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CoffeeisComplicated

By:EricLaboissonniere

BRISTOL, RI ___ It is the 21st century, and more than 1 billion people have active
Facebook profiles. In that profile, there is a section where one can add their relationship
status. There are a few different options, like single, married, etcetera. But the option
that really sticks out is that the person is in a relationship, but Its complicated. That
status connects with society's dependence on coffee and consumers might want to
consider adding this status to their profile, and here is why.
People love coffee, people spend everyday with coffee, and people often have more than
one coffee a day. The relationship between the coffee and consumer could get
complicated in the near future, which is why the relationship between coffee and the
consumer is just like being in a complicated relationship.
Not many coffee consumers are thinking about why the relationship with their beloved
drink could be so complicated. Meanwhile, around lunchtime on Tuesdays in the
Feinstein College of Arts and Sciences building at Roger Williams University located in
Bristol, Rhode Island, many students scurry out of their 11 a.m. class to head to the
dining hall, their next class, or just to socialize with friends in the hallway.
In the middle of the building on the first floor, there is a little food and beverage station
with everything from pre-made sandwiches, to hot soups; the station even has sushi for
sale. On top of having all of that, they also offer a make-your-own coffee station with
different types of hot coffee dispensers. Those dispensers include French roast decaf,
Mexican organic, Colombian supremo, cocoa mocha twist, French vanilla, hazelnut, and
house bold, which are all of the hot coffees. When asking for an iced coffee, there is one
coffee dispenser that looks like it should hold Poland Springs water, but instead it holds
regular coffee.
At this time of day, even though it is lunchtime, many students seem to be more
interested in getting coffee instead of getting food. Jillian Lynch is one of those students
exiting the class and making her way towards the coffee station. This is a part of her
Tuesday and Thursday routine, and she has a different routine throughout the week
depending on her class schedule, but she always makes time to stop and get her French
vanilla iced coffee.
Jillian pays $2.70 for a coffee with a flavor shot of French vanilla on Tuesdays and
Thursdays. She grabs a plastic cup that is 24 ounces (medium coffee), then she scoops
ice cubes into her cup and it takes up two thirds of the cup. Dispensing the regular java
is next in Jillians coffee making process, followed by adding a tiny squirt of half and
half, and two Equals. This is a part of her everyday routine at school, or she will find the
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time at the dining hall to make coffee after dinner to prepare her for homework later on
in the evening.
I need it (coffee) to be prepared for the day, Lynch said I feel like I am ready to go
when it is in my hand.
By just having the coffee in her hand, Jillian is ready to start her day. She does not even
have to sip the drink until she gets to class, there is something about holding the light
brown beverage that makes Jillian feel determined and alive. Walking through any
college campus, city, or busy area, people are always holding a cup of coffee in their
hand. It does not matter what time of day it is, people genuinely love coffee, Jillian is
one of them.
Jillian is from Danvers, Massachusetts, which is not far from Boston, and Massachusetts
is where coffee giant Dunkin' Donuts originated, but Jillian refuses to drink Dunkin'
Donuts coffee anymore. She really dislikes the taste of the coffee, but Dunkin Donuts is
where she had her first cup of coffee during her junior year of high school. Four out of
five days before school, she would stop at Dunks to get a coffee. Now the only time she
will make a trip to Dunks is when she is craving an iced tea.
She does not really care for many flavorful coffees other than her go-to French vanilla
iced coffee, and usually just sticks with that flavor everyday. Jillian started drinking
coffee because she saw her mom drink coffee, and Jillian thought she would give it a try.
That is the way many people start drinking coffee, they see their brother, sister, or
parents consume the beverage, so they give it a try. Jillian says that not many people her
age were drinking coffee in high school when she was a junior, so she consumed the
beverage a lot more than the average coffee drinker at Danvers High School.
If Jillian were for some reason to miss a day of consuming coffee, she will need an Advil
during that day and maybe even the next day. Jillian will get terrible headaches if she
does not add caffeine of some sort into her daily diet because she is so accustomed to the
drug, this is why she drinks coffee everyday. Coffee is a drug, well the caffeine in the
coffee is a drug, and this is why Jillian sticks to drinking coffee everyday to feed her
addiction like any other addict would for a drug. Jillian does obviously like the taste of
coffee, but she truly drinks it because she needs it to be productive throughout the day.
Jillian drinks coffee two to three times a day, she believes that she is dependent on
coffee, and she is not alone. The average American drinks around 3.2 cups of coffee a
day and the average size of the cup is nine ounces, which is a small cup of coffee. The
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U.S. spends about $40 billion on coffee per year according to the National Coffee
Association. 54 percent of Americans over the age of 18 drink coffee, that is more than
half of the American population. Another statistic to ponder, is that the average worker
spends a little more than $1,000 thousand a year on coffee as of 2012.
Finding a cup of coffee is not hard to do in America because there is either a Dunkin'
Donuts, Starbucks, or McDonalds within a close radius, but Americans also like to drink
their coffee at local coffee shops. Drinking coffee is not just something that people do
ritually everyday, it is an experience and a social event. People escape their lives or get
ready for their days by going to get their favorite cup of java with a pastry or bagel of
some sort before they start their day.
American society imports coffee from many places across the globe, but coffee
production could be in danger as global warming and unpredictable weather starts
having an affect on coffee production, especially in some of the main exporting
countries.
Could one of the societies most dependent beverages become more of luxury than a
necessity?
Jillian does rely on coffee heavily, but she only needs to have the drink in her hand to
feel like she is ready to start her day. So if coffee became far too expensive, she could do
without it, even though she claims to be addicted to the beverage.
Right now, she saves money drinking coffee at school because her meal plan pays for
most of her coffees (still pays for the meal plan), but when she graduates or she is home
for school breaks, she spends her money on food, gas, and coffee. It has become a
necessity to her, like food and water.
Coffee prices around the country seem to be always changing, and people are drinking
their coffee in a variety of ways today. Everyone has a favorite local coffee shop, and
people tend to judge a cup of coffee by the environment they are sitting in and how they
were served by a barista. For Jillian, coffee is a drink that gets her through her day, it is
not something she usually drinks for leisure, while companies like Starbucks preach that
coffee should be a social outing and a relaxing part of the day.
Dunkin' Donuts has more of a vibe that would pertain to Jillian, even though she likes
Starbucks coffee much more than Dunkin Donuts. At Dunkin Donuts, customers tend
to get their coffee and leave, that is the type of mood and tone that the coffee shop has.
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Jillian has no time in her busy college day to enjoy her coffee, that coffee is used to help
her with her schoolwork.
Ever notice that practically every Dunkin' Donuts has a drive-thru window because
people need their coffee and they need it fast, while Starbucks rarely has drive-thrus
because the company wants customers to socialize in their establishment with their
favorite cup of java and maybe buy other products by going inside.
Coffee has become such a staple in American society, but in order to understand how
coffee made its dominance over American culture, one has to trace back to Ethiopia
where the addictive fruit was arguably first discovered.
Coffees Origin
Coffee is a liquid that people drink either hot or cold, but coffee is actually a fruit before
it becomes a liquid. In countries like Brazil, Ethiopia, and Costa Rica there are plants
that almost resemble
Christmas Trees
and these plants are coffee plants. The coffee
cherries that grow on these plants are a dull red color, which does not look like what a
normal cup of coffee looks like.
Coffee has made a big impact throughout the globe, and in America, but it did not
originate in the United States. No one really knows exactly where coffee was first
discovered, but one legend says that coffee was first discovered on the Ethiopian Plateau
