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Ethic`s in marketing

In such a hasty and harctic world, which day by day becomes harder and harder to understand,it`s
important not to treat ethics like something far away from real life, a discipline which find its place in
universities libraries. Ethics speaks about values,about good and bad, both people and companies cannot
avoid involvind in this field,because what we do,and what we can`t do,may always be the subject of an ethic
assessment. For this reason,i opted for this theme,considering that is extremely important,that ethics are
the most important start point of every marketing activities.
key words : marketing, marketing research, social responsability of companies
JEL classification : M31
Ethics is one of the main branches in philosophy and can also be known as "science of moral
reality".It can also be understood like a moral philosophy, of the good and of the bad, of the debt, trying the
elucidation of moral problems through a cognitive approach.1
According to The Explanatory Dictionary of Romanian language, the word ethics ( from french
ethique,and latin ethicus),it represents the science which deals with theoretical study of values and human
condition from the perspective of moral priciples and their aim in social life, whole rules ofc corresponding
moral conduct.
The history of western ethics, just as the western philosphy,has its beginning in ancient
Greece.Main names that are remembered here when talking about greek ethics are : Socrates, Plato,
The V-VI. Centuries BC and the Far East were suggestive in this field of practical reason by
Daoism and buddhism. The common point which is found in almost all ethical theories, including
contemporary philosophical discourse is the inclusion of two concepts: happiness and virtue. Another
constant of Western philosophy is good, which is intertwined with virtue and happiness, and with reason.
Aristotle defines ethics as a practical science whose object as a rational human action and behavior aimed
Spinoza considers the science that aims to release from the bondage of human feelings and to learn to
live by reason.
Kant sees science laws of freedom, divided into two main sections: the empirical, practical anthropology
and part rational morality that is ordered around the concept of duty.
Hegel defines it as a science that aims at achieving good idea of the unity of the human will and the
objective world outside
In conclusion ethics deals with moral dilemmas faced man in all areas of his life decision-making
practice. To solve the dilemma, ethics aims to clarify the nature of the first and final standards, which must
be judged according to the deeds of man as just or unjust facts.
Staying in concepts, ethics has three main subdivisions:
- meta-ethics (philosophical ethics), dealing with questions about the nature of moral concepts and
- Descriptive ethics, dealing with comparative studies and intercultural;
- Normative ethics (ethical practice), is considering prescribing rules (laws) for individual human
behavior, and moral organization of social life.
Normative ethics is divided at its turn into two categories
- general normative ethics, which studies and report the behavior patterns;
1 Singer, Peter - Treaty ethics, Polirom, Bucharest, 2006, pp. 29-38

- Applied normative ethics, consisting of a bundle of philosophical discipline that attempts to

analyze cases, situations, dilemmas relevant to the real world.
These disciplines include Information ethics, animal welfare ethics, business ethics, bioethics,
medical ethics, environmental ethics, research ethics, ethics in public policy, international relations ethics,
media ethics.
Business ethics and business ethics is a discipline in applied ethics, dealing with morally analysis
of the way in which economic actors (companies, shareholders, employees, buyers, etc.) act. She appeared
in the early twentieth century in the United States as a result of broadening the application of ethical theories
beyond the general area of human actions.2
Business Ethics includes marketing ethics, ethics concerns, enforcement and moral principles,
optics and practice of marketing. The way to realize the ethical norms is the codes, values and moral
standards developed by various professional organizations, consumer associations of undertakings.
How important economies in the diagram any society is growing, it is absolutely normal to and enhance
research in the field of business ethics. They focus mainly on the partners involved in economic activities
within a market. The category includes corporate partners, their customers, their suppliers and dealers,
shareholders, employees and not least the community. Reporting corporations listed on the others is
through the concept of corporate social responsibility.
Moral fulfillment regulatory functions of both the relations between individuals and between
individuals and the community to achieve a balance between these entities on the basis of equal rights and
duties requires certain rules.
"A rule is a model of action to be applied in certain circumstances"3
There are three sets of rules (criteria, rules).
- Technical rules (concerning the usefulness of a product);
- Legal norms (required by law);
- Moral norms (which raises ethical, have intrinsic value and are generally valid);
Moral rules consist of recommendations and / or mandatory, most of which today also, and
religious norms and legal norms. Some are categorical moral norms, such as one of the Ten
Commandments: You should not steal! Theft is not only an immoral act, but also illegal becauseit is out of a
legal norm.
In terms of value, moral and legal rules must subordinate all other values: occupational, physical,
aesthetic, ecological. These values are inoculated since childhood, building on them the whole personality
Unlike the technical or legal norms, moral norms are apparently more lenient, calling them the
moral sense of the recipient, the responsibility. This mode allows the interpretation of the moral norm rather
than an external constraint, but the possibility of personal choice as an expression of human freedom
The greater the inertia of a society and its conservative traditionalism more pronounced, the more
rooted in people's consciousness the idea that habits are eternal, unchangeable part of the world
order. These traditions preserved by tradition not based on rational arguments and are not assumed by a
deliberate decision; they are as they were always and only because there must respected.4
The value is a complex notion that reporting is therefore a measure of outcome and conduct a
direct assessment. Values can be personal or social group; this stratification does not always corresponding
real values assigned are often a compromise between the three categories mentioned.
2 Roth, John K.- Ethics (Revised Edition), Vol. I, Salem Press, California USA, 2004, pp. 181-183
3 Crciun, Dan - Business & morality, ASE, Bucharest, 2003, pag. 86
4 Crciun, Dan - Etica n afaceri, ASE,Bucharest, 2005, pag. 61

