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You are on page 1of 10

Collocation Technique to

Solve Transport Phenomena

W

Problems With Matlab

and Mathematica

HOUSAM BINOUS,1 ABDULLAH A. SHAIKH,1 AHMED BELLAGI2

1

Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Departement de Genie Energetique (Energy Engineering Department), Ecole Nationale dIngenieurs de Monastir,

University of Monastir, Tunisia

ABSTRACT:

We present in this pedagogical paper an alternative numerical method for the resolution of

transport phenomena problems encountered in the teaching of the required course on transport phenomena in the

graduate chemical engineering curricula. Based on the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation technique implemented

in Matlab1 and Mathematica , we show how different rather complicated transport phenomena problems involving

partial differential equations and split boundary value problems can now readily be mastered. A description of several

sample problems and the resolution methodology is discussed in this paper. The objective of the incorporation of this

approach is to develop the numerical skills of the graduate students at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals

(KFUPM) and to broaden the extent of transportphenomena problems that can be addressed in the course. We noted with

satisfaction that the students successfully adopted this numerical technique for the resolution of problems assigned as term

projects. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 9999:110, 2014; View this article online at

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/cae; DOI 10.1002/cae.21612

Keywords: transport phenomena; orthogonal collocation; Chebyshev; Matlab1; Mathematica

INTRODUCTION

The teaching of Transport Phenomena and Numerical Methods is

typical of graduate programs in chemical engineering. We need not

elaborate on the different phases in the teaching of the Numerical

Methods course; however, it is fair to suggest that there are three

distinct phases: (1) development of Fortran programs [1,2]; (2)

application of IMSL codes; and (3) application of commercial

software codes. The great revolution in computational power has

allowed most users to focus on the third phase, where software

codes, such as Matlab, Mathcad, or Mathematica can be used to

attack a variety of engineering problems in reaction analysis and

transport phenomena. The integration of such software codes in

2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

graduate levels, has been discussed in the literature in several

articles; see for example, Loughlin and Shaikh [3] and

Parulekar [4]. Further examples for solutions of typical problems

in transport phenomena using different numerical approaches and

appropriate software can be found in Refs. [514].

In the present paper, we address ourselves to the numerical

solution of highly nonlinear problems in the graduatelevel

Transport Phenomena course. As described in the syllabus (see

Appendix A), the graduatelevel transport phenomena course

taught at KFUPM uses the textbook written by Bird et al. [15]. A

short mathematical introduction on how to use tensors, gradients

(Appendix A of BSL), etc. is given during the rst week of

instruction. Later, the instructor reviews the three constitutive

equations (Newtons law of viscosity, Fouriers law, and Ficks

law; Chapters 1, 9, and 17 of BSL). Shell momentum, heat and

mass balances are rapidly reviewed (Chapters 2, 10, and 18). Then,

the equation of motion (Chapter 3 of BSL) is thoroughly taught.

systems are also introduced (Chapters 11 and 19 of BSL). Finally,

problems involving more than one independent variable are treated

with emphasis on the analytical methods of solution such as the

separation of variables and the similarity transform techniques

(Chapters 4, 12, and 20 of BSL).

In the graduatelevel transport phenomena course at KFUPM,

several performance assessment tools are used by the instructor.

These include biweekly assignments, midterm and nal examinations, as well as term projects. In the term projects, each student

is asked to solve a transportphenomena problem using Matlab1 or

Mathematica and the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation method.

In the fall semester of 2013, these term project problems (each

problem assigned to a group of two students) have involved

transient Poiseuille ow,

steadystate ow of nonNewtonian uids in a pipe,

unsteadystate evaporation of liquids,

1D transient heat conduction in a cylinder,

the FalknerSkan Equation,

1D steadystate heat diffusion with temperaturedepend heat

conductivity, and nally,

unsteady state convectiondiffusion.

discussed in the present paper. We begin with a short description of

the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation method and illustrate the

solution technique through two examples. We conclude with our

experience in teaching advanced topics in chemical engineering

using the computational tools described here.

