct the Scouts on the proper
welding techniques. Chuck Ford, Section
student affairs chair, and Chair Chris Lander led the activity.

JANUARY 8, 10, 15
Activity: Fred Hammers, owner of Hammers Industries, and Health and Safety
Manager Cody Finley hosted and trained
a Boy Scouts welding merit badge class.
The hands-on shop training was taught by
Shop Manager Calvin Roach, Andy Hall,
and John Saunders. Earning their welding badges were David Hay, Xristopher
Popoff, and Chad Bowen of Troop 63,
Devin Ames of Troop 790, Sean McKinley
of Troop 50, and Allen Black of Troop 92.
The training was conducted at the Hammers Industries facilities near Huntington,
W.Va.

FEBRUARY 16, 17
Activity: The Dayton Section members
participated in Tech Fest 2013 presented
by the Affiliated Societies of Dayton to interest grade school students in science and
technology. The Section members talked
to students about careers in welding and
presented live demonstrations of automated welding using a Motoman robot.

PITTSBURGH
MARCH 12
Speaker: Wes Williams, staff engineer
Affiliation: First Energy Corp.
Topic: Procedure for repair of cracks in the
Unit 2 Nuclear Reactor head
Activity: Members of the local chapter of
ASNT International Chapter, headed by
Chair Robert Saunders, attended this program, held at Springfield Grille in Mars,
Pa.

District 8
Joe Livesay, director
(931) 484-7502, ext. 143
joe.livesay@ttcc.edu

CHATTANOOGA
FEBRUARY 16
Activity: The Section held its student welding competition at Sequoyah High School
in Soddy Daisy, Tenn., hosted by the Sequoyah High School Student Chapter. The
top scorers in the high school category
were Dustin Luthringer, Colton Jones, and
Dexter McSpaden. The postsecondary category winners were Mauricio Gayton Jr.,
Eric Vennie, and Darren Vincent.
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HOLSTON VALLEY
MARCH 12
Speaker: Gary Roberts
Affiliation: Airgas, automation specialist
Topic: Airgas University online training
Activity: Nominations for Section officers
were received for presentation at the April
meeting. The program was held at Mamas
House Restaurant in Kingsport, Tenn.
Shown are the participants in the Chattanooga Section/Sequoyah High School Student
Chapter welding contest.

The top-scoring welders in the Chattanooga Section/Sequoyah High School Student Chapter contest are (from left) Eric Vennie, Dexter McSpaden, Dustin Luthringer, Colton Jones,
Darren Vincent, and Mauricio Gayton Jr.

NORTHEAST TENNESSEE
FEBRUARY 12
Activity: The Section hosted its annual students day event at Tennessee Technology
Center (TTC) in Knoxville for about 230
students from local schools. The event included talks on welding careers, complimentary lunch, welding demonstrations,
and a tour of the Technology Center. Attending were high school welding instructors Steve Linn (TTC Knoxville), Jeff Hankins (Oak Ridge), Jim Thomas (South
Doyle), Rick Johnson (Grainger), Tim
Steelman (Morgan County), Michael Hurt
(TTC Jacksboro), Mike Russell (TTC
Harriman), and District 8 Director Joe
Livesay (TTC Crossville).

NORTHEAST MISSISSIPPI
FEBRUARY 21
Activity: The Section sponsored a students night and equipment demo event
featuring the Lincoln Electric mobile display unit. Lincoln salesman Ron Martucci
demonstrated the equipment.
Speaker Gary Roberts (red sweater) is shown with the Holston Valley Section members.

District 9

George Fairbanks Jr., director


(225) 473-6362
fits@bellsouth.net

BIRMINGHAM

Students are shown at the Northeast Tennessee Sections students day event.

FEBRUARY 27
Activity: The Birmingham Section and
Lawson State C. C. Student Chapter members held a welding seminar at Plumbers
and Pipefitters Local 372 in Duncanville,
Ala. Exhibitors included Victor, Lincoln
Electric, Miller Electric, Airgas Welding
Supply, and Harris Equipment.

Central Alabama
Student Chapter

Steve Linn answers students questions at the Northeast Tennessee event.


76

MAY 2013

MARCH 7
Speaker: Craig Ray
Topic: Jobs in underwater welding and
commercial diving
Activity: The program was held in the Central Alabama Community College welding
shop in Alexander, Ala. Attending were D.
J. James, Emily Hatfield, Daniel Arnberg,
Brandon Fraser, Robin Holt, Zack Adams,
Chris Floyd, Walter Whatley, Colton
Stroud, and Craig Ray.

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:46 PM Page 77

Ron Martucci is shown at the Northeast Mississippi Section students program.


Northeast Mississippi Section members and students are shown at the February event.

NEW ORLEANS
FEBRUARY 26
Speaker: Nancy Cole, AWS president
Affiliation: NCC Engineering
Topic: The welding industry
Activity: Past AWS President John and
wife Donna Bruskotter hosted a reception
for Nancy Cole at their home in Slidell, La.
District 9 Director George Fairbanks was
among the Sections guests who attended
the event.
MARCH 19
Speaker: Jason Lange
Affiliation: Lincoln Automation, Inc.
Topic: Controlling welding fumes
Activity: IWS Gas & Supply, represented
by President Moussy Chassion, provided
the door prizes and sponsored this New
Orleans Section program at Caf Hope in
Marrero, La., for 66 members, students,
and guests. Alfred Marshall, an apprentice with Ironworkers No. 58, was the 50/50
prize winner.

Attendees are shown at the Birmingham Section-sponsored welding seminar.

District 10

Robert E. Brenner, director


(330) 484-3650
bobren28@yahoo.com

District 10
MARCH 9
Activity: The District held its second CWI
Roundtable event at Babcock & Wilcox
Commercial in Euclid, Ohio. The event offers CWIs an opportunity to share their
experiences and opinions. The 20 participants discussed a number of topics, including qualification records, welding procedure specifications, welder performance
qualification records, and the proper way
to issue welder certification papers.

Central Alabama Student Chapter members are shown at their March meeting.

DRAKE WELL
JANUARY 18
Activity: The Section participated in the
SkillsUSA competition hosted by the New
Castle School of Trades in New Castle, Pa.
The top welders were Joseph Crate,
Robert Ackerson, and Conner Biggs.

Ironworker Alfred Marshall (left) receives a


door prize from Aldo Duron, New Orleans
Section chair.

Nancy Cole, AWS president, is shown with


George Fairbanks (left), District 9 director,
and D. J. Berger at the New Orleans Section
reception.
WELDING JOURNAL

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The New Orleans Section attendees are shown at the reception held at the Bruskotters home.

District 10 CWIs are shown during their roundtable discussion in March.


MARCH 12
Activity: The Drake Well Section members discussed the March 9 District 10
Roundtable event and the District 10 conference scheduled for April 19. Dan
Bubenhiem was elected vice chair.

MAHONING VALLEY

Shown at the New Orleans Section event are (from left) Tommy Callahan, Mike Massicot,
Jimmy Gibbs, Moussy Chassion, and Chair Aldo Duron.

MARCH 14
Speaker: Jim Hannahs, PE, CWI
Topic: Metals and processes used to build
NASCAR vehicles
Activity: The meeting, held at Mahoning
County Career & Technical Center in Canfield, Ohio, was attended by about 90
members and guests.

NORTHWESTERN
PENNSYLVANIA
FEBRUARY 13
Speaker: Marty Siddall, technical sales
representative/automation specialist
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: New technologies in robotic welding
Activity: The meeting was held at Tri State
Business Institute in Erie, Pa.

District 11
Shown at the New Orleans Section March program are (from left) Moussy Chassion, Matt
Howerton, speaker Jason Lange, and Chair Aldo Duron.
78

MAY 2013

Robert P. Wilcox, director


(734) 721-8272
rmwilcox@wowway.com

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:47 PM Page 79

NORTHWESTERN OHIO
FEBRUARY 27
SPEAKER: Curt Wilsoncroft, regional sales
representative
Affiliation: Victor Technologies
Topic: Carbon arc and oxygen lance cutting
Activity: The program was held at Owens
Community College in Perrysburg, Ohio,
for 41 attendees. Following the talk, the
group visited the welding lab where Wilsoncroft demonstrated the cutting processes
and members had a hands-on opportunity
to experiment with the equipment.

Shown at the Drake Well Section SkillsUSA competition are (from left) Robert Ackerson,
Tyler Hoffman, Joseph Crate, Chad Hajec, Joseph Steiner, and Conner Biggs.

District 12

Daniel J. Roland, director


(715) 735-9341, ext. 6421
daniel.roland@us.fincantieri.com

RACINE-KENOSHA
FEBRUARY 22
Speaker: Chris Boycks, CWI
Topic: The shortage of skilled qualified
welders and fabricators
Activity: The seventh annual District 12
winter meeting was hosted by Jay Manufacturing Co. in Oshkosh, Wis. Dan
Roland, District 12 director, presented
Chair Dan Crifase the Dalton E. Hamilton Memorial CWI of the Year Award and
the District Meritorious Award to Vice
Chair Ken Karwowski.

Drake Well Section members are from left (front row) Robert Fugate, Colin Young, Justus
Burk, Bailey Hagerty, Dan Bubenhiem, William Brownlee, Travis Crate, and Ward Kiser;
(back row) Rolf Laemmer, Erick Speer, Joe Crate, and Troy Braden.

District 13
John Willard, director
(815) 954-4838
kustom_bilt@msn.com

CHICAGO
FEBRUARY 13
Activity: The Section hosted its annual St.
Valentines Day dinner party at Coopers
Hawk Winery & Restaurant in Chicago,
Ill., for 35 attendees.

Speaker Jim Hannahs (right) is shown with


Dave Hughes, Mahoning Valley Section executive committee member.

Shown at the February Racine-Kenosha Section event are (from left) Chair Dan Crifase,
District 12 Director Dan Roland, and Ken
Karwowski.

From left, Gary Dugger, Bennie Flynn, and


Gary Tucker worked the Indiana SkillsUSA
contest.

Speaker Marty Siddall (left) is shown with


Tom Kostreba, Northwestern Pennsylvania
Section chair.

District 14

Robert L. Richwine, director


(765) 378-5378
bobrichwine@aol.com

INDIANA
FEBRUARY 9, 10
Activity: The Section conducted the regional SkillsUSA welding contest at J. E.
L. Career Center in Indianapolis, Ind., for
20 participants. Four secondary and four
postsecondary welding contestants were
selected to compete in the state welding
contest. Working the event were Bob Richwine, District 14 director; Chair Bennie
Flynn; Gary Dugger; and Gary Tucker.

WELDING JOURNAL

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Shown at the Lexington Section program are


(from left) Rosa Whitaker, Coy Hall, Rosa
McCallum, and Shawn Gannon.

SkillsUSA welding contestants are shown during the Indiana Section event.

FEBRUARY 27
Activity: The Indiana Section members
toured the Don Schumacher Racing facility in Brownsburg, Ind. Mike Lewis, senior vice president, conducted the tour.

LEXINGTON

Shown at the Indiana Section contest are


(from left) Wilson Smith, Thomas Faucett,
and Bob Richwine, District 14 director.

Incoming Lexington Section Chair Coy Hall


(left) is shown with Sherman Cook.

FEBRUARY 28
Speaker: Tony Noah
Affiliation: The Lincoln Electric Co.
Topic: Pulse welding
Activity: Incoming Chair Coy Hall presented the Section CWI of the Year Award
to Sherman Cook, an instructor at Rockcastle County Technical School. Rose
Whitaker and Rosa McCallum were presented $250 scholarship awards. Fifty
members and guests attended the program.

ST. LOUIS
DECEMBER 21
Activity: The Section held its holiday party
at Cee Kay Supply, Inc., in St. Louis, Mo.
Company owner Tom Dunn was cited for
his generous support and the services he
has offered to the Section over the years.
In recognition, Jerry Simpson presented
Dunn the District 14 Meritorious Award.

Angela Harrison is shown with Dennis Pickering at the Arkansas Welding Expo.

Mike Lewis led the Indiana Section members on a tour of Don Schumacher Racing.

District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 365-0606
dave@learntoweld.com

District 16
Dennis Wright, director
(913) 782-0635
awscwi1@att.net

Shown at the February Central Arkansas


Section program are (from left) Aaron Carr,
Karen Cooper, and Dennis Pickering.
80

MAY 2013

Tom Dunn (left) receives the District 14 Meritorious Award from Jerry Simpson at the St.
Louis Section holiday party.

District 17
J. Jones, director
(832) 506-5986
jjones6@lincolnelectric.com

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:48 PM Page 81

Speaker Dennis Pickering (kneeling) and attendees are shown at the February Central Arkansas Section meeting.

CENTRAL ARKANSAS
NOVEMBER 1
Activity: The Section participated in the
Arkansas Welding Expo presented by
WELSCO, Inc., at Verizon Arena in Little Rock, Ark. Angela Harrison, WELSCO
president, was presented the Section Meritorious Award. More than 700 students
attended the event to learn about job opportunities from Monica Pfarr, AWS corporate director, workforce development,
who held presentations for them titled
Let the Sparks Fly. Vice Chair Dennis
Pickering, a welding instructor at
Arkansas Career Training Institute, made
presentations at the expo.

Attendees are shown at the Central Arkansas Section January program.

JANUARY 17
Speaker: Dennis Pickering, vice chairman
Affiliation: Arkansas Career Training Institute, welding instructor
Topic: Welding codes and standards
Activity: The program was held at the institute in Hot Springs, Ark.
FEBRUARY 11
Speaker: Dennis Pickering, vice chairman
Affiliation: Arkansas Career Training Institute, welding instructor
Topic: The AWS scholarship program
Activity: The meeting was held at Arkansas
State University in Heber Springs, Ark.

Shown at the East Texas Section program are (from left) Student Chapter Chair Michael
Florczykowski, Chair Bryan Baker, Yoni Adonyi, speaker Tom Siewert, Robert Warke, and J.
Jones, District 17 director.

EAST TEXAS
LeTourneau University S. C.
FEBRUARY 21
Speaker: Tom Siewert, AWS director-atlarge
Affiliation: NIST (ret.)
Topic: Analysis of the collapse of the World
Trade Center buildings
Activity: The program was held at LeTourneau University in Longview, Tex. Attending were District 17 Director J. Jones,
Chair Bryan Baker, Student Chapter Chair
Michael Florczykowski, Prof. Materials
Joining Engineering Yoni Adonyi, and
Robert Warke, associate professor, materials joining.

Shown at the Tulsa Section program are (from left) AWS President Nancy Cole, Todd Morris, Charles Griffin, Ralph Johnson, Ray Wilsdorf, and J. Jones, District 17 director.

TULSA
FEBRUARY 9
Activity: The Section hosted a dinner to
celebrate St. Valentines day with the
ladies. Nancy Cole, AWS president, attended the event. Todd Morris and Ralph

Johnson received District Director Certificate Awards, and Charles Griffin was presented the Private Sector Instructor
Award. Ralph Johnson and Ray Wilsdorf
received Dalton E. Hamilton Memorial
CWI of the Year Awards.
WELDING JOURNAL

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Attendees are shown at the Houston Section instructors institute held February 22.

Shown at the Houston Section booth at the Houstex show are (from left) Sam Gentry,
Luanne Bray, John Stoll, and John Bray, District 18 director.

Tac Edwards (left), Lake Charles Section


chair, presents a speaker plaque to John
Bray, District 18 director.

Alaska Section members and guests are shown at the February program.

Members and students are shown at the Spokane Section program in January.

District 18
Shown during the British Columbia Section
tour are Brad Moe and speaker John Shaw.
82

MAY 2013

John Bray, director


(281) 997-7273
sales@affiliatedmachinery.com

HOUSTON
FEBRUARY 22
Activity: The Section held its seventh annual instructors institute hosted by Andre
Horn and the Industrial Welding Academy
staff. Thirty welding instructors attended

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Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:49 PM Page 85

Idaho-Montana Section members are shown during their tour of Spudnik Equipment Co.

Dale Flood (left), an AWS director-at-large,


accepts a speaker gift from Brad Bosworth,
Fresno Section chair.
the event. The topic for the hands-on class
was flux cored arc welding. Each instructor had the opportunity to qualify on a single V-groove butt joint on 38-in. plate in either the flat or vertical position. The steel
plates were donated by Scott Witkowski
and Maverick Testing Laboratories.
FEBRUARY 2628
Activity: The Section manned a booth at
the Houstex The Art of Manufacturing
Show presented by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers at George R. Brown
Convention Center in Houston, Tex. Participating were Sam Gentry, executive director, AWS Foundation; Joe Krall, AWS
managing director, global exposition sales;
John Stoll, and Luanne and John Bray,
District 18 director.

LAKE CHARLES
FEBRUARY 20
Speaker: John Bray, District 18 director
Affiliation: Affiliated Machinery
Topic: Whats new at AWS
Activity: The dinner and program were
held at Logans Roadhouse Restaurant in
Lake Charles, La.

Attendees are shown at the Fresno Section program in February.

BRITISH COLUMBIA
FEBRUARY 20
Speaker: John Shaw, VP, government relations and business development
Affiliation: Seaspan Vancouver Shipyards
Topic: Update on the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy
Activity: Following a catered dinner and
the talk, the Section members were guided
on a tour of the Seaspan Vancouver Shipyards by AWS member Brad Moe.

SPOKANE
JANUARY 16
Speaker: Russ Loveland
Affiliation: Western States Equipment Co.
Topic: Maintaining large construction
equipment
Activity: The program was held at Spokane
Community College in Spokane, Wash.,
for 39 attendees.

District 20

William A. Komlos, director


(801) 560-2353
bkoz@arctechllc.com

District 22
Kerry E. Shatell, director
(925) 866-5434
kesi@pge.com

FRESNO
FEBRUARY 21
Activity: The Section members met for a
demonstration of the Tri Tool AdaptArc
orbital welding system. Dale Flood, Tri
Tool project manager, an AWS directorat-large, and past District 22 director, conducted the program for about 45 attendees. Attending were District 22 Director
Kerry Shatell, Kent Baucher, a past District 22 director, and Theo Davis, an instructor at Fresno City College.

SACRAMENTO VALLEY
JANUARY 16
Speaker: Mark Paavola, administrator of
apprenticeship ad training
Affiliation: Sheet Metal Workers Assn.
Topic: Employment opportunities in the
sheet metal trade
Activity: Paavola and David Perez detailed
the training program used by the center.

IDAHO-MONTANA

District 19

Ken Johnson, director


(425) 957-3553
kenneth.johnson@vigorshipyards.com

ALASKA
FEBRUARY 20
Speaker: Marty Anderson, chair, ASNT
Alaska chapter
Affiliation: Alaska Technical Training, Inc.
Topic: Nondestructive welding inspection
technologies
Activity: The program was held for 21 attendees in Anchorage, Alaska.

FEBRUARY 13
Activity: The Section members visited
Spudnik Equipment Co., in Blackfoot,
Idaho, to tour the facility. The facility designs and manufactures potato planting,
cultivating, harvesting, and handling
equipment. Wes Woodland, shift supervisor, led the program.

District 21

Nanette Samanich, director


(702) 429-5017
nan07@aol.com

International
GERMANY
CALENDAR
Essen, Germany
SEPT. 1117
66th IIW Annual Assembly
2013 Intl Trade Fair
Joining, Cutting, Surfacing
SEPT. 16, 17
Intl Conf. on Automation in Welding
SEPT. 1621
Young Welders Competitions
www.iiw2013.com
WELDING JOURNAL

85

Society News MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 3:49 PM Page 86

Guide to AWS Services


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NCC Engineering
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Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)


Managing Director
Andrew R. Davis.. adavis@aws.org . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American Council of the International Institute of Welding (IIW)

ADMINISTRATION
Executive Director
Ray W. Shook.. rshook@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(210)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Chief Financial Officer
Gesana Villegas.. gvillegas@aws.org . . . . . .(252)
VP Sales and Marketing
Bill Fudale..bfudale@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(211)
VP Technology and Business Development
Dennis Harwig..dharwig@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(213)
Executive Assistant for Board Services
Gricelda Manalich.. gricelda@aws.org . . . . .(294)

Administrative Services
Managing Director
Jim Lankford.. jiml@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(214)
IT Network Director
Armando Campana..acampana@aws.org . .(296)
Director
Hidail Nuez..hidail@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Director of IT Operations
Natalia Swain..nswain@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(245)

Human Resources

Corporate Director, International Sales


Jeff P. Kamentz..jkamentz@aws.org . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities involving
certification, publication, and membership.

PUBLICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)
Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)

Welding Journal
Publisher
Andrew Cullison.. cullison@aws.org . . . . . .(249)
Editor
Mary Ruth Johnsen.. mjohnsen@aws.org . .(238)
National Sales Director
Rob Saltzstein.. salty@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . .(243)
Society and Section News Editor
Howard Woodward..woodward@aws.org . .(244)

Stephen Borrero... sborrero@aws.org . . . . .(334)


Brazing and Soldering, Brazing Filler Metals and
Fluxes, Brazing Handbook, Soldering Handbook,
Railroad Welding, Definitions and Symbols

Director
Ross Hancock.. rhancock@aws.org . . . . . . .(226)
Public Relations Manager
Cindy Weihl..cweihl@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)

Section Web Editor


Henry Chinea...hchinea@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(452)

International Institute of Welding

CONVENTION and EXPOSITIONS


Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew Rubin.....mrubin@aws.org . . . . . . .(239)

ITSA International Thermal


Spray Association
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy Dusa.kathydusa@thermalspray.org . . .(232)

RWMA Resistance Welding


Manufacturing Alliance
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)

WEMCO Association of
Welding Manufacturers
Management Specialist
Keila DeMoraes....kdemoraes@aws.org . . . .(444)

Brazing and Soldering


Manufacturers Committee
Jeff Weber.. jweber@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(246)

GAWDA Gases and Welding


Distributors Association
Executive Director
John Ospina.. jospina@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(462)
Operations Manager
Natasha Alexis.. nalexis@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(401)

86

MAY 2013

Senior Staff Engineer


Rakesh Gupta.. gupta@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(301)
Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc
Welding and Cutting Processes

MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

Director, Human Resources


Dora A. Shade.. dshade@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(235)

GOVERNMENT LIAISON SERVICES

Managing Engineer, Standards


Brian McGrath .... bmcgrath@aws.org . . . . .(311)
Structural Welding, Methods of Inspection, Mechanical Testing of Welds, Welding in Marine Construction, Piping and Tubing

Standards Program Managers


Efram Abrams.. eabrams@aws.org . . . . . . . .(307)
Thermal Spray, Automotive, Resistance Welding,
Machinery and Equipment

Webmaster
Jose Salgado..jsalgado@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(456)

Hugh K. Webster . . . . . . . . .hwebster@wc-b.com


Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.,
(202) 785-9500; FAX (202) 835-0243. Monitors federal issues of importance to the industry.

Manager, Safety and Health


Stephen P. Hedrick.. steveh@aws.org . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of Plastics and Composites, Welding Iron Castings, Personnel and Facilities Qualification

Welding Handbook
Editor
Annette OBrien.. aobrien@aws.org . . . . . . .(303)

Director, Compensation and Benefits


Luisa Hernandez.. luisa@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(266)

Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . sissi@aws.org . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international
societies and standards organizations.

Director, National Standards Activities


Annette Alonso.. aalonso@aws.org . . . . . . .(299)

MEMBER SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Sr. Associate Executive Director
Cassie R. Burrell.. cburrell@aws.org . . . . . .(253)
Director
Rhenda A. Kenny... rhenda@aws.org . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between Section members and AWS
headquarters.

CERTIFICATION SERVICES
Department Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
John L. Gayler.. gayler@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(472)
Oversees all certification activities including all international certification programs.
Director, Certification Operations
Terry Perez..tperez@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Oversees application processing, renewals, and exam
scoring.
Director, Certification Programs
Linda Henderson..lindah@aws.org . . . . . . .(298)
Oversees the development of new certification programs, as well as AWS-Accredited Test Facilities, and
AWS Certified Welding Fabricators.

EDUCATION SERVICES

Alex Diaz.... adiaz@aws.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)


Welding Qualification, Sheet Metal Welding, Aircraft and Aerospace, Joining of Metals and Alloys
Patrick Henry.. phenry@aws.org . . . . . . . . . .(215)
Friction Welding, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting, High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Welding, Welding in Sanitary Applications
Senior Manager, Technical Publications
Rosalinda ONeill.. roneill@aws.org . . . . . . .(451)
AWS publishes about 200 documents widely used
throughout the welding industry

Note: Official interpretations of AWS standards


may be obtained only by sending a request in writing to Andrew R. Davis, managing director, Technical Services, adavis@aws.org.
Oral opinions on AWS standards may be rendered, however, oral opinions do not constitute official or unofficial opinions or interpretations of
AWS. In addition, oral opinions are informal and
should not be used as a substitute for an official
interpretation.
AWS FOUNDATION, Inc.
www.aws.org/w/a/foundation
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212, vpinsky@aws.org
Chairman, Board of Trustees
Gerald D. Uttrachi
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. sgentry@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)

Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. mventura@aws.org . . . . . .(224)

Corporate Director, Workforce Development


Monica Pfarr.. mpfarr@aws.org. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (461)

Director, Education Development


David Hernandez.. dhernandez@aws.org . . .(219)

The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit corporation established to provide support for the educational and scientific endeavors of the American Welding Society.

AWS AWARDS, FELLOWS, COUNSELORS


Senior Manager
Wendy S. Reeve.. wreeve@aws.org . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards, Fellow, Counselor nominees.

Promote the Foundations work with your financial


support. Call (800) 443-9353, ext. 212, for complete
information.

codes conference_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:20 AM Page 87

Personnel MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:39 PM Page 88

PERSONNEL
senior manager exports, and John Blicha
to director of corporate communications.
Goldner will manage the companys sales
offices in Central and South America and
the Middle East. Most recently, Goldner
served as export market development
manager, targeting industrial markets in
Central and South America. Blicha has

Eriez Names Two to Key


Positions
Eriez, Erie, Pa., a supplier of magnetic lift, conveying, metal-detection,
X-ray, controlling, and inspection equipment, has promoted Andrew Goldner to

Andrew Goldner

John Blicha

served as marketing communications


manager since joining the company last
year.

Tuchscherer Elected AWS


Foundation Trustee

6
6
6
6
6
6

6
6

66
6

6
6 6

6
6

6 6

+!3!6-/042
6

6
2% Thoriated

6
6

6
6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6
6 6
6
6 6
6
6
6

6
6
6

6
6

6 6
6

6
6
6

6
6
6 6

E3 Electrodes were tested


on +624%-346-2*.3 +)64)./06
! $!34%6+/64246-"/63-6
)+!36+36)4+!36  6)-/0426./6
3.!6'+2 3.")+26+'').+3.-/6
w h e n co m p a r e d t o

63-2.+34

6
6

6 6
6 6

6
6
6

63-2.+34
after 3 passes

The American Welding Society Foundation, Inc., Doral, Fla., has elected Becky
Tuchscherer to serve on its board of
trustees. Her term runs through 2015.
Tuchscherer is group vice president, commercial welding, for Miller Electric Mfg.
Co., where she has worked since 1988. She
is an AWS member and has served on the
AWS Finance Committee. The AWS
Foundation was established in 1991 to
support programs
that ensure the
growth and development of the welding
industry. Its focus is
on providing scholarships for welding students and pursuing
welder workforce development issues.
Becky Tuchscherer

Wall Colmonoy Announces


New Controller and CFO
Wall Colmonoy Corp., Madison
Heights, Mich., a supplier of surfacing and
brazing products, castings, and engineered components, has named Michael
Edwards chief financial officer, and
Michael Safford controller for the companys U.S. operations. Edwards has ex-

E3
after 8 passes

5-364)432-4!6!-/64246
2"/6-/6+624%-346-2*.3+)6
4)./06!$!34%6-/6+6
6./6
'.'46.36+6
6./6+))6

62+/6+''2-6 6)./4+263
E362+/6+''2-6 6)./4+263

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

Mike Edwards

Mike Safford
continued on page 90

88

MAY 2013

general corporate_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 8:22 AM Page 89

Personnel MAY_Layout 1 4/15/13 1:39 PM Page 90

continued from page 88

tensive experience in accounting with Deloitte and in manufacturing where he has


held senior finance and operations management positions with a machine manufacturer and a provider of injectionmolded PVC pipe fittings. Safford is a certified managerial accountant, with Six
Sigma Green Belt training.

Centerline Names RW
Account Manager
Centerline (Windsor) Ltd., Windsor,
Ont., Canada, has named Greg Van Dyke
account manager specializing in resistance welding consumables and automation component
products. Van Dyke
has ten years of experience in the resistance welding field,
most recently with
Resistance Welding
Products Ltd., and
the Tuffaloy Group of
Greg Van Dyke companies.

Sales Director Hired at


Caster Concepts

Adept Technology Appoints


Global Marketing VP

Caster Concepts, Albion, Mich., a supplier of heavy-duty casters and wheels, has
named Jamie Long
director of sales.
Prior to joining the
company,
Long
served as national
sales manager for
Hotsy Corp., a division of Karcher
North America, a
manufacturer
of
high-pressure cleanJamie Long
ing systems.

Adept Technology, Inc., Pleasanton,


Calif., a provider of
intelligent robots,
has named Glenn
Hewson senior vice
president of global
marketing. Hewson,
with 25 years of product line and marketing experience, most Glenn Hewson
recently served as
vice president of global marketing at
Avure Technologies, Inc.

TRUMPF Designates West


Coast Sales Manager
TRUMPF, Inc., Laser Technology
Center, Farmington, Conn., has named
Gene Bonacum west coast regional sales
manager to handle accounts in Oregon,
Washington, California, Idaho, Montana,
and Wyoming. Bonacum has more than
20 years of experience in the field, most
recently with Newport Corp.

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

For info go to www.aws.org/ad-index

90

MAY 2013

Member Milestones
Damian J. Kotecki
Damian J. Kotecki, an AWS Fellow,
PE, a past AWS president, and worldrenowned authority on welding stainless
steels, has been appointed to the Board
of
Advisors
of
Abakan, Inc., Miami,
Fla. The announcement states in part,
Dr. Kotecki brings
43 years of welding
expertise as well as
his extensive technical and business netDamian Kotecki work to the Board of
Advisors, as Abakan
transitions its CermaClad large-area
cladding technology into full commercial
production. Dr. Koteckis extensive experience in welding research, pipeline failure analyses, welding training and specifications, welding procedure development,
quality assurance, and stainless/high-alloy
welding filler metal and product development will help assure the companys products incorporate the highest levels of
technical excellence. Kotecki chairs the
A5D Subcommittee on Stainless Steel
Welding and the International Standards
Activities Committee. He is also a past
chair of the IIW Commission II Arc
Welding and Filler Metals, and authors
the bimonthly Stainless Q&A column in
the Welding Journal. He conducted welding research projects and pipeline failure
analyses for the Battelle Memorial Institute, served as director of research for
Teledyne McKay, and most recently retired as the technical director for stainless
and high-alloy product development for
The Lincoln Electric Co.

awo welding symbols_FP_TEMP 4/11/13 9:06 AM Page 91

awo.aws.org

Understanding
Understanding
Welding
Welding Symbols
Knowledge of weld joint terminology is essential for all levels of the welding design and production process. Use
of proper terms makes it much easier for welding personnel to communicate about various fit-up and welding
problems encountered during the fabrication process. A welding inspector
inspecto
s ability to read and interpret welding
inspectors
plans correctly is essential to properly inspecting a piece or part.
WS 2.4:2012, starting with a module on orthographic views, joint
AWS
This in-depth course walks the user through A
types, and weld types. Then the course dives into the various types of welds and clarifies the rules and usage of
welding symbols.
geometry,, groove welds, fillet welds, plug and slot welds, spot and
This self-paced course covers basic joint geometry
projection welds, and stud, seam, surfacing, and edge welds. Rounding out the seminar is a module on brazing
terms and symbols and non-destructive testing symbols. Interactive practice problems include an explanation of
each solution, and chapter quizzes will solidify the knowledge and prepare you for the proficiency exam.
The seminar is approximately 12 hours long and concludes with a final test.

Sample seminar at awo.aws.org/seminars/symbols

Counselor Letter 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 9:11 AM Page 92

Friends and Colleagues:

The American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individual
members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the image and
impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an individuals career of
outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in the
welding industry by one or more of the following:
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the welding
industry. The individuals organization shall have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as
evidenced by support of participation of its employees in industry activities.
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to training and
vocational education in the welding industry. The individuals organization shall have shown an
ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees in
industry activities.
For specifics on the nomination requirements, please contact Wendy Sue Reeve at AWS
headquarters in Miami, or simply follow the instructions on the Counselor nomination form in this
issue of the Welding Journal. The deadline for submission is July 1, 2013. The committee looks
forward to receiving these nominations for 2014 consideration.

Sincerely,
Lee Kvidahl
Chair, Counselor Selection Committee

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Nomination of AWS Counselor


V.

II. RULES
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.

Candidates for Counselor shall have at least 10 years of membership in AWS.


Each candidate for Counselor shall be nominated by at least five members of
the Society.
Nominations shall be submitted on the official form available from AWS
headquarters.
Nominations must be submitted to AWS headquarters no later than July 1
of the year prior to that in which the award is to be presented.
Nominations shall remain valid for three years.
All information on nominees will be held in strict confidence.
Candidates who have been elected as Fellows of AWS shall not be eligible for
election as Counselors. Candidates may not be nominated for both of these awards
at the same time.

1/8 FACE TRIM

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3/8 BINDING STUB

HISTORY AND BACKGROUND


In 1999, the American Welding Society established the honor of Counselor to recognize individual members for a career of distinguished organizational leadership that has enhanced the
image and impact of the welding industry. Election as a Counselor shall be based on an
individuals career of outstanding accomplishment.
To be eligible for appointment, an individual shall have demonstrated his or her leadership in
the welding industry by one or more of the following:
Leadership of or within an organization that has made a substantial contribution to the
welding industry. (The individuals organization shall have shown an ongoing
commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of participation of its employees
in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA, NSRP SP7 or other
similar groups.)
Leadership of or within an organization that has made substantial contribution to training
and vocational education in the welding industry. (The individuals organization shall
have shown an ongoing commitment to the industry, as evidenced by support of partici
pation of its employees in industry activities such as AWS, IIW, WRC, SkillsUSA, NEMA,
NSRP SP7 or other similar groups.)

1/8 SPINE TRIM

I.

III. NUMBER OF COUNSELORS TO BE SELECTED


Maximum of 10 Counselors selected each year.
Return completed Counselor nomination package to:
Wendy S. Reeve
American Welding Society
Senior Manager
Award Programs and Administrative Support
8669 Doral Blvd., Suite 130
Doral, FL 33166
Telephone: 800-443-9353, extension 293

SUBMISSION DEADLINE: July 1, 2013

1/8 FOOT TRIM

PAGE 1

02

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CLASS OF 2014

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(please type or print in black ink)

PO#:
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Blk, PANTONE 468 C

COUNSELOR NOMINATION FORM


DATE_________________NAME OF CANDIDATE________________________________________________________________________
AWS MEMBER NO.___________________________YEARS OF AWS MEMBERSHIP____________________________________________

V.

HOME ADDRESS____________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY_______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE________________________
PRESENT COMPANY/INSTITUTION AFFILIATION_______________________________________________________________________
TITLE/POSITION____________________________________________________________________________________________________
BUSINESS ADDRESS________________________________________________________________________________________________
CITY______________________________________________STATE________ZIP CODE__________PHONE_________________________
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND, AS APPLICABLE:
INSTITUTION______________________________________________________________________________________________________
MAJOR & MINOR__________________________________________________________________________________________________
DEGREES OR CERTIFICATES/YEAR____________________________________________________________________________________
LICENSED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER: YES_________NO__________ STATE______________________________________________
SIGNIFICANT WORK EXPERIENCE:

POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________
SUMMARIZE MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS IN THESE POSITIONS:
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
IT IS MANDATORY THAT A CITATION (50 TO 100 WORDS, USE SEPARATE SHEET) INDICATING WHY THE NOMINEE SHOULD BE
SELECTED AS AN AWS COUNSELOR ACCOMPANY THE NOMINATION PACKET. IF NOMINEE IS SELECTED, THIS STATEMENT MAY
BE INCORPORATED WITHIN THE CITATION CERTIFICATE.
**MOST IMPORTANT**
The Counselor Selection Committee criteria are strongly based on and extracted from the categories identified below. All information and support material provided by the candidates Counselor Proposer, Nominating Members and peers are considered.
SUBMITTED BY:
PROPOSER_______________________________________________
AWS Member No.___________________
The proposer will serve as the contact if the Selection Committee requires further information. The proposer is encouraged to include a
detailed biography of the candidate and letters of recommendation from individuals describing the specific accomplishments of the candidate. Signatures on this nominating form, or supporting letters from each nominator, are required from four AWS members in addition
to the proposer. Signatures may be acquired by photocopying the original and transmitting to each nominating member. Once the signatures are secured, the total package should be submitted.

NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________


AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________
NOMINATING MEMBER:___________________________________Print Name___________________________________
AWS Member No.______________

SUBMISSION DEADLINE JULY 1, 2013

PAGE 2

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1/8 FACE TRIM

COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________

BLIND PERF

POSITION____________________________________________________________________________YEARS_______________________

3/8 BINDING STUB

COMPANY/CITY/STATE_____________________________________________________________________________________________

02

MAY 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 4/16/13 8:41 AM Page 95

CLASSIFIEDS
CAREER
OPPORTUNITIES

EQUIPMENT FOR SALE OR RENT


JOE FULLER LLC
We manufacture tank turning rolls

Welding Engineering
Technology Faculty
(9 mos. Full-Time, Tenure Track)
Teach undergraduate-level lecture and
laboratory course work in a process
oriented, hands-on A.A.S. and B.S.
degree program. Required: Bachelor of
Science in Welding Engineering, Welding
Engineering Technology, or a closely
related field. Two (2) years of welding related experience in a welding application,
design, educational, procedure or research
environment. Candidates must demonstrate proficiency in GMAW, SMAW, GTAW,
OFW, OFC, PAC, SAW, FCAW and RSW.
Additional requirements include knowledge
of pipe welding and experience in welding
graphics, welding fabrication, destructive
and nondestructive weldment evaluation,
mechanical testing, and computer applications. The successful candidate will have
a Masters degree by the time of appointment or will be required to obtain such a
degree within four (4) years of hiring. For
a complete posting or to apply, access the
electronic applicant system by logging on
to http://employment.ferris.edu. Ferris
State University is sincerely committed to
being a truly diverse institution and actively
seeks applications from women, minorities,
and other underrepresented groups.
An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action
employer.

3-ton through 120-ton rolls


www.joefuller.com

email: joe@joefuller.com
Phone: (979) 277-8343
Fax: (281) 290-6184
Our products are made in the USA

CERTIFICATION
& TRAINING
2013
CWI PREPARATORY

MITROWSKI RENTS
Made in U.S.A.

Welding Positioners
1-Ton thru 60-Ton

Guarantee Pass or Repeat FREE!

