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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM

Introduction
Environment is the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors (as climate,
soil, and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and
ultimately determine its form and survival. As an organism, we human are the ones who
must be responsible and accountable enough for the preservation of our environment in
order to attain an apt and sustainable habitat not only for human races, but also for
other organisms for us to have a balance ecological atmosphere. As time passes by,
individuals tend to overlooked and ignored things that occurs on a day to day basis in
the environment because of ones own daily task/responsibilities and hobbies and
favorite past times. This unnoticed occurrence can be the basis or the answer to why
some phenomenon takes place because of destabilize human activities usually for
urbanization. Such things were classified as Denudation/Erosion.
The world is always changing and it is part of life. People mostly contribute to
these changes and lately realize that what they are doing has been inappropriate in our
environment. We understand that people want to make each life comfortable. Creating
new inventions like machineries for agriculture and industries, technologies and vehicles
for transportation make our lives comfortable.

Land conversion is very common nowadays. Many agricultural lands and worst,
the forests are now being converted into homes. With the habitat of the animals being
destroyed many are affected and it may also affect us.
The term denudation was introduced into the earth sciences in the early
nineteenth century to refer to the removal of surface material that leads to the exposure
of underlying strata and rock units. Now, denudation refers to all the weathering and
erosional processes that contribute to the lowering of the land surface, potentially to the
production of a pen plain as the product of a long period of erosion. Denudation is, thus,
the complement of deposition, the accumulation of the products of denudation in
sedimentation basins. (Caine, 2010)
Denudation is the removal of solid matter by water in motion, whether of rivers or
of the waves and currents of the sea, and the consequent laying bare of some inferior
rock. This operation has exerted an influence on the structure of the earths crust as
universal and important as sedimentary deposition itself; for denudation is the
necessary antecedent of the production of all new strata of mechanical origin. The
formation of every new deposit by the transport of sediment and pebbles necessarily
implies that there has been somewhere else, a grinding down of rock into rounded
fragments, sand, or mud, equal in quantity to the new strata. (Charles Lyell, 1871)
Whether or not steady-state topography and denudation are probable states
depends on the timescale of system response to tectonic and climatic perturbations
relative to the frequency of those perturbations. (Whipple, 2001)

Background of the Study

Global warming is very evident. This phenomenon is occurring because of the


peoples carelessness. The actions of humanity have greatly contributed to global
warming. Because of global warming all is affected especially our environment.
According to Caine, 2010 denudation refers to all weathering and erosional
processes that contribute to the lowering of the land surface, potentially to the
production of a pen plain as the product of a long period of erosion.
The erosion of A and O horizon can greatly reduce the primary productivity of an
ecosystem. Wind can be an important erosive factor. Most erosion result when water
washes soil from land.
(Bush, M., 1999, p.81) There are five (5) key factors influences the formation of soil.
These are parent material, time, climate, biotic processes and topography.
(Bush, M., 1999, p.85) Waterlogging is an occurrence where the air spaces in the
soil become filled with water.
Soil horizon is a layer of soil; it is approximately parallel to the surface, having
distinct characteristics produced by soil forming processes. It is used to classify soil and
use for interpretations. These horizons are O horizon, A horizon, E horizon, B horizon C
horizon and R horizon.

O horizon is the layer dominated by organic materials. A horizon is the mineral layer
formed below the O horizon.
E horizon is in which the main feature is loss of silicate clay, iron, or aluminum, or
some combination of these, leaving a concentration of sand and silt particles. These
horizons exhibit obliteration of all or much of the original rock structure.
B horizon they are dominated by the obliteration of all or much of the original rock
structure and show one or more of Illuvial concentration of silicate clay, iron, aluminum,
humus, carbonates, gypsum, or silica, alone or in combination, Evidence of removal of
carbonates, Residual concentration of sesquioxides, Coatings of sesquioxides that
make the horizon conspicuously lower in color value, higher in chroma, or redder in hue,
without apparent illuviation of iron, than overlying and underlying horizons, Alteration
which forms silicate clay or liberates oxides, or both, and which forms a granular,
blocky, or prismatic structure if volume changes accompany changes in moisture
content; or Brittleness.
C horizons or layers, excluding hard bedrock, that are little affected by pedogenic
processes and lack the properties of O, A, E, or B horizons. Most are mineral layers.
The material of C layers may be either like or unlike the material from which the solum
has presumably formed. R horizon is the hard bedrock.
The researchers aim to conduct a study which can help explain and familiarize
different individuals what really denudation is? What are the effects of denudation to our

environment which can also affect different organisms, especially the humanity? How
can denudation contribute to Global Warming?

Statement of the Problem

The study focuses on the effects of Denudation to the environment.