METHOD

The Derivative Matrix

In the discrete ChebyshevGaussLobatto orthogonal collocation

method, the grid points are dened by

yj cos

jp

;

N

j 0; ; N

Chebyshev polynomials, TN(x). The (N 1) (N 1) Chebyshev

derivative matrix D at the quadrature points is [1618]:

D d jk 0j;k;N

with

8

2N 2 1

>

>

d 00

>

>

>

6

>

>

<

2N 2 1

d NN

>

6

>

>

>

yj

>

>

>

for 1 j N 1

d

: jj

21 y2j

For 0 j, k N with j 6 k, the element djk writes

jk

d jk

with

cj 1

ck yj yk

cm 1 for 1 m N 1 and c0 cN 2.

If n is the vector formed by the values of the function u(y) at

the locations yj, j 0, , N the values of the approximations n0 and

n00 of the derivates u0 and u00 of u at the grid points yj are calculated

as follows:

n0 Dn;

n00 D2 n

building D is given in Appendix B. A similar code, this time based

on Matlab1, can be found in the textbook by Trefethen [18].

TECHNIQUE USING MATLABW OR MATHEMATICA

THROUGH TWO SIMPLE EXAMPLES

A Simple Split Boundary Value Problem

Consider the following nonlinear boundary value problem

encountered in a graduatelevel applied mathematics course:

uu0 u00 1

u1 0;

u1 2:

yj cos(jp/N) for j 0, , N, by solving the following system of

(N 1) nonlinear algebraic equations:

!

8

N

N

X

X

>

>

>

u

d

u

bjk uk 1; j 1; ; N 1

>

j

jk

k

<

k0

k0

4

>

>

> u0 2

>

:

uN 0

where (djk)0j,kN are the elements of the derivation matrix D given

in the previous section and (bjk)0j,kN the elements of D2 DD.

Such system of nonlinear algebraic equations is readily solved

using Mathematica and Matlab1 builtin functions FindRoot and

fsolve respectively. For N 20 the solution, u, at the collocation

points, yj, j 0, , 20, is given in Table 1 and plotted in Figure 1.

We intentionally represent for all the treated cases the calculation

results in graphical and table forms especially for readers who want

to rework the problems and are interested not only in solution

trends but also in exact numerical solution of these potential

benchmark problems in transport phenomena processes. A solution

of this problem can be found using the shooting technique. The

data obtained using this later method, are also given in Table 1 for

comparison purposes.

Consider the following partial differential equation (PDE):

@u @ 2 u

@t @y2

with the initial and boundary conditions

ut 0; y 1

ut; y 0 0

ut; y 1 0

Nonlinear Boundary Value Problem of Illustration 1

j

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

a

yj

uja

ujb

1.0000

0.9877

0.9511

0.8910

0.8090

0.7071

0.5878

0.4540

0.3090

0.1564

0.0000

0.1564

0.3090

0.4540

0.5878

0.7071

0.8090

0.8910

0.9511

0.9877

1.0000

2.0000

1.9837

1.9366

1.8634

1.7704

1.6634

1.5471

1.4243

1.2969

1.1656

1.0310

0.8938

0.7552

0.6170

0.4822

0.3545

0.2385

0.1399

0.0642

0.0164

0

2.

1.9836

1.9365

1.8634

1.7704

1.6634

1.5470

1.4243

1.2969

1.1656

1.0309

0.8937

0.7551

0.6170

0.4822

0.3544

0.2385

0.1398

0.0641

0.0163

2.4087 1021

Chebyshev collocation.

Shooting method.