Although there are values that can be considered as common to almost all societies, there are
sometimes sharp contrasts between their expressions through the principles and behavioral assessments.
Morality is a code of conduct which may lead to source a social contract, natural law, divine
precepts or individual standards
Two particular concepts must be precisely understood universally valid: anyone, in any situation,
obligations and rights. Their importance is normally equal and exclude the other one violation.
Morality is not therefore a matter of choice, but rather a reporting bisensual, the more that are
positive or negative relative situational; any statement of ethics must be consistent, ie if we say we have
done it in a particular situation and should not be done B in another situation, we must be able to highlight
relevant differences,ethically speaking.
Ethics brings together marketing issue norms to be met and the values to be achieved within the
performance of all acts market partners, because they take place in a moral framework. It takes into account
the demands of social groups that are affected by the consequences of supply flows of goods, services and
ideas in the short, medium and long.5 In the current context of economic existence can not be conceived
without them based on responsibility, honesty , fairness etc.
According to the explanatory dictionary of marketing:6
- above all rule
In literature, based on specific reasons for the following styles of ethics:
- consequences for all;
- First undertaking;
- Our long-term benefit (cautious style);
- Reputation in the forefront (virtuoso style);
- Spontaneous reasoning (intuitive style);
- One that survives is right (Darwinian style)
Because marketing is conducted in constant contact with the public and can be viewed as a
component of economic affairs, people quite often associate it with a less ethical activity. This
communication strategy of the company and its response to various disturbing factors of the environment
must comply with ethical conduct. A model of ethical decision making marketing activity is shown in Figure
Due to the low purchasing power of the population in developing countries and transition periods,
but also due to lax legislation and / or not enforced rigorously because of incompetence or corruption,
companies offering these countries markets lower quality products and services, unacceptable in developed
countries.There are few cases where consumer safety is endangered by selling certain products (especially
medicines and foods) expired, or even if consumer safety is not endangered, are on the market for sale
goods or services morally deplorable.In other cases it is a marketing campaign and a very weak
promotional activity.
The issues are more complex in terms of environmental protection, multinational corporations in
this case is the first incriminated as environmental damage, resulting in numerous casualties, produce
serious, often irreversible, not only in countries that produce, but affects climate, water and air quality across
the globe. The causes of this destruction of the environment are very permissive legislation, the low
technological competence and awareness of the dangers posed to the high cost of recycling technologies

5 Mlcomete P., Pop N. Al., Florescu C. Marketing, explanatory dictionary, Economic Publishing House, Bucharest,
p. 238
6 Mlcomete Petre, Pop Nicolae Al, C. Florescu - op. cit., pag. 238-239