80+ HOUR COURSE


MORE HANDSON/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Pascagoula, MS June 314, Oct. 21Nov. 1


Houston, TX June 24July 5, Aug. 1930
Ellijay, GA July 819, Sep. 920
Little Rock, AR July 29Aug. 9

56+ HOUR COURSE

EQUIPMENT FOR
SALE OR RENT

EXTRA INSTRUCTION TO GET A HEAD START

Pascagoula, MS June 6 14, Oct. 24Nov. 1


Houston, TX June 27July 5, Aug. 2230
Ellijay, GA July 1119, Sep. 1220
Little Rock, AR Aug. 19

40 HOUR COURSE
GET READY FAST PACED COURSE!

Tank Turning Rolls


Used Equipment for Sale
www.mitrowskiwelding.com

Pascagoula, MS June 1014, Oct. 28Nov. 1


Houston, TX July 15, Aug. 2630
Ellijay, GA July 1519, Sep. 1620
Little Rock, AR Aug. 59
Test follows on Saturday at same facility &
includes additional self study for weekend

FOR DETAILS CALL OR E-MAIL:


(800) 489-2890
info@realeducational.com
Also offering: 9Year CWI Recertification,
RT Film Interpretation, MT/PT/UT Thickness,
Welding Procedure Fundamentals,
CWS, SCWI, Advanced Inspection Courses

sales@mitrowskiwelding.com
(800) 218-9620
(713) 943-8032
WELDING JOURNAL

95

MAY 2013 WJ CLASSIFIEDS_Classified Template 4/16/13 8:42 AM Page 96

ADVERTISER
INDEX
ALM Materials Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
www.almmh.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 544-5438

Harris Products Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29


www.harrisproductsgroup.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 733-4043

ArcOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
www.Arc1Weldsafe.com . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 223-4685

Hobart Inst. of Welding Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60


www.welding.org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 332-9448

Arcos Industries, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC


www.arcos.us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 233-8460

Image of Welding/WEMCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57


www.aws.org/wemco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(800) 443-9353

Astaras Welding Accessories, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88


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96

MAY 2013

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 133

SUPPLEMENT TO THE WELDING JOURNAL, MAY 2013


Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Prediction of -Phase Embrittlement in


Type 316FR Weld Metal
Precipitation behavior and impact toughness were studied for 316FR weld metal
subjected to the high operating temperatures and sodium environment of
fast breeder reactors

ABSTRACT
Through aging treatments at 873 to 1023 K, sigma- () phase embrittlement in Type
316FR stainless steel weld metal was predicted at service-exposure temperatures (773823
K) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) based on a kinetic approach to -phase precipitation.
Microstructural examination by scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM
and TEM) revealed that the dominant precipitated phases were and chi (), nucleated at
-ferrite/austenite () interfaces or in the interior of the -ferrite grains, thereby consuming
the -ferrite during isothermal holds at each aging temperature. The total amount of precipitated phases during isothermal aging sigmoidally increased as a function of the aging
time. The kinetics of the appearance of these intermetallic phases could be expressed approximately by a Johnson-Mehl type equation. Based on the determined kinetic equation,
the precipitation behavior of intermetallic phases and the degradation of impact toughness
at 773 and 823 K could be successfully predicted.

Introduction
Recently, societys most important mission and goal is to secure an effective energy source that will contribute to a
reduction in global warming and replacement of the fossil fuels that are gradually
running short worldwide. Among various
possible energy sources, one that is increasingly coming into the spotlight is nuclear power generation, due to its merits
of providing a stable and efficient energy
supply system despite its known liabilities
of dangerous radioactivity and nuclear
waste concerns. Among the diverse types
of nuclear power generation, the fast
breeder reactor (FBR, using fast neutrons
that breed Pu-239 from U-238) is well
known as the most advanced thanks to its
superior fuel economy. Thus, much research has been performed in Japan on
the metallurgical behavior, as well as the
structural properties, of materials for the
Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor
E. J. CHUN, H. BABA, K. TERASHIMA, and
K. SAIDA are with Division of Materials and
Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.
K. NISHIMOTO is with Department of the Application of Nuclear Technology, Fukui University
of Technology, Fukui, Japan.

Monju from the 1970s to the present day


(Refs. 15). For future commercial FBR
plants, further research on welding materials will need to be performed. In addition, as present nuclear plants have been
in operation for a long time, repairs of
their aging parts, which mainly involve
welding, are becoming necessary.
Prior to discussing repair welding
processes for the FBR, it is important to
understand the typical differences between a FBR and other general types of
reactors (i.e., light water-cooled reactor).
First, a FBR cannot use water as a moderator, rather molten sodium metal is employed as a coolant, because of its high
thermal conductivity. Second, a FBR has
a higher operating temperature of
773823 K compared to other reactors,
due to its high degree of heat generation
(Ref. 4). Therefore, before the commer-

KEYWORDS
Embrittlement
Type 316FR
Weld Metal
Sigma Phase
Kinetics

cialization of future FBRs in Japan can become a reality, discovering the effects of
the sodium environment and the relatively
high operating temperature on the repair
weldability of components made of
austenitic stainless steel (Types 304, 316,
and 321), the alloy usually chosen due to
its superior corrosion resistance, ductility,
strength, formability, and weldability
(Refs. 6, 7), are very significant issues. Furthermore, an advanced 316FR stainless
steel structural material, which has improved creep fatigue behavior over other
austenitic stainless steels, and which possesses a higher phase stability during high
temperature at longer exposure times by
using the concept of solid-solution hardening with low-carbon and medium nitrogen as compared to conventional
austenitic stainless steel, is likely to be
used for the next generation of commercial FBRs in Japan. However, to the best
of the authors knowledge, research on
these issues has not been reported to date.
A particular result of the high-temperature operation of a FBR is the need
for weld repairs to the various main components in the nuclear plant. Such problems arise because welds have poorer
quality than the base metals due to solute
segregation or microstructural inhomogeneity (to avoid hot cracking, the weld
metal for austenitic stainless steel is often
intentionally rendered inhomogeneous
by introducing some amount of ferrite
as a result of the rapid solidification rate
during the welding process). These issues
promote the transformation of intermetallic phases, which affect various mechanical and chemical properties (Ref. 8).
Therefore, in anticipation of the need for
welding repairs to FBRs, the study and
prediction of the aging behavior of the
weld metal is an absolutely necessary
prerequisite.
Consequently, as a first research step
toward developing a process for weld repairs in the newly developed 316FR stainWELDING JOURNAL 133-s

WELDING RESEARCH

BY E. J. CHUN, H. BABA, K. TERASHIMA, K. NISHIMOTO, AND K. SAIDA

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 134

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the machining and detailed dimensions


of specimens for the Charpy impact test.

less steel needed for the future generation


of FBRs, the objective of the present study
is to clarify the prediction of -phase embrittlement behavior. This is achieved
through study of the precipitation kinetics
of the -phase in the weld metal at the
general service exposure temperature of a
FBR. In particular, the weld metal of typical austenitic stainless steels can contain
different final microstructure characteristics that are determined by solidification
and subsequent phase transformation, typically through the AF and FA solidification
modes (Refs. 8, 9). Different solidification
modes strongly affect various properties
such as corrosion resistance, high-temperature cracking behavior, and microstructural properties, etc. (Refs. 812). In this
study, we first examined weld metal in the

AF
solidification
mode, solidifying as
primary austenite (),
which is generally regarded as having a
pronounced high-temperature
cracking
susceptibility.

Fig. 2 SEM micrographs of a cross section of bead-on-plate one-pass


weld metal.

Materials and
Experimental Procedures

plate material for the Charpy impact tests.


The chemical compositions of these materials are given in Table 1.

Materials
Aging Treatment of Weld Metal

The base metal used in this study for


aging treatments and Charpy impact tests
was Type 316FR austenitic stainless steel.
The 316L types were only employed by the

Prior to performing aging treatments,


bead-on-plate welds were prepared using
a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)

Table 1 Chemical Compositions of Materials Used (mass-%)

Type
316FR
Type
316L

Cr

Ni

Mo

Si

Mn

Al

Fe

0.0085

0.0009

0.023

17.56

12.02

2.15

0.44

0.79

0.088

0.011

0.007

Bal.

0.0150

0.0040

0.031

17.28

12.11

2.04

0.70

0.92

0.024

Bal.

1000

1127

1532

Table 2 Aging Conditions Used in the Present Study


Temperature (K)
873
923
973
1023

Aging Time (h)


0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

134-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

1
1
1
1

5
5
5
5

10
10
10
10

50
50
50
50

100
100
100
100

394

500
500

526

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 135

process. The dimensions were 120 40


3 mm. Detailed GTAW conditions were as
follows: arc current, 110 A; arc voltage, 14
V; and welding speed, 1.67 mm/s. We specimens were aged by heating as indicated in
Table 2, and after the aging treatment,
they were quenched with water.
Microstructure Analysis
Fig. 3 SEM micrographs of the weld metal after aging at 873 K for 10 and 100 h, and 1023 K for 1 h.

Charpy Impact Test

Details of the machining and the dimensions of welding specimen are indicated in Fig. 1. Smaller Charpy impact test
specimens of size 55 10 3 mm were
machined from welded plate as also indicated in Fig. 1. The aging treatment for
Charpy impact test specimens was heating
at 1023 K for 0, 0.5, 1, and 10 h to differentiate ferrite decomposition behavior,
while the tests themselves were conducted
on the as-welded and aged samples at
room temperature according to JIS Z
2242, Method for Charpy pendulum impact
test of metallic materials. Four specimens
were tested for each aging time and their
average taken as the absorbed impact energy value. After the impact test, the fractured surfaces of the specimens were
observed using SEM.

Change in Microstructure with


Aging Treatment
Figure 2 shows typical microstructures
for Type 316FR weld metal after the
GTAW process. The cell morphology associated with the solidification behavior is
clearly visible. All the -ferrite was located
at the cell boundaries or triple points of
austenite () with elongated or globular
shape. These -ferrite distributions were
generally identified as being diagnostic of
the AF solidification mode, and the average volume fraction of -ferrite was about
3 % (FN < 3), measured by a Feritscope.
Figure 3 shows SEM micrographs of

Fig. 4 TEM micrographs and diffraction patterns of intermetallic phases ( and phases).

precipitation behavior during aging at 873


and 1023 K for various holding times. The
precipitates appeared in the interior of the
-ferrite, and increased in number with an
increase in aging time. The precipitates
were mainly classified as belonging to two
types, one nucleated at the -ferrite/ interface and one within the -ferrite. These
precipitates can be easily identified on the
basis of backscattered electrons (BSE)
contrast in SEM. As reported elsewhere,
these precipitation behaviors may totally
consume the -ferrite.
Figure 4 presents TEM micrographs
that reveal two types of precipitates iden-

tified as the sigma phase (: FeCr) and the


chi phase ( : Fe18Cr6Mo5) through bright
and dark images, selected area diffraction
pattern, and its key diagram analysis. It
follows that the predominant precipitates
in 316FR stainless steel weld metal during
long-term aging were and phases.
Based on these results, EBSD analysis was
performed. Figure 5 shows representative
BSE micrographs of SEM and EBSD micrographs. Therefore, one type nucleated
at the -ferrite/ interface was -phase and
another within the -ferrite was -phase
in Type 316FR weld metal during aging
treatment.

Table 3 Kinetic Parameters Determined for the Prediction of Aging Behavior


Determined Prediction Parameters
Temperature (K)
k (/s)
873
923
973
1023

1.2 106
2.9 106
3.0 105
1.8 104

k0 (/s)

Q (kJ/mol)

0.320

2.1 109

258

WELDING JOURNAL 135-s

WELDING RESEARCH

The content of ferrite in the aswelded and aged specimens was measured
using the magnetic induction method
(Feritscope) in the central area of the
bead surface. To clarify microstructural
changes caused by the aging treatments,
specimens were observed by scanning
electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with
electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)
under an acceleration voltage of 20 kV
after electrolytic etching with a 10% aqueous solution of KOH using an applied voltage of 100 mV. The specimens were also
observed by transmission microscopy
(TEM) under an acceleration voltage of
200 kV after jet polishing with a solution
of perchloric acid (5%) and acetic acid
(95%), using an applied voltage of 50 V.

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/17/13 9:45 AM Page 136

Fig. 5 Backscattered electron micrographs of SEM and EBSD micrographs of the weld metal after
aging at 873 K for 100 h.

Fig. 6 Fractional change of decomposed -ferrite


with aging time at various aging temperatures.

WELDING RESEARCH

where fi is the initial amount of the -ferrite prior to aging and ff is final amount
of the -ferrite after aging. Based on this
relationship, Fig. 6 shows the change in
the decomposed -ferrite fraction as a
function of the aging temperatures and
holding times. The fraction of the intermetallic phases increased sigmoidally
with an increase in the aging time at any
aging temperature, and approached the
saturation point for long-term aging at
973 and 1023 K.
Kinetic Equation for the -Ferrite
Decomposition

Fig. 7 Applicability of kinetic approaches for the decomposition behavior of -ferrite.

Prediction of Intermetallic Phase


Precipitation
In order to predict the precipitation of
intermetallic phases in Type 316FR weld
metal during the practical operation of a
FBR, we have adopted a kinetic approach
to the isothermal aging treatments.
Effect of Aging Conditions on
Intermetallic Phases Precipitation

As mentioned above with reference to

Fig. 3, - and -phases were dominantly


precipitated in the -ferrite grains, thereby
decomposing the -ferrite. They are also
representative intermetallics, which is associated with degradation of impact
toughness. Therefore, the amount of intermetallic phases both and precipitated could be approximated by the
decomposed fraction of -ferrite (y) expressed as follows:
f f fi
y=
fi
(1)

Table 4 Activation Energy for Diffusion of Alloying Elements in -Ferrite


Activation Energy (kJ/mol)
Diffusion of Cr in ferrite
Diffusion of Ni in ferrite
Diffusion of Mo in ferrite
Diffusion of Fe in ferrite

136-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

267
262
283
296

In order to determine the kinetics of


decomposition in -ferrite, we employed
three approaches commonly used to describe the phase transformation kinetics in
various nucleation and growth systems
(Refs. 1522): a parabolic law (the diffusion-controlled growth theory proposed
originally by Zener), and the JohnsonMehl and Austin-Rickett equations.
In the first case, the parabolic law is expressed by

y=k t

(2)

where y is the decomposed fraction of ferrite indicated in Equation 1, k is the


parabolic rate constant, and t is the exposure time (aging time in the present
study).
On the other hand, the kinetic equation of phase transformations in metals
can be also generally expressed as

dy
m
= k n t n 1 (1 y )
dt

(3)

where y is the decomposed fraction of ferrite indicated in Equation 1, k is the

Fig. 8 Plot to determine the activation energy for


decomposition of -ferrite at various aging temperatures.

Fig. 9 Prediction of the decomposition behavior


of -ferrite in the weld metal at practical operating
temperatures of a FBR.

Fig. 10 Change of impact toughness as a function of the amount of decomposed -ferrite (aging
at 1023 K).

temperature-dependent rate constant, t is


the time (ageing time in the present
study), n is the time exponent parameter
calculated by regression analysis depending on the nucleation mechanism and the
growth processes, and m is the impingement exponent. Equation 3 with m = 1
and m = 2 corresponds to the JohnsonMehl equation (Equation 4) and the
Austin-Rickett equation (Equation 5):

Johnson-Mehl plot in Fig. 7. Moreover, it


is well known that the dependence of the
precipitation rate k in Equation 4 can be
generally expressed by an Arrhenius equation as follows:

tion results, showing a sigmoidal relationship between operating time and the decomposed fraction of -ferrite. There was
a large difference in the decomposition
behavior between operating temperatures
of 773 and 823 K. Specifically, it took 15
months to reach 50% -ferrite decomposition at 773 K, but it took only 1 month at
an operating temperature of 823 K to arrive at the same point. In other words, a
50 K difference in the operating temperature caused about a 15 times faster decomposition rate. The decomposed
fraction of ferrite at other points on the
aging time curve is also listed in Table 5.
According to these predictions, about
90% of the -ferrite will have decomposed
after only 5 years of operation of a FBR at
823 K, while about 66% of the -ferrite
will have decomposed at an operating
temperature of 773 K. Furthermore, after
50 years of FBR operation, in Type 316FR
weld metal, -ferrite will be completely
decomposed at 823 K. Consequently, the
operating temperature of the FBR should
be closely considered from the viewpoint
of -ferrite decomposition behavior, because it could seriously affect not only various mechanical and chemical properties
during service, but also the weldability of
any required repairs.

y = 1 exp ( kt )
y
n
= ( kt )
1 y

(4)
(5)

The applicability of these kinetic equations can be confirmed by parabolic, Johnson-Mehl (log ln (1/1y) = n log t+n
log k) and Austin-Rickett (log (y/(1y) =
n log t+n log k) plots.
Figure 7 shows the results of applying
the three kinds of kinetic approaches.
There was a good linear relationship between the aging time and the fraction of
decomposed -ferrite in the Type 316FR
weld metal in the Johnson-Mehl plot regardless of aging temperature, while the
other plots failed to adequately describe
the -ferrite decomposition behavior. In
particular, the Austin-Rickett plot deviated from a linear relationship in the final
stages of precipitation, and the parabolic
plot showed also totally nonlinear behavior at every aging temperature. In other
words, -ferrite decomposition behavior
during aging of Type 316FR weld metal
was best described by the Johnson-Mehl
kinetic equation.
To predict the decomposition behavior
during long-term service exposure of a
FBR, the remaining constants in the Johnson-Mehl equation (n and k) need to be
determined. These values were found
from a simple regression analysis of the

Q
k = k0 exp
RT

(6)
where k0 is the frequency factor; Q is the
activation energy; T is the temperature;
and R is the gas constant.
Equation 6 can be transformed into the
following to describe an Arrhenius plot:

ln k =

Q1
+ 1nk0
RT

(7)
Figure 8 shows the Arrhenius plot,
showing a simple linear relationship between the reciprocal temperature and the
logarithm of k, allowing the determination
of the activation energy for the decomposition of -ferrite and the k0 constant.
All the parameters determined in this
way are shown in Table 3. The fitting constant n was independent of the aging temperature, but the precipitation rate
constant k increased as a function of aging
temperature.
Literature report (Ref. 23) of the activation energy for diffusion of the main alloying elements present within the
-ferrite is shown in Table 4. Their similar
activation energies suggest that the decomposition of -ferrite in this study
would be strongly influenced by the diffusion of these alloying elements.
Prediction of -Ferrite Decomposition at
Service-Exposure Temperatures of a FBR

Using the determined kinetics of the


Johnson-Mehl equation, the decomposition behavior of -ferrite during in-service exposure of FBR at practical
operation temperatures (773 and 823 K)
was predicted. Figure 9 shows the predic-

Prediction of Impact Toughness Behavior


in Weld Metal

In order to predict the embrittlement behavior resulting from the decomposition of


-ferrite in Type 316FR weld metal during
practical operation of a FBR, Charpy impact tests were performed for specimens
with different fractions of decomposed ferrite. To predict this behavior, one assumption that impact toughness of weld
metal is only governed by fractional change
of -ferrite decomposition was employed in
this study.

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Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 137

Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/17/13 3:54 PM Page 138

Fig. 11 SEM fractographs after Charpy impact tests as a function of decomposed fraction of -ferrite Fig. 12 Predicted results of the absorbed impact
(aging at 1023 K).
energy during long-term operation of a FBR.