It is possible to nd the solution u(t, 0 y 1) at yj (1 cos

(jp/N))/2, j 0, , N, by solving the following system of (N 1)

differential algebraic equations (DAEs):

8

N

X

>

>

> u0 j t 4 bjk uk t; j 1; ; N 1

>

<

k0

6

>

t

0

u

>

0

>

>

:

uN t 0

where D2 DD (bjk)0j,kN is the square of the derivative

matrix, D. The initial conditions for the DAEs are uj(t 0) 1 for

j 0, , N. Such system of differential algebraic equations is

readily solved using Mathematica and Matlab1 builtin functions

1. (Red dots: Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: shooting method.)

[Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at

wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

and at the collocation points, yj, j 0, , N for N 20 is given in

Table 2 and plotted in Figure 2. This transport problem admits

an analytical solution derived using the separation of variable

technique given by:

ut; y

1

X

2

2 2

1 cosnpen p t sinnpx:

np

n1

presented in Table 2 for comparison purposes.

CASE STUDIES

The Arnold Problem

Consider as a rst case the unsteady evaporation of a liquid A in

nondiffusing gas B. The migration of the molecules of A in the

gas phase is described by the equation [19]:

@cA

@ 2 cA

DAB

@cA

@cA

DAB 2

8

@t

@z

1 cA0 =ct @z z0 @z

where DAB is the gas diffusion coefcient, cA0, the interfacial gas

phase concentration, z, the vertical gas phase position and

ct cA cB.

The initial and boundary conditions for this problem are:

t 0;

cA z; 0 0

z 0;

z 1;

cA 1; t 0

cA j 1 erf j w

;

cA0

1 erf w

Diffusion Equation of Illustration 2 at t 0.0126

j

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

a

yj

uja

ujb

1.0000

0.9938

0.9755

0.9455

0.9045

0.8536

0.7939

0.7270

0.6545

0.5782

0.5000

0.4218

0.3455

0.2730

0.2061

0.1464

0.0955

0.0545

0.0245

0.0062

0

0

0.0307

0.1218

0.2670

0.4500

0.6407

0.8029

0.9124

0.9693

0.9914

0.9965

0.9914

0.9693

0.9124

0.8029

0.6407

0.4500

0.2670

0.1218

0.0307

0

0.

0.0309

0.1225

0.2686

0.4525

0.6437

0.8058

0.9145

0.9704

0.9918

0.9967

0.9918

0.9704

0.9145

0.8058

0.6437

0.4525

0.2686

0.1225

0.03093

0.

Chebyshev collocation.

Separation of variables.

Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: analytical solution.) [Color gure can

be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

p

where j z= 4DAB t , and w is obtained by solving the following

nonlinear equation:

1

cA0 =ct

ew

w p

:

p 1 cA0 =ct 1 erf w

2

10

implementation of the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation involves

using NDSolve to solve the system of (N 1) DAEs:

cA;N t cA0

!

2 X

N

2

DAB

2

0

c A;j t DAB

bjk cA;k t

L

L

1

c

=c

A0

t

k0

!

!

N

N

X

X

2

d 0k cA;k t

d jk cA;k t ;

L

k0

k0

for

j 1; ; N 1

cA;0 t 0

(djk)0j,kN, the elements of its square, D2 DD, and L 8.

The initial conditions for the DAEs are cA,j(z,0) 0 for

j 0, , N.

The solution cA(t, 0 z L 8) is found at the grid points

zj L(1 cos(jp/N))/2 for j 0, , N.

The numerical solution, cA(z, t), thus obtained (red dots in

Fig. 3) can be compared to the analytical solution represented by

the blue curve on the same gure. Excellent agreement between

both solutions is observed.

The builtin Mathematica command Manipulate allows

students to create interactive programs with sliders, check boxes,

controls, etc. Here, one can vary the values of t, DAB, cA0 as well as

the number of the Chebyshev collocation points, (N 1), and

instantaneously see the effect of variables and parameters.

Consider the unsteady 1D convectiondiffusion problem described by the equation:

@c

@2 c

@c

Df 2 n ;

@t

@x

@x

11

Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: analytical solution.) [Color gure can

be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

concentration of the diffusing species, and x is the position in the

direction of ow.