by a goat herder named Kaldi, according to the
National Coffee Association
. Kaldi
noticed that his goats were eating curious berries from trees that have been growing in
the Ethiopian Highlands for a long time. The goats were more energetic and did not
want to sleep at night after eating the berries, the goats also seemed more alert. The
berries were then used to make a drink, which kept whoever consumed the drink up for
long hours because of the caffeine from the coffee berries. After Kaldi made the drink for
many locals, the energizing berries began to spread around the globe, but it made its
next stop in the Arabian Peninsula.
Coffee trade began on the peninsula, and coffee was not only enjoyed in homes but the
first coffee shops originated in countries like Persia, Syria, Turkey, and Egypt. These
coffeehouses were popular not just for coffee but for entertainment as well, which is
something that is still around today across the globe. Coffee is not just seen as a drink
today, it is also seen as a social experience that people share with colleagues and friends,
but coffee as a social event has been around for hundreds of years.
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After becoming popular in most parts of the Asian continent, coffee made its way to
Europe, and this is where the beverage received some ridicule at first. The councilmen
for Pope Clemente XVII at the time thought the drink was a
bitter invention of Satan
.
Pope Clemente was asked to try the coffee; after trying the coffee, Pope Clemente
approved of the drink, and coffee started to be loved by many people in Europe. There
were plenty of coffeehouses in the major cities of Europe, and there were over 300 in
London as of the mid-17th century. Coffee was a better alternative to drink in the
morning than other drinks like alcohol. People used to drink
beer soup
in the morning
to wake up, but once coffee became very popular, people drank coffee as well for
breakfast.
One big historical event that changed how coffees future in the world was the Boston
Tea Party. When coffee made its way to the New World, tea was still the drink of choice,
but once King George III of Great Britain put high taxes on tea the colonists revolted.
This event changed the perception of the New World and the people of the New World
wanted nothing to do with tea.
Coffee was then traded internationally from then on out and the drink became very
popular all over the globe. Today, the most consumed drink in the United States is
water, followed by beer, and then milk, tea is still down on the list.
Coffee might be one of the worlds most popular beverages today, and there is a lot of
work, time, and effort that goes into coffee-making, starting with planting the seed.
Coffee comes from different places around the world, primarily in countries that are
close to the equator called the the bean belt, where Arabica beans can grow at high
altitudes, while Robusta beans can grow at higher temperatures. Countries that are most
noted for their coffee production include Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Ethiopia In
the United States, Hawaii is known for their coffee production as well, they produce
Kona coffee. Brazil ranks number one in the world in coffee production, while Colombia
is ranked second, according to the
NCA
. Once they plant the seed, the harvesters will
wait until the cherries are brightly ripe, and once they are, then the harvester will pick
the cherries or a machine will. Once the cherries are picked then, they are processed by
soaking either with a wet method or a dry method. Once they are processed, then they
are milled before they are exported with many different processes before they are
shipped out. The beans are tested and graded during this process. For the 2015-2016
year, the amount of coffee bean bags are forecasted to grow from 6.4 million bags to
152.7 million bags because of some record production for Indonesia and Honduras,
according to an
United States Department of Agriculture report
.
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Brazil is the biggest coffee producing country in the world, it produces 30 percent of the
worlds Arabica and Robusta beans. Coffee is a huge part of the Brazilian economy, and
In 2014, Brazil produced around 2.7 billion kilograms of coffee beans. Brazil is the
global coffee king and it has been the king for over 100 years Coffee plantations cover
about 27,000 square kilometers of Brazil, and these plantations are very vital to the
economy of Brazil and coffee around the world.
Indonesia is another big time coffee producer and exporter, and they have one
intriguing and interesting production method. It is called Kopi Luwak, which is a very
expensive bean. A cat-like animal called a palm civet eats these berries but cannot
process them, so after they digest the cherry, once they poop out the bean, the producers
clean the beans and then make coffee with these beans. Pretty gross to think about, but
it is one of the most expensive coffees in the world, it goes for around $80.00 a cup.
Some people think coffee can taste really bad, imagine actually drinking a coffee where
it comes from cat poop (even though it is supposed to be one of the best tasting coffees
in the world).
Coffee is grown where the altitude is high and temperature is as well, and the the two
most popular type of beans in the world are the Arabica and Robusta, which are grown
in in different places. Arabica beans are more popular than Robusta beans, but there is
less amount of caffeine in Arabica beans.
Arabica beans trace back to the early discovery of coffee in Ethiopia, and today this is
the most common bean that represents 70 percent of coffee production around the
world. These beans are longer than Robusta beans, but the quality of these beans are
better and cost more money to buy. The Arabica beans need certain conditions to grow,
the temperatures must be between 59 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. The Arabica trees are
more expensive to take care of because they need certain elements to be just right so the
coffee beans can grow.
Colombia is known for producing the most Arabica beans in the world, and they can
thank the mythical Juan Valdez for that. Valdez is a fictional character that represents
the hard-working Colombian coffee farmers because coffee is such a big part of
Colombian culture. Valdez is always pictured wearing a straw hat, next to a mule, and
wearing a poncho over his shoulder. The mule that always by his side help Valdez with
his coffee farming by usually moving bags of coffee. Valdez is one of the biggest
celebrities to come out of Colombia along with Shakira, the famous singer, according to
Smithsonian Magazine
.
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Valdez speaks for the coffee farmer and makes the coffee farmers in Colombia and in
other countries feel like they are a hero as well. Not too many professions have a
fictional character to look up to and resemble, Valdezs presence helps coffee so much
that there is even a coffee national park with log flumes, Bumper carts, and more. Coffee
is a lot more than just a drink in Colombia. Valdez is the face for the
National Federation
of Coffee Growers of Colombia
since 1927. This institution was made to protect the lives
of coffee growers and their families. They represent more than 500 thousand families
according to their website.
Arabica beans are the most popular coffee beans in the world, and Robusta beans are
right behind them. Robusta beans represents 30 percent of coffee production around
the globe, and the beans are cheaper to take care of. They are more resistant to disease
and they can grow in hot climates, plus there is more caffeine in Robusta beans that
Arabica. The taste of the beans gives off a bitter and rough taste, while Arabica beans
give off a sweeter taste.
Both of these coffee beans are the most popular around the globe today, and almost any
major coffee company uses one of these two beans. Dunkin Donuts, Starbucks, and
McDonalds all make their coffee using Arabica beans from most of the major Arabica
coffee producers in Latin America and even
Vietnam
, which is where Starbucks gets
some of their Arabica beans from.
Unlike coffee companies like Starbucks, McDonalds, and Dunkin' Donuts, there are
coffee shops and companies that focus on creating specialty coffees. Paul Massard,
former supply chain manager at Honolulu Coffee, one of the only American grown
coffee companies says that coffee still has the bright future, particularly specialty coffee.
Now he is a managing partner at Perla Specialty Roasters, which focus on specialty
coffees. Massard compared the coffee industry to wine, where people now care where
their coffee is from and what kind of coffee it is.
These specialty coffees are becoming more popular in the United States, and these
coffees are taste tested and scored on a scale. Massard explained how coffee needs to be
graded above 80 points to become a specialty coffee, and it is measured on an 100
point scale. These coffees have to be tested in five different ways by meeting brewing
standards, green standards, roasting standards, water standards, and cupping
standards. Once the coffee is tested through all of these standards, the coffee grader or
tester decides how many points the specialty coffee is worth.

Coffee taste testing is another part of the coffee-making process, and there are people
out there who work as full-time coffee taste testers. In the movie Caffeinated, an
woman coffee taste tester from India explains that people do not understand what her
job is. In the United States, according the United States Department of Labor, high paid
coffee tasters make between $16,000 and $25,000 thousand a year, and their primary
job is to taste coffee and decide if the batch is quality or bad.
If a person is drinking coffee, it is probably made with two type of coffee beans, either
Arabica or Robusta, but it is a different story when people start adding flavor to their
coffee because there seems to be an huge variety of flavor shots or swirls across the
world.
A Shot or a Swirl?
Coffee has made a huge impact on business and society in America since the mid 1980s
early 1990s, and one company was a part of the movement, but this company does not
make coffee, they produce coffee extracts, but they are well-known for their coffee milk.
Autocrat Coffee and Extracts has been around since 1895, and the headquarters for the
company is located in Lincoln, Rhode Island. Driving on George Washington Highway
in Lincoln early in morning, a smell of freshly brewed coffee fills up the air. The
company is known for selling extracts. syrups, and coffee flavors to many different big
coffee companies around the country like Starbucks, Dunkin Donuts, and McDonalds.
Dunkin' Donuts coffee is good vanilla ice cream, says Richard Field, former president
of Autocrat. There are plenty of places to find a good cup of coffee in New England, but
Dunkin' Donuts is basically just a mediocre coffee, according to Field. Dunkin' Donuts is
one of the companies that has taken full advantage of flavoring their coffee, the
company even offers multiple flavors in either the form of a swirl or just a flavor shot.
Field dealt with more of the business side at the company from 1992 to 2013. When he
first started in the 1990s as the president of the company, he introduced the idea of
adding flavoring to coffee, but many companies and people thought the idea was
crazy, according to Field. Even when he sold the idea of the frappuccino to Starbucks
in 1993, Starbucks did not even like the idea, but now the drink if very popular across
the country. The coffee flavors today are trying to attract new-drinkers, particularly
young people that have never had coffee before. Not many teenagers are going to enjoy a
regular hot cup of coffee, but they will enjoyed a very flavorful and almost desert-like
coffee, according to Field. People around the country still drink hot black coffee, but 50
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percent of the American population drinks espressos, lattes, cappuccinos, or iced


coffees, according to Espresso Business Solutions.
Flavored coffee has become quite the phenomenon in the United States, and there does
seem to be a flavor that a coffee company will not try. Recently, Dunkin' Donuts added
Oreo and Chips Ahoy
coffee flavoring, which shows that companies are not afraid to try
any type of flavor. During the fall, the company introduces their pumpkin flavors, and
during the winter they introduce flavors like peppermint, and gingerbread. Dunkin'
Donuts has taken advantage of flavoring their coffee by adding so many different
options for their coffee, even in the form of a swirl or shot. According to
dunkindonuts.com
, there are over 15 thousand different ways to order a coffee. Many
different flavors, accompanied by different amounts of sugar, cream, milk, extra
caffeine, or espresso.
Starbucks is also another company that has taken advantage of many different flavors. It
also does not hurt that the most coffee shops in America are located in Seattle,
Washington, according to E-Imports. Starbucks was founded in Seattle in the year 1977.
McDonalds is another big company that has made its way into the coffee industry. The
company introduced McCafe, which aimed to be a bakery/coffee shop in addition to the
full menu of the restaurant. The idea has been a huge success, and the restaurant has
added multiple coffees, flavors, and specialty coffee drinks. McDonalds coffee is also a
lot cheaper than Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts. The company promoted their iced and
hot coffee over the past couple years to be $1.00 for all hot sizes of coffee and even $1.00
for medium iced coffees for a limited time. Making their coffee cheaper than the
competitors has really helped out the company's growth in the coffee industry, and
McDonalds coffee is a rich cup of coffee, according to Field. McDonalds like a lot of
other companies is also going to start packaging their coffee and selling it in
supermarkets. Dunkin' Donuts, Starbucks, and McDonalds are the three biggest
competitors in the coffee industry.
Small coffee shops still have an impact on the coffee industry as well. Independent
coffee shops earned $12 billion in revenue in the 2015. Dunkin' Donuts has made
$783.18 million in revenue, Starbucks has made $18.43 billion in revenue, and
McDonalds has made $26.02 billion in revenue as of September 2015. These companies
obviously do not just make their money on their coffee, particularly McDonalds, but
Dunkin' Donuts and Starbucks make a majority of their money from coffee.

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Dunkin' Donuts tries to attract the blue-collar class that wants their coffee quick and on
the go, while Starbucks tends to attract more of the white-collar class. Starbucks wants
the customer to sit down and enjoy their coffee and relax, which is why many of their
stores offer free Wi-Fi and comfortable seating. McDonalds is a fast-casual restaurant,
which offers the option of either getting their coffee quick or stay to enjoy the coffee with
some actual breakfast options like eggs, hash-browns, and hotcakes to accompany the
coffee.
Now it is hard to say which coffee has the best taste or quality, but Fast Money Trader
Pete Najarian tested all three coffee brands while wearing a blindfold. The brand did not
have an affect on Najarians decison on which was the best coffee, it was purely on taste,
and Najarian drinks about 15 cups of coffee a day, accordding to the
CNBC.com
article.
In the end, he thought that McDonalds had the best cup of coffee, which is very
interesting seeing that McDonalds sell their coffee at the cheapest price compared to
Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts. McDonalds also has not been in the coffee industry for
that long.
These are the three powerhouse coffee companies, which have a major impact on
coffee-drinkers across the globe. There are other coffee shops around the world that
make their living off consumers thinking coffee is a necessity, but the future of coffee
production might not be too bright.

An Unlikely Villain
Coffee production is still trying to keep up with the amount of demand for coffee in the
world, but there might one problem with coffee production in the future. Producing
coffee is a very in-depth process that requires certain things to happen in order to create
quality coffee beans, one of those things is temperature and rainfall. It is no secret that
coffee grows in certain areas of the world because of their climate, but according the
Union of Concerned Scientists
, climate change is already happening and affecting coffee
production around the world. Climate change and global warming is a villain for coffee
production that is hard to defeat.
The UCS says that higher temperatures, drought, and extreme rainfall has made an
affect on production of coffee in many of the major countries, particularly countries that
produce Arabica beans because they require specific conditions to produce. Since
temperature is rising, Arabica beans production could be on the decline in the near
future, India has seen major declines in coffee production from 2002 to 2011, according
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to the UCS. Coffee that people can buy at grocery stores like Folgers and Maxwell House
have increased their prices of coffee by 25 percent in
2011
because climate change is
really affecting the Arabica beans in these coffee producing countries.
A
joint study
came out in April of 2015 that predicted for a major decline in Arabica
bean production by the year 2050. Countries like Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and
Vietnam make up 65 percent of global Arabica bean production, and these countries will
see a huge decline in losing crops unless they change their methods, according to the
study. Pests are more likely to affect these crops with the clear climate change, and
unless countries move some of their coffee producing locations to higher altitudes, than
Arabica bean production could be on the decline.
Coffee farmers are afraid that pests like the coffee berry borer are seen more in warmer
environments, and with the raise in temperature, many crops are vulnerable to other
insects and fungi as well. Climate change will affect coffee beans, coffee farmers, and the
industry in general unless actions are taken to reduce global warming emissions,
according to the Union of Concerned Scientists. The coffee berry borers are small black
beetles, and the female beetles lay their eggs in the coffee cherries. When the eggs hatch
inside the coffee cherry, then they start destroying the beans and the coffee crops lose
many coffee beans because of these tiny, slick black beetles. These insects are the biggest
threat to coffee, along with climate change. According to nationalgeographic.com, these
beetles are the only insects that can handle the drug caffeine. Most other insects cannot
take the bitter of the drug, but these beetles can.
The bug is a problem everywhere now, said Fernando Vega, an entomologist who
studies the coffee killing bug for the USDA and Agricultural Research Service. They
(the bug) are only seen in coffee plants, the beetle only survives on coffee.
The Bug started in Central Africa, and now it is seen in higher elevations, according to
Vega. The only two places that he is uncertain about are China and Nepal, which have
not had any reports about the bug. Vega has started working on a repellent to combat
that bug, the trial run was a success in Hawaii, and now he is going to try out his
repellent at other places.
Another big problem with climate change affecting coffee production is that some
countries that are coffee exporters heavily rely on the coffee industry for their economy.
So countries like,
Nicaragua and Burundi
use coffee for their main source of revenue will
be in big trouble if they do not find alternative ways to produce efficient coffee beans.
Some farmers have already given up because the weather is having such a negative
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impact on the production of coffee beans.


Christian Bunn of Humboldt University
in
Berlin predicts that by the year 2050 that coffee will be more of a luxury to drink.
Other developed countries that are leading coffee exporters like Brazil, Vietnam,
Indonesia, and Colombia are also experiencing Arabica bean shortages. But some less
developed countries rely heavily on coffee for their economy, which is why climate
change is having such an effect on so many different countries economies and families.
Starbucks has already made strides in becoming a more sustainable company by
installing Coffee and Farmer Equality (C.A.F.E) which is striving towards a sustainable
coffee farming future. Starbucks cares about the quality of their coffee, and quality of life
for their coffee farmers, which is why the program is around. Coffee farmers are nervous
about the future of the coffee industry because of the climate change, but Starbucks is
trying to insure a bright future for the industry of coffee production.
Climate change is visibly occurring and affecting coffee production, but companies and
countries are noticing. Now, countries and companies need to start taking action before
a serious decline in coffee production occurs. Taking action has to with reducing
greenhouse gases and carbon dioxide, which is also how the world has to reduce climate
change, but this is not a simple task. Temperatures keep rising, more and more rain
keeps pouring, and it seems to get worse year by year.
Coffee is being affected by climate change, but is coffee affecting the body in a negative
way?
Is Coffee Bad For Your Health?
Caffeine is an obvious drug that attract people to coffee to keep them more alert and
awake, but is coffee an unhealthy drink? Over 50 percent of Americans over the age of
18 drink coffee everyday and the average consumption of coffee per day is 3.2 cups as
stated earlier, according to Espresso Business Solutions. 3.2 cups of coffee per day.
According to the USDA, 3.2 cups of coffee equates to about 303.4 milligrams of caffeine,
so are American becoming unhealthy by drinking this amount of coffee per day?
In past, studies have shown that coffee could lead to higher risk for cardiovascular
disease, but Doctor Rob van Dam, a disease and nutritionist a part of Harvard School of
Public Health says
that coffee is not bad for your health
. He did a study and found that
coffee does not lead to cancer, or cardiovascular disease, this was even the case for
people who drink 48 ounces of coffee a day, which is around six cups of coffee.
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Van Dam even argues that coffee can be good for ones health, if the coffee-drinker is not
going overboard. Heart racing and sleepless nights after drinking coffee during the day
might mean that coffee should not be in ones diet, but if those things are not
happening, then keep drinking. Coffee has even been linked to lower rates of type-2
diabetes, lower cancer risks, and protection against Parkinsons disease. Some research
says that coffee can improve memory, mood and energy levels as well, which proves that
coffee might not be bad for peoples health.
Some people think coffee is bad for ones health because in the past studies showed that
it could be associated with heart disease, but those people that were tested in the past
had other health problems like excess smoking. Coffees benefits outweigh the risks, but
people should still drink coffee in moderation and not overdo it.
Harvard professors and researchers
keeps finding that coffee really has more health
benefits than many other drinks, but they can not put their finger on why. The
antioxidants and chlorogenic acid could be why coffee is healthy, but it is not caffeine
because even people who drink decaf coffee have the same healthy effects.
According to a 2012 study by the New England Journal of Medicine that studied over
400 thousand people between the ages of 50-71, drinking coffee can be associated with a
longer life. Men who drink coffee have a 10 percent chance to outlive men who do not
drink coffee and woman have a 13 percent chance of outliving woman who do not drink
coffee.
Jillian Lynch did not know that there was a study out there that concluded that coffee
could actually make one live longer, this made Jillian relieved and she joked that she
was going to add more coffee to her daily routine. Coffee can make people live longer
according to this study, and some people out there think coffee can be bad for ones
body, but that is a myth.
Coffee can also delay and maybe even prevent Alzheimer's disease, which is just another
one of the benefits of drinking coffee. According to the U.S. National Library of
Medicine, antioxidants delay or prevent some type of cell damage. Chlorogenic acid can
lead to lower blood-sugar levels and weight-loss, and there is plenty of chlorogenic acid
in coffee. These two substances in coffee could be the reason why coffee has visible
health benefits, but many experts are still not completely sure why coffee is good for
ones health.

14

Like stated earlier, coffee is a drug because it has caffeine in it, but coffee has to be one
of drugs with the least amount of negative effects on a person. There are plenty of drugs
out there that have a negative effect on the body and the mind, but coffee is not one of
them unless someone really pushes the envelope by drinking an excessive amount of
caffeine in one sitting. This seems to be a myth amongst society that coffee is known to
be bad for someones health because of sugar,cream, milk, or the flavor shots, but those
are not a necessity to make a cup of coffee. Obviously, a black cup of coffee is the
healthiest, but there is nothing wrong with adding a little cream, milk, or sugar. Flavor
shots from Starbucks have 20 calories per pump, which also is not terrible for ones
health.
In the end, coffee being bad for ones health is not true, but there are obviously ways to
make coffee affect ones body in a negative way. Coffee is a powerhouse drink, but there
are a few serious competitors in the caffeine business with coffee.
Other Sources of the Beloved Drug
Coffee is one of the world's most popular caffeinated drink, but coffee has other caffeine
competitors. Beverages like tea, soda, and energy drinks are other caffeinated beverages
that people drink often. Other than water, tea the most drank beverage in the United
States, but there is not much caffeine in tea, according to the
Tea Association of the
United States Inc
. In 2014, 3.6 billion gallons of tea was consumed by Americans, 84
percent was black tea, which has about 40 milligrams of caffeine, and 15 percent was
green tea, and a small percentage was other different types of tea. Tea is arguably
coffees biggest rival.
Soda is another competitor of coffee because about
one in five Americans
drink one soda
per day as of 2014. Soda is not very healthy for consumers because it has many calories,
sugar, and there is not much nutritional value when one drinks soda.
Soda used to be
the most consumed beverage
in the United States, but as of 2013, water became the
most consumed beverage in the United States.
Energy drinks like
Monster and Red Bull
are the biggest products in the energy drink
market, but they still do not have as much caffeine as Coffee does. A
5-Hour Energy
drink could be considered an energy drink, and that drink has more caffeine than coffee,
but that drink is not a leisure drink.
Energy drinks can be dangerous
if they are
consumed frequently, but most energy drinks do not have the same amount of caffeine
as coffee.
15

Coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks are ways that people can get their dose of caffeine
and alertness, but some people do not want to mess with the drug. Caffeine is a drug,
and some people do not want to be so reliable on one thing. Caffeine is not like other
drugs that come to mind, but it is just as addicting because it is a stimulant. Caffeine can
also give consumers headache withdrawal when they go a day without drinking some
form of caffeine. It can also affect sleeping habit enough to take some time off the
amount that people want to sleep at night. Caffeine is also not a necessity for the body,
which is why some people choose not to try the stimulant.
These drinks besides soda are not very cheap either. The drinks are not ridiculously
priced, but coffee prices for example are on the rise because of the demand for coffee in
the United States, which is why some people do not want to spend a lot of money on the
drink. Coffee prices were forecasted to drop this year, but since many of the coffee
producing countries are struggling with producing, coffee prices have risen, and people
have noticed. It seems that at all local Dunkin Donuts, and Starbucks that the price of
coffee goes up every year, while McDonalds just got into the coffee industry so they
have started off pricing their coffee low.
A National Health and Nutrition Survey
done by the Centers for Disease Control in
2009 and 2010 found that
tap water was the top consumed beverage
, followed by
unsweetened water, then milk, and then ground coffee. Soda was a couple spots behind
coffee, and unsweetened tea was far below soda. So although, tea might be the second
most popular caffeinated drink in the world, coffee is the most consumed caffeinated
beverage as of 2010.
These are all different ways that some people get their dose of caffeine, whether it is
from tea, soda, or energy drinks, there is caffeine in these beverages that give people a
boost. People do tend to meet up for tea, but they do not meet up for soda or an energy
drink, people love to exchange ideas or socialize over coffee.
Meet for Coffee?
There are a few things that people agree to meet for, one of them is for an alcoholic
drink of some sort, one of them is for dinner, and the other is for coffee. On
Starbucks
website, one of the company's values includes Creating a culture of warmth and
belonging, where everyone is welcome. Starbucks pushes the idea that their company
offers much more than just a drink, it offers a place to socialize, have business meetings,
reconnect with friends, or just relax.
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Many local coffee shops are thankful for companies like Starbucks, because they opened
the doors to the idea of coffee being a social event in America, instead of just a drink to
start the day. Think about it, not many places other than coffee shops offer free Wi-Fi
because companies want customers to come back, stay, and order another coffee, food,
or bring more friends next time. Coffee shops serve much more than one purpose, it
could be a place where writers generate ideas, where people read, etcetera. Almost any
profession can meet up at a coffee shop and discuss ideas amongst their co-workers and
that is just what the coffee shops wants people to do.
There was even a coffee shop located in North Carolina named First Date Coffee House,
and the two owners of the shop opened the store because they met on a first date at a
coffee shop. Coffee dates are very common among people, and it is a very popular first
date for couples because it is cheap, and usually does not imply too serious of an outing.
People do not get super jazzed up to go on a coffee date, coffee is a casual drink and a
casual date.
Jillian Lynch does not really use coffee as a social experience, she likes to just get her
coffee and move on with her day. Some people drink coffee because they need it start
their day or move on with their day, like Jillian. Everyone drinks coffee for different
reasons, some people like the taste, the warmth, the caffeine kick, or just because it is
part of their daily routine.
Consuming coffee, or going out for coffee is a part of many peoples daily routine, but
what would these frequent coffee consumers like Jillian do if coffee was raised to a
ridiculously high price? Coffee prices are always fluctuating, but as of late, the prices
seem to be going up annually at local coffee shops and even some of the well-known
coffee giants like Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts (while McDonalds still offers their cup
of joe with flavor as a hot or cold beverage under $1.50).
Paul Hamilton, the manager at McDonalds on Mendon Road in Cumberland, Rhode
Island feels that if the coffee wasnt good, you couldnt sell it. He jokes and says if the
coffee was bad that they would sell it for 25 cents a cup, but according to Hamilton,
McDonalds stresses the importance of coffee quality because they know they are in a
very competitive business.
Even though coffee might not seem to be McDonalds number one cash cow, the
company knows they must make their coffee high quality so people keep coming back
for more. The interesting thing about McDonalds, particularly the one in Cumberland is
that many young people that are still in high school or just out of high school work there.
17

These younger people struggled to make the coffee in an efficiently fast manner, and
even threw out many coffees because they were not made right or they messed up. These
employees were not new either, they were just not great baristas. At places like
Starbucks and some other specially coffee shops, the people that work their treat their
job like a craft and master it.
This is where McDonalds struggles in the coffee industry, they do not have any
employees dedicated to just making coffee or they do not hire employees that are gifted
at making coffee.
Coffee could be raised to a high price in the near future, and coffee already is a tad on
the expensive side, especially if people are drinking more than one coffee a day. If coffee
was raised between $5.00 to $10.00 in the next ten years for an average size coffee,
would people still treat the drink as a necessity or would it be a drink for the wealthy?
If coffee prices were raised over $4.00 for a medium iced coffee, that would be too
much for me Jillian said.
The coffee that Jillian buys at school costs $2.70 for a flavored iced coffee that she
makes herself, which is more than a coffee that is made for customers at a local Dunkin
Donuts. A medium iced coffee at Dunkin' Donuts ranges from around $2.50-$2.65.
Starbucks iced coffee coffee is the most expensive out of all of the big coffee companies,
it is almost $3.00 for a 24 ounce flavored iced coffee. If coffee ever reached a point
where it costed over $4.00 for a 24 ounce cup of iced coffee, then Jillian would give up
the drink, but would other addicts do the same?
Looking at the relationship between coffee prices and the consumer might have
similarities with cigarettes and cigarette smokers (obviously, research has proven that
cigarettes are bad for you, but this is just a comparison). When tobacco companies
raised the prices on cigarettes, it reduced the use of cigarettes, according to
treattobacco.net
. Cigarettes are addicting like coffee because they have the drug
nicotine, and coffee obviously has caffeine. If the coffee prices were raised to a point
where a person has to spend around $15.00 to $20.00 a day on coffee because they have
two a day, then the drink would have to become more of luxury.
Even Jillian knows that coffee prices are rising, and that she would save more money if
she did not have to drink coffee. The relationship between coffee and the consumer is
complicated because the consumer believes that they need coffee to get on with their
day, and Jillian is one of those consumers, but even she realizes that coffee is not
18

something that should be a necessity to her. Jillian understands that food, water, and
other living expenses are more of a necessity if the price of coffee keeps raising.
The prices of coffee do keep rising and there is no denying that, but Robert (Bob) Austin,
owner and founder of Custom House Coffee in Middletown, Rhode Island does not
seemed to be too worried about the future of the coffee industry. Austin is an easy-going
guy, who loves coffee, and loves good coffee, which is why he opened up the coffee
shop in 2002. The coffee shop is a coffee-drinker's dream with an outside patio area,
Wi-Fi, food and pastries, and most of all high quality specialty coffee.
There is an enormous black and beige beast that cannot go unnoticed inside the shop,
and it was made in Idaho. This beast is a coffee roaster, which Austin had installed right
when the business opened. Austin learned how to roast coffee beans by the creator of
this beast, his name is Steve Diedrich, who is owner and manufacturer of Diedrich
Manufacturing, which is where the roasters were made (there is also one roaster in the
back of the coffee shop that is not seen by customers). People can drink their coffee at
this shop, and watch roasters like Austin roast coffee beans while enjoying their coffee,
pastry, or lunch. .
The process takes between 13 and 18 minutes, and after the roasting is done, they will let
the beans sit for about a day before they start using the beans to make coffee. Each bean
and roast could require different temperatures. They shop was out of Honduran coffee
for the day, so they roasted up some Honduran coffee around noon, and once it reached
417 degrees fahrenheit, the beans experienced the first crack, which means that the
beans are almost done. Once they hit the second crack, then they can start to bag
them.
Every coffee that is brewed has all been roasted in the past couple days, said Austin.
Starbucks beans have been around for a month.
Austin knows that it is hard to compete with coffee shops around Adquindick Island and
franchises like Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts, but he believes that the massive roaster
attracts people to come back to his coffee shop. There is another beast on the side of the
roaster, this is the afterburner, which looks like a large generator for when the power
goes out. This machine takes in all the smoke, which is why the roasters can roast coffee
anytime during the day.
Austin is the main coffee-roaster at the shop, but he has other roasters now to help roast
the beans because he cannot be doing everything at one time. Austin was eating a quiche
19

at the coffee bar, while the beans were being roasted. Austin explained that they make a
majority of their money from also selling the coffee beans. They had about 20 or so
different crates that looked like they should be on a pirate ship, but instead they held
pounds and pounds of different types of coffee beans. One of the workers was weighing
out coffee beans with a scale, and pouring them into a grey bag once the scale read one
pound. Custom House Coffee is known for their coffee in the Adquindick area, they
supply businesses like Whole Foods, and even Bristol Bagel with their brand of coffee.
Austin certainly does not seem to be worried about the future of the coffee industry, and
according to him, 300 people make their way through the coffee shop everyday, and
even more than that on the weekends. Austin knows that the prices are going up because
of droughts and the beetle that keeps affecting coffee production, but people love
coffee like Austin and Jillian, which is why he is so positive.
Austins coffee of choice is Americano espresso diluted with water, and he believes his
coffee roaster will last 100 years, even though it needs some duct tape to keep it
together. As long as Custom House Coffee is around, the giant machine will be around
as well.
Future of Coffee
Coffee companies, and coffee farmers know that coffee is still one of the most consumed
drinks in the world, and will always have a bright future, but these farmers know that
global warming will have a huge impact on the future of the industry.
Go to any coffee shop in the United States, and look at all the people buying and
consuming coffee, they probably have no idea that the drink they are consuming could
be more of a luxury than necessity in the near future. Ask someone if they know what
the coffee berry borer beetle is that keeps destroying coffee plants across the world. This
is a beetle that has the name coffee in their title, and there is not many people out
there that no about this bug. Spreading awareness about this bug and climate change in
general is the best way to combat the decline in coffee production, according to Vega.
Spreading the word and trying to reduce ones carbon footprint is what any global
warming expert will say, and these coffee farmers around the world need everyones
help.
Looking around at Dunkin Donuts, Starbucks, and McDonalds one can see many
customers coming in everyday to get their favorite cup of java. They are not thinking
about how much coffee prices will raise in 10 years or about coffee production in
20

general. Think about some of the employees at these places; their jobs could be in
jeopardy in the future because the price of coffee is going up. People might need to cut
this drug out of their lives and find other alternatives that have caffeine.
Like stated earlier, some of the biggest coffee exporting countries in the world are Brazil,
Colombia, and Vietnam. There are many other countries that produce coffee, and these
countries need to keep coffee in their economy because it is one of the most
economically rewarding export. Coffee can only grow in certain areas with certain
temperatures, and if climate keeps changing, then so will the consistency of coffee
production.
In the movie Caffeinated, there was a scene where a movie followed a farm in
Guatemala that relies on this product to make money for their families. In some
countries, the whole family works on the coffee farm and picks the coffee cherries, so
think about all those families out there that would struggle if the climate keeps getting
worse and this beetle keeps destroying so many plants.
The good news is that people have identified that there is a problem, so now people have
to find a solution. Vega said he was working on a repellent that will hopefully show some
promise in stopping the beetle, but getting a grip on rise in temperature is the real
concern. Stopping climate change by being more sustainable is what any expert will tell
people, but it is much easier said than done because the temperatures keep rising and
nothing is stopping that.
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the
Earth's average
temperature has gone up by 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit over the past century, and it is
projected to rise another 0.5 to 8.6 degrees Fahrenheit in a 100 years.
Climate change has become a problem around the world for everyone, many industries,
and the worlds well-being. People need to start caring about their carbon footprint and
educating themselves about climate change, that is how people can start to find some
solutions, through education. Global warming has started to have an affect on many
things around the world, and coffee production is another victim that sometimes gets
overlooked.
People like Jillian drink their coffee everyday because it is a part of their routine and
because it she has developed a need for the drug inside the coffee. If coffee became
extinct or too expensive, there are alternatives out there like teas, soda, energy drinks,
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and even chocolate has some caffeine. The healthiest alternative would be tea, but there
is not that much caffeine in tea.
Jillian said that as long as she has the drink in her hand she feels ready to go, so if coffee
was not an option for her anymore she would find drink iced tea, soda, or energy drinks
to get the caffeine in her system. Jillian has built a relationship with the drink that is
complicated because she will stick with coffee until the drink gets to a price that is far
too high for her liking.
The coffee industry is going to be confusing over the next 10 to 20 years. The study that
came out in April of 2015 predicted that by the year 2050, Arabica bean production will
go down, and the coffee will become a necessity more than a luxury. So if that study
becomes correct, how will the coffee industry look? Many coffee companies now are
trying to offer the best cup of coffee for a low price because popular money-making
coffee giants like Starbucks and Dunkin Donuts offer an expensive cup of coffee. Some
coffee companies offer great deals on coffee today, but in the future will these companies
still stick to their cheap prices and high quality of coffee?
Jillians favorite place to get a cup of java is from the Daily Harvest Cafe, which is in her
hometown of Danvers. She prefers their coffee over any other coffee out there, but the
prices have been going up and up as years go on. She has seen that her local coffee shop
keeps raising the prices, and she is not really happy about it. Once she is out of school,
she knows that coffee will have a big affect on her bank account when she is living on her
own.
As the prices of coffee keep rising, people are going to have to get used to paying more
for their beloved drink, switch to alternative sources of caffeine, or be cut caffeine from
their diet. Looking in the library at Roger William University, one can see more than a
handful of students with coffees, energy drinks, or coffee mugs, but one can also see
many students without any sort of beverage. People can function without caffeine in
their lives, and sometimes caffeine does not have an affect on some people because of
their genes, according to a study done by
Harvard School of Public Health and Brigham
and Womens Hospital researchers. So this study showed that some people are affected
by caffeine more than others. Some people are not affected by caffeine at all and
function throughout the day without a hint of caffeine.
People that do not drink coffee or use any caffeine still function fine without the drug.
Jillian finds it crazy that some people do not consume any caffeine at all.
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Stephanie Jamieson, a senior a Roger Williams University does not drink coffee or
consume any caffeine throughout the day, she has not had coffee at all during her time
at Roger Williams University. She says that her parents do not even drink coffee either,
which is interesting because Jillians mom was the reason that Jillian tried coffee.
Coffee will always have a place in families, in American society, and around the world.
Just because coffee might become more of a luxury than a necessity in the future does
not mean that people should not enjoy the rich cup of java that some coffee shops have
to offer. Some coffee shops take their beverage very seriously and try to make the drink
the cup that changes someone's life or makes someone a coffee drinker.
Coffee drinkers come in all shapes, sizes, and from different cultures and places around
the world. Jillian is one of the many coffee drinkers that has been affected by the rise of
prices. When telling her that workers spend around $1,100 on coffee every year, her
faced turned red because she realized that she spends a lot more than that because she
has more than one coffee a day.
The United States is the world's largest coffee consumer and global consumption is close
to 1.6 billion cups a day, according to Food Industry News, which is crazy to think about.
America and the world loves coffee. Workers drink coffee to start their day, people drink
their coffee while socializing, or people drink coffee and treat it as a dessert. People have
their reasons for drinking this beloved beverage. Coffee has made such an impact on
society in America and around the globe, it is a part of culture around the world, so it is
hard to think about coffee becoming a drink only for the privileged in the future.
Jillian knows that coffee prices are on the rise and are not going down anytime soon. If
the drink became too much money for her, she said she would switch over to another
beverage with caffeine. Other people that are addicted to the drug caffeine would
probably do the same. That is the thing, caffeine like any other drug has users and
people that have withdrawals from the drug are going to want to find the drug in some
form so they can get on with their day. Some people might cut caffeine out of their diet if
prices of coffee get too high, but some people are going to feed the addiction with other
beverages like Jillian.
It seems that there is always a new Dunkin Donuts going up in New England, and drive
thrus are always jam-packed because people need their daily fix, and it is hard to
imagine that this will ever change, but it could. Climate change is not going anywhere,
so the battle between climate change and coffee production will be a battle that coffee
production will not win unless there are changes made to stop global warming.
23

For now, people are drinking their coffee without thinking about the future, and Jillian
is one of them, just enjoying her cup of java not thinking about the future of her
favorites and needed beverage.
Jillian loves coffee, and her relationship with coffee is strong, but there might be a time
where Jillian and coffee have to part ways, and she is prepared to make changes if that
day comes.
(If coffee was not an option anymore) I would still try to get caffeine from other drinks
like soda or energy drinks, and my morning routine would probably switch to iced tea
Jillian said. I do not think I could go a day without caffeine.

24

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