WELDING RESEARCH

Effect of -Ferrite Decomposition on


Impact Toughness

Figure 10 shows the variation of impact absorbed energy as a function of


aging time (i.e., decomposed fraction of
-ferrite). The impact energy of the weld
metal gradually decreased with increasing isothermal holding time, namely, the
absorbed energy decreased with an increase in the fraction of decomposed ferrite. Particularly, the energy value of
weld metal aged for 10 h was about 22 J,
a drastic decline by a factor of two compared with an as-welded specimen. This
is the well-known -phase embrittlement
found in stainless steel weld metal (Refs.
6, 7, 19, 24).
Figure 11 compares SEM fractographs
of as-welded and aged weld metal after the
impact test to characterize the differences
in failure mechanism. In the as-welded
specimen, all the failure essentially occurred in the shallow dimpled fracture
mode. However, in the aged specimens
(decomposed fraction of -ferrite: 0.35,
0.60, and 0.90), some brittle fracture area
was also detected in the surface, although
the majority of the surface had suffered

shallow dimpled fracture surface. The


fraction of brittle fracture also increased
with an increase in the decomposed fraction of -ferrite. In particular, as the
isothermal holding time increased, the
fractographs of the brittle fracture areas
revealed that the fracture surface was
largely composed of a dendrite morphology. These fractographs show that the brittle fracture was initiated in a dendrite
region by the precipitation of intermetallic
phases (- and -phases) in -ferrite.
Thus, it was clear that the presence of intermetallic phases significantly decreased
the impact toughness of the weld metal.
Predicted Impact Test Results at the
Service-Exposure Temperature of a FBR

By substituting the results of the


Charpy impact tests shown in Fig. 10 into
the predictions of precipitation behavior
shown in Fig. 9, we were able to predict
the impact toughness during long-term
service exposure in a FBR. Figure 12
shows the predicted results of the absorbed impact energy. As the result of the
precipitation behavior shown in Fig. 8,
the absorbed impact energy also de-

Table 5 Predicted Results of the Decomposed Fraction of -Ferrite at Some Major Time
Points in Fig. 9
Decomposed Fraction of Ferrite
Operating time (years)
5
10
30
50

138-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

773 K
0.66
0.74
0.85
0.89

823 K
0.90
0.95
0.98
0.99

creased sigmoidally with an increase in


the operating time. It takes approximately 3 months to reach an absorbed impact energy of 32 J at 823 K, while
approximately 32 months will be needed
to reach the same absorbed energy at 773
K. Therefore, it was clear that impact
toughness behavior is also affected by differences in the operating temperature.

Conclusions
In this study, the precipitation behavior and changes in impact toughness during actual operation of FBR was predicted
for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metal,
based on the kinetics of -ferrite decomposition. The main conclusions of this
work can be summarized as follows:
1) Type 316FR stainless steel weld
metal contained approximately 3% (FN <
3) of -ferrite formed in the AF solidification mode. Intermetallic - and - phases
were precipitated inside -ferrite during
aging treatments at 823, 873, 923, and
1023 K, consuming the -ferrite (i.e., fraction of decomposed -ferrite = fraction of
precipitated intermetallic phases). As the
aging temperature and isothermal hold
time increased, the amount of intermetallic phases increased sigmoidally.
2) The decomposition of -ferrite was
examined by three types of kinetic approaches the parabolic law, Austin-Rickett, and Johnson-Mehl equations. Among
these kinetic approaches, the decomposition behavior was best described by the
Johnson-Mehl type equation. The kinetic
parameters in the Johnson-Mehl type equation were determined to be n = 0.320, Q =
258 kJ/mol, and k0 = 2.1 109/s, regardless
of the aging temperature.

3) The -ferrite decomposition behavior at practical operating temperature (773


and 823 K) found during FBR service was
predicted using the above determined parameters. The decomposition rate of -ferrite at an 823 K service temperature was
15 times faster than that at 773 K.
4) As the isothermal holding time increased, the impact toughness decreased
during the aging treatment at 1023 K. In
the fractographs obtained after impact
tests, the fraction of brittle fracture region
increased with an increase in decomposed
-ferrite.
5) By combining the predictions of ferrite decomposition behavior with the
experimental results of the Charpy impact
test, we were able to predict changes in impact toughness during in-service of a FBR.
We predict that it will take approximately
3 months to reach an absorbed impact energy of 32 J at 823 K, while approximately
32 months will be needed to reach a the
same absorbed energy at 773 K. In other
words, the rate of decrease of the absorbed impact energy at an 823 K operating temperature was 10 times faster than
that at 773 K.
Acknowledgment
The present study includes the result of
Core R&D program for commercialization of the fast breeder reactor by utilizing
Monju entrusted to University of Fukui by
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).
References
1. Furukawa, T., Kato, S., and Yoshida, E.
2009. Compatibility of FBR materials with
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2. Iida, K., Asada, Y., Okabayashi, K., and
Nagata, T. 1987. Construction codes developed
for prototype FBR Monju. Nuclear Engineering
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3. Iida, K., Asada, Y., Okabayashi, K., and

Nagata, T. 1987. Simplified analysis and design


for elevated temperature components of
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4. Nakazawa, T., Kimura, H., Kimura, K.,
and Kaguchi, H. 2003. Advanced type stainless
steel 316FR for fast breeder reactor structures.
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5. Nogami, S., Hasegawa, A., Tanno, T.,
Imasaki, K., and Abe, K. 2011. High-temperature
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6. Gill, T. P. S., Vijayalakshmi, M., Rodriguez, P., and Padmanabhan, K. A. 1989. On
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20(6): 1116 to 1124.
7. Ibrahim, O. H., Ibrahim, I. S., and Khalifa, T. A. F. 2010. Effect of aging on the toughness of austenitic and duplex stainless steel
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8. Inoue, H., Koseki, T., Okita, S., and Fuji,
M. 1997. Solidification and transformation behavior of austenitic stainless steel weld metals
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M. 1997. Solidification and transformation behavior of austenitic stainless steel weld metals
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stainless steel weld metals 2nd Report. Welding International 11(12): 937 to 949.
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M. 1998. Epitaxial growth and phase formation
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11. Inoue, H., Koseki, T., Okita, S., and Fuji,
M. 1998. Solidification and transformation behavior of Cr-Ni stainless steel weld metals with
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12. Kou, S. 2003. Welding Metallurgy, second
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stainless steels. ISRN Metallurgy 2012: Article
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Kahloun, C., Bettahar, K., and Kherrouba, N.
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on the precipitation kinetic of -phase in 2205
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18. Johnson, W. A., and Mehl, R. F. 1939.
Reaction kinetics in processes of nucleation and
Growth. Transactions AIME 135: 416 to 458.
19. Sasikala, G., Ray, S. K., and Mannan, S.
L. 2003. Kinetics of transformation of delta ferrite during creep in a Type 316(N) stainless steel
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359 (25): 86 to 90.
20. Sello, M. P., and Stumpf, W. E. 2011.
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22. Sutou, Y., Koeda, N., Omori, T.,
Kainuma, R., and Ishida, K. 2009. Effects of
aging on bainitic and thermally induced martensitic transformations in ductile Cu-Al-Mn-based
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5748 to 5758.
23. Magnabosco, R. 2009. Kinetics of sigma
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Lee, H. W. 2009. The dependence of crack
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WELDING JOURNAL 139-s

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Chun 5-13 layout_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:10 PM Page 139

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 140

Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical


Properties of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones
in an Iron-Copper Based
Multicomponent Steel
A combination of dilatometry, HAZ simulations, and mechanical testing were used
to determine the mechanical properties that develop in the HAZ of NUCu-140
BY J. D. FARREN, A. H. HUNTER, J. N. DUPONT, C. V. ROBINO, E. KOZESCHNIK, AND D. N. SEIDMAN

ABSTRACT

WELDING RESEARCH

NUCu-140 is a recently developed steel that relies on nano-scale Cu-rich precipitates to achieve yield strength levels in excess of 825 MPa (120 ksi). In order for
NUCu-140 to be utilized as a structural material, a comprehensive welding strategy
must be developed. Since NUCu-140 is a precipitation-strengthened material, this
strategy must include a detailed understanding of the precipitate evolution that occurs in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) as a result of welding thermal cycles. A combination of dilatometry, HAZ simulations, and mechanical testing are presented to determine the mechanical properties that develop in the HAZ of NUCu-140. MatCalc
kinetic simulations and Russell-Brown strengthening calculations were conducted to
model the observed precipitate and mechanical property trends. The microhardness
and tensile testing results reveal that local softening is expected in the HAZ of NUCu140 welds. MatCalc simulations show that a combination of partial dissolution, full
dissolution, and re-precipitation of the Cu-rich precipitates is expected to occur in the
various HAZ regions. The predicted precipitate parameters are used as input to the
Russell-Brown strengthening model to estimate the changes in strength expected due
to changes in precipitate features. The measured and predicted strength levels exhibit
very good quantitative agreement for the low-heat-input simulations and reasonable
qualitative agreement for the high-heat-input weld simulations.

Introduction
Copper precipitation-strengthened
materials such as high-strength, low-alloy
(HSLA) 80 and 100 have been used extensively in naval and structural applications due to their excellent combination of
strength and toughness. As a result of the
ever increasing need to minimize cost, it is
desirable to develop a HSLA variant that
can achieve even higher yield strength levJ. D. FARREN is with Naval Surface Warfare
Center Carderock Division, West Bethesda, Md.
A. H. HUNTER and D. N. SEIDMAN are with
Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering,
Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. J. N.
DUPONT (jnd1@lehigh.edu) is with Dept. of
Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. C. V. ROBINO is with Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.Mex.
E. KOZESCHNIK is with Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.

140-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

els [ 825 MPa (120 ksi)], while maintaining suitable toughness. Recent research
conducted at Northwestern University has
produced a candidate structural material
that achieves yield strength levels in excess
of 825 MPa while retaining toughness levels that would exceed the requirements for
most naval and structural applications
(Refs. 19). NUCu-140 is a copper precipitation-strengthened steel that is composed of a nominally ferritic microstructure with nano-scale Cu-rich precipitates
that strengthen the material, and NbC
precipitates that limit the austenite grain
growth. The use of NUCu-140 can offer

KEYWORDS
High-Strength Steels
Fracture
Weld Process Simulation

significant cost savings as a result of 1)


minimization of expensive alloying elements; 2) simple production using inexpensive processing techniques; and 3)
construction of structurally sound designs
using less material due to higher yield
strength. It has been estimated that the
utilization of NUCu-140 can produce a
fabrication cost savings of 2035% (Ref.
10).
In order for NUCu-140 to be utilized as
a structural material, a comprehensive
welding strategy must be developed. Since
NUCu-140 is a precipitation-strengthened material, this strategy must include a
detailed understanding of the precipitate
evolution that occurs in the heat-affected
zone (HAZ). There are four distinct regions that typically develop in the HAZ of
steel welds: 1) the subcritical HAZ region;
2) the intercritical HAZ region; 3) the
fine-grained austenite HAZ region; and 4)
the coarse-grained austenite HAZ region
(Ref. 11). These regions are defined by the
peak temperatures that they experience
relative to the austenization temperatures
of the material, Ac1 and Ac3. The subcritical HAZ experiences a peak temperature
during the weld thermal cycle that does
not exceed the austenite start temperature
(Ac1). Therefore, the subcritical region
does not undergo any transformation to
austenite. The intercritical region experiences a peak temperature between the
Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures that results in
partial transformation to austenite during
the weld thermal cycle. The fine-grained
HAZ region experiences a peak temperature that exceeds the Ac3 temperature and
therefore causes full transformation to
austenite during welding. In this region,
the thermal cycle only minimally exceeds
the Ac3 temperature, which prevents significant austenite grain growth. The final
HAZ region is the coarse-grained HAZ.
In this region, the Ac3 temperature is significantly exceeded, which leads to austen-

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:00 AM Page 141

Fig. 1 LEAP tomography data collected from


NUCu-140 GMAW showing the evolution of the
average precipitate radius (<R>), number density, and volume fraction () across the base
metal, HAZ, and FZ of the weld.

ite grain growth. The intercritical, finegrained, and coarse-grained HAZ regions
all experience transformation to austenite
during the weld thermal cycle. Therefore,
both the microstructural and precipitate
evolution needs to be investigated to understand the mechanical properties in
these regions.
A preliminary investigation of the microstructural evolution and mechanical
properties in NUCu-140 gas metal arc
welds (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc
welds (GTAW) was recently conducted
(Ref. 12). Microhardness traces revealed
that a locally softened HAZ region
formed as a result of the fusion welding
process. Average precipitate radius
(<R>), number density (Nv), and volume
fraction measurements () conducted
using local electrode atom probe (LEAP)
tomography confirmed that the observed
decrease in microhardness occurred as a
result of the precipitate evolution that occurs in the HAZ. Figure 1 shows a summary of the results. The base metal region
shows the initial precipitate parameters
that develop as a result of the solution and
aging thermal treatment. The region labeled HAZ 1 experienced a peak temperature of ~ 675C and exhibits a reduction

in <R> and while showing a concomitant increase in Nv. This results from partial dissolution of the precipitates on heating, followed by re-precipitation of new
and smaller Cu-rich precipitates during
cooling. The region labeled HAZ 2 experienced a peak temperature of ~910C
and exhibits a further decrease of the
<R> and with an even greater increase
in Nv. It was determined that full precipitate dissolution occurs in HAZ 2 on heating, followed by re-precipitation on cooling. The fusion zone also undergoes full
dissolution of the Cu-rich precipitates on
heating but exhibits only minimal
re-precipitation during the cooling portion of the weld cycle. Therefore, the fusion zone exhibits the lowest <R>, Nv,
and of any weld region. The overall
trends in <R>, Nv, are consistent with
the observed local softening that occurs in
the HAZ as a result of the fusion welding
process. The current research focuses on a
more detailed investigation of the mechanical properties of each of the four critical regions of the HAZ using simulated
HAZ samples.

Experimental Procedure
The chemical composition of the
NUCu-140 steel investigated in this study
was measured using inductively coupled
plasma-optical emission spectroscopy
(ICP-OES) and the results are shown in
Table 1. The composition of NUCu-140 is
similar to HSLA-100 Comp II, with
slightly increased C and Al levels and
slightly decreased Cr and Mo levels. The
Al content is relatively high compared to
traditional structural steels, but Al has
been shown to segregate to the interface
of the Cu-rich precipitates in NUCu-140
and is believed to limit the coarsening kinetics during aging (Ref. 3). The NUCu-

Table 1 Composition of Copper


Precipitation-Strengthened NUCu-140 Steel
(all values in wt-%)
Element

NUCu-140

Al
C
Cu
Fe
Mn
Nb
Ni
P
S
Si

0.65
0.04
1.35
Bal.
0.47
0.07
2.75
0.009
0.002
0.47

140 was vacuum melted, cast into ingots,


and homogenized at 1150C for 3 h. The
ingots were hot rolled at approximately
950C to a final plate thickness of 25.4 mm
and air cooled. The plates were solutionized at 900C for 1 h, water quenched to
room temperature, aged at 550C for 2 h,
and air cooled to room temperature. Critical transformation temperatures at various heating and cooling rates were determined by dilatometric methods using a
Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator equipped with an Anritsu SLB laser
dilatometer. Diametral dilatometry was
conducted on 6.35-mm-diameter solid
samples oriented such that the diameter
measurements corresponded with the
through-thickness direction in the original
plate. Samples were taken from approximately the thickness position in the
plate. A freespan of 25 mm and a lowforce jaw carrier were used to minimize
constraint during the determinations. The
Ac1 and Ac3 determinations generally followed ASTM A1033, although some deviations from recommended heating rates
and conditioning temperatures were used.
WELDING JOURNAL 141-s

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 2 Dilatometry results for NUCu-140 heated at 1, 10, 100, and 1000C/s.

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:02 AM Page 142

Table 2 Summary of the Precipitate Evolution Predicted Using MatCalc Kinetic Simulation
Software
Sample

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 3 Summary of the thermal cycles predicted using SOAR for the following samples: A
Low heat input (1.5 J/m); B high heat input
(3.75 J/m).

Fig. 4 LOM micrograph showing the NUCu140 base metal microstructure.

In order to be more consistent with the


NUCu140 aging temperature, the samples
were preconditioned at 450C rather than
600C. Preliminary experiments indicated
that Ac1 in this steel is below 700C, so the
heating rate change for the Ac3 determinations was conducted at 590C rather
than the 700C recommended by ASTM
A1033.
This information was then used to formulate an experimental matrix of simulated HAZ samples that would represent
each of the four critical regions of the
HAZ. The HAZ simulations were conducted using a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator, and the heating and
cooling rates were controlled using the
QuikSim software package supplied with
the Gleeble 3500. Thermal cycles associated with a high (3.75 kJ/mm) and low (1.5
kJ/mm) heat input were utilized to represent the range of arc welding conditions
expected during the joining of NUCu-140.
142-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Base Metal (BM)


LH675
LH800
LH900
LH1350
HH675
HH800
HH900
HH1350

Peak
Temperature
(C)

MatCalc
Radius
(nm)

MatCalc
Number Density
(m3)

MatCalc
Phase
Fraction

150
675
800
900
1350
675
800
900
1350

4.25
1.11
0.56
0.54
0.46
0.96
0.60
0.60
0.60

2.53 1022
1.10 1023
5.86 1024
5.95 1024
7.51 1024
1.24 1023
5.19 1024
5.17 1024
5.19 1024

0.0099
0.0064
0.0042
0.0041
0.0030
0.0068
0.0051
0.0051
0.0051

The simulated HAZ samples were taken


in the T-L orientation and were 11 11
60 mm. The samples were outfitted with
multiple thermocouples to determine the
width of the uniformly heated region
within the freespan (10 mm). Specimens
were prepared for light optical microscopy
(LOM) using standard metallographic
techniques and etched using a 3% Nital
solution. Grain size measurements were
conducted according to ASTM Standard
E112-96(2004)2, and five fields were
measured per sample. Microhardness
measurements were conducted using a
Vickers diamond indenter, a 1-kg load,
and a 15-s dwell time. Charpy impact testing was conducted at 40C according to
ASTM E23 on 10- 10- 50-mm specimens. Tensile testing was performed according to ASTM E8 on subsized samples
with a diameter of 6.35 mm and a 25.4-mm
gauge length. Charpy impact testing was
performed on two specimens per condition while tensile testing was conducted on
a single specimen per condition due to material limitations. Post-fracture analysis
was conducted on all of the Charpy impact
and tensile specimens to ensure that crack
propagation and subsequent failure occurred within the uniformly heated region
of the simulated HAZ sample. If failure
was not contained entirely within the uniformly heated region, the results of the
sample were discarded and a replacement
specimen was prepared and tested.