With the following initial and boundary conditions:

t 0;

cx; 0 0;

x 0;

c0; t 1;

x 1;

c1; t 0:

found using Laplace transforms:

1

x vt

x vt

erfc p evx=D erfc p :

12

cx; t

2

2 Dt

2 Dt

In Figure 4 the evolution of the concentration c(x, t)

represented by the analytical solution (blue curve) and the

numerical solution c(t, 0 x L 10) obtained using the

implementation of the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation in

Mathematica (red dots) are compared. Again, an excellent

agreement between the two solutions is observed.

As noted in the previous case study, the builtin Mathematica command Manipulate allows creating interactive numerical

solutions of Equation (11) by varying the values of t, Df, v as well as

the number of the Chebyshev collocation grid points (N 1).

The ow past a wedge at an angle of attack b from some uniform

velocity eld U0 is governed by a nonlinear ODE known as the

FalknerSkan equation [20], named after V. M. Falkner and S. W.

Skan [21]:

f 3 f f 2 b1 f 0 2 0

13

Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: shooting technique.) [Color gure can

be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

Figure 4 Composition prole for the unsteadystate convectiondiffusion

problem. (Red dots: Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: analytical

solution.) [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is

available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

angle b p.

f 0 f 0 0 0 and

f 0 1 1:

requires the application of an appropriate numerical algorithm

(shooting method, Chebyshev orthogonal collocation, etc.)

Figure 5 shows the velocity or f 0 obtained with the help of

Matlab1 for a wedge angle b p=4. Applying the shooting

technique leads to the blue curve while the red dots represent the

velocity obtained using the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation

method by solving a system of (N 1) nonlinear algebraic

equations using the builtin command fsolve.

The equations system is the following

8

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

<

N

P

k0

N

P

k0

d0k fk 1

dNk fk 0

fN 0 0

>

>

>

!

!

>

>

3 P

2

>

N

N

P

>

>

2

2

@

>

e

f

f

b

f

>

j

jk k

jk k b 1

L

> L

>

>

k0

k0

>

:

for j 1; . . . ; N 2

P

N

2

L

k0

djk fk

!2 1

A0

(bjk)0j,kN, the elements of its square, D2 DD, and (ejk)0j,kN

those of its cube D3 DDD.

The function values f(0 y L 4) are found at the grid

points yj L(1 cos(jp/N))/2, for j 0, , N.

The wellknown Blasius equation (ow past a at plate with a

wedge angle, b 0) appears as a particular case in this study.

applied shear force. For a Newtonian uid (such as water),

the viscosity is independent of how fast it is stirred, but for a

nonNewtonian uid the viscosity is dependent on the stirring

rate. It gets either easier or harder to stir faster for different types

of nonNewtonian uids. Different constitutive equations, giving

rise to various models of nonNewtonian uids, have been

proposed in order to express the viscosity as a function of the strain

rate.

In powerlaw uids, the relation

m kg_ n1

14

powerlaw consistency index. Dilatant or shearthickening uids

correspond to the case where the exponent in this equation is

positive, while pseudoplastic or shearthinning uids are obtained

when n < 1. The viscosity decreases with strain rate for n < 1,

which is the case for pseudoplastic uids (also called shear

thinning uids). On the other hand, dilatant uids are shear

thickening. If n 1, the Newtonian uid behavior can be

recovered. The powerlaw consistency index is chosen to be

k 1.5 105. For the pseudoplastic uid, the velocity prole is

atter near the center, where it resembles plug ow, and is steeper

near the wall, where it has a higher velocity than the Newtonian

uid or the dilatant uid. Thus, convective energy transport

is higher for shearthinning uids when compared to shear

thickening or Newtonian uids. For ow in a pipe of a powerlaw

uid, an analytical expression is available [22,23]. According to

the Carreau model for nonNewtonian uids, rst proposed by

Pierre Carreau,

_ m1 m0 m1 1 l2 g_ 2 n1=2

mg

15

For lg_ 1, we obtain a powerlaw uid with m kg_ n1 .