Figure 1. Model of Ethical Decisions

Due to the variety of cultural values and morals of the whole planet due to unacceptable effects by
agreement of governmental and non-governmental associations emerged the idea of the existence of
international codes of ethics.
International Institute of Ethics in Business7 propose three principles ideas:
companies - Integration; business ethics must underpin organizational culture and reflected in all
actions of the organization.
- Implement a plan for change of attitude in the various activities of a corporation; ie promoting
higher environmental practices, consulting experts where appropriate, etc.
- Internationalization made after an initial clarification of moral identity of the company, which has
an action program and a code of ethics without specific cultural color, which does not require changes of
substance when applied in a global context.
It is pleasing that lately appear increasingly more codes of ethics in marketing with a structure and
a similar content, which proves both a common vision regarding ethics in marketing and increased interest
in this.8
Ethical rules in promotional activity field
Ethics goes beyond legal because the latter cannot include all situations in which moral rules are
affected. Because of the need to be as creative promotional policy is that marketing is the most attention on
ethical evaluations.
Internationally, the most prestigious professional organization in the field of marketing, American
Association of Marketing In Romania, was developed by the Romanian Advertising Council (RAC -


8 Crciun, Dan - Business & morality, Editura ASE, Bucharest, 2005, pag.

Romanian Advertising Council) Code of Advertising Practice9, envisages the mission its promotion of good
practice among operators marketing for this purpose, developing a code of ethics, values and ethics in
marketing, in which all members are affiliated organization. Thus, any operator marketing should be
responsible for all the consequences of its activities and ensure that all actions, decisions and
recommendations are directed to serve the intended audience: consumers, organizations and society in
In Romania, was developed by the Romanian Advertising Council (RAC - Romanian Advertising
Council) Code of Advertising Practice, envisages its mission and the promotion of good practice among
operators marketing for this purpose, developing a code of ethics, values and ethics in marketing, in which
all members are affiliated organization. Thus, any operator marketing should be responsible for all the
consequences of its activities and ensure that all actions, decisions and recommendations are directed to
serve the intended audience: consumers, organizations and society in general. The Code was designed to
address all those involved in promotional activities in general and advertising in particular, trying to establish
rules (rules) ethical professional behavior in this area. In order to use advertising in Romania to inform
public opinion correctly, honest and decent, respecting both national laws and practice the principles of
internationally recognized advertising.
Between the two codes are closely connected, both drawing DGs of Conduct organizations wishing
to observe moral principles in the actions we take.
Combining the two codes of ethics, we conducted a set of basic rules regarding promotional
activity :
2.1. Rules on sales systems and public relations
In the field sales force management is considered unethical and misleading exaggeration of
features and benefits of the product. Also offering gifts to customers is regarded with caution because it is
necessary to define carefully the difference between gift and bribery.
The advertisements on the subject of sales on credit must indicate clearly good faith and credit
conditions. They shall specify the terms of use and ownership.Promotional messages by e-mail must be
clearly identified as such, without the need for the message to be opened. Advertising for distance selling
must contain the full name and address clearly the annunciater (and provider, if different);
Sale by e-mail or mobile phone must contain the full name and address valid (eg e-mail address) to
annunciater, where consumers can send a request to exit the database; The promotional activity is
prohibited when aimed ordered to pay the recipient of unsolicited goods. Promotional activity, whether it's
about contests or special offers must make public in a clear and accessible terms of participation and
promotion expiration date, and if conditions indicate competitions awards and means the media or the place
to be announced the results
In public relations, there are the International Code of Ethics for Public Relations, (also known as
the Code of Athens), promoted in Romania by the Romanian Association of Professionals in Publics
Relations.10 Under this code, the operators of public relations must not: .
- To make the truth to other requirements;
- To transmit information that is not based on the facts established and verifiable;
- To take part in any action that is unethical or dishonest or that may affect human dignity and
- To use manipulative methods or techniques designed to create subconscious motivations which
the individual can not be controlled by his own will, so can not be held responsible for actions taken on
2.2. Rules on promotional activity by product category
2.2.1 Alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages promotional activity must not clash with the need to provide consumption patterns that
encourage moderation, fairness and responsibility.
The promotional activity should avoid, in particular:
- Encourage uncontrolled and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages;
- Description of the situation unhealthy attachment to the product and, in general, alcohol
- Addressing to minors or their representation, even indirectly;
- Association between drinking and driving;
- Public belief that to consume alcoholic beverages would lead to clarification of mind and physical
efficiency or lack of consumption of these products may cause physical and mental inferiority;
- Presentation of the alcohol content of the beverage, the main topic of promotional activity.
Brewing industry is allowed to develop commercial communications for beer creatively and
consistent with values such as
- Consumption as a pleasant experience, personal and social;
- Consumption as a social activity and responsible consumption as a source of joy and relaxation
- Responsible consumption as part of a healthy lifestyle for most consumers;
- Consumption should be done in moderation
Cosmetics and personal hygiene
Promotional activities on cosmetics and personal hygiene must not make the consumer to believe
that those products have different characteristics, properties and uses than those to be applied to the skin,
hair, nails, lips, mouth or teeth, with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, change
their appearance and / or correct them odors and / or protecting them or keeping them in good condition. It
can present these products as having additional features that prevent certain pathological conditions,
provided that the products contain certain ingredients really special or special formulas to be performed
Under no circumstances, promotional activity we must not make consumers believe that they can
replace drugs, healthcare or therapeutic treatments with cosmetics or personal hygiene.
2.2.2. Dietary products
Dietary promotional activity should be performed in a manner that does not push the wrong
consumer nutrition and avoid references to health-related recommendations.
Medicinal products and curative treatments promotional activity
For medical products and medical treatment requiring a prescription is prohibited.
Promotional activities for medicinal products and curative treatments that do not require a
prescription must warn the public that the products contain substances that can harm health and avoid:
- to suggest that the product does not cause side effects or safety or efficacy that is because it as
a natural product;
- To suggest that a medical consultation or surgical operation is necessary or incite any erroneous
- To use the recommendations of scientists, medical professionals or persons in public or to refer
to healing modalities in a manner inappropriate, misleading;
- Compare the medicinal product with food, cosmetics and other consumer products;
- Use misrepresentation, misleading or impressive to changes of the human body caused by
disease, injury or action of a medicinal product.
Training courses and teaching methods or promotional activity
Related study training courses and teaching methods and study should not contain promises for a job or to
exaggerate or payroll employment opportunities for people who follow these courses or take proposed
Financial transactions and real estate promotional activity