Results and Discussion


In order to simulate the four critical regions of the HAZ, it is first necessary to
identify the critical transformation temperatures, Ac1 and Ac3, for the NUCu140 substrate material. Dilatometry heating rates ranging from 1 to 1000C/s were
investigated and the results are shown in
Fig. 2. The dilatometry curves show that
the Ac1 temperature increases directly
with heating rate and ranges from 706C
with a 1C/s heating rate up to 759C with

a 1000C/s heating rate. The Ac3 temperature exhibits a much narrower range,
824 to 839C, indicating that the ferriteto-austenite transformation finish temperature is not as dependent on heating
rate as the ferrite-to-austenite transformation start temperature. The transformation start temperatures increase directly with the heating rate since the
ferrite to austenite transformation is diffusion controlled. Increased heating rates
provide less time for diffusion to occur,
which causes a concomitant delay in the
transformation start temperatures. These
results were used to select peak temperatures to simulate the four critical regions
of the HAZ. A peak temperature of 675C
was selected for the subcritical HAZ region since it is below the Ac1 temperature
over the entire range of heating rates investigated. An 800C peak temperature
was selected for the intercritical HAZ region since it falls inside the Ac1 and Ac3
range for all four dilatometry curves. A
900C peak temperature was selected for
the fine-grained austenite region since
900C minimally exceeds the maximum
measured Ac3 temperature of 839C. Finally, a 1350C peak temperature was selected for the coarse-grained austenite
HAZ region since 1350C significantly exceeds the Ac3 temperature but is still
below the melting temperature of the
alloy.
The Smartweld Optimization and
Analysis Routine (SOAR) software (Ref.
13) was used to determine thermal cycles
associated with the various peak temperatures identified previously. An 85% transfer efficiency, representative of the
GMAW process, was assumed in the calculations (Ref. 14). Weld thermal cycles
for each peak temperature were estimated
for both a low (1.5 kJ/mm) and a high (3.75
kJ/mm) heat input to determine the effect
of heat input on HAZ mechanical properties. The weld thermal cycles associated
with the 675, 800, 900, and 1350C peak
temperatures are shown in Fig. 3A, B for

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 143

Fig. 6 Microhardness data collected from NUCu-140 base metal and simulated
HAZ samples.

nificant austenite grain


coarsening. This can
be attributed to the
short time and slight
increase in temperature above Ac3. The
presence of NbC particles also aids in restricting
austenite
grain growth. The microstructure of the
LH1350 sample consists of acicular ferrite
and a combination of
either Widmansttten
ferrite, bainite, or lowFig. 5 LOM micrographs of the following simulated samples: A Low carbon
martensite.
heat input; B high heat input simulated HAZ samples.
The presence of acicular ferrite in the
LH1350 sample indicates that significant
the low and high input matrix, respecgrain coarsening occurred during the simtively. Each thermal cycle was subseulated HAZ thermal cycle since acicular
quently linearized and input directly into
ferrite nucleates intragranularly on hetthe Gleeble 3500 QuikSim software to
erogeneous nucleation sites such as oxide
produce simulated HAZ samples.
inclusions, and its formation is enhanced
Figure 4 shows the NUCu-140 base
when the austenite grain size increases
metal microstructure while Fig. 5A, B
(Refs. 1518). The grain coarsening also
shows the microstructure of the low heat
suggests that a 1350C peak temperature
input and high heat input simulated HAZ
is high enough to dissolve the NbC partisamples, respectively. The low heat input,
cles. This is consistent with thermody675C (LH675) peak temperature sample
namic calculations performed on similar
exhibits a predominantly equiaxed ferritic
Fe-Cu steels that indicate the NbC partimicrostructure that is nearly identical to
cles will dissolve between approximately
the base metal microstructure. Both the
1050 and 1100C (Ref. 7). The high heat
LH800 and LH900 samples also exhibit an
input samples exhibit very similar miequiaxed ferritic microstructure with little
crostructures when compared to the low
to no change from the base metal miheat input counterparts, where the
crostructure. Each of these simulated
HH675, HH800, and HH900 samples all
HAZ microstructures has a similar grain
contain equiaxed ferrite. The HH1350
size to the base material, which indicates
sample is also similar to its LH1350 counthat no significant grain coarsening octerpart in that it exhibits austenite grain
curred as a result of the thermal cycle. The
coarsening leading to an acicular-type miLH900 sample is fully austenitized during
crostructure that contains a mixture of acithe thermal cycle, but does not exhibit sig-

cular ferrite, Widmansttten ferrite, bainite, and low-carbon martensite.


Figure 6 shows the average microhardness values for both the high and low heat
input simulated HAZ samples. The low
heat input results show a noticeable reduction in hardness for the LH675 (280
HV), LH800 (235 HV), and LH900 (225
HV) samples as compared to the base
metal (300 HV). The observed softening
in these simulated HAZ samples occurs as
a result of evolution of the Cu-rich precipitates (Ref. 12). The LEAP tomography data shown in Fig. 1 exhibit a linear
decrease in both the average precipitate
radius (<R>) and precipitate volume
fraction () as the weld interface is approached (i.e., increasing peak temperature). This is consistent with the reduction
in hardness that is observed in the low heat
input matrix. The LH1350 sample (290
HV) exhibits only a minimal reduction in
microhardness even though it is expected
to have undergone full dissolution of the
Cu-rich precipitates. The relatively high
hardness of the LH1350 sample is attributed to the acicular-type microstructure
(mixture of acicular ferrite, Widmansttten ferrite, bainite, and low-carbon
martensite) observed in this region. The
high heat input microhardness results exhibit a similar trend where there is local
softening in each of the four simulated
HAZ samples. The slightly lower hardness
values observed for the high heat input
675, 800, and 900C peak temperatures,
relative to the low heat input samples, are
probably the result of increased coarsening/dissolution that is associated with the
longer heating and cooling times of the
high heat input thermal cycle. The
HH1350 sample (260 HV) again shows a
slight hardness recovery as compared to
the observed minimums that occurred in

WELDING JOURNAL 143-s

WELDING RESEARCH

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Fig. 8 Charpy data collected for NUCu-140 at 40C.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 7 Tensile testing results for both low and high


heat input samples showing the following: A
Yield; B tensile; C elongation.

the HH800 and HH900 samples.


Figure 7 shows the yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation results for the
high and low heat input samples. Each
simulated HAZ data point presented in
Figure 7 was generated from a sample that
failed within the uniformly heated region.
This was verified through direct temperature measurements during the simulation
cycle and postfracture analysis. The low
heat input yield and tensile strength values
decrease as the HAZ thermal cycle peak
temperature increases up to the LH900
sample. Partial recovery of the tensile

properties is observed in the LH1350 sample, which agrees with the observed microhardness trends. These strength trends
are consistent with the observed microhardness results discussed previously. The
elongation values only range from 18 to
21% across the base metal and all four
simulated HAZ samples, with the ductility
decreasing in the 675 and 800C samples.
This observation is unexpected since the
675 and 800C samples have decreased
strength levels compared to the base
metal, which would typically lead to higher
ductility. However, it must be noted that
the specimen gauge length contains
NUCu-140 material that was heated to a
range of different peak temperatures during the Gleeble thermal cycle. The uniformly heated region in the simulated
HAZ sample is shorter than the specimen
gauge length and so the elongation results
represent some average elongation behavior of each peak temperature/microstructural region. As a result, the elongation
value reported for each condition is actually a composite measurement and the resulting trends are insignificant. Nearly
identical trends in yield strength and tensile strength are observed for the high
heat input sample matrix.
Figure 8 shows the Charpy impact values for both the low and high heat input

samples tested at 40C. The Charpy impact energy generally increases relative to
the base metal value for the 675, 800, and
900C peak temperature samples. This is
consistent with the microhardness and
yield strength results, since a decrease in
strength/hardness typically produces an
increase in toughness. The high heat input
1350C peak temperature sample exhibits
only a very slight reduction in impact
toughness relative to the base metal, while
the impact toughness of the low heat input
sample is higher than that of the base
metal. The difference in impact toughness
between the LH1350 and HH1350 samples can be attributed to the prior austenite grain size in each region. The LH1350
sample has a prior austenite grain size of
32 m while the HH1350 sample has a
prior austenite grain size of 42 m. The reduced prior austenite grain size and corresponding increase in grain boundary
area in the low heat input sample results
in a concomitant increase in the impact
toughness. It is interesting to note that all
regions of the HAZ exhibit relatively good
impact toughness relative to the base
metal, regardless of the location or heat
input.
In order to better understand the observed mechanical property trends, the expected precipitate evolution in the base

Table 3 Calculated Precipitate Parameters and Measured and Predicted Strength Change for LH800, LH900, HH800, and HH900 Samples

Base Metal
LH800
LH900
HH800
HH900

Average
Precipitate
Radius
<R> (nm)
4.25
0.56
0.55
0.60
0.60

144-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Precipitate
Volume
Fraction
0.0099
0.0042
0.0041
0.0051
0.0051

Interprecipitate
Spacing L
(nm)

Predicted
Strength
Change (MPa)

Measured
Strength
Change (MPa)

75.5
15.1
15.0
15.0
14.9

162
185
52
53

165
183
176
176

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 145

Fig. 9 MatCalc kinetic simulation for the LH675


simulated HAZ sample.

metal and HAZ regions was modeled


using MatCalc kinetic simulations (Refs.
12, 1922). The MatCalc method estimates precipitate nucleation and growth
kinetics in multicomponent and multiphase alloys and can deal with complex
systems and precipitation sequences. The
MatCalc method accounts for the compositional dependence of interfacial energy
and chemical driving force, which provides a significant improvement to the
classical nucleation, growth, and coarsening models when applied to the Fe-Cu system. The simulations show the expected
evolution of the Cu-rich precipitates in
terms of average precipitate radius <R>,
number density (Nv), and precipitate volume fraction (). An example MatCalc
simulation result for the LH675 sample is
presented in Fig. 9. The LH675 sample begins to undergo partial dissolution of the
Cu-rich precipitates at the end of the heating portion of the HAZ thermal cycle as
evidenced by the reduction in average precipitate radius <R> and precipitate vol-

ume fraction (). The excess solute from


the recently dissolved precipitates causes
re-precipitation of new, smaller Cu-rich
precipitates during the cooling portion of
the cycle, which leads to a resultant increase in the precipitate number density.
MatCalc simulations were also produced
for the LH800, LH900, and LH1350 samples and in all three cases the Cu-rich precipitates fully dissolved on heating, followed by re-precipitation of the Cu-rich
precipitates on cooling. An identical set of
MatCalc simulations was performed for
the high heat input samples and similar
trends were observed. A summary of the
predicted precipitate parameters for the
base metal and each of the simulated
HAZ samples can be seen in Table 2.
Comparison of the base metal precipitate
parameters generated using MatCalc and
LEAP tomography reveals that generally
good agreement is achieved for the <R>
and Nv. However, the MatCalc predicted
(~0.0099) is more than three times less
than the measured using LEAP tomography (~ 0.032). Previous work by the authors (Ref. 12) demonstrated that the significantly higher values measured using
LEAP tomography can be explained by
uncertainty in determining the true Cu
concentration of the Cu-rich precipitates.
A combination of empirical Cu solubility
data, published precipitate Cu concentrations, and lever law calculations demonstrated that for the binary Fe-Cu system
the expected of Cu-rich precipitates for
NUCu-140 is approximately 0.013, which
is in very good agreement with the MatCalc prediction of 0.0099. Based on this
analysis (Ref. 12), it was decided that the
MatCalc precipitate parameters would be
used as input for the strengthening calculations (discussed below).
Using the predicted precipitate parameters generated using MatCalc, the
strengthening model proposed by Russell
and Brown (Ref. 23) can be used to esti-

mate the change in strength expected from


changes in the Cu-rich precipitates. The
Russell-Brown model assumes a random
distribution of spherical precipitates that
are elastically softer than the surrounding
matrix. These two assumptions are generally acceptable for NUCu-140 since the
Cu-rich precipitates are roughly spherical
and are elastically softer than the nominally ferritic matrix (Ref. 23). The RussellBrown model defines the shear strength of
the material as the following:
1

2
Gb E
= 0.8 1 P
L E2

M
when sin1

E
E

50 deg

2
Gb E P
=
1 2
L E

M
when sin1

E
E

50 deg

r
log

E
M

log

R
r

L=

1.77r

(2)

E log
E

(1)

+
log

R
r
R

(3)

(4)

where G is the shear modulus of the matrix (77 GPa); b is the Burgers vector (0.25
nm); L is the interprecipitate spacing
(Equation 4 ); EP is the dislocation energy
in the precipitate; EM is the dislocation energy in the matrix; EP is the dislocation
WELDING JOURNAL 145-s

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 10 Measured vs. predicted strength change of 800 and 900C simulated HAZ
samples using MatCalc as input to the Russell-Brown model.

Farren Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:09 PM Page 146

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 11 Sensitivity analysis of the Russell-Brown


model showing predicted increase in yield strength
as a function of radius for constant volume fractions. A Full scale; B enlarged view.

energy in the precipitate per unit length;


EM is the dislocation energy in the matrix
per unit length; r is the radius; r0 is the
inner cut-off radius (2.5 b); R is the outer
cut-off radius (1000r0); and is the precipitate volume fraction. The shear modulus of body-centered cubic (bcc) Cu is assumed to be equivalent to that of
face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu. The ratio of
dislocation energy per unit length in the
precipitate and matrix (EP)(EM) is approximately 0.6 (Ref. 23). The shear
strength in each simulated HAZ region is
calculated by substituting in the precipitate parameters predicted using the MatCalc simulations (Table 2) and applying a
Schmid factor of 2.5 (Ref. 23). The predicted shear strength change is then calculated by comparing the calculated base
metal strength to the calculated strength
in each simulated HAZ region. Application of the Russell-Brown model does
have several limitations which include the
assumption that the shear modulus of fcc
Cu and bcc Cu have the same value, the
calculation of L based on radius and precipitate volume fraction is subject to significant error (Ref. 23), and the cut-off radius values are geometric approximations.
However, recent research has demonstrated that the model provides good
agreement between calculation and experiment for similar Fe-Cu based alloys
(Ref. 24). This calculation is assumed to
be a valid indicator of the overall strength
change since the matrix microstructure of
the base metal, subcritical HAZ, intercritical HAZ, and fine-grained HAZ re-

146-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

gions are composed of an equiaxed ferritic


microstructure with nearly identical grain
sizes. The coarse-grained HAZ region
therefore cannot be compared using this
method due to the acicular-type microstructure that results from the HAZ
thermal cycle.
Figure 10 shows the measured vs. predicted yield strength change for the 800
and 900C peak temperature simulated
HAZ samples for both the low and high
heat input. The calculated shear strength
values were converted into yield strength
values by applying the relationship that
shear yield strength is approximately
equal to 0.6 times the tensile yield strength
in steel (Ref. 25). The 1350C samples
were not included in the strength calculations since they exhibit acicular-type microstructures and therefore cannot be directly compared to the equiaxed ferritic
structures. The 675C peak temperature
samples were included in the calculation
but were not included in Fig. 10 since the
strengthening model predicts an increase
in yield strength of greater than 160 MPa
for the low heat input sample, while the
measured yield strength exhibits a decrease of approximately 60 MPa. This deviation can be explained as a result of the
partial dissolution and re-precipitation
predicted for the 675C peak temperature
samples (Fig. 9), as well as how the interparticle spacing (L) is calculated. L is calculated as a function of the average precipitate radius (<R>) and the precipitate
volume fraction () through Equation 4,
but does not account for the precipitate
number density directly. This is typically
not a problem since all three of these precipitate parameters are interrelated. However, for the case of the 675C peak temperature simulated HAZ sample,
re-precipitation of new, smaller Cu-rich
precipitates is predicted during cooling.
This leads to a bimodal precipitate distribution where the new, smaller precipitates
are not correctly accounted for in the calculation of L. The new precipitates cause
<R> to decrease significantly, which results in a calculated L value that is too low
and which leads to a predicted strength
value that is too high.
The measured vs. predicted strength
change for the LH800 and LH900 samples
exhibit very good quantitative agreement
where there is an almost one-to-one relationship between the measured and predicted values. However, the quantitative
agreement breaks down for the high heat
input samples. The calculations for the
high heat input condition accurately reflect that there is little difference between
the HH800 and HH900 strength levels,
which was observed experimentally in Fig.
7A, but the magnitude of the measured
and predicted strength changes show significant disagreement. The predicted de-

crease in strength is approximately 50


MPa as opposed to nearly 175 MPa for the
measured values. The predicted precipitate parameters and strength changes are
shown in Table 3 for each heat input. Note
that MatCalc predicts only slight differences in the precipitate parameters for the
low and high heat input samples. This
agrees with the experimentally measured
strength levels, which show only minimal
differences in the resultant strength. This
suggests that MatCalc is accurately capturing the precipitate evolution for the
various HAZ thermal cycles. This also implies that NUCu-140 is not very sensitive
to heat input over the range of heat inputs
evaluated in this study. The large variation
in predicted strength calculated with only
minor differences in <R> and suggest
that the Russell-Brown model is very sensitive to the input parameters of <R> and
. Figure 11A, B shows a sensitivity analysis that plots the increase in yield strength
predicted by the Russell-Brown model as
a function of <R> for three representative values. The yield strength initially increases with increasing precipitate radius
for a fixed volume fraction (Fig. 11A) up
to approximately 1 nm, after which the
yield strength is expected to decrease
(Ref. 26). This is consistent with a coarsening phenomenon where the overall precipitate strength contribution decreases
when the precipitates coarsen past the
peak aged condition. Figure 11B shows an
enlarged view of Fig. 11A for precipitate
radii up to 1 nm. The MatCalc-predicted
low heat input and high heat input precipitate parameters are labeled along with
the associated strengthening contribution
predicted by the Russell-Brown model.
The slope of the strength vs. <R> curve
in the vicinity of the low heat input and
high heat input precipitate parameters are
1590 and 2275 MPa/nm, respectively.
Note that, within this region, very large
strength increases are predicted with only
minor increases in precipitate radii for this
model. MatCalc simulations or LEAP tomographic measurements are probably
not accurate enough to expect valid quantitative comparisons with the R-B model
at the low end of the <R> range when
such small variations in precipitate parameters can cause large differences in the
predicted strength. This effect probably
accounts for the disagreement between
the measured and calculated strength
changes shown in Fig. 10.

Conclusions
Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of simulated heataffected zones in NUCu-140 steel was investigated via light optical microscopy,
dilatometry, Gleeble HAZ simulations,
mechanical testing, and modeling tech-

niques. The following conclusions can be


drawn from this research.
1. Dilatometry experiments over a wide
range of heating rates show that the Ac1
temperature ranges from 706C with a
1C/s heating rate up to 759C with a
1000C/s heating rate. The Ac3 temperature exhibits a narrower range of 824 to
839C.
2. The subcritical, intercritical, and
fine-grained HAZ regions exhibit an
equiaxed ferritic microstructure that is
very similar to the NUCu-140 base metal
microstructure. The coarse-grained HAZ
exhibits a predominantly acicular-type
matrix microstructure composed of a combination of acicular ferrite, Widmansttten ferrite, bainite, and low-carbon
martensite.
3. Microhardness and tensile testing
results demonstrate that local softening
occurs in the HAZ, with the minimum
strength and hardness occurring in the intercritical and fine-grained HAZ regions.
The strength loss in these regions is attributed to complete dissolution and only
partial re-precipitation of Cu precipitates,
as shown by precipitate simulation. The
coarse-grained HAZ exhibits a slight recovery of strength and hardness as a result
of the acicular-type structure that forms in
this region.
4. The Charpy impact energy at 40C
for each HAZ region was equal to or better than the unaffected base metal. This is
consistent with the microhardness and
yield strength results, since the HAZ regions exhibited a decrease in
strength/hardness, which typically produces an increase in toughness.
5. Similar values of precipitate radii,
number density, and phase fraction were
calculated for the 675, 800, and 900C
peak temperature samples for both low
and high heat input conditions. The simi-

lar precipitate parameters and equiaxed


ferrite microstructure would be expected
to produce similar strength levels for each
of these samples. This is consistent with
the measured mechanical properties
where there are only minor variations in
the yield strength for these conditions as a
function of heat input. This indicates that
NUCu-140 is insensitive to heat input over
the range of heat inputs (1.53.75 kJ/mm)
investigated in this study.
Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of this research by the Office of Naval Research through Grant
Number N00014-07-1-0331 and useful discussions with the program manager, Dr.
William Mullins, of the Office of Naval
Research.
References
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2. Isheim, D., Gagliano, M. S., Fine, M. E.,
and Seidman, D. N. 2006. Acta Materialia 54:
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Seidman, D. N. 2006. Scripta Materialia 55: 35.
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7. Kolli, R. P., Wojes, R. M., Zaucha, S., and
Seidman, D. N. 2008. International Journal for
Materials Research (formerly Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde) 99: 513.
8. Kolli, R. P., and Seidman, D. N. 2011. International Journal for Materials Research (formerly Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde).
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Fracture toughness of simulated heat-affected

zones in NUCu-140 steel. Welding Journal


91(2): 53-s to 58-s.
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S., and Bhat, S. P. 1993. International Symposium on Low Carbon Steels for the 90s, p. 511.
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Properties. Elsevier, p. 287.
12. Farren, J. D., Hunter, A. H., DuPont, J.
N., Seidman, D. N., Robino, C. V., and
Kozeschnik, E. 2012. Submitted to Metallurgical
and Materials Transactions A.
13. Fuerschbach, P. W., and Eisler, G. R.
2002. 6th International Trends in Welding Research Conference Proceedings.
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Thermal efficiency of arc welding processes.
Welding Journal 749(12): 406-s.
15. Babu, S. S. 2004. Current Opinion in
Solid State and Materials Science 8: 267.
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19. Holzer, I., and Kozeschnik, E. 2010.
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and Fischer, F. D. 2004. Materials Science and
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J. C., Isheim, D., and Seidman, D. N. 2010. Acta
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Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 148

Preliminary Investigation on UltrasonicAssisted Brazing of Titanium and


Titanium/Stainless Steel Joints
Aluminum-based brazing filler metal can be used for brazing titanium to steel in air
BY A. ELREFAEY, L. WOJARSKI, J. PFEIFFER, AND W. TILLMANN

ABSTRACT

WELDING RESEARCH

Preliminary investigations of the microstructure and fracture behavior of ultrasonicassisted brazing of CP titanium to itself and to AISI 304 stainless steel was conducted,
using an aluminum-based filler. Test joints were processed at a temperature of 670C
and with a holding time of 3 min, followed by ultrasonic vibrations for 6 s. The resultant
joints were characterized in order to determine the brittle intermetallic compound
(IMC) in the interfacial layer. The shear strength of the joints was tested as well. The preliminary experimental results showed that sound joints with good wetting quality, without pores and cracks can be achieved. Intermetallic Ti-Al phases were detected at the
titanium/aluminum-based filler metal in both similar and dissimilar joints. Both joints
fractured after shear strength tests in the area containing this intermetallic compound.
The titanium/titanium joints achieved a higher shear strength of 64 MPa. Meanwhile, the
titanium/stainless steel joint obtained 46 MPa.