The inniteshear viscosity m1 and the zeroshear viscosity

m0 of the Carreau uid are taken equal to 0 and 2.04 103,

respectively. The relaxation parameter l is set equal to 0.2. For the

ow of a Carreau uid in a pipe, only numerical solutions are

available. The velocity prole versus radial position is obtained for

the steadystate laminar ow of powerlaw and Carreau uids in a

pipe. The pipe radius is R 1 and the applied pressure gradient is

DP=L 1. For both the powerlaw and Carreau uids, the

red dots represent the solutions obtained using the Chebyshev

collocation technique (see Fig. 6a and b). The velocity prole for a

powerlaw uid (the blue curve) is obtained from the analytical

solution given by Binous [22] and Wilkes [23]:

DP 1=n R11=n r11=n

:

16

vr

1 1=n

2Lk

The velocity prole for a Carreau uid (the blue curve) is

obtained using the shooting technique and the builtin Mathematica function NDSolve. For both uids, you can vary the exponent.

The Chebyshev orthogonal collocation technique requires

the solution of a system of (N 1) nonlinear algebraic equations.

Here, the Mathematica methodology is based on the usage of the

builtin command FindRoot.

Consider the free convection past a vertical at plate or wall

maintained at a constant temperature Tw with Tw > T/, where T/ is

the uid temperature far from the wall.

The governing equations for such a problem in steady

state [20,24] are:

8 3

F 3FF 0 2F 0 2 Q 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

Q2 3PrFQ0 0

>

>

>

< with the B:C:

17

> F0 F 0 0 0

>

>

>

>

>

>

F 0 1 0

>

>

:

Q0 1; Q1 0

where Q T T 1 =T w T 1 is the dimensionless temperature, Pr v=a the Prandtl number (a dimensionless number

giving the rate of viscous momentum transfer relative to heat

conduction), and F is the modied stream function

Fh

c

4vgbT w T /=4v2 1=4 x3=4

h

Grx

4

1=4

y

x

Grx gbDT x3 =v2 is the Grashof number. To solve this split

boundary value problem one has to apply an appropriate numerical

procedure such as the shooting and/or relaxation technique. In this

study we make use of the Chebyshev orthogonal collocation

method that we implemented in Mathematica andfor comparison purposesthe classical shooting technique. The obtained

temperature and velocity proles versus h for Pr 10 are

Figure 6 Velocity prole for (a) the powerlaw uid and (b) the Carreau

uid. (Red dots: Chebyshev collocation, blue curve a: analytical solution,

blue curve b: shooting method.) [Color gure can be viewed in the online

issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

@u

1@

@u

4

j

;

@t

j @j

@j

18

radial position, j r=R and the dimensionless velocity,

u uz r=uz max .

The boundary and initial conditions are:

uj 1; t 0;

@u

j 0; t 0;

@j

uj; t 0 0:

v m=r is the kinematic viscosity with m the uids viscosity

and r, its density. The radius of the pipe is R, and uz;max

1=4m@p=@zR2 is the velocity at the center of the pipe at

steady state. Figure 8 depicts the velocity prole obtained using

Matlab1 at t 0.1359. Here one has to solve a system of DAEs

using the builtin Matlab1 command ode15s.

This problem admits an analytical solution given by:

1

r

2 X

r

2

uz r

2

1

Ak J 0 lk evlk =R t

u

uz;max

R

R

k1

where

Ak

2

R2 J 1 lk 2

ZR

rJ 0 lk R2 r2 dr

R

and lk are the roots of the zeroth order Bessel function of the 1st

kind (i.e., J0(lk) 0).

Table 3 gives a list of these values and Table 4 shows a

comparison between the analytical solution (truncated up to k 7)

and our Chebyshev numerical solution.