Iintended to solicit or promote financial transactions, real estate and, in particular, saving and investing
transactions in movable or immovable property must provide clear and complete so as not to mislead the
public, so that the perceive the message, despite of a lack of experience can make an informed choice to
use their own resources.
The provisions of this Article shall apply to promotional activities for banking and insurance
Package holidays organized
Promoting all forms of organized holiday packages must provide complete and accurate information,
especially relating to the services included in the minimum price of participation. The message should focus
on the suggestion to analyze carefully the conditions of obtaining payment and cancellation that are listed in
the information or material form.
Educational baby toys and products for promotional activity
Games, toys and educational products for children should not mislead the:
- nature, performance and product size;
- The degree of skill required to use the product;
- The amount to be spent, especially when it comes to the purchase of complementary products to
make the product work
Promotion should not minimize the price of the product or to suggest that its acquisition is normally
accessible to any family budget.
Globalization is the term used to describe a multicausal process that results in the fact that events
occurring in one part of the globe have repercussions increasingly wider on companies and problems in
other parts of the world. There is no definition of globalization in a universally accepted form, and probably
not final.
The reason is that globalization subinclude a multitude of complex processes with variable
dynamics touching different areas of a company. It may be a phenomenon, an ideology, a strategy, or all at
another place.11 Globalization is the term used to describe changes in modern society and the world
economy resulting from increased international trade particularly in cultural exchanges. It describes the
growth of trade and investment barriers fall due and interdependence between states.
In the economic context, it is common to refer almost exclusively to the effects of trade and trade
liberalization in particular or free trade, but taking into account that each area has its own cultural values and
norms, setting out its spiritual identity , translated in practice by certain specific attitudes toward the
world. Thus, if all companies agree that killing innocent people, theft or deception are bad, in terms of
discrimination against women ideologies are divided.
These cultural distances company creates difficulties in communication with
consumers; communication must arouse interest and encourage potential buyers to offer company culture
should be regarded as a phenomenon consists of several multinational coordonates difficulties in
international communication are determined by a number of barriers that can disrupt the correct
transmission and reception of messages.
- differences in language;
- Cultural differences;
- Availability of communication media
- Restrictions on the promotion;
- Economic differences
- Differences in tastes, habits, attitudes
- Availability promoting agents
- Specific local distributors.


