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You are on page 1of 17

No. 8, St. 315, 12151 Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Chapter 6

Unit of Measure

Unit of Energy

Joule (J)

Calorie (Cal)

Kilowatt-hour (kWh)

Energy Balance Equation

Rate of

Rate of

energy

energy

ACCUMULATED

IN

Rate of

energy

OUT

Rate of Rate of

energy energy

PRODUCED CONSUMED

At Steady State

Rate of energy

Rate of energy

IN

OUT

Energy out has two terms; energy wasted in

the conversion and useful energy.

Rate of

energy

IN

Rate of

Rate of

OUT

OUT

Efficiency

Efficiency (%)

100

Energy IN

Example: A coal-fired power plant uses 1000 Mg of coal per day. The

energy value of the coal is 28,000 kJ/kg. The plant produces 2.8106

kWh of electricity each day. What is the efficiency of the power plant?

Solution:

Energy IN = (28,000 kJ/kg) (1000Mg/d) (1000 kg/Mg)

= 28109 kJ/d

44% more volume than a PFR

= 10.1109 kJ/d

10.1109 kJ/d

Efficiency (%)

100 36%

9

28 10 kJ/d

5

Bomb Calorimeter

the temperature of 1g of water 1oC.

Bomb Calorimeter at ITC

Example: A calorimeter holds 4L of water. Ignition of a 10g sample of

of 12.5oC. What is the energy value of this fuel? Ignore the mass of the

bomb.

Solution:

Energy OUT SH O m T

Energy OUT 4.184 J/g.K .V T

Energy OUT 4.184 J/g.K 1 g/mL (4L)(103 mL/L)(12.5 o C)

Energy IN Energy OUT 209 103 J

2

Heat Energy

Heat

Mass of Absolute Temperature

Energy

material

of the material

Heat

Heat

Heat

Heat Heat

energy

ACCUMULATED

IN OUT PRODUCED CONSUMED

At Steady state

Heat Heat

0 energy energy 0 0 Or

IN OUT

9

Example: A coal-fired power plant discharges 3 m3/s of cooling

temperature of 20 oC. What will be the temperature in the river

immediately below the discharge?

Solution:

0 T1Q1 T2Q2 in T3Q3 out 0 0

T3

T1Q1 T2Q2

Q3

80 273K 3 m / s 20 273K 15 m / s

303 K

3

T3

3 15 m3 / s

10

Energy Sources

Renewable Energy

Hydropower from rivers

Hydropower from tidal estuaries

Solar power

Refuse and other waste materials

Wind

Wood and other biomass, such as sugarcane and rice hulls

Nonrenewable Energy

Nuclear power

Coal, peat, and similar materials

Natural gas

Oil

11

Energy Flow in the United States

12

Energy Equivalence

There are two important distinct energy equivalences:

Arithmetic energy equivalence

Conversion energy equivalence

between gasoline (20,000 kJ/kg) and refuse-derived fuel (5,000

kJ/kg)?

Solution:

Arithmetic energy equivalenc e

5,000 kJ/kg refuse

4 kg refuse/1 kg gasoline

13

Solution:

But the processing of refuse to make the fuel also requires energy.

This can be estimated at perhaps 50% of the refuse-derived fuel

energy, so the actual net energy in the refuse is 2,500 kJ/kg.

Therefore,

Conversion energy equivalenc e

2,500 kJ/kg refuse

8 kg refuse/1 kg gasoline

14

Coal-fired Power plant

15

Rate of

energy

ACCUMULATED

IN

OUT

OUT

0 Q0 QU QW

Where,

Q0 = energy flow into the black box

QU = useful energy out of the black box

QW = wasted energy out of the black box

Efficiency

QU

Efficiency (%)

100

QW

16

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