This aim of this section is to show how the Couette ow in a slot

develops. Initially the uid and both walls are stationary. To start

Figure 7 (a) Temperature prole and (b) velocity prole for free

convection past an isothermal vertical plate in the case of Pr 10. (Red dots:

Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: shooting technique.) [Color gure can

be viewed in the online issue, which is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

Chebyshev integration approach and blue curves for the shooting

method. The Chebyshev collocation procedure requires the

solution of a system of 2(N 1) nonlinear algebraic equations

using FindRoot in Mathematica.

As can be noted, only qualitative agreement is obtained for

the velocity prole using the shooting and the orthogonal

collocation approach. One however can verify that if the Pr is

reduced, the dimensionless temperature curve extends farther away

from the wall as an indication of higher rates of heat conduction.

The governing equation, in dimensionless form, for Poiseuille ow

for a Newtonian uid in a tube is given by:

t 0.1359. (Red dots: Chebyshev collocation, blue curve: analytical

solution.) [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available

at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

Table 3

lk

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

2.4048

5.5201

8.6537

11.7915

14.9309

18.0711

21.2116

(0) U 1 m/s.

The momentum equation and the noslip boundary condition

are:

@u

@2 u

n 2

@t

@y

19

The steadystate solution is the linear velocity prole given

by u(y) U(1 y). The analytical solution of Equation (19) can be

found by applying the separation of variables technique [25]:

1

2 2

2 X

1

ut; y U 1 y U

sinkpyek p nt

p k1 k

(t 0.1255; n 0.1) (Red dots: Chebyshev collocation, blue curve:

analytical solution.) [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which

is available at wileyonlinelibrary.com.]

heat conduction in gases a very slow process.

t 1.1255 and v 0.1. Here also one has to solve a system of

DAEs using the builtin Matlab1 command ode15s. A comparison

between the numerical and analytical results (truncated up to

k 100) for t 0.1255 and v 0.1 is given in Table 5. For very

small kinematic viscosities, the response is slower. This result is to

be expected since the momentum transport is governed here solely

by molecular momentum exchange, characterized by the kinematic

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Transient Poiseuille Flow Problem at t 0.1359

Transient Couette Flow Problem at t 0.1255 for n 0.1

j

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

yj

uja

ujb

1.0000

0.9938

0.9755

0.9455

0.9045

0.8536

0.7939

0.7270

0.6545

0.5782

0.5000

0.4218

0.3455

0.2730

0.2061

0.1464

0.0955

0.0545

0.0245

0.0062

0

0

0.0084

0.0326

0.0706

0.1188

0.1732

0.2295

0.2839

0.3335

0.3764

0.4117

0.4394

0.4602

0.4751

0.4852

0.4916

0.4952

0.4970

0.4977

0.4979

0.4979

0.0000

0.0084

0.0326

0.0706

0.1188

0.1731

0.2294

0.2838

0.3333

0.3762

0.4114

0.4390

0.4598

0.4747

0.4847

0.4911

0.4947

0.4965

0.4972

0.4973

0.4973

been gainfully employed in conjunction with the orthogonal

collocation technique in the teaching of the graduate transport

phenomena course. We have illustrated these numerical codes by

presenting details of some of the highly nonlinear problems that

were selected as illustrative examples.

j

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Separation of variables method.

yj

uja

ujb

1.0000

0.9938

0.9755

0.9455

0.9045

0.8536

0.7939

0.7270

0.6545

0.5782

0.5000

0.4218

0.3455

0.2730

0.2061

0.1464

0.0955

0.0545

0.0245

0.0062

0

0

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0003

0.0016

0.0079

0.0295

0.0854

0.1940

0.3561

0.5474

0.7313

0.8775

0.9691

1.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0003

0.0016

0.0078

0.0292

0.0849

0.1933

0.3554

0.5467

0.7309

0.8773

0.9690

1.0000

Chebyshev collocation.

