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PSYCHROMETRICS

Psychrometrics
Level 1: Introduction

Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory,
system design, equipment selection and application topics. They are targeted at engineers and
designers who wish to develop their knowledge in this field to effectively design, specify, sell or
apply HVAC equipment in commercial applications.
Although TDP topics have been developed as stand-alone modules, there are logical groupings of topics. The modules within each group begin at an introductory level and progress to
advanced levels. The breadth of this offering allows for customization into a complete HVAC
curriculum – from a complete HVAC design course at an introductory-level or to an advancedlevel design course. Advanced-level modules assume prerequisite knowledge and do not review
basic concepts.

Psychrometrics is the study of the air and water vapor mixture. Proficiency in the use of the
psychrometric chart is an important tool for designers of air conditioning systems. Psychrometrics is required to properly calculate heating and cooling loads, select equipment, and design air
distribution systems. While the topic is not complicated, it involves a number of formulas and
their application; the psychrometric chart is useful in simplifying the calculations. This module is
the first of four on the topic of psychrometrics. This module introduces the air-vapor mixture and
how the psychrometric chart can be used to determine the mixture’s properties. This module also
explains how to plot the eight basic air conditioning processes on the chart. Other modules build
on the information from this module to explain the psychrometrics of various air conditioning
systems, analysis of part load and control methods, computerized psychrometrics, and the theory
used to develop the chart.

© 2005 Carrier Corporation. All rights reserved.
The information in this manual is offered as a general guide for the use of industry and consulting engineers in designing systems.
Judgment is required for application of this information to specific installations and design applications. Carrier is not responsible for
any uses made of this information and assumes no responsibility for the performance or desirability of any resulting system design.
The information in this publication is subject to change without notice. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Carrier Corporation.

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CARRIER CORPORATION
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Table of Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1
What is Psychrometrics?.............................................................................................................. 2
Properties of Air and Vapor............................................................................................................. 2
How Air and Water Vapor are Measured .................................................................................... 3
Humidity and Its Sources............................................................................................................. 4
How the Air-Vapor Mixture Reacts............................................................................................. 4
Temperature and Pressure............................................................................................................ 5
Building the Psychrometric Chart.................................................................................................... 7
Dry Bulb Temperature Scale ....................................................................................................... 7
Specific Humidity Scale .............................................................................................................. 7
Dew Point and the Saturation Line .............................................................................................. 8
Relative Humidity Lines .............................................................................................................. 9
Wet Bulb Temperature Lines..................................................................................................... 10
Specific Volume Lines............................................................................................................... 12
Enthalpy Scale (Total Heat Content) ......................................................................................... 12
State Point ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Using the Psychrometric Chart .................................................................................................. 14
Examples Using State Points ................................................................................................. 15
Air Conditioning Processes............................................................................................................ 17
Eight Basic Process Types ......................................................................................................... 17
Sensible and Latent Heat Changes............................................................................................. 18
Sensible Heat Factor .................................................................................................................. 20
Sensible Heat Factor Scale......................................................................................................... 21
Sensible Heating and Cooling.................................................................................................... 22
Humidification and Dehumidification ....................................................................................... 23
Air Mixing ................................................................................................................................. 24
Finding Room Airflow............................................................................................................... 24
Evaporative Cooling .................................................................................................................. 25
Cooling with Dehumidification ................................................................................................. 26
Cooling Coils and the Bypass Factor......................................................................................... 27
Evaporative Cooling and Humidity Control .............................................................................. 30
Heating and Humidification....................................................................................................... 32
Heating and Dehumidification................................................................................................... 32
Process Chart ................................................................................................................................. 33
Summary........................................................................................................................................ 36
Work Session 1 .............................................................................................................................. 37
Work Session 2 .............................................................................................................................. 38
Appendix........................................................................................................................................ 40
List of Symbols and Abbreviations............................................................................................ 40
Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.S. Units................................................ 42
Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.S. Units ................................................................ 50
Psychrometric Chart, Normal Temperature, Sea Level ............................................................. 56
Work Session 1 Answers ........................................................................................................... 57
Work Session 2 Answers ........................................................................................................... 60
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... 65

