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Name : Ratih Syorayah

NPM : 0902050165
Class : VIII / D
Sociolinguistics
A. The Biggest Language that Used in the World
1. Mandarin
The most widely spoken language on the planet is based in the most
populated country on the planet. Beating second-place English by a 2 to 1
ratio, but dont let that lull you into thinking that Mandarin is easy to learn.
Speaking Mandarin can be really tough, because each word can be pronounced
in four ways (or tones), and a beginner will invariably have trouble
distinguishing one tone from another. But if over a billion people could do it,
so could you. Try saying hello!
To say hello in Mandarin, say Ni hao (Nee HaOW). (Hao is
pronounced as one syllable, but the tone requires that you let your voice drop
midway, and then raise it again at the end.)
Mandarin language is the most language that use in the world. The
total amount of people in China/Tiongkok is 1,4 million peoples. From this
amount, all the people in China must be speak in one language, its Mandarin
language. While, immigrant come from Tionghoa from over the world use
Mandarin in their daily life.

Number of Speakers : about 1,5 billion.

State of Speakers

: China and other Chinese communities around the world

2. English
While English doesnt have the most speakers, it is the official
language of more countries than any other language. Its speakers hail from all
around the world, including New Zealand, the U.S., Australia, England,
Zimbabwe, the Caribbean, Hong Kong, South Africa, and Canada. Wed tell
you more about English, but you probably feel pretty comfortable with the
language already. Lets just move on to the most popular language in the
world. To say hello in English, say Whats up, freak? (watz-UP-freek).
Number of Speakers : about 500 million people
State of Speakers

: Great Britain, USA, South Africa, Antigua & Barbuda,

Australia, Bahama, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam,


Dominika, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Fiji, Philiphines, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana,
Hong Kong, India, Irlandia, Jamaika, Cameroon, Canada, Kenya, Kiribati,
Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Maladewa, Malta, Marshall Kepulauan, Maritius,
Micronesia, Namibia, Nauru, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua Nugini, Rwanda,
Saint Kitts & Nevs, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & Grenada, Samoa, Selandia Baru,
Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu,
Zambia, Zimbabwe. International Organization: United Nation, Europe Union.
3. Hindustani
Hindustani is the primary language of Indias crowded population, and it
encompasses a huge number of dialects (of which the most commonly spoken is
Hindi). While many predict that the population of India will soon surpass that of
China, the prominence of English in India prevents Hindustani from surpassing
the most popular language in the world. If youre interested in learning a little
Hindi, theres a very easy way: rent an Indian movie. The film industry in India is
the most prolific in the world, making thousands of action/romance/musicals
every year. To say hello in Hindustani, say Namaste (Nah-MAH-stay).

Number of Speakers : about 497 Billion


State of Speakers

: India, USA (100.000 jiwa), Mauritius (685.170 jiwa), South Africa

(890.292), Yaman (232.760 jiwa), Uganda (147.000 jiwa), Singapore (5.000 jiwa), New
Zeland (20.000 jiwa), Germany (30.000 jiwa), Fiji, Nepal, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago,
Guyana dan Uni Emirat Arab.

4. Spanish
Aside from all of those kids who take it in high school, Spanish is spoken in just
about every South American and Central American country, not to mention Spain,
Cuba, and the U.S. There is a particular interest in Spanish in the U.S., as many
English words are borrowed from the language, including: tornado, bonanza, patio,
quesadilla, enchilada, and taco grande supreme. To say hello in Spanish, say Hola
(OH-la).
Number of Speakers

: sekitar 400 juta

State of Speakers

: Spain, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic,

Ecuador, El Salvador, Guinea Katulistiwa, Guatemala, Honduras, Kolombia, Kosta


Rika, Kuba, Mexico, Nikaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay,
Venezuela.
5. Russian
Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, and Yakov Smirnoff are among the millions
of Russian speakers out there. Sure, we used to think of them as our Commie
enemies. Now we think of them as our Commie friends. One of the six languages
in the UN, Russian is spoken not only in the Mother Country, but also in Belarus,
Kazakhstan, and the U.S. (to name just a few places). To say hello in Russian,
say Zdravstvuite (ZDRAST-vet-yah).
Number of speakers
: 277 million
State of Speakers
: Rusia, Belarusia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova.