Specifically it seeks answers to the following question:
1. What is denudation and how does it occur?
2. What are the effects of denudation to our environment which can also
affect different organisms, especially the humanity?
3. How can denudation contribute to Global Warming?

Significance of the Study

The study of Denudation and the Environment can be a learning paradigm of


students that will be also undertaking a research paper whose focus is primarily about
different factors that can affect the nature, for them to enrich their knowledge and keep
up to date information approximately on the effects of denudation to our environment as
it could bring outcome to different organisms especially the human raise. The study will
also enable its readers to be more informed and aware what really denudation is, and
what really causes it to arise?

This will also greatly benefit not only students but also teachers who are taking
science related subjects or course for them to identify and create a better, easier, and
powerful program or understanding about the matter. Moreover, people who are
concern in ecological balance and people who earn their living by fishing, mining and
constructing will be benefited.

Scope and Limitations

The focus of the study is on the effects of denudation to the environment. The
researchers will determine the meaning of denudation and how it occurs. It also focuses
on the effects of denudation to our environment which also affect different organism,
especially the humanity and if denudation contributes to global warming.

Definition of Terms

Weathering

It refers to the breakdown of rock or mineral materials in


place.

Erosion

It involves physical removal of mineral from one place to


another.

Soil Erosion

It is caused by the action of the water and wind. Rain


striking the ground helps to break soil particles loose.

Surface runoff and wind together carry away


loosened

soil.

Mechanical Weathering - It refers to the physical breakup of rocks without


changes in the rocks composition.
Chemical Weathering -

It involves the breakdown of minerals by chemical


reaction with water, with other chemicals dissolved
in water, or with gases in the air.

Soil

It is the uppermost layer of Earths crust, which supports


terrestrial plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Sediments

It indicates matter that has been transported and redeposited by wind, water, or ice.

CHAPTER 2
DISCUSSION

This chapter is all about the discussion and analysis of the problem. This chapter
will ensure to meet and clarify proven facts which will be the basis in resolving this
research's problem. It will sort knowledge and information to create a more meaningful
understanding on what really the problem is and its possible outcome to each individual.

Problem 1

Denudation has exerted an influence on the structure of the earths crust as


universal and important as sedimentary deposition itself; for denudation is the
necessary antecedent of the production of all new strata of mechanical origin. The
formation of every new deposit by the transport of sediment and pebbles necessarily
implies that there has been somewhere else, a grinding down of rock into rounded
fragments, sand, or mud, equal in quantity to the new strata. All deposition, therefore,
except in the case of a shower of volcanic ashes, and the outflow of lava, and the
growth of certain organic formations, is the sign of superficial waste going on
contemporaneously, and to an equal amount, elsewhere. The gain at one point is no
more than sufficient to balance the loss at some other. Here a lake has grown

shallower; there a ravine has been deepened. Here the depth of the sea has been
augmented by the removal of a sandbank during a storm, there its bottom has been
raised and shallowed by the accumulation in its bed of the same sand transported from
the bank. (Bart, C. L., 1871, p. 196).
According to Mark Bush, denudation is the process of weathering that gradually
breaks up the bedrock until it becomes a series of fragments. It is also the decay of rock
brought on by the concerted action of biological, physical, and chemical processes. As
the rock decays, the nutrient chemicals dissolve and enter the soil. The major factors in
weathering are dissolution by water and freeze-thaw cycles, in which successive
expansion and contraction of the rock cause it to crack and become fragmented. Even
in areas where temperatures do not drop below freezing, but where there is a big
difference between daytime and nighttime temperatures, exposed rocks can be
fractured as a result of repeated expansion and contraction. The result of this is often a
rock that looks like an onion with its layers peeling away (Bush, M. 1997-2000. P. 81).
Denudation is the processes of breaking up and removing the rocks exposed on the
earth surface. The three major denudation processes are weathering, mass wasting and
erosion. Weathering is the disintegration or decomposition of rock which is exposed to
the weather. Mass wasting is the movement of weathered or loosened materials downslope due to gravity. Also, mass wasting is a dynamic process - movement of materials
is involved. Erosion is the wearing away of surface rocks or weathered materials by
natural agents, e.g. rivers, glaciers and wind. It is also a dynamic process where
movement of materials is involved. (H.L. 1998-9)

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The presence of water is probably the most important single controlling factor in
both mechanical and physical weathering. Chemical and physical weatherings are
processes which interact. Chemical weathering typically acts on the boundary surface of
minerals. Mechanical weathering typically breaks down minerals and rock along lines of
weakness. Chemical weathering further acts on enhanced lines of weakness, enabling
further mechanical weathering. Weathering plays the key initial role in the Denudation
Process. Chemical Weathering and removal of geologic materials in aqueous solution is
the dominant process in many regions. Mass wasting, erosion and transport typically
work on weathered rock. Weathering also leads to soil formation, and is therefore vital
to sustaining life on this planet.