This first module has four sections: properties of air and vapor. the air could hold less moisture. Since paper changes dimensionally with changes in the humidity. the young engineer observed the fog condensing on cold surfaces and determined that there was a relationship between temperature and humidity. using psychrometrics to evaluate performance of compound systems with the psychrometric chart or computer tools. What does relative humidity really mean? How does a cooling coil remove water vapor? What causes air conditioning ducts to sweat? The answers to questions such as these depend upon the properties of air and water vapor and how they act together. yet we may not recognize them as psychrometrics. The young engineer. A young engineer for Buffalo Forge Company was working on an air conditioning design problem involving a Brooklyn printer who was having a problem with color registration between printing press runs. we have four TDP modules devoted to psychrometrics. Psychrometrics 1 . is psychrometrics a necessary and practical topic to understand? The answer is that the principles of psychrometrics provide the key to understanding why the air conditioning industry exists and will help explain many of the processes and steps used in system design. and air conditioning processes. It is so important. The history of psychrometrics started on a foggy evening in 1902 on a train platform in Pittsburgh. and psychrometric formula and the theory used to construct the chart.PSYCHROMETRICS. Color printing was done at that time by running the paper through the presses for each primary color. Many of the terms and concepts are used in daily conversation. The concentration of the various color dots gave the pictures their color. the colors were not lining up. This understanding of dew point allowed him to solve the printer’s problem. Being able to analyze air conditioning systems with an understanding of these properties means better operating systems and lower costs. building the psychrometric chart. It fol. On this foggy night. state points. As temperature dropped. on some days. Carrier and the Brooklyn Printing Plant no more moisture and a concept called dew point control was born. Other modules describe using psychrometrics to analyze processes and determine loads or airflows. Willis Carrier. went on to mathematically describe the phenomena he observed that night and the science of psychrometrics was born.Figure 1 lowed that a temperature could be reached where the air could hold Dr. leading to poor quality and wasted materials. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Introduction Why does an air-conditioning design course begin with psychrometrics? In the computeraided design world of today.

Calculate the required airflow to the space and the equipment to satisfy the loads.PSYCHROMETRICS. Nitrogen accounts for 77 percent of air’s weight by volume and oxygen accounts 21 percent. but these do not appear in volumes significant enough to be a factor in psychrometric calculations. Figure 2 Composition of Dry Atmospheric Air Psychrometrics 2 . Atmospheric air is a mixture of a number of gases. Properties of Air and Vapor We will start at the beginning with air itself. if the air is to be conditioned. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION The formulas that were developed were plotted on a chart that is the psychrometric chart. The remaining 1 percent is trace amounts of other gases. What is Psychrometrics? Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties of moist air. how can the amount of heat that must be added or removed and the amount of moisture that must be added or removed be determined? This is what we can learn from our study of psychrometrics. The two primary gases are nitrogen and oxygen. This chart is one of the most useful tools a system designer has to describe air conditioning processes. In other words. Determine the sensible and total cooling load the unit needs to provide Determine the coil depth and temperature to meet the design load conditions. Five uses for psychrometrics: Determine the temperature at which condensation will occur in walls or on a duct. Find all the properties of moist air by knowing any two conditions.