As far as the War was a defining force explosive projectiles measure defining globalization system
is speed - the speed of commerce, travel and innovation.12
Globalization has its own technologies that define: computerization, digitization, satellite
communications, fiber optics, and not least, the Internet. .
Due to its composition and computer networks enabling the rapid exchange of information and
access to markets around the world, the Internet has become an increasingly important promotional
. Companies and individuals who use the Internet for promotional purposes should weigh the risks
and assume responsibilities consequences of their activities, which have mainly focused on three aspects
- Confidentiality refers to the particular information from consumers, they must be protected against
access unauthorized and used only for specific purposes.Express wishes of others must be respected,
including on sending unsolicited e-mails.
- Integrity concerns respecting the integrity and property owners of computers and computer
networks so that they are protected and respected. Information of a obtained via the Internet must be
authorized and properly documented.
- Access to important information (accounts, passwords, etc.) should be confidential, their content
can be viewed only when marketers are authorized to do so. Integrity must be respected and other systems
in terms of placing information, advertising and messages.
The responsibility for security concerns and correct use of information does not return a single
person or a small group of members, but to all who use the Internet
Parallel to gain new challenges of globalization arises an increasing interest to defining new
strategies to address the impact of promotional activities on society and the long-term impact profound
repercussions on the environment.
Thus, because Western culture based on wasteful excesses of the packaging industry and
intensive exploitation of non-renewable energy sources, both issues of storage and recycling of waste and
harmful emissions problems are becoming more serious, the environment is increasingly more polluted.
Globalization has created new opportunities for enterprises, but also led to increased
organizational complexity, companies need to assume new responsibilities, especially in developing
Corporate social responsibility (CSR abbreviated literature after the English form of Corporate
Social Responisibility) is a concept that refers to debt that companies (as social actors) have towards all
parties involved in the alleged actions of their economic activity. The concept refers to all categories of
companies, from micro to multinationals. The debt means that that company must act in accordance with
the obligations it has to some parties and respecting accepted moral principles along tradition.
The concept emerged after the Second World War, with economic growth and exacerbating role of
large companies in the society of that action must be defined socially responsible. This latter concept
emerged long before the twentieth century and refers rather to a singular point of a company strategy
regarding the parties involved, without having any commitment to them or to pre-existing social values.By
contrast, corporate social responsibility is just a commitment made to society and stakeholders in terms of
action on the economic activity.
The balance between morality and self-interest is necessary for long-term development of a
company. Developing a company means not only making a profit, but its reinvestment in the business need
not only financial capital but also active, human resources and social capital created a reputation and trust.
Directing a portion of their profits to such resources, the company will offer owners a lower profit in
the short term, but will create a sustainable form of capital. Economic development and wealth creation are
12 Crciun, Dan - Etica n afaceri, ASE, Bucharest, 2005, pag.197; Orzan,Gheorghe, Orzan, Mihai Cybermarketing, Uranus, Bucharest, 2007, pag. 33