Introduction
Titanium and its alloys exhibit a unique
combination of mechanical and physical
properties as well as corrosion resistance,
which make them desirable for several industrial sectors such as power generation,
chemical processing, aerospace, and medical applications. On the other hand, steel
and steel alloys represent the most important and widely used materials in industrial
applications. Gradually, composite structures of dissimilar metals were accepted in
national defense and civil industrial fields,
such as aeronautics and astronautics, and
energy and electric power industries.
Composite components of titanium alloy
and steel can take advantage of these two
materials simultaneously. A partial replacement of steel components with titanium alloys will become an important way
to reduce the mass of spacecrafts (Refs.
13).
Titanium belongs to a family of metals
called reactive metals that have a strong
affinity for oxygen. At room temperature,
titanium reacts with oxygen to form titanium dioxide. This passive, impervious
coating resists further interactions with the
surrounding atmosphere, and gives titanium its famous corrosion resistance. The
A. ELREFAEY, L. WOJARSKI (lukas.wojarski@udo.edu), J. PFEIFFER, and W. TILLMANN are with the Institute of Materials Engineering, TU Dortman, Dortman, Germany.

148-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

resultant layer has to be removed prior to


joining because it melts at a much higher
temperature than the base metal (Ref. 4).
Brazing is one of the most inexpensive
and convenient methods for joining titanium and titanium to dissimilar metals.
Joining in a vacuum environment increases the cost of production and also reduces the design flexibility (Refs. 5, 6).
Therefore, vacuum-free joining processes,
which are assisted by external mechanical
energy to disrupt the oxide layer in air,
have been developed and investigated.
Ultrasonic waves have been applied for
soldering and brazing aluminum and titanium in air (Refs. 1012). Ultrasonic vibrations imposed on metal surfaces cause
a high cavitation intensity in the liquid
filler metal, which disrupts and flakes off
surface oxides, thereby allowing the filler
metal to wet the surfaces and form a metallurgical bond. When undermining phenomena occurred during the interaction,

KEYWORDS
Titanium
Stainless Steel
Brazing
Ultrasonic
Joint Microstructure
Shear Strength

the oxide layer at the interaction interface


was first lifted up by the undermining
alloy, suspending in the liquid filler metal,
before being broken up by the ultrasonic
excitation (Ref. 10). In the case of nonultrasonic-assisted brazing of titanium, a stable oxide film grows on the surface of
titanium alloys when heated in air. The
oxide film presents a barrier for important
interactions during the brazing process
and resulted in incomplete wetting at the
titanium interface.
The filler metals mostly used for
brazed titanium are silver-based (Refs.
1115), titanium-based (Refs. 1618), and
aluminum-based filler metals (Refs.
1921). Aluminum-based filler metals
have the potential to braze titanium with
sufficient properties. Their melting temperature ranges substantially below the
beta transus, which make them a strong
competitor to other filler metals. Other
useful characteristics include lower densities and a good metallurgical compatibility with titanium alloys to be brazed,
particularly good wetting and flow in capillary gaps. On the other hand, a lower
shear strength of titanium brazed joints
using aluminum filler metals can be generated by increasing the overlap area in
order to achieve a load-carrying capability
close to that of the base metal (Ref. 22).
The main purpose of this study is to explore and evaluate the preliminary experiments related to brazing commercially
pure titanium (CP Ti) and Cp Ti to stainless steel by using an aluminum-based
filler metal (Al2.5Mg-0.3Cr) in open air
utilizing an ultrasonic-assisted induction
heating system. The focus is hereby on the
interfacial microstructure and strengths of
the joints.

Experimental Work
The base metals used in this work were
2-mm-thick commercially pure titanium
(CP Ti) Grade 2 and 2-mm-thick
austenitic stainless steel AISI 304. The
chemical compositions of the base metals
are presented in Table 1. The stainless
steel plate was cut into 25 25 mm chips,

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 149

Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the ultrasonicassisted brazing apparatus.

was carried out at room temperature, and


the displacement speed was 0.1 mm/s.
Three samples were used to calculate the
average shear strength. After the shear
test, the fracture surfaces were analyzed by
SEM and EDS analyses.

Results and Discussion


The characteristic microstructures of
the base metals are shown in Fig. 3. The
microstructure of the stainless steel is
composed of austenitic equiaxed grains
with annealing twins in the grain interiors.
Inclusions of the size of several micrometers can also be detected, while the microstructure of CP Ti possesses equiaxed
-phase grains.

Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the lap shear test.

Brazing of Titanium/Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr/
Titanium Joint

Figure 4A displays SEM microstructure features of the joint. Obviously a


sound joint was obtained since a homogeneous microstructure without voids or
cracks was observed along the joint. The
titanium showed no change in the microstructure since the brazing temperature
is much lower than the -Ti transformation temperature. According to the Ti-Al
binary phase diagram (Ref. 23), the solubility of Al in Ti at the brazing temperature is about 8 wt-%. Therefore, the
titanium base metal was enriched by aluminum. The EDX analyses of the titanium
base metal, close to the interfacial-brazed

Table 1 Chemical Composition of Base Metals


Materials

CP Ti
AISI 304

Wt-%
C

Fe

Ti

Cr

Ni

Si

0.02
0.06

0.03
Bal.

Bal.

17.88

8.52

0.31

0.009

0.03

0.01

0.25

Table 2 Chemical Analyses at Areas


Shown in Fig. 4

Table 3 Chemical Analyses at Areas


Shown in Fig. 7

Area Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%)


Ti
Al
Mg
Cr

Area Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%)


Ti
Al
Mg
Cr

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

98.76
99.61
0.37
74.60
61.46
68.70
68.63

1.24
0.39
97.35
21.99
36.58
30.12
29.96

2.17
2.41
1.87
1.18
1.30

0.11

0.09

0.11

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

5.55
6.33
97.09
92.51
69.35
69.97
66.70
61.06

91.36
90.71
2.51
6.24
27.53
26.42
23.75
32.09

2.96
2.85
0.40
1.25
3.04
3.49
9.48
6.83

0.13
0.10

0.08
0.12
0.07
0.02

WELDING JOURNAL 149-s

WELDING RESEARCH

and the titanium plate was cut into 10


10 mm chips, for shear strength testing
and microstructure analyses. Additionally,
the samples were first polished with SiC
papers up to 1000 grit and subsequently
cleaned by an ultrasonic bath using acetone as a solvent, prior to the brazing
process. The filler metal used was a 50 m
thick TiBrazeAl-665A (Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr,
wt-%) designed for brazing thin-walled titanium articles and titanium matrix composites. This filler metal has a liquidus of
650C, which is significantly lower than the
beta transus temperature of CP Ti. The
brazing foils, cleaned in acetone before
brazing, were sandwiched between the
overlapping areas of the base metals.
The ultrasonic-assisted brazing apparatus used in this study is schematically illustrated in Fig. 1. A horn was installed in
the vertical direction, and the test pieces
were mounted into a steel holder. Initially,
the samples were heated up to a temperature 50 K below the solidus temperature
of the filler metal for a dwell time of 5 min,
using a high-frequency induction coil in
air. This step aimed at achieving the thermal equilibrium of the couple. The induction heating system has an output power
of 15 kW and operating frequency of 13
KHz. The sample was then continuously
heated up to 670C with a holding time at
this temperature of 3 min. The specimen
temperature was measured by a K-type
thermocouple, installed to touch a groove
in the sample as close as possible to the
joining interfaces. The horn was kept outside the heating region without preheating
till the temperature of the samples was
reached, and then it was moved manually
to touch the surface of the sample before
it started to work. Ultrasonic vibration
with 120-W power at a frequency of 25
kHz was applied for 6 s and propagated in
a direction perpendicular to brazing surfaces. This duration was recommended to
completely destroy the oxide layer (Ref.
10). The samples were subjected to an
equal pressure of nearly 0.2 MPa, which
was a result of the weight of the horn. The
average heating rate was 2.3 K/s, and the
samples were cooled in air to room temperature after brazing.
Selected samples were cut, mounted,
polished, and etched for microscopic evaluation. A light optical microscope and
scanning electron microscope (SEM),
equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), were used to characterize the joints. A metallographic
examination was carried out on the cross
section. Hardness measurements were
performed with the help of a Vickers hardness testing machine with 25-g load and
25-s impressing time. Additionally, lap
shear tests were performed to evaluate the
bonding strength of the specimen as
schematically illustrated in Fig. 2. The test

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/17/13 10:11 AM Page 150

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 3 Microstructures of base metals. A Stainless steel AISI 304;


B CP titanium.

Fig. 4 SEM microstructure features of the titanium/titanium joint.


A General view of the cross section; B close-up view at the interfacial
area.

Fig. 5 Hardness distribution in the titanium/titanium joint.

Fig. 6 Fracture path of the titanium/titanium joint.

area, contained a considerable amount of


titanium as shown in Fig. 4A, Areas 1 and
2. Table 2 lists the chemical analyses of all
phases at the brazed joint. The brazed
area mainly consists of a solid solution of
aluminum dissolving a few percentages of
magnesium, titanium, and chrome (Area
3). It is worth noting that there was no indication of an oxide layer at the interfacial
area. Ultrasonic vibration disrupted and
flaked off the surface oxides as was explained in detail by Xu et al. (Ref. 10).
The titanium/aluminum-based brazing
interface is planar in nature, and a thin interaction layer was revealed at the interface area as shown in Fig. 4B. The
stoichiometric ratio between Al and Ti of

the layer indicates that it is almost a Ti3Al


phase Area 4. This layer has a maximum thickness of less than 2 m and is
formed discontinuously at the interface.
Owing to the low ductility and toughness
of Ti3Al at room temperature, this phase is
continuously crushed during sample
preparations for metallographic investigations, and hence, scattered to the soft aluminum brazed area. The scattered phase
.can be easily detected in the brazed area
as clearly shown in Fig. 4A, Areas 5 and 6,
and the close-up view in Fig. 4B, Area 7.
Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses
of the scattered Ti3Al reflected more aluminum content since the phase is too thin,
and its aluminum background area was

Table 4 Chemical Analyses at Areas Shown in Fig. 8


Area
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Average Chemical Analyses (at-%)


Ti
70.19
20.19
73.72
1.94
30.19
0.19
0.99
99.53
0.17

Al
22.93
73.98
19.28
83.91
63.98
86.73
80.31
0.47
2.71

150-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Mg
6.00
3.58
3.85
4.91
3.58

0.65

0.20

Cr
0.36
0.67
1.15
1.31
0.67
5.51
3.19

19.20

Fe
0.43
0.32
0.82
7.17
0.32
5.26
13.58

68.73

Ni
0.09
0.06
0.08
0.76
0.06
2.31
1.28

7.77

Si

1.20
1.10

1.20

1.22

measured as well. In spite of the formation


of the hard and brittle Ti3Al phase at the
interfacial brazed area, the presence of
this phase is preferred to as the TiAl phase
since Ti3Al has much better strength and
ductility than TiAl (Ref. 24).
The hardness distribution in the joint is
shown in Fig. 5. The hardness of the
brazed area showed lower values than in
the titanium base metal. Additionally, the
hardness close to the interfacial area in the
titanium side was higher than in the base
metal far from the interface, owing to the
diffusion of aluminum into the base metal.
However, the hardness at the interfacial
area, which is expected to present the
highest values, could not be assessed due
to the very thin interfacial area.
The fracture shear strength was calculated as the failure load, divided by the
overlap area. The achieved average shear
strength of the joints is 64 MPa with a
standard deviation of 2.7 MPa. This result is comparable or a little lower than results from our previous work, related to
brazing titanium in a vacuum, using a silver-based alloy (Ref. 15). The strength of
the joint could be improved by optimizing
the brazing parameters such as the brazing temperature, holding time, and ultrasonic time. Figure 6 shows that the joints
failed mainly at the titanium/aluminumbased filler metal interface owing to the

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 151

formation of the hard and brittle Ti3Al intermetallic compound. The fracture morphology of the joints after the shear test is
presented in Fig. 7A. Chemical analyses of
the corresponding fracture area (Table 3)
showed a high probability of a Ti3Al phase
at the surface of the aluminum-based filler
metal Areas 5 and 6 in Fig. 7B, and the
titanium base metal as well, Areas 7 and 8
in Fig. 7C. This implies that the Ti3Al intermetallic compound is the most harmful
phase in the joint. Aluminum-based filler
metal is shown in the fracture surface by
the Areas 1 and 2, while the titanium base
metal is presented by the Areas 3 and 4.
The fractography of these fracture surfaces basically showed cleavages in addition to tearing regions. The fracture
direction took the same direction as in the
shear test.

Brazing of Titanium/Al-2.5Mg-0.3Cr/
Stainless Steel Joint

(1) The stoichiometric chemical composition of


this phase is Cr10.71 Fe8.68 Al80.61, and it is sometimes called H-CrFeAl.
(2) The stoichiometric chemical composition of
this phase is Cr2Al13 and sometimes called CrAl7
in the literature.

Fig. 7 Fracture morphology of the titanium/titanium joint. A General view of the fracture surface;
B close-up view at the surface of aluminum-based filler; C close-up view at the surface of titanium
base metal.

Fig. 9A and B, respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray analyses at the interfacial


area suggest the presence of the threephase + (Al13Fe4) + (Al) in spite of the
low accuracy of the analyses due to the
minute size of the phases. The three-phase
are shown in Fig. 8C, Area 6 (grey grains
of phase surrounded by black solid solution Al) and Area 7 (Al13Fe4 intermetallic
phase).
Similar to the titanium/titanium joint,
the diffusion of aluminum into the titanium base metal in the titanium/stainless
steel joint was shown in Fig. 8, Area 8. On
the other side of the joints, the solubility
of Al in the austenitic matrix is on the
order of about 2 to 2.5 wt-% Al. Therefore, EDX analyses detected a few percentages of aluminum in the stainless steel
side of the joint Fig. 8, Area 9.
It is to be noted that the size and distribution of intermetallic compounds were
different from the Ti/Ti joint to the
Ti/stainless steel joint. The solubility of Ti
in aluminum at brazing temperature is almost neglected (Ref. 23). Therefore, high

percentages of titanium caused the formation of Ti3Al phase only at the interface
since titanium has limited solubility in
molten aluminum. On the other hand,
iron has a high solubility in molten aluminum and is easily dissolved at the
molten stage (Refs. 29, 30). During cooling, iron has a very low solubility in the
solid state and is therefore present mostly
as a coarse intermetallic phase in the
brazed zone.
The hardness distribution in the joint is
shown in Fig. 10. In contrast to the titanium/titanium joint, the hardness of the
brazed area showed the highest values.
The brazed area close to the stainless steel
side showed the peak hardness in respect
to other areas in the brazed zone. It was
also noted that the stainless steel showed a
higher average hardness than titanium.
The average shear strength of the joints
achieved 46 MPa with a standard deviation
of 3.1 MPa. The strength was lower than
the titanium/titanium joint, since an Al-Fe
intermetallic compound was detected in
the brazed area in addition to Al-Ti. Addi-

Table 5 Chemical Analyses at Areas Shown in Fig. 11


Area
1
2
3
4
5
6

Average Chemical Analyses (at.-%)


Ti
5.98
7.58
11.52
22.52
26.77
31.32

Al
85.69
84.52
75.57
56.55
53.49
61.01

Mg
6.16
3.30
6.91
18.45
16.77
7.55

Cr
0.79
0.59
0.82
0.53
0.78
0.12

Ni
0.25
0.31
0.52

Fe
1.13
3.70
4.66
1.95
2.19

WELDING JOURNAL 151-s

WELDING RESEARCH

Figure 8A displays SEM microstructure features of the joint. It is clear that


the brazed filler metal wets the titanium
and stainless steel base metals well, and no
defects are observed at the interface. The
brazed area is mainly composed of three
zones. The first zone is the interfacial thin
reaction layer at the titanium/aluminumbased filler metal. Energy-dispersive X-ray
analyses of this layer showed that it is the
Ti-Al intermetallic phase, either a Ti3Al or
an Al3Ti or a mix of them Fig. 8B,
Areas 13. Table 4 lists the chemical analyses of areas shown in Fig. 8. It is difficult to
exactly identify the content of this phase
since it is very thin and fragmented at the
interface. The second zone is close to the
previous interaction layer and basically
consists of aluminum-based matrix (Area
4) with fragments of Ti-Al intermetallic
phases (Area 5) separated from the interfacial area similar to the titanium/Al2.5Mg-0.3Cr/titanium joint. The third
zone is the one close to the stainless
steel/aluminum-based filler metal. In this
area, the solubility of iron into the aluminum is almost zero, which results in a
very early interfacial phase formation
when iron is dissolved into aluminum. Iron
and chromium diffusion from the stainless
steel side constitute several phases with
the aluminum-based filler metal. The
isothermal section in the Al-Fe-Cr ternary
phase diagram at 600C and the partial
isothermal section at the aluminum-rich
corner (more than 75 at.-% Al) confirm
the existence of three-phase(1) +(2) +
(Al) and + (Al13Fe4) + (Al) (2528)

Elrefaey 5-13_Layout 1 4/16/13 3:07 PM Page 152

Fig. 8 SEM microstructure features of the titanium/stainless steel joint. A General view of the cross
section; B close-up view at the titanium/aluminum-based filler metal interfacial area; C close-up
view at the stainless steel/aluminum-based filler metal interfacial area.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 9 A Isothermal section in the Al-Fe-Cr ternary phase diagram at 600C; B the partial isothermal section at the aluminum-rich corner.

tionally, extra internal stresses are expected in this joint compared with the similar titanium joint. Surprisingly, Fig. 11
shows the joints failed mainly at the titanium/aluminum-based filler metal interface in spite of the thinner intermetallic
compound of this area, compared with the
area close to the stainless steel/aluminumbased filler metal, which showed thick and
different intermetallic compounds.
Fracture surface, corresponding to the
previous fracture pass, is shown in Fig.
12A and C for the stainless steel and titanium sides, respectively. Chemical analyses of different areas at the fracture
surface generally showed high aluminum
content in the stainless steel side (Table 5,
Areas 13). Meanwhile, at the titanium
side, the content of titanium increased significantly (Areas 46). The stoichiometric
composition of different areas did not confirm the occurrence of any Al-Ti intermetallic compound at the fracture surface
in contrast to the titanium/titanium joint.
152-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Figure 12B and D showed enlarged images of the stainless steel and titanium
sides, respectively. The microscope fractography of these fracture surfaces basically showed cleavage morphologies in
both sides of the joint with more tearing
regions in the stainless steel side of the
fracture and more flat areas and shearing
directions in the titanium side.