PSYCHROMETRICS. Water vapor is not present in large quantities in the atmosphere. humidity. moisture content is defined by comparing the moisture content at any Figure 4 point to dry air. Figure 3 Atmospheric air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. it is a significant factor to those concerned with the field of psychrometrics and air conditioning. Note: to convert from pounds of moisture per pound of dry air to grains is: lb / lbda ∗ 7000 = Grains Psychrometrics 3 . How Air and Water Vapor are Measured Air conditioning is the simultaneous control of temperature. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Atmospheric air has one other element in this mixture of gases commonly called air: water vapor. It takes 7000 grains to make up one pound. Once temperature and humidity are determined. contains 302. The amount of actual water vapor Psychrometric calculations are based on a pound of dry air. however. this water does not have much bearing on the actual weight of the air. present in a quantity of air is so small that it is measured in grains. Since air is a mixture. Convention for the industry is to base calculations of air properties on pounds. The actual final weight of a volume of air will be the sum of the air’s dry weight and the The unit of measurement weight of the water vapor it contains. cleanliness. the amount of moisture in the mixture can change. with all the water it can hold. for moisture content is pounds of moisture per pound of dry air (lb / lbda). and not a compound.45 grains (about ½ ounce). is how they can be measured. then the amount of each to be removed or added can be calculated. and distribution. the first order of business in order to control temperature and humidity. Therefore. to have a common measuring point. So. Since one pound of air at 100º F.

the gases follow Dalton’s law of partial pressures. people. showers. and the total pressure is the sum of the air and vapor pressures. the other one may be calculated. and process work can add water vapor. However.PSYCHROMETRICS. if two properties of either pressure. the mixture follows the ideal gas laws. Second. This means that air and the water vapor in the air occupy the same volume and are at the same pressure as if one alone were in the space. lakes. or volume. Psychrometrics 4 . Inside buildings. are known. Humidity has many sources. First. Figure 6 The ideal gas law and Dalton’s Law control psychrometric calculations. temperature. How can the exact amount of evaporated moisture be measured? Formulas are available that allow us to calculate the amount. and rivers puts water into the air and forms clouds. within the range of comfort air conditioning. the psychrometric chart makes it easy and provides a good way to visualize the process. How the Air-Vapor Mixture Reacts Two basic laws apply to the air and vapor mixture that make our calculations possible. Put simply. Evaporation from oceans. Figure 5 Water vapor in the air comes from many sources. cooking. open sources of water. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Humidity and Its Sources The common term for the water vapor that is in the air is humidity.

To account for this.. psychrometric charts are published for different elevations..696 psia.921 (sea level) 12. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Temperature and Pressure Our first air property. sea Absolute Pressure Scales Compared psia 4--+--.. Hg).... the higher above sea level the lower the air pressure.__.... The air in a space where conditions are being calculated is dependent on barometric pressure.. (no atmosphere) Figure 9 Absolute pressure is used in psychrometric calculations.696 psia ....29. written psia.. can be easily determined with a standard thermometer. air temperature..PSYCHROMETRICS.TumtotheExpertS.9 in.. even though we may not recognize it as such.. (5000 ft above sea level) O psia 0 in..-. this is 29.. in. (in. Hg Abs 14. Since the two laws depend on pressure. Hg and converts to 14. Figure 8 The weight of atmospheric air varies with elevation.. At sea level.... The barometer is a measure of the weight of the column of atmospheric air.... Notice that the weight is dependent on the elevation... What about the second.+ ---+-... Air Temperature Air (Barometric) Pressure Figure 7 Air Temperature and Pressure The daily weather report gives the barometric pressure.23 psia 24... This is referred to as pressure in pounds per square inch absolute. Barometric pressure is usually measured in inches of mercury. the charts also depend on pressure. 5 . To account for the weight of atmospheric air. calculations use the absolute pressure. pressure? What is air pressure? 100 70 32 Air pressure is often called barometric pressure..921 in. in Denver at 5000 feet elevation the pressure is 12.. Air has weight. <dt!!I> • Psychrometrics ..23 psia..