only possible in a system of exchange relations based on trust and credibility. Companies with a low trust in
institutions and businesses can have a sustainable economic progress.
Ethical behavior of an organization is given by a number of factors: the country's level of
development, leadership style practiced, organizational culture, ethical codes, its mission, the results
obtained, the environment in which it operates, competition, pressures of society, etc.
Economic responsibility is the basis of other types of responsibilities it supports and makes
possible both companies with shareholders who want a maximized profit, employees who want safe and
well-paid jobs and customers who demand good quality products at affordable prices.
Legal responsibility requires that actions of companies to obey the laws of society in which it
operates. In most cases, these laws represents beliefs and moral norms of society, so that their observance
is a condition of existence of companies. Responsibility ethics forcing companies to do what is just, fair and
equitable, even if not required to do so by the existing legal framework.
Philanthropic responsibility covers all those situations where the corporation is free to decide,
without any external compulsion to engage in actions aimed at improving the quality of life of employees,
local communities, the whole of society as a whole. This type of social responsibility encompasses a wide
variety of actions, including charitable donations, support educational institutions, sponsorship of cultural
and sporting activities, etc.
4.1. Consumer demand and protection
As carriers in the market mechanism, the consumer plays an important role, it constitutes the reference
element of all activities ntrepinse both manufacturer and trader
Consumer demand determines supply producers to survive in the free market, must constantly
adapt both products and services we offer and how to promote them.
The spectacular increase in the supply of goods and intensifying competition has forced
manufacturers to objectify that their remaining in the competition depends on the number of customers
Nowadays, companies are concerned with the satisfaction of the requirements as specified cast
and order their products as close as possible to consumer expectations.
Given a real market economy, but there are many shortcomings of the mechanism that may affect
consumer interests, thus diminishing their sovereignty.
The mission of protecting the consumer can not be reduced only to educate and inform correctly
the consumer.13
Consumer protection is a set of provisions on public or private initiative designed to ensure and
continuously improve consumer rights, because in the absence of any restrictions, market forces could lead
to inequality and the neglect of social needs. Consequently, it is necessary to have regulations that would
establish the prerequisites of a competitive environment and a loyal consumer protection.
Consumer protection is a set of provisions on public or private initiative designed to ensure and
continuously improve consumer rights.
A market demands category refers to himself within it, mainly on the necessary conditions must be
created and rules to be observed. .
There are many reasons that come to argue the need to protect consumer interests, regardless of
the economic, legal or any other kind, with the plan informational, legal, economic and representing the
interests of a disparity of force between a consumer and economic organizations with which it could get into
a conflict.
The need for protection against organizations generally occurred due to multiplication and abusive
practices in competition, and the use of aggressive or promotion shocking, often equivalent to a pressure on
the consumer.
This requires the need for corrective actions to remedy market failures
13 Kotler, Ph., Saunders, J., Armstrong, G., Wong, V. - Principles of marketing (Second European Edition) ,
Prentice Hall Europe, New Jersey, USA, pag. 72

Formulation of rules against unfair competition

Prohibition of misleading advertising
Indication of correct labeling and pricing;
Amplify the volume of information on the characteristics of goods or services;
Strengthening competition and informational tools etc.
The notion of consumer should be seen in a broader context, given that it is part of a community
and therefore has collective interests.
The damage that you suffer from a person who accuses a specific violation of consumer rights
should not be considered only within the individual's interests, but must consider its importance by summing
all individuals who may be adversely affected similarly.
Wide field of action in which public power or various non-governmental organizations participate to
provide some social protection and extremely complex nature of relations between businesses and
consumers led the company through various programs to intervene consumer.
These programs are designed to achieve the objectives of consumer protection and its access to
accurate information to enable him to make a choice according to personal needs and desires.
European business environment due to its high degree of competitiveness constant concern for
consumer protection. This concern has resulted in EU consumer protection principles stipulated in a series
of directives on product safety and consumer rights.
In this sense was developed and approved Law no. 148/2000 on advertising, a law that aims to
protect consumers of products and services, protection of natural or legal persons carrying on an activity of
production, trade, providing a service or practicing a craft or profession, and the general public interest
protection against advertising misleading advertising and its negative consequences determines the
conditions under which comparative advertising is permitted.
The law defines specific terms such as subliminal advertising, misleading advertising and states
that advertising must be decent and fair to be developed in the spirit of social responsibility. Under the law
provided a number of specific provisions on advertising of certain products such as those of tobacco,
alcohol, or advertising of products for children, prohibiting advertising of narcotic and psychotropic
substances. Acts or illegal acts affecting the rights and interests of consumers attract civil liability, material or
criminal law.
The main consumer rights are:
The right to be protected against the risk of purchasing a product or a service are likely to prejudice
the life, health or safety or to impair their rights and interests. :
- The right to be informed fully, fairly and accurately the essential characteristics of products and
services so that the decision to be taken in connection therewith to closely match their needs and
to be educated as consumers;
- The right to have access to markets that provide a wide range of quality products and services.
- The right to be compensated for damage caused by inadequate quality of products and services,
using for this purpose the means provided by law.
- The right to organize into associations for consumer protection in order to protect their interests.
The consumer must know, at any time, the full range in all its aspects (volume, structure, price,
quality, etc.) to constitute the prioritization criteria with which he faced while consumer and options use
of cash resources.
Responsibility to meet consumer programs lies mainly government bodies, but in this complex
area of issues need to be attracted and involved with concrete actions and a number of social
organizations such as trade unions, associations and other NGOs which have inserted in their field
goals aimed at protecting consumers.

As a conclusion, consumer protection aims to improve quality of life by protecting consumers from
deceptive practices and aggressive techniques to promote to whom they would be defenseless.

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