Separation of variables.

revolved around two issues: setting up mathematical models and

associated initial and boundary conditions, and derivation of

analytical solutions mostly for asymptotic cases of the mathematical models. Nowadays, the integration of powerful and rather user

friendly numerical codes, such as Matlab and Mathematica, in

chemical engineering education is worthwhile. This integration of

such codes allows the instructor and the student to broaden their

horizons by attempting to tackle nonlinear problems typical of real

life engineering problems with relative ease.

Needless to say, educators should exhibit considerable

exibility in their curriculum and need to move rapidly to keep

up with the rapidly changing computational environment. The

work described here is presented in that spirit.

Finally, all the codes are available upon request from the

corresponding author.

APPENDIX B

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The support of King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals is

duly acknowledged.

The implementation can be tested for Np 5 through

comparison with the results given in Ref. [16]:

APPENDIX A

Advanced Transport Phenomena I (CHE 501)

First Semester 20132014 (Term 131)

Objective: Continuum theory of momentum, energy and mass transfer.

Viscous behavior of fluids. Molecular transport mechanisms. General

property balance. Laminar and Turbulent flow. Convective transport.

Momentum, heat and mass applications of transport phenomena.

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing

Outcomes:

Understand the similarities between the different types of transport

phenomena

Apply knowledge of advanced mathematics, science, and engineering

principles in solving chemical engineering problems.

Formulate transport phenomena problems and set boundary conditions

for solving differential equations.

Conduct independent research projects.

Communicate effectively orally and in writing.

Use Matlab and Mathematica to solve problems related to momentum,

heat and mass transfer.

Textbook: Transport Phenomena, by Bird, Steward and Lightfoot, 2nd

Edition, Wiley, 2007.

Topics:

Chapters in BSL

Chapters 0, 1, 9, 17 and

Introduction to molecular transport

Appendix A of BSL

2. Velocity distribution in laminar flow

Chapters 2, 10, 18 of BSL

3. Development of mass, momentum

Chapters 3, 11, and

and energy conservation equations

19 of BSL

NavierStokes equations and inviscid flow

4. Velocity distribution with more than

Chapter 4 of BSL

one independent variable.

Grading System:

HW Assignments

Mid Term

Project

Final Exam

10%

30%

20%

40%

REFERENCES

[1] B. Carnahan, H. A. Luther, and J. O. Wilkes, Applied numerical

methods. New York, Wiley, 1969.

[2] W. S. Dorn and D. D. McCracken, Numerical methods with Fortran IV

Case studies. New York, Wiley, 1972.

[3] K. F. Loughlin and A. A. Shaikh, Evolution of integration of computer

education in the chemical engineering curriculum. In: Proceedings of

the Symposium of Engineering Education, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, November, 2001.

[4] S. J. Parulekar, Numerical problem solving using Mathcad in

undergraduate reaction engineering, Chem Eng Educ 40 (2006),

1423.

[5] D. Adair and M. Jaeger, Integration of computational uid dynamics

into a uid mechanics curriculum, Comput Appl Eng Educ 22 (2014),

131141.

[6] N. Brauner and M. Shacham, Numerical experiments in uid

mechanics with a tank and draining pipe, Comput Appl Eng Educ

2 (1994), 175183.

[7] A. Campo and C. H. Amn, A simple way to determine the two

asymptotic Nusselt number expressions for intube, laminar forced

convective ows employing the method of lines, Comput Appl Eng

Educ 6 (1998), 7987.

10

with the method of Greens functions, Comput Appl Eng Educ 12

(2004), 189197.

[9] F. Del Cerro Velzquez, S. A. GmezLopera, and F. Alhama, A

powerful and versatile educational software to simulate transient heat

transfer processes in simple ns, Comput Appl Eng Educ 16 (2008),

7282.