Problem 2

If such phenomenon was just too unbalance deformation of land areas were to
result which can change the lifestyle most especially the occupations of each individual
where they get their income for them to survive. Through denudation different new
elements were formed and being studied by human race for the advancement and
progress of an individual's life.
In a normally functioning ecosystem, the relationships among soil and the
organisms that live in and on it ensure soil fertility. Essential minerals are cycled from
soil to the organism and back again to the soil. Too much weathering of the parent
material of the soil will affect the cycle. (Raven, H.P., Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p.
268).

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Water, wind, ice and other agents promote soil erosion. Water and wind are effective
in moving soil from one place to another. Soil erosion is a natural process which is
accelerated by human activities. Erosion limits the growth of plants as it reduces the
amount of soil in an area. Essential nutrient material and organic matter in the soil are
removed.
Soil erosion has an impact on other natural resources as well. Sediments that gets
into streams, rivers, and lakes affects water quality and fish habitats.(Raven, H.P.,
Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p. 272).
Denudation can affect greatly in the primary productivity of an ecosystem. It can
affect in the resources of human. For example, it can affect to the condition of the crops
of the farmers because of rapidly change of the nutrients of the soil. It is can affect the
all organisms that has life or even destroyed of their precious things. It can cause of
landslides, flood and destruction of houses and buildings that many life of people can be
loss (Bush, M.B., 1997-2000, pp.81-85).

Problem 3

Denudation limits the growth of plants as it reduces the amount in an area. Essential
nutrients and organic matter in the soil are removed. As the parent material of the soil
be reduced the needed nutrient of the tree or plant would be limited which may cause
the death of the tree or plant. As the tree die it will affect the cycle. Trees provide an
important role in addressing climate change. It balances the level of the Carbon dioxide

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in the atmosphere. If more and more trees are affected by denudation it would cause
the rapid effect of global warming. (Raven, H.P., Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p. 268).

CHAPTER 3
CONCLUSION

This chapter concludes all the information gathered by the researchers to answer the
problem. This chapter concludes the information gathered by the researchers, facts
which are the basis in this research's problem. It concludes knowledge and information
to create a more meaningful understanding on what really the problem is and its
possible outcome to each individual.

Problem 1

Denudation is concluded in our research as a process caused of three major factors


namely weathering, mass wasting and erosion, which are naturally occurring in the
environment and not been commonly percept by different individuals due to many
problems and daily routine a human had to face. Such processes are getting a greater
rate in accordance to different human activities such as mining and natural
phenomenon like volcanic eruption as it make a high effect in the composition and
disturbance in soil composition. We as a human beings should be observant and careful
enough of ones action for the preservation and betterment progression of our race.
(H.L. & Bush, M.B., 1997-2000, pp.81-85).

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Problem 2

The researcher further conclude that Denudation can be both beneficial and
disadvantage to the human race with respect to different factors that can affect the
natural phenomenon like human activities and things that aid in soil erosion like water,
wind and ice which can accelerate the process that can cause unbalance in the
ecosystem. If the cycle was not been interrupted, soil fertility and essential minerals and
nutrients will prevail among the harvesting land of crops which results as an advantage
in the income and basic need as for food for different individuals. (Raven, H.P.,
Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p. 272).
Too much will result destabilized land forms as result from landslides and flood and
brought by the lack of minerals in the content of soil or too much content of chemicals or
waters that composes it that encompasses a threat in the survival of organisms.
Industrial concerning with fishing may also be affected as different sediments that may
come in contact with the organisms living in water can be contaminated of unwanted
and inappropriate substances for their kind. (Raven, H.P., Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L.,
2013, p. 272).

Problem 3

In a normally functioning ecosystem, the relationships among soil and the


organisms that live in and on it ensure soil fertility. Essential minerals are cycled from
soil to the organism and back again to the soil. Too much weathering of the parent

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material of the soil will affect the cycle. (Raven, H.P., Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p.
268).
Denudation is a natural process and part of the cycle of nature. The researchers
conclude that denudation contributes to global warming if denudation has been
accelerated by man. If more and more parent material of the soil is reduced then it
would affect the cycle like a domino effect. The parent material of the soil contains the
essential nutrients and organic matter of the soil. If the soil is highly damaged then more
and more plants and trees will die. Then it would affect other organism. Trees are
important balancing the level of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. (Raven, H.P.,
Hassenzhal, P., Berg, L., 2013, p. 268).