.921 in. Therefore. ture. Dry Air is Denser DRY AIR DENSITY ~~OIST AIR Since calculations of air properties are dependent on the altitude. Charts can be used for plus or minus 1.. temperaDry air is denser than moist air.... all pressures are in psia.. and a barometer of 29..... which weighs more.500 feet. the industry has agreed on a set of conditions for the air called standard air. dry air or moist air? Dry Air Wet Air Figure 10 Which weighs more. Figure 11 Conditions of Standard Air <. This is the point of reference we will use for our calculations. Pressure measurements used in HVAC are sometimes in pounds per square inch gauge... 5. . think about what happens in the weather report.. This is because air pressure is also dependent on the moisture in the air.. Therefore. For psychrometric calculations. there is a high-pressure front with a rising barometer.... Conversely.@@> • Psychrometrics Turn to the Experts.. so.500 feet. 2. a hurricane has a very low pressure. 7. or 14.....696 psia.. When they say it will be a beautiful clear sunny day. Dalton's law said that the total pressure was the sum of the air pressure and water vapor pressure. Hg. This is true because in a pound of atmospheric air the water vapor occupies a greater percentage of the volume and weighs less. The amount of moisture will be measured based on dry air. and moisture content.000 ft of chart elevation without correction.000 feet are common. psig or psi. determining air pressure is dependent on elevation and moisture content... the answer is that dry air weighs more.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION level. Standard air is defined as sea level._PSYCHROMETRICS... Recall that in the daily weather reports the barometer changes from day to day for the same location. and 10. d1y air or wet air? Again. This means the dry air is denser than the moist air.- 6 .. 59° F...000 feet. these measurements are the difference above the atmospheric.

Since the behavior of temperature and humidity are predictable at atmospheric pressure and temperatures. the vertical scale is made according to the amount of water vapor mixed with each pound of dry air. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Building the Psychrometric Chart A psychrometric chart is a convenient way to determine properties of air and describe air conditioning processes. 30° F to 120° F. 7 . The lines could cover any temperature range.'?P db °F• 30 40 ' so 60 70 80 90 120 iS" Figure 12 The horizontal scale is dry bulb temperature. the scale is plotted in grains of water vapor per pound of dry air at standard 85 90 !JO atmospheric pressure. but here we will use a range common for normal comfort calculations. . sea level is used for this discussion. To start the chart it is necessary to define our vertical and horizontal axis. 85 90 Dry Bulb Temperature Scale Our horizontal axis on the chart will represent an ordinary temperature scale called dry bulb temperature. 100 40 20 db QF• 30 40 GM so 60 70 80 90 100 110 0 120 i3> Figure 13 The vertical scale is specific humidity.. it is necessary to base the calculations on elevation. To create the chart. a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air. different characteristic properties can be plotted on a graph.) Psychrometrics _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Turn totheExpertS. These lines can then be extended vertically so any point on the line is equal to that dry bulb temperature. wbdp °F.PSYCHROMETRICS. Some charts plot water vapor in pounds of water 160 per pound of dry air rather than grains. The vertical axis is called the 120 specific humidity scale. Since the amount of water vapor is small. Specific Humidity Scale Next.

The night air was cooled and water vapor in the air from the day before condensed on the grass.. regardless of the humidity.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Now it is easy to locate many air and water vapor mixtures by using the chart.. because at 53° F the air can hold only 60 grains per pound of air.. This highlights the fact that the amount of water vapor that the air can hold is related to the air temperature... As the temperature dropped. any further cooling will now cause some water vapor to condense.. the air could hold no more water vapor and so water condensed out of the air... when the temperature is 53° F....p 80 9- -< '!l Q O' •ll wbdp ' F.. 10 grains of MO water vapor condenses... If the temperature drops below the dew 8s 90 point.. Therefore.-... another 10 grains is condensed as only 40 Saturation grains remain in the air at this Line temperature.. For example.. no water vapor is removed until the air reaches its point of maximum humidity. say to 48° F... only 50 180 grains of water vapor remain in 160 the air.. db °F• 30 40 50 42 ° 53° 48° 60 70 80 90 100 110 75° Figure 15 Saturation Line dffet> Psychrometrics Tum to theExpe1tS: . Air with 60 grains of water vapor per pound of dry air lS anywhere on the horizontal line at 60 grains.O 60 gr f 40 20 db ' F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 0 0 