Conclusions
Ultrasonic-assisted brazing experiments of CP titanium to itself and to AISI
304 stainless steel were conducted using
an aluminum-based filler metal. The joints
were successfully brazed without voids,
cracks, or surface oxides disturbing the
wetting of the joint. The relationship between the mechanical properties of the
joints and the microstructure of the brazed
layers was examined. The results obtained
can be summarized as follows:
1) For the titanium/titanium joint, the

brazed area mainly consisted of solid solution aluminum with a Ti3Al intermetallic compound at the interfacial area.
During shear tests, the crack pass propagated at this intermetallic compound has
almost no ductility to withstand thermal
stresses. The average shear strength of
the joints was 64 MPa.
2) For the titanium/stainless steel
joint, Ti-Al intermetallic compounds
were formed at the titanium/aluminumbased filler metal interfacial area. Meanwhile, three-phase + (Al13Fe4) + (Al)
were formed at the stainless steel/aluminum-based filler metal interfacial area.
In spite of the high hardness of this area
in respect to the titanium/aluminumbased filler metal interfacial area, the
crack pass during shear tests was close to
the Ti-Al intermetallic compound. The
average shear strength of the joints was
46 MPa.
References
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Al4Cu1Mg. Ultrason Sonochemistry 18(5):
10621067.

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12. Chan, H. Y., Liaw, D. W., and Shiue, R.


K. 2004. Microstructural evolution of brazing
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14. Liaw, D. W., and Shiue, R. K. 2005. Brazing of Ti-6Al-4V and niobium using three silver-based alloys. Metallurgical and Materials
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Fig. 11 Fracture path of the titanium/stainless steel joint.

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 10 Hardness distribution in the titanium/stainless steel joint.

Fig. 12 Fracture morphology of the titanium/stainless steel joint. A General view of the fracture surface at the stainless steel side; B enlarged view at the fracture surface at the stainless steel side; C
general view of the fracture surface at the titanium side; D enlarged view at the fracture surface at the
titanium side.

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27. Cornish, L., Saltykov, P., Cacciamani, G.,


and Velikanova, T. 2003. Al-Cr (Aluminum
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28. Audier, M., Durand-Charre, M., Laclau,
E., and Klein, H. 1995. Phase equilibria in the
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29. Dybkov, V. I. 1990. Interaction of 18Crl0Ni stainless steel with liquid aluminum. Journal of Material Science 25: 3615 to 3633.
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WELDING JOURNAL 153-s

Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:55 PM Page 154

Dynamic Control of the GTAW Process


Using a Human Welder Response Model
A model was implemented to adjust the welding current in response to the
characteristic parameters of the 3D weld pool surface to maintain consistent,
complete joint penetration in GTAW
BY W. J. ZHANG AND Y. M. ZHANG

ABSTRACT

WELDING RESEARCH

In the modern welding industry where automated welding tends to be the


mainstream, manual welding is still not replaceable when human experience and
skills are critical to produce quality welds. Yet the mechanization and transformation of a human welders intelligence into robotic welding have not been explored. In our previous study to understand a human welders behavior, the
welders adjustments on welding current were modeled as a response to characteristic parameters of the three-dimensional weld pool surface. In this work, the
response model is implemented to feedback control the gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) process to maintain consistent, complete joint penetration. Experiments
were designed to start welding using different welding conditions (arc length,
welding speed, and root opening) along with initial current. After the initial openloop control period, the welding current is adjusted by the controller that uses the
welders response model to determine how to adjust the welding current based
on the measured weld pool surface characteristic parameters. The resultant current waveform and its backside weld bead width were recorded/measured and analyzed. It was found that the human welder response model can adjust the current appropriately to control the welding process to a desired penetration level
despite the difference in the welding conditions and initial current. The desired
backside width of the weld bead, 5.2 mm, was produced with a 0.4 mm variation
successfully in all experiments despite their diverse welding conditions and initial
current.

Introduction
Manual gas tungsten arc welding
(GTAW) is thought by many as an operation that requires the highest skills, yet is
commonly used in the industry, especially
for applications requiring assured weld
quality. A human welder can hear the
sounds of the arc, sense the reactive forces
from the torch, and observe the weld pool
surfaces. Using such feedback information, a welder can appraise the welding
process with respect to the desired state,
then intelligently adjust the welding parameters (e.g., current, welding speed, arc
length), and maintain appropriate torch
orientation and distance in an effort to
W. J. ZHANG and Y. M. ZHANG
(ymzhang@engr.uky.edu) are with the Institute
for Sustainable Manufacturing and Department
of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.

154-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

control the desired weld state. Because of


their experience-based behavior in response to the information they sense,
human welders may be preferred over
mechanized welding control systems in
certain applications.
Although welders experience and
skills are crucial to producing quality
welds, human welders have limitations.
Critical welding operations require
welders concentrate consistently to react

KEYWORDS
Human Welder Response
Joint Penetration Control
Intelligent Welding and
Control
Weld Pool Surface
Complete Joint Penetration
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
(GTAW)

rapidly and accurately. Inconsistent concentration, fatigue, and stress build up


such that welders capabilities degrade
during daily operations. Moreover, experience and skills needed for critical operations typically require years to develop
while the manufacturing industry is experiencing an insufficient number of skilled
welders for a long time (Ref. 1).
The mechanism of welders experience-based behavior, i.e., how welders respond to the information they acquire
from their sensory system, should be explored and utilized to develop intelligent
robotic welding systems that combine intelligence and physical capabilities for the
next generation of manufacturing. Exploring the mechanism may also be utilized to
understand why less skilled welders are
not performing as well as skilled welders
and help train welders faster to help resolve the skilled welder shortage issue the
manufacturing industry is facing (Ref. 2).
However, developing a model of the
welders experience-based behavior and
adapting it as a controller in automated
welding is so far a challenging task. Numerous studies have been conducted with
different sensing techniques mimicking
welders sensing capability to the weld
pool. Various types of information about
the weld pool have been extracted and interpreted to describe the state of the welding process (Refs. 39).
Although successes in monitoring the
weld pool continue to be made in the academic community, the intelligent behavior
of a human welder has not yet been successfully transferred to automated welding. This is because welders, in the role of
human controller in the welding process,
make decisions primarily based on past
learned experiences, which might not involve a fundamental understanding of the
laws of physics. Also, a skilled welder assesses and controls a welding process
using a humanistic approach where the
feedback sensory information acquired by

the welder is imprecise and can only reflect partial truths about the instant status
of the weld process. An automated welding control system requires both mechanistic methods for the welding phenomena that are physically well understood
and mathematically feasible for both sensors and control algorithms.
The theory of modeling for the human
controller dynamics has been extensively
studied since the 1940s. Great progress
was achieved in the 1960s and 1970s (Ref.
10), such as linear crossover model (Ref.
11) and the optimal control model (Ref.
12). The physical nature of a human operator indicates that the human controller is
naturally dynamic, stochastic, nonlinear,
and time varying. In this sense, nonlinear
methods were introduced to model the
human action neural networks, and
neuro-fuzzy or adaptive models (Refs.
1317).
Although nonlinear methods typically
improve the prediction performance to
some extent, it is still very appealing to use
linear models due to their convenience for
analysis and design. Instead of taking real
industrial processes, most of the literature
in this area took certain benchmarks as
control objects, such as the pendulum, joystick, etc. Besides, those developed models tend to be too complex to understand
and difficult to apply to the practical control systems.
In our first study on human welder responses (Refs. 18, 19), dynamic models of
a novice human welders behavior were
developed. The studied behavior of the
welder is focused on the adjustment of
welding current in response to the observed three-dimensional (3D) weld pool
surface during the complete-joint-penetration process. The weld pool geometry is
used as the sensory feedback information
since it is believed to provide valuable insights into the welding process state.
Important information such as weld
defects and penetration are contained in
the surface deformation of the weld pool
in the GTAW process (Refs. 20, 21). The

Fig. 1 Demonstration of a manual control system of the GTAW process. It is not a typical manual
GTAW process. The human welder only adjusts the welding current based on his observation of the 3D
weld pool surface. The pipe rotates during the experiment while the torch, imaging plane, laser, and camera are stationary.

geometry of the weld pool has been studied (Refs. 2226) as a means of monitoring and controlling the weld joint penetration. A vision-based sensing system has
been developed to simultaneously measure the 3D weld pool surface and record
the responses the human welder made to
the surface. A dynamic model that correlates the welder responses (model outputs) to the characteristic parameters
(model inputs) of the 3D weld pool surface has been established.
This paper is the first of this kind addressing implementation of the human
welder response model as a controller in
the automated GTAW process. In particular, this study focuses on how this model
controls the current to achieve consistent
complete joint penetration under different welding parameters. The backside
weld bead width is used as a measurement

for the penetration state. The effectiveness and robustness of the model-based
control are evaluated and verified in this
paper.
Modeling of the human welder response is briefly reviewed in the next section. In the experimental system and
methods section, a vision-based sensing
system is detailed as well as the experiment method for implementation of the
model. The results of the model-based
control is presented and analyzed in the
human welder response model control
section. The human welder response
model is further improved in the improvement of the human welder response
model section. The robustness of the control using the improved model is then analyzed in the results and analysis of robustness experiments section. The
conclusion is then given.

Table 1 Experimental Parameters


Welding Parameters
Root opening/mm/s
[0, 5]

Arc length/mm
[2, 5]

Welding speed mm/s


1.0

Initial welding current/A


[50, 62]

Argon flow rate/L/min


11.8

Monitoring Parameters
Project angle/deg
35.5

Laser to weld pool distance/mm


24.7

Imaging plane to tungsten axis distance/mm


101

Camera Parameters
Shutter speed/ms
4

Frame rate/fps
30

Camera to imaging plane distance/mm


57.8

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12 oclock without a filler metal. A human


welder observes the weld pool and adjusts
the welding current using an amperage remote control installed on the torch. The
use of the remote controller for the welding current shown in the figure is for
demonstration purposes only. The actual
current remote controller is a thumb turn
knob on the torch. It adjusts the current
setting for the power supply.
Vision-Based Sensing Subsystem

WELDING RESEARCH

D
Fig. 2 Results of image processing and threedimensional reconstruction. A Captured image
using the sensing system; B resultant dots in the
captured image using image processing. The asterisk in the figure is the reference dot matching the
dot at the 10th row and 10th column in the projected laser dot matrix. C Projected dots on the
3D weld pool surface; D interpolated 3D weld
pool surface; E weld pool boundary and the projected dots in oxy plane. The pentagrams are the reflected laser dots, and the stars are the boundary
dots of the weld pool. The blue curve is a fitted 2D
weld pool boundary in literature (Ref. 28).

E
Human Welder Response Model
Principle of Human Welders Behavior

A skilled welder starts a welding


process with initial welding parameters
that are considered optimal based on past
experiences. After observing the weld
pool surface until enough feedback information is perceived, the welder assesses the process and adjusts the welding
parameters accordingly to produce desirable welds. Skilled human welders are believed to make an optimal or nearly optimal control to minimize the error

156-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

between the current and desired states of


the
welding
process.
Ideally,
qualified/skilled welders make similar
welds that meet the requirements because they all possess the ability to sense
the process and make a decision using the
sensed process feedback.
Manual GTAW Experimental System

With the principle of the human


welders behavior, an experimental system
has been developed (Refs. 18, 19) as
shown in Fig. 1. The pipe is rotated and
butt joint welded using DCEN GTAW at

The 3D weld pool surface being observed by the human welder is also simultaneously measured by a vision system.
The system includes the low-power, 20mW illumination laser generator at a
wavelength of 685 nm with variable focus,
a 1919 dot matrix structured light pattern (Lasiris SNF-519X (0.77)-685-20) attached to the head of the laser, an imaging
plane made by a piece of glass attached by
a sheet of paper, and a camera (Point Grey
Flea 3). The laser projects the 19 19 dot
matrix on the melting region. Part of the
dot matrix projected inside the weld pool
is reflected by the specular weld pool surface. Then a reflection pattern of the dot
matrix is intercepted by the imaging plane.
Because of the plasma impact, the surface
of the weld pool is depressed and distorted
in GTAW. Therefore, no matter which
shape (concave or convex) the weld pool
presents, the alignment of the reflected
laser dot matrix is distorted by the deformed specular weld pool surface. The
distortion of the reflected dot matrix is determined by the shape of the threedimensional weld pool surface and contains the 3D geometry information about
the weld pool surface. The camera captures the images of the reflected laser dot
matrix from the imaging plane. A computer connected to the camera processes
the images and reconstructs the 3D weld
pool surface in real time (Ref. 27).
Taking Fig. 2A, an acquired image in the
imaging plane, as an example, the results
of image processing and reconstruction
are shown in Fig. 2BE. The time for the
image capturing, processing, and weld
pool reconstruction is about 30 ms, which
is fast enough for monitoring the weld
pool dynamics in GTAW.
Human Welder Response Model

Having the 3D weld pool surfaces


recorded together with the current adjustment made by the human welder, the
human welder response model establishes
the correlation between the current adjustment and weld pool characteristics parameters, i.e., the length (L), width (W), and
convexity (C) of the 3D weld pool
surface.

Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:55 PM Page 157

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 3 Weld pool boundary and parameters. A 2D boundary; B longitudinal intercepted area.

Table 2 Welding Parameters Used in


Experiments with Different Initial Currents
Welding current/A
Arc length/mm

50, 54
3

Table 3 Welding Parameters for Initial


Current Robustness Experiments
Welding current/A
Arc length/mm

50, 54, 58, 62


3

Table 4 Welding Parameters for Arc Length


Robustness Experiments
Welding current/A
Arc length/mm

Fig. 4 Demonstration of experimental setup. The sensing system for the experiment is identical with that
in Fig. 1. A computer connected to the camera is used for image processing, weld pool reconstruction,
characterization, and to calculate the current output using the human welder response model.

54
2, 3, 4, 5

To define these parameters, the 2D


parametric model of the weld pool shown
in Fig. 3A

x = ay b (1 y ) , (a > 0, 1 b > 0)
r

(1)

is adopted (Ref. 28). This model uses xr =


x/L and yr = y/L. Once this model is obtained, the width of the weld pool is then
calculated
b b b


(2)
w = w L = 2 aL

r
1 + b 1 + b

Figure 3B shows the longitudinal intercepted area of the weld pool in oxy plane.
The convexity is defined as the intercepted
area divided by the length of the weld pool.
Modeling the human welder response
is then to correlate his adjustment Ik as
a function of the characteristic parameters in different instants around instant
k. This can be done using the standard
least squares algorithm. To obtain this
optimal model, F-test (Ref. 31) has also
been used to determine the instant range
that needs to be included in the model
for each of the characteristic parameters.
As a result, the following model was obtained (Refs. 18, 19):

0.4725 I

k 1

+ 0.1366I

= 0.6097L

2.2283L

+ 1.6137 L

1.2675 W

+0.0930 W

0.6088 W

k 3
k 5
k 5

+ 30.3658C
67.6373C

k 4

k 3

k 5

k 2

k 3

+ 1.7667 W

k 4

k 6

+ 19.6357C

+ 18.7761C

k 4

k 6

(3)

where Ikj is the current adjustment at instant kj with a 0.5-s sampling period. It
can be found the human welder adjusts
the current based on the previous current
adjustments and weld pool surfaces. That

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WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 5 Results from experiment with initial current of 50 A. A The current and voltage; B the backside weld bead width; C the backside weld
bead (the unit of x and y axis is pixel).

Fig. 6 Results from experiment with initial current of 54 A. A The current and voltage; B the backside weld bead width; C the backside weld
bead (the unit of x and y axis is pixel).

is, the adjustment on the welding current


by the human welder requires the length,
width, and convexity of the weld pool surface to model adequately. In addition, the
human welder makes the adjustment on
the welding current based also on the previous adjustments he made 1 s ago.

Experimental System and


Methods

Fig. 7 Diagram of control system of the human welder response model with additional low-pass filter.

In this section, the experimental setup


and methods used to implement the
human welder response model-based control are summarized.
Experimental Setup

The configuration of the experimen158-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

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Fig. 8 Current and voltage of the experiments. A Initial current of 50 A; B initial current of 54 A; C initial current of 58 A; D initial current of 62 A.

tal system is shown in Fig. 4. As mentioned in the human welder response


model section on a vision-based sensing
subsystem, having the laser pattern projecting the dot matrix on the weld pool
surface, part of the dot matrix pattern is
specularly reflected from it. Intercepted
by the imaging plane, the reflection pattern is then captured by the camera. A
computer connected to the camera is responsible for processing the captured
image, reconstructing the weld pool surface, and extracting the characteristic parameters. Based on the obtained characteristic parameters of the weld pool
surface, the adjustment needed for the
welding current is calculated by the
human welder response model.
According to the principle of welders behavior briefed previously, a welder starts a
welding performance with an optimal estimation of the welding parameters based on
past experience. To imitate the welders be-

Table 5 Welding Parameters for Root Opening Robustness Experiments


Welding parameters
Root opening/mm
Arc length/mm
Initial current/A

1
0
54

havior, in each experiment of the study, specific welding conditions (welding conditions
and parameters that are not changed/adjusted on purpose in each particular experiment including welding speed, arc length,
etc.) and an initial current are first applied
for the weld pool to grow freely to complete
joint penetration. Then the welding process
is manually switched to control mode, i.e.,
the human welder response model starts to
adjust the current for consistent complete
joint penetration.

Experiments
2
2
3
58

3
[0, 5]
54

Experimental Approach

In a manual welding process, a qualified welder can control the welding


process to obtain a nearly uniform penetration (backside weld bead width) that
he/she desires, even with different welding
conditions. To this end, a number of experiments were conducted with different
welding conditions and initial welding current in this study. At the beginning of each
experiment, the weld pool grows freely.

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WELDING RESEARCH

D
Fig. 9 The backside appearance of the weld bead. A Initial current of 50 Fig. 10 The backside width of weld beads with a different initial current.
A; B initial current of 54 A; C initial current of 58 A; D initial current
of 62 A.

With specific welding conditions and initial current, the welding process is able to
reach to complete joint penetration. Yet,
the dimension of the weld pool at complete joint penetration in each experiment
is expected to be different. Then the experiment is manually switched to control
mode, that is, to apply the human welder
response model to control the process.
Specifically, the model adjusts the welding
current based on the geometry of the 3D
weld pool surface such that the adjusted
welding current controls the process to obtain a desired penetration that is evaluated
by the backside weld bead width. After
each experiment, the width of the obtained backside weld bead is measured to
verify the effectiveness of the human
welder response model-based control.
The experimental parameters used
here are listed in Table 1. The pipe used in
this study is 4-in. nom. stainless T304/304L Schedule 5.
The initial current is in 50, 62 A, the arc
length varies within 2, 5 mm, and the joint
opening changes from 0 to 5 mm. The rotation speed of the pipe, i.e., the welding
speed and up-down motion of the torch
are controlled by the computer to achieve
the required welding speed and arc length.
The effectiveness and robustness of the
human welder response model-based control will be evaluated against those welding parameter variations in this paper.
As mentioned before, a welder esti160-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

mates an initial welding current to start a


manual welding operation. The past experience-based estimation might vary within
a reasonable range. Also, the arc length
maintained by the welder might not always
be the same during manual welding, as
well as the root opening. The welding
speed, on the other hand, does not change
much when controlled by the welder, although it might vary within a small range.
The welding speed is constant for the experiments in this study. The welders behavior under large welding speed variation is the authors future work and
beyond the scope of the first study of this
kind.
As presented in the introduction, the
response model is developed based on the
behavior of a human welder with limited
skills. Given the physical limitation as a
human, the welder might feel stress, fatigue, and lack of concentration in manual
welding. Because of the possible inconsistent welding behavior, the welders response data used to develop the model
cannot represent the prime performance
of the welder. In this sense, the model is
only able to present an average performance of the human welder.
However, the control based on the
human response model should be able to
get rid of the inconsistency, which is a
major issue with manual welding. The
model is expected to either consistently
produce a good weld by adjusting the cur-

rent quickly and accurately to maintain


uniform penetration, or produce an unqualified weld with a same failure pattern.
Therefore, to verify the effectiveness of
the model is to check if it is able to control
the welding process to a comparatively
consistent penetration, i.e., the backside
width of the weld bead under different
welding conditions and initial current can
converge to a constant within a small variation margin.
There are several types of relevant data
in this study. For the process, such data include welding current, arc length, and
welding speed. Since the human welder
response model under this specific study
controls the welding process only by adjusting the welding current, such data are
especially concerned with analyzing the
performance of the control. Second, for
the weld pool surface, the data include all
its characteristic parameters, i.e., the
length, width, and convexity. Studying the
current adjustment and variation in the
characteristic parameters can reveal how
the model controls the welding process. At
last for the weld bead, the backside width
is the major data of interest.
All these data, except the backside
weld bead width, are acquired/recorded in
real time. The backside bead width is
measured with one sample/s interval offline. For example, if the welding speed in
one experiment is 1 mm/s, then the bead
width is measured every 1 mm while it is

Fig. 11 Current and voltage from arc length robustness experiments. A Arc length of 2 mm; B arc length of 3 mm; C arc length of 4 mm; D arc
length of 5 mm.

measured every 1.5 mm if the welding


speed is 1.5 mm/s, etc. In this sense, the
bead width measurement can be matched
with the time scale for other types of data.

Human Welder Response


Model Control
In this section, the results from the experiments with initial current are presented and analyzed. As the first time to
implement the human welder response
model-based control, we focused on how
the model controls the process to consistent complete joint penetration. Major
welding parameters used in the experiments are listed in Table 2; the rest are the
same as in Table 1.
Results from the two experiments, including the current, backside bead appearance, and its width, are presented in
Figs. 5 and 6, respectively.

The data acquisition starts before the


welding process begins. It is found that at
the beginning of the two experiments,
there are about 13-s (shown in Fig. 5A)
and 12-s (shown in Fig. 6A) periods during which the current is 0, and the voltage
is the open-circuit one at approximately
70 V.
The red vertical dash line in Fig. 5A indicates the time instant when the process
is switched to the model-based control
mode, i.e., the human welder response
model is applied to adjust the current
based on the 3D weld pool surface. From
the figure, the control begins at 40 s and
ends at approximately 96 s. The length of
the weld bead obtained in this period can
be easily calculated using the known welding speed. Since the position of the end of
the welding is clearly seen in Fig. 5C, the
position where the welding process begins
to be controlled on the produced weld can

be determined as shown by the red vertical line in the middle of Fig. 5C.
By the start position of the model control, each of the weld beads in the two experiments is divided into two zones as
shown in Figs. 5C and 6C. In zone A, the
backside bead width is determined by the
welding conditions used and initial current. In the first experiment, the initial
current is 50 A. The average width of the
backside bead in this zone, shown in Fig.
5B, is about 1.7 mm. With a greater initial
current (54 A) in the second experiment,
the average width becomes 3.2 mm in zone
A as can be seen in Fig. 6B. In zone B, the
human welder response model starts to
control the process for a desired and consistent penetration. Despite the fluctuation, the average width for the first experiment, shown in Fig. 5B as about 4.8 mm,
and that in the second experiment, shown
in Fig. 6B as about 4.7 mm, are considered
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tem and methods section, the model represents the average performance of a
welder with limited skill. As a result, it
shows in the human welder response
model control section that the model is
not able to adjust the current accurately
enough to reduce the oscillation although
a comparatively consistent penetration is
obtained. It is known that a skilled welder
can avoid the current ripple with smooth
current adjustment. In this sense, to
smooth the models adjustment is to filter
out the high-frequency part of the calculated current adjustment, i.e., to neutralize the dynamics associated with the overreaction in the response model. A simple
method is to adapt a digital low-pass filter
after the model in the control system as
shown in Fig. 7.
The low-pass filter used in this study
can be written in Equation 4.

Ik = Ik1 + (1 )Ik, 0<<1 (4)

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 12 The backside weld beads from arc length robustness experiments. A Arc length of 2 mm;
B arc length of 3 mm; C arc length of 4 mm; D arc length of 5 mm.

the same.
It can be found there are current fluctuations during the control period in both
experiments, shown in Figs. 5A and 6A.
That means the model is able to adjust the
current quickly but not skilled enough to
reduce the current ripples. That leads to
noticeable oscillations of the backside
bead width, which are clearly shown in
Figs. 5B, C and 6B, C. The current fluctuates between 64 and 55 A in the first experiment, and 64 and 54 A in the second.
Correspondingly, the backside bead width
changes from about 5.8 to 3.5 mm in the
first experiment, and 5.2 to 3.7 mm in the
second experiment.
The fluctuation of the current adjusted
by the model is understandable since the
model is developed using the data from
the behavior of a novice welder with limited skills. The reason for using an unskilled welder is that the authors intend to
study and follow the development of
welder skills and responses. It is a common
welding scenario that an unskilled welder
cannot predict the process quickly and accurately so that he/she would frequently
overreact or underreact to the welding
process. A seasoned welder can easily

162-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

avoid the fluctuation by smoothing the behavior on the current adjustment.


Although there are similar current
fluctuations shown in both experiments, it
can be found that the current, controlled
by the model, is settled down within a certain amount of time. This is because the
human welder response model is stable
since all the poles of the model (Equation
3) are inside the unit circle in the Z plane
(Ref. 29). That means the model can control the process to a steady state. This is
understandable that any welder with limited skill should be able to produce a
steady welding process. Difference in the
width of the backside bead in the two experiments in zone A indicates the different characteristic parameters of the 3D
weld pool surface are obtained. Despite
the difference, the welding processes in
the two experiments reach a nearly identical backside bead width (4.8 and 4.7 mm)
after the control of the human welder response model.

Improvement of the Human


Welder Response Model
As discussed in the experimental sys-

where Ik and Ik1 are the filtered current adjustment at time instant k and k1,
respectively, and Ik is the current adjustment calculated by the welder response
model at time instant k. Coefficient controls the frequency bandwidth of the filter.
A greater gives a wider bandwidth. In
this study, is selected to be 0.5.
Since the filter blocks high-frequency
components in the current output, its
function would be pronounced during the
transition period. However, when the current approaches its steady state, the highfrequency components become insignificant. The steady-state value of the current
for a particular experiment is not affected
by the filter. Moreover, since the current
adjustment is smoothed by the filter, the
current ripple is expected to be minimized. The backside weld bead width is
expected to be more consistent. The transiting period also should be reduced significantly. In this sense, adapting a lowpass filter to the human welder response
model makes the model function like a
more skilled welder.

Results and Analysis of


Robustness Experiments
The human weld response modelbased control is now improved simply by
adding a low-pass filter as schematically illustrated in Fig. 7. To confirm its effectiveness in controlling the process to
achieve the desired weld penetration, various experiments were designed and conducted in this section using this improved
system to examine its performance/robustness under different welding conditions and initial welding currents.
In the first subsection, the experiments with different initial current amperages are conducted. The robustness of

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the human welder response model-based


control with respect to the initial current
is analyzed. In the next subsection, the
arc length changes from 2 to 5 mm in the
conducted experiments. The root opening is designed to vary from 0 to 5 mm in
the last subsection.
Robustness with Respect to Initial Current

Experiments with different initial


welding currents are conducted again but
with the improved control system. Since
the purpose is to examine the effectiveness of the improved control, more initial
currents (Table 3) in a greater range are
used to examine the systems robustness
against the initial current used. The results
are shown in Figs. 8 to 10. Figure 8 shows
the current and voltage from these four experiments; the backside weld beads obtained are demonstrated in Fig. 9; and the
measurements of the backside width of
the weld beads are presented in Fig. 10.
Since the initial welding current determines the backside width of weld bead in
zone A, with different initial currents, the
obtained weld beads have different backside widths. Specifically, the backside
bead width in the experiment with the initial current 50 A is 3.2 mm; with greater
initial current (54 A) in the second experiment, the backside width is 3.7 mm; the
backside width obtained in the third experiment (initial current 58 A) and fourth
(initial current 62 A) are 4.7 and 5 mm.
The settling time (set the error margin
5%) (Ref. 30) for the process to achieve the
steady state is in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 s.
For the experiment with an initial current of
62 A, the steady-state current is only about
0.5 A less than the initial current. The transition period is negligible from Fig. 8D. Besides that, the settling times of the other ex-

periments are close to


each other, only with 1
s difference, despite
the difference in the
initial current used. As
discussed in the
D
human welder response model section
under the principle of Fig. 14 Front side of the weld joint before experiment for root opening robustness experiments. A 0 nominal root opening; B 2-mm nominal
human welders be- root opening; C nominal root opening increases from 0 to 5 mm (0.21
havior, a welder would in.); D close review of the wide opening for marked area in C.
start to weld with an
optimally estimated
initial current (initial
welding parameters)
tween the welding current and backside
based on past experiences. A skilled welder
bead width is understandable. There are
might adjust the initial current close to the
two dynamic processes involved, and each
steady-state current that produces a desired
of them has a settling time. First, after the
penetration. The effect from the transition
current settles down reaching its steady
period on the result then can be minimized.
state, the weld pool surface will take an adAn unskilled welder, on the other hand,
ditional transition period to reach the cormight not be able to predict the initial curresponding dimension. The first dynamic
rent close to a current that leads to the deprocess is the transfer from the welding
sired penetration.
current (parameters) to the weld pool surThe transition period for the backside
face. Second, after the 3D weld pool surweld bead is different such that the settling
face (front side) is settled down and
time for the backside bead width differs
reaches its steady state, the 3D weld pool
from that of the welding current. From
surface on the backside that determines
Fig. 8C and D, the initial current is close
the backside bead width will take extra
enough to the steady-state current. Theretime to reach its corresponding steady
fore, the width of the backside bead in
state. The transition period associated
each of the two experiments only increases
with the backside width of weld bead is
about 0.2 mm after the control is applied
longer than the transition time of the
as shown in Fig. 10. The effect from the
welding current.
settling time on the welds produced for
Figure 8 shows the steady-state current
these two experiments is negligible. Howcorresponding to the penetration obever, the settling time for the backside
tained by the human welder response
bead width observed from the experimodel varies from 59.5 to 61.5 A. And the
ments with an initial current of 50 and 54
steady-state width of the obtained weld
A is about 13 and 10 s, respectively. The
beads, shown in Fig. 10, converges within
backside weld beads take a longer time
the range from 5.0 to 5.3 mm in zone B. A
than the welding current to reach the
0.3-mm deviation in the backside bead
steady state.
width is considered acceptable. It is known
The difference in the settling time bethat the weld pool is dynamic and vibratWELDING JOURNAL 163-s

WELDING RESEARCH

Fig. 13 The backside width of weld beads from arc length robustness experiments.

Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:55 PM Page 164

WELDING RESEARCH
ing through the welding process. Even a
constant welding input might cause the
backside bead width varies within a small
range. It is possible that the difference of
the weld pool dimension generated by the
current varying from 59.5 to 61.5 A is unperceivable to the human welder response
model. In this sense, despite the different
backside width obtained at the beginning
of those experiments, because of different
initial current, a consistent penetration
with only a 0.3-mm width variation is
achieved using the model-based control.
Robustness with Respect to Arc Length

Arc length is another variation whose


effect on the control system needs to be
examined. Hence, experiments with different arc lengths are conducted. The initial current, arc length, and welding speed
are listed in Table 4; the rest are the same
as in Table 1. As can be seen from Table 4,
164-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

Fig. 15 Current and voltage from joint opening robustness experiments. A


0 nominal joint opening; B 2-mm nominal joint opening; C nominal joint opening increases from 0 to 5 mm (0.21 in.).

only the arc length


differs in the four
experiments to be
conducted
while
other parameters
are the same. The
resultant current,
backside weld bead,
and backside width
measurements are
presented in Figs.
1113, respectively.
With an increase
in the arc length, the
arc distribution becomes broader, and
the arc energy intensity decreases. The
penetration capability thus reduces. From
Figs. 12 and 13, the width of the four weld
beads in zone A reduces down from 3.7 to
2.5 mm. To obtain a consistent penetration, the model-based control increases
the steady-state current from 61 to 64 A in
the experiments with the arc length changing from 2 to 5 mm. As mentioned in the
results and analysis of robustness experiments section under robustness with respect to initial current, a 2A deviation of
the steady-state current is considered a
reasonable margin for the control of the
human welder response mode. Only a 3A
deviation is obtained here because of the
difference in arc lengths. Therefore, the
arc length does not significantly affect the
value of steady-state current during the
control using the human welder response
model.
It is noticed that the voltage in Fig. 13
increases from 9 to 9.8 V due to the increase in the arc length. A difference of 0.8

V in the arc voltage is observed between 5


and 2 mm arc length. As for the settling
time for the current in the four experiments, it is similar to each other, which is
about 5 s, as can be seen from Fig. 11. The
transition period for the backside width is
also similar to each other, as shown in Fig.
13. The arc length difference does not affect that transition period of the current or
backside width of the weld bead.
From Fig. 13, the backside width of
the weld bead in the four experiments
converges to about 5.2 mm in zone B.
Among the four weld beads, the one with
2 mm arc length reaches the largest
steady-state width (5.4 mm), and the weld
beads with 3 and 4 mm arc length have
the smallest steady-state width, which is
about 5.0 mm. From Figs. 13 and 10, one
can find that a nearly identical backside
width, which is about 5.2 mm with a 0.4mm variation margin is obtained despite
a difference in arc length and initial current. That means the human welder response model is able to control the welding process to achieve a consistent
penetration under different arc length
and initial current. It is reasonable because the model changes the current
based on its previous current adjustments
and the 3D weld pool geometry, as discussed in the human welder response
model heading under the human welder
response model section.
Differences in weld pool dimension
caused by different initial currents or arc
lengths might not be undetectable for the
human welder response model. Therefore, the model is able to maintain a consistent penetration despite the different
arc length and initial current.

Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/17/13 3:52 PM Page 165

Root Opening Robustness

Conclusion
This paper addresses implementing
the human welder response model to adjust the welding current in reply to the
characteristic parameters of the 3D weld

C
Fig. 16 The backside appearance of the weld beads from root opening robustness experiments. A 0
nominal root opening; B 2-mm nominal root opening; C nominal root opening increases from 0 to
5 mm (0.21 in.).

pool surface for maintaining consistent,


complete joint penetration in GTAW.
The effectiveness and robustness of the
human welder response model-based control are verified in the experiments with
different welding conditions and the initial current. The material used in the experiments is stainless steel pipe (4-in.
nom. stainless T-304/304L Schedule 5).
For the initial conditions, the current
varies from 50 to 62 A, arc length is within
[2, 5 mm], and the root opening changes
from 0 to 5 mm.
Under the experimental conditions
used, the following were found:
The human welder response model
can diminish the inconsistent manual
welding performance. The model can control the welding process by adjusting the
current to maintain consistent complete
joint penetration.
The backside width of the weld bead
corresponding to the consistent complete
joint penetration is about 5.2 mm with a
0.4-mm error margin.
The maximum root opening at which
the human welder response model can
produce a consistent complete joint penetration is about 4 mm.
The effectiveness and robustness of the
human welder response model control are
verified against different welding conditions and initial current amperages.
Future studies will focus on modeling
behaviors of skilled welders. The resultant
models may be directly used without lowpass filters to develop control systems for
improved performance. Differences and
similarities with those of the novice welder

will be analyzed and used to help train and


improve less skilled welders.
Acknowledgments
This work is funded by the National Science Foundation under grant CMMI0927707. We wish to thank Yi Lu and
Yukang Liu for their assistance on experiments and graphics, and Lee Kvidahl for his
technical guidance on manual pipe welding.
References
1. Uttrachi, G. D. 2007.Welder shortage requires new thinking. Welding Journal 86(1): 6.
2. Welding shortage fact sheet. American
Welding Society. 2007. http://files.aws.org/pr/
shortagefactsheet.pdf.
3. Richardson, R. W., and Edwards, F. S.
1995. Controlling GT arc length from arc light
emissions. Trends in Welding, Proceedings of the
4th International Conference, pp. 715720.
4. Li, P. J., and Zhang, Y. M. 2011. Precision
sensing of arc length in GTAW based on arc
light spectrum. Journal of Manufacturing and
Science Engineering 123: 6265.
5. Stecker, S. D. 1996. Characterization and
application of weld pool oscillation phenomenon for penetration control of gas tungsten arc
welding. MS thesis. The Ohio State University,
Department of Welding Engineering.
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7. Balfour, C., Smith, J. S., and AlShammaa, A. I. 2006. A novel edge feature correlation algorithm for real-time computer vision-based molten weld pool measurements.

WELDING JOURNAL 165-s

WELDING RESEARCH

Root opening is difficult to be precisely


controlled in production. The effectiveness of the human welder response modelbased control needs to be examined under
varying/different openings. In this subsection, experiments with different root
opening conditions/variations are conducted. The root opening, arc length, and
welding speed are listed in Table 5; the rest
are the same as in Table 1.
There are three experiments. The
nominal/intentional root opening in the
first experiment is 0 mm as shown in Fig.
14A. As demonstrated in Fig. 14B, a 2-mm
root opening is used in the second experiment. In the third experiment, the nominal opening gradually increases from 0 to
about 5 mm as shown in Fig. 14C and D.
The resultant current, backside weld bead,
and their widths are presented in Figs.
1517, respectively.
The steady-state current differs in
these three experiments. The root opening is close to zero in the first experiment.
The welding process is close to those in the
results and analysis of robustness experiments section under robustness with respect to initial current and robustness with
respect to arc length. Therefore, the
steady-state current (63 A) is close to the
resultant steady-state current obtained in
the last two subsections. However, as the
root opening increases, the weld pool surface tends to be more concave, which
means the convexity of the weld pool is
smaller. The current adjustment controlled by the human welder response
model (Equation 3) tends to be smaller accordingly. The penetration capability of
the arc also increases with the opening.
Therefore, less heat input is required to
produce the same penetration as the
opening increases. The steady-state current for the second and third experiments
are reduced to 61.5 and 54 A, respectively.
The obtained backside widths of the weld
beads in these three experiments are
about 5.2, 5.5, and 5.6 mm, which are considered consistent with a reasonably small
variation margin.
It needs to be mentioned that the welding process stops at the position where the
root opening is about 4 mm in the third experiment. The experimental results in experiment 3 only claim that the human
welder response model-based control can
control the welding process to maintain
the consistent penetration for a root
opening 4 mm or smaller.

Zhang and Zhang Supplement May 2013_Layout 1 4/16/13 2:55 PM Page 166

Fig. 17 The backside width of weld beads from root opening robustness experiments.

WELDING RESEARCH

Welding Journal 85(1): 1-s to 8-s.


8. DeLapp, D. R. 2005. Observations of solidification and surface flow on autogenous gas
tungsten arc weld pools. PhD dissertation. Vanderbilt University.
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166-s MAY 2013, VOL. 92

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25. Zheng, B., Wang, H. J., Wang, Q. I., and
Kovacevic, R. 2000. Control for weld penetration in VPPAW of aluminum alloys using the
front weld pool image signal. Welding Journal
79(12): 363-s to 370-s.
26. Balfour, C., Smith, J. S., and AlShammaa, A. I. 2006. A novel edge feature correlation algorithm for real-time computer vision-based molten weld pool measurements.
Welding Journal 85(1): 1-s to 8-s.
27. Song, H. S., and Zhang, Y. M. 2008.
Measurement and analysis of three-dimensional specular gas tungsten arc weld pool surface. Welding Journal 87(4): 85-s to 95-s.
28. Zhang, W. J., Liu, Y. K., and Zhang, Y.
M. 2012. Characterization of three-dimensional weld pool surface in GTAW. Welding Journal 91(7): 195-s to 203-s.
29. Cornelius, T. L. 1996. Digital control systems implementation and computational techniques. Academic Press.
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31. Richard, G. L. 2007. Statistical Concepts:
A Second Course, Third Edition. Routledge
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