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I.

Organization in the Biosphere
a. Biosphere
i. The portion of the Earth in which all living things
exist
b. Since many living things occupy the biosphere, they interact
c. The study of the interactions among organisms and their
environment is called ECOLOGY
d. Studying ecology requires knowledge of
i. ABIOTIC FACTORS (non-living)
ii. BIOTIC FACTORS (living)
e. Most important abiotic factor is LIGHT
i. Source of energy for almost all living things (directly
or indirectly)
f. Temperature, Water, Soil and minerals are all important
abiotic factors

II.

Organization in the Living Environment
a. To make it easier to study organism interactions, you must
group them and label them appropriately
i. Population  all the organisms of a single species in
a given area
ii. Community  all the organisms (populations)
within a given area
iii. Ecosystem  all the communities and the physical
environment

b. Population Dynamics
i. Population numbers always are changing

Parasitism ( + / . Competition in Ecosystems i. Under ideal conditions population numbers are always increasing because the number of births is always greater than the number of deaths iii. Photosynthesis 2. Mutualism ( + / + ) 2. 3 types 1. Commensalism ( + / 0 ) 3. MAXIMUM population is called the CARRYING CAPACITY c. Under real life conditions. Heterotrophs i. Autotrophs vs.ii. Autotrophs  produce own food 1. Heterotrophs  obtain food from other organisms 1. Relationships in which 2 different organisms live in close association with each other to benefit at least one of them ii.) e. Chemosynthesis ii. Herbivore. Decomposer d. Carnivore. Omnivore. growth is limited 1. Symbiotic Relationships i. Habitat .

The role of the species in its ecosystem 2. Food Web 1.1. Particular part of the environment where an organism lives ii. Pyramids of Energy and Biomass . Decomposers  breakdown remains of dead plants and animals. Niche 1. A series of organisms through which food energy is passed ii. recycling materials (saprobes) g. and Decomposers i. Each species occupies its own niche (can’t have more than one) f. Producers. Food Chain and Food Webs i. Consumers  consume organic compounds (heterotrophs) iii. Consumers. Multiple interconnected food chains h. Food Chain 1. Producers  produce organic compounds from inorganic ones (autotrophs) ii.

ii. Carbon and Oxygen Cycle 1. . Nitrogen Cycle 1. ii. iii.i. Water cycle 1. Rule of “10” i. Cycles of Materials i.

Process by which a new community replaces another is called ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION iii. “CLIMAX COMMUNITY” 1. Remains stable until some catastrophic event .j. Maintenance in an Ecosystem i. Ecosystems are always changing ii.

The destruction of natural habitats of other organisms has led to their downfall. which allows it to erode quicker which leads to desertification (formation of desert). and other ecosystems such as wetlands and rainforests. Misuse of pesticides has also contaminated the environment. Destroying one population in an area will have an effect on all the other populations in that area!! d. Urbanization has destroyed countless amounts of farmland. Over-farming and overgrazing has made soil less fertile. c. e. Poor Farming Practices i. Human Population Growth i. When the birth rate and death rate are equal.I. however. iii. Example = lack of food v. Pollution . Most of today’s environmental problems are the result of the dramatic growth of the human population ii. The size of the population the environment can support vii. Carrying capacity vi. Any factor that halts any further growth in population iv. ii. Limiting factor iii. advances in technology have allowed the birth rate to increase dramatically over the death rate. ii. Deals with the relationship between humans and their environment b. the population does not change. Human Ecology a. Disruption of Existing Ecosystems i.

natural gas. Restoring the Environment a. Controlling pollution i. Conserving Natural Resources i. Air pollution 5. Nonrenewable resources 1. RECYCLING iii. metals and minerals 2. Renewable resources 1. Coal. Treating sewage that is dumped into the water b. water. Conserving Soil 1. Noise pollution 2. Land pollution II. Aerosols (CFC’s) a. Types of Pollution 1. Air. Oil Spills 4. sunlight and living things ii.i. Destroy the ozone layer!! 6. oil. Cover crops . Water pollution 3. Adding anything to the environment or affecting the environment in a way that makes it less fit for living things ii. Governing exhaust from automobile emissions ii. soil.

Fertilizers iv. Key to the Future i. Reforestation v. Conserving Wildlife 1. An attempt to preserve animals whose habitats have been destroyed by human actions c. Controlling Pests Biologically i. Pheromones have been used to make more effective insect traps d.a. Protect soil from erosion 2. Conserving Forests 1. release a natural predator of the insect into the area ii. Growing different crops at different times to reduce the consumption of soil nutrients 3. Instead of spraying pesticides. Crop rotation a. People must be well-informed to ensure that the Earth is not damaged in a way that could result in our own demise .