[10] T. C. Hung, S. K. Wang, S. W. Tai, and C. T. Hung, An innovative

improvement of engineering learning system using computational

uid dynamics concept, Comput Appl Eng Educ 13 (2005), 306315.

[11] R. J. Ribando and G. W. OLeary, Numerical methods in engineering

education: An example student project in convection heat transfer,

Comput Appl Eng Educ 2 (1994), 165174.

[12] R. J. Ribando and G. W. OLeary, Teaching module for one

dimensional, transient conduction, Comput Appl Eng Educ 6 (1998),

4151.

[13] R. J. Ribando, K. A. Coyne, and G. W. OLeary, Teaching module for

laminar and turbulent forced convection on a at plate, Comput Appl

Eng Educ 6 (1998), 115125.

[14] A. J. Valocchi and C. J. Werth, Webbased interactive simulation of

groundwater pollutant fate and transport, Comput Appl Eng Educ 12

(2004), 7583.

[15] R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport phenomena,

2nd edition, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2002.

the ChebyshevSpectral method in transport phenomena (lecture

notes in applied and computational mechanics). Berlin, Springer;

2012.

[17] P. Moin, Fundamentals of engineering numerical analysis. Cambridge

UK, Cambridge University Press, 2001.

[18] L. N. Trefethen, Spectral methods in MATLAB. Philadelphia,

SIAM, 2000.

[19] J. H. Arnold, Studies in diffusion: III. Unsteadystate vaporization

and adsorption, Trans Am Inst Chem Eng 40 (1944), 361378.

[20] W. M. Deen, Analysis of transport phenomena. New York, Oxford

University Press, 1998.

[21] V. M. Falkner and S. W. Skan, Some approximate solutions of

the boundary layer equations. Aero Res Coun Rep Mem No. 1314

(1930).

[22] H. Binous, Introducing nonNewtonian uid mechanics computations

with Mathematica in the undergraduate curriculum, Chem Eng Educ

41 (2007), 5964.

[23] J. O. Wilkes, Fluid mechanics for chemical engineers. Upper Saddle

River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 1999.

[24] L. A. Glasgow, Transport phenomena: An introduction to advanced

topics. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

[25] E. V. Martnez, http://www.mechens.org/wiki/index.php?title

Transient_Plane_Couette_Flow, accessed March 2014.

BIOGRAPHIES

Dr. Housam Binous, a visiting associate

professor at King Fahd University Petroleum

& Minerals, has been a full time faculty member

at the National Institute of Applied Sciences and

Technology in Tunis for eleven years. He earned

a Diplme dingnieur in Biotechnology from

the Ecole des Mines de Paris and a PhD in

Chemical Engineering from the University of

California at Davis. His research interests include

the applications of computers in chemical

engineering.

A. A. Shaikh is professor of chemical engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum &

Minerals. He obtained his PhD from the

University of Notre Dame, USA, in 1984. His

main research interests include dynamics of

reactive systems, catalytic uidizedbed reactors,

and applied and computational mathematics.

Prof. Shaikh is a senior member of the American

Institute of Chemical Engineers, and member of

S c Scientic Research Society, among other

international and local professional societies.

energy engineering at the Ecole Nationale

dIngnieurs de Monastir, University of Monastir, Tunisia since 1992. Prior to that, he has been a

professor of chemical engineering at the Ecole

Nationale dIngnieurs de Gabs. He received

his PhD in 1979 from the RheinischWestflische

Technische Hochschule at Aachen Germany.

His research interests mainly focus on Process

Thermodynamics, Absorption Refrigeration and

Solar Cooling, Modeling and Simulation of Unit Operations and Processes.

He has supervised 35 Master degree and 20 PhD theses. Professor Bellagi

has written over 100 publications. Recently his pedagogical interests focus

on the development of Demonstrations for chemical engineers using the

software Mathematica1 in collaboration with Dr. H. Binous and Professor

B. G. Higgins. (http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/author.html?author

HousamBinous).

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