6. Arabic
Arabic, one of the worlds oldest languages, is spoken in the Middle East, with
speakers found in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Jordan,
Lebanon, and Egypt. Furthermore, because Arabic is the language of the Koran,

millions of Moslems in other countries speak Arabic as well. So many people have
a working knowledge of Arabic, in fact, that in 1974 it was made the sixth official
language of the United Nations. To say hello in Arabic, say; Assalammualaikum
Wr Wb.
Number of Speakers
State of Speakers

: 246 million people


: Arab Saudi, Aljazair, Bahrain, Chad, Komoro,

Djibouti, Mesir, Eritrea, Irak, Israel, Yordania, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Maroko,
Niger, Oman, Palestina, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Uni Emirat Arab,
Sahara Barat, Yaman, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali.
7. Bengali
In Bangladesh, a country of 120+ million people, just about everybody speaks
Bengali. And because Bangladesh is virtually surrounded by India (where the
population is growing so fast, just breathing the air can get you pregnant), the
number of Bengali speakers in the world is much higher than most people would
expect. To say hello in Bengali, say Ei Je (EYE-jay).
Number of Speakers : 230 million people
State of Speakers
: Bangladesh, India
8. Portuguese
Think of Portuguese as the little language that could. In the 12th Century,
Portugal won its independence from Spain and expanded all over the world with
the help of its famous explorers like Vasco da Gama and Prince Henry the
Navigator. (Good thing Henry became a navigator . . . could you imagine if a guy
named Prince Henry the Navigator became a florist?) Because Portugal got in
so early on the exploring game, the language established itself all over the world,
especially in Brazil (where its the national language), Macau, Angola, Venezuela,
and Mozambique. To say hello in Portuguese, say Bom dia (bohn DEE-ah).
Number of Speakers: 191 million. State of Speakers: Portugal, Brazil, Angola,
Cape Verde, Timor Timur, Guinea-Bissau, Makau, Mozambique, So Tom e
Prncipe.
9. Malay-Indonesian
Malay-Indonesian is spoken surprise in Malaysia and Indonesia. Actually,
we kind a fudged the numbers on this one because there are many dialects of
Malay, the most popular of which is Indonesian. But theyre all pretty much based
on the same root language, which makes it the ninth most-spoken in the world.
Indonesia is a fascinating place; a nation made up of over 13,000 islands it is the
sixth most populated country in the world. Malaysia borders on two of the larger

parts of Indonesia (including the island of Borneo), and is mostly known for its
capital city of Kuala Lumpur. Number of speakers: 159 million.
10. French
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the
Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the
provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick (Acadia region) in Canada, the U.S.
state of Maine, the Acadiana region of the U.S. state of Louisiana, and by various
communities elsewhere. Other speakers of French, who often speak it as a second
language, are distributed throughout many parts of the world, the largest numbers
of whom reside in Francophone Africa. In Africa, French is most commonly
spoken in Gabon (where 80% report fluency),Mauritius (78%), Algeria (75%),
Senegal and Cte d'Ivoire (70%). French is estimated as having 110 million native
speakers and 190 million more second language speakers
French is a descendant of the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, as
are languages such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, Lombard, Catalan,
Sicilian and Sardinian. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'ollanguages
historically spoken in northern France and in Belgium, which French has largely
supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders.
Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous Frenchbased creole languages, most notably Haitian.
French is an official language in 29 countries, most of which form la
francophonie (in French), the community of French-speaking countries. It is an
official language of all United Nations agencies and a large number of
international organizations. According to France's Ministry of Foreign and
European Affairs, 77 million in Europe speak French natively. Outside of France,
the highest numbers of French speakers are found in Belgium (45% of the
population), Switzerland (20% of the population) and Luxembourg. In 2013, the
Ministry identified French as the second most spoken language in Europe, after
German and before English. 20 % of non-Francophone Europeans know how to
speak French, totaling roughly 145.6 million people in Europe alone.[8] As a result
of extensive colonial ambitions of France and Belgium (at that time governed by a
French-speaking elite), between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was
introduced to colonies in the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, the Levant, Southeast
Asia, and the Caribbean.

According to a demographic projection led by the Universit Laval and the


Rseau Dmographie de l'Agence universitaire de la francophonie, French
speakers will number approximately 500 million people in 2025 and 650 million
people, or approximately 7% of the world's population by 2050. State of
Speakers: France, Monaco, Kanada, Swiss, Belgia, Luxemburg, Benin, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Kamerun, Afrika Tengah, Chad, Komoro, Kongo/Zaire, Pantai
Gading, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea Katulistiwa, Gabon, Guernsey, Madagaskar,
Mali, Mauritius, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Haiti, Lebanon,
Kaledonia Baru, Vanuatu. Polynesia, Martinique, Guadalupe. To say hello in
France: "Bonjour" (bone-JOOR).
B. Languages on the Verge of Extinction
1. Amharic Among the Beta Israel
While not officially an endangered language on the UNESCO list, the
Amharic tongue may eventually disappear among the Ethiopian Jews who
brought it with them from their home country to Israel in the latter part of the
20th century. The Beta Israel lived as an isolated group of Jews in Ethiopia
and had no contact with other Jews in modern times until the 1860s.
The group has several different stories of their history. Some say
they're descendants of a son of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, while
others say they're descendants of the Tribe of Dan that left ancient Israel to
avoid civil war. Whatever the truth is, the nation of Israel accepted the Beta
Israel as Jews in 1975 and began to allow them to immigrate to Israel. The
Beta Israel likely started out speaking Cushite or Agaw language, but later
adopted Amharic and Tigrinya, which are Semitic languages. But since the
immigration to Israel, more and more of them are speaking Hebrew, and some
of the Beta Israel fear they will lose their Amharic.
2. Chinese Languages
Sources vary, but most agree that there are more than
200 spoken languages in the world's most populous country.
However, according to UNESCO, more than half of these
languages are at risk of extinction within the next 100 years.
Most of these languages are in southeastern China, along the
border with Myanmar and Thailand. These languages include
Chintaw, with fewer than 30 speakers, and Laji, with about
250. Some northern languages are also endangered, including

several Manchurian dialects. The Endangered Language Fund


is working on a project to document the grammar of Zijun
Samadu, a Tibeto-Surman language. Language is a highly
politicized topic in China. For instance, the languages of Tibet
have all but disappeared since the Chinese took over that
region and forced the Dalai Lama to flee in the mid-20th
century.
3. African Languages
There are an estimated 1,500 African languages, and
5,000 or fewer people speak about a quarter of them.
Hundreds of African languages are at risk of becoming extinct
as our modern world encroaches on the native villages. The
Endangered Language Fund is sponsoring a project among the
Suba people of Kenya to preserve the Olusuba language that's
disappearing. Other endangered languages include Gabon's
Kaande, Ghana's Animere and the !Kung language of the
Kalahari. But not all endangered languages are native to the
people of an area. Namibian Black German, a pidgin form of
German developed by the Africans who served German
masters in colonial times, is also in danger of becoming
extinct of the approximately 1,500 languages spoken in Africa,
hundreds are in danger of becoming extinct because they're
not passed on to future generations.

4. Russian and Siberian Languages


Political strife has played a huge role in the
endangerment of the Os language of central Siberia. The
Soviet Union dropped the Os people from the list of distinct
ethnic groups in 1959, and it was not until 1999 that the

government reinstated them. During that time, the people


began to lose the Os -- also called Middle Chulym -- language,
which is a Turkish speech.
The Living Tongues Institute is conducting a huge project
to preserve the Os language before the last speakers die.
Working together with local people, they've recorded many
hours of speech and also put together an alphabet book for
children. UNESCO considers more than 130 languages in the
Russian Federation endangered, including many dialects of the
Tatars, and the Karelian dialects common along the border
with Finland and Poland.
5. Pacific Island Languages
Hundreds of the languages once common on the Pacific
islands are now endangered due to the colonization of those
islands by larger nations. In the nation of Papua New Guinea,
196 of the more than 850 recognized languages are
considered extinct or endangered by UNESCO. Only 49 people
still speak Tench, for instance. Fifteen languages on the
Philippines are in danger of becoming extinct. In the United
States, only 1,000 people speak the Hawaiian language. The
native tongue of Guam and the Northern Marianas, Chamorro,
is also considered vulnerable. More than 15 languages of the
Solomon Islands are in jeopardy, and several are already
extinct.
New Zealand established the Maori Language
Commission in 1987 with the goal of promoting the use of
Maori as a living language. Maori is now an official language
and is allowed in court testimony.

6. Japan
The loss of the Ainu language on Japan's island of
Hokkaido is another example of how a more dominant culture
has imposed its language on another. The Ainu, who may be
Japan's most ancient people, were, for about the last 300
years, the object of prejudice from the Japanese government.
The Japanese language was imposed on them, and now, even
though there are about 30,000 Ainu people, the number of
speakers of their native language is estimated to be between
15 and 40. Ainu activists and folklorists are working to keep
the language alive. In addition to Ainu, UNESCO's language
project lists seven other Japanese languages as endangered,
including Okinawan and Yaeyama.
7. Indian Tribal Languages
Although Hindi is the official language there, with
English as a second language, India's more than one billion
people speak thousands of different tribal languages. Many of
these languages are endangered because children are
required to learn and speak standard Hindi in the classroom.
Most Indian students learn English as well. The emphasis on
these two languages has led to the demise and endangerment
of countless tribal tongues throughout the country.
UNESCO counts 196 Indian languages as in decline or
already extinct. The organization lists the Sora languages,
with 250,000 speakers, as vulnerable, but considers
languages such as Sirmaudi on the verge of extinction.
Another endangered tongue, Ruga, of southern India, has only
100 living speakers. Linguists are working to document these
languages before they're lost, and the Living Tongues Institute
is compiling a digital archive of the Munda languages of
central and eastern India. Munda languages are among the
world's least known, according to UNESCO.

8. European Languages
The so-called "Celtic Tiger" economic boom of the late
20th and early 21st centuries may have saved the Irish
language from extinction. Called "Irish" in Ireland and "Gaelic"
elsewhere, this language was in danger of dying out because
many Irish, after centuries of English rule, identified more with
England than with their native isle. That changed as Ireland
became an economic hot spot. Tourism boomed, and suddenly
it became chic to speak the mother tongue. Still, Irish has a
long way to go. While schools teach it as a mandatory subject,
the language is spoken in few homes.
The Basque language of northern Spain and southern
France is also struggling, but it's in far better shape than it
was a few decades ago. A strong Basque nationalist
movement in Spain has kept the number of speakers steady,
but UNESCO considers Basque to be in grave danger in
France. While Irish and Basque are success stories, other
European languages are not faring so well. The Saami
languages, spoken by a few hundred people in Scandinavia,
are endangered, and Vilamovian, a language of the
Wilamowice village of southern Poland, has only about 70
speakers remaining.
9. South American Languages
The status of indigenous languages in Brazil is an
outstanding example of the fact that most of the world's
languages are spoken by just a fraction of the population.
Brazil's indigenous people make up about two-tenths of a
percent of the country's population, yet they speak 170
different languages -- every one of them in danger of
extinction.

The languages of indigenous people of other South


American countries, such as Ache, spoken by a group in
Paraguay, and Leco, with only 20 remaining speakers in
Bolivia, are also in grave peril. South American governments
have done much in recent years to protect the indigenous
tongues, including granting native people rights over their
land, societies and languages. The governments are also
paying special attention to speakers who have moved away
from their native territories and now live in urban
environments.
10.

North American Languages


The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural

Organization (UNESCO) estimates that more than 115


languages have disappeared from the United States since the
time of European colonization, and 53 of those languages
have become extinct since the middle of the 20th century.
Much of this decline in Native American languages can be
attributed to boarding schools that punished the young
students for speaking their native tongues. Endangered
languages in the United States include Arapaho, which has
fewer than 1,000 native speakers, all living in Wyoming, and
the Yuchi language of Oklahoma, which may have as few as
five speakers left.
In Canada, 88 languages are endangered or already
extinct, including Lakota, which is spoken in only one
community, and Oneida, an eastern language, now spoken in
three communities. More than 140 languages are extinct or
endangered in Mexico and Central America, including Ixil,
spoken by about 60 people in Guatemala and southern
Mexico, and Kickapoo, spoken by about 150 people in Mexico
and the United States.

C. The List of Countries Use Creole Language


Country

Population

Official

Spoken languages

(2001)
Anguilla
11,430
Antigua and Barbuda 66,970
Aruba
70,007
Bahamas
303,611
Barbados
275,330
Bay Islands, Honduras 49,151

language
English
English
Dutch
English
English
Spanish

Belize

256,062

English

Bermuda
Bonaire
British Virgin Islands
Cancun
Cayman Islands
Cuba
Curacao
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Grenada
Guadeloupe

63,503
14,230
20,812
400,000
40,900
11,217,100
130,000
70,786
8,581,477
89,227
431,170

Haiti

6,964,549

English
Dutch
English
Spanish
English
Spanish
Dutch
English
Spanish
English
French
French,

Isla Cozumel
Isla de Margarita

50,000
350,000

Creole
Spanish
Spanish

Jamaica

2,665,636

English

Martinique
Montserrat

418,454
7,574

Puerto Rico

3,808,610

French
English
Spanish,

Saba
Saint Barthelemy
Saint Croix
Saint John
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin FWI
Saint Thomas
Saint Vincent and the

1,704
6,500
53,234
4,197
38,756
158,178
27,000
51,181

English
Dutch
French
English
English
English
English
French
English

115,942

English

English, French patois

2,249

Dutch

English, Dutch, Some Spanish

Grenadines
Sint Eustatius

English, Some Spanish


English, local dialects
Papiamento, Dutch, English, Spanish
English, Creole
English, Some Portuguese creole
Spanish, English, Amerindian dialects
English, Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna,
Creole
English, Portuguese
Papiamento, Dutch, English, Spanish
English
Spanish, English
English
Spanish
Papiamento, Dutch, Spanish
English, French Creole
Spanish, Some English
English, French patois
French, French Creole
French, Creole, Some Spanish
Spanish, Some English
Spanish, Some English
English, Creole, Hindi, Chinese, Some
Spanish
French, French Creole
English
Spanish, Some English
English, Dutch
French, English
English
English
English
English, French patois
French, English, Creole patois, Spanish
English

Country

Population

Official

(2001)

language

Sint Maarten

41,718

Dutch

Trinidad and Tobago

1,169,682

English

18,122

English

Turks and Caicos


Islands

Spoken languages
English, Spanish, Dutch, Creole,
Papiamento
English, Hindi, French Creole,
Spanish, Chinese, English Creole
English, Spanish, French Creole

D. The Most Endangered Language in the World


1. Apiaka is spoken by the indigenous people of the same name who live in the
northern state of Mato Grosso in Brazil. The critically endangered language belongs
to the Tupi language family. As of 2007, there was one remaining speaker.
2. Bikya is spoken in the North-West Region of Cameroon, in western Africa. The last
record of a speaker was in 1986, meaning the language could now be extinct. This
predicament resembles that of another Cameroon language, Bishuo, whose last
recorded speaker was also in 1986.
3. Chana is spoken in Parana, the capital of Argentina's province of Entre Rios. As of
2008, it had only one speaker.
4. Dampal is spoken in Indonesia, near Bangkir. Unesco reported that it had one speaker
as of 2000.
5. Diahoi (also known as Jiahui, Jahoi, Djahui, Diahkoi, and Diarroi) is spoken in
Brazil. Those who speak it live on the indigenous lands Diahui, Middle Madeira river,
Southern Amazonas State, Municipality of Humaita. As of 2006, one speaker was left.
6. Kaixana is a language of Brazil. As of 2008, the sole remaining speaker was believed
to be 78-year-old Raimundo Avelino, who lives in Limoeiro in the Japura
municipality in the state of Amazonas.
7. Laua is spoken in the Central Province of Papua New Guinea. It is part of the
Mailuan language group and is nearly extinct, with one speaker documented in 2000.
8. Patwin is a Native American language spoken in the western United States.
Descendants live outside San Francisco in Cortina and Colusa, Calif. There was one
fluent speaker documented as of 1997.
9. Pazeh is spoken by Taiwan's indigenous tribe of the same name. Mrs. Pan Jin Yu, 95,
was the sole known speaker as of 2008.
10. Pemono is spoken in Venezuela and has one remaining speaker, who lives in an
Upper Majagua village.
11. Taje is one of the endangered languages spoken in the country of Indonesia. As of
2000, there was one speaker remaining in Sulawesi.

12. Taushiro (also known as Pinche, or Tausiro in Spanish) is an isolated language


spoken in Peru. The speakers, who were from the Loreto Province and Tigre River
basin, married non-Taushiro speakers and adopted Spanish or other languages. There
was one speaker documented in 2008.
13. Tinigua is a nearly extinct language from Colombia. While originally from the Yari
River, most of descendants now live in the Sierra de la Macarena and do not speak the
language any more. As of 2008, the last speaker lived near the Guayabero River.
14. Tolowa, the language of the Tolowa Native American tribe, is spoken by a few
members located in the Smith River Rancheria. a sovereign nation, near Crescent
City, Calif. Tolowa is part of the Athabaskan language family. One speaker remained
as of 2008.
15. Volow (or Valuwa) is spoken on Motalava Island, a part of the Republic of Vanuatu.
The Republic of Vanuatu is located near the east coast of Australia. One speaker
remained as of 2008.
16. Wintu-Nomlaki is spoken by the Wintu tribe in California. The language has two
dialects: Nomlaki, which is spoken along the Sacramento River south of Red Bluff,
and the other is Wintu. As of 2008, there was one fluent speaker and several speakers
with moderate command of the language.
17. Yaghan is spoken in Chile, in the community of Villa Ukika on Navarino Island,
located in the Magallanes Territory. As of 2005, the last remaining speaker and
pureblood member of the Yaghan tribe was an elderly woman named Cristina
Calderon.
18. Yarawi (or Suena) is spoken is Papua New Guinea, near Morobe town in Morobe
Province. One speaker was documented in 2000.

REFERENCES
http://listverse.com/2008/06/26/top-10-most-spoken-languages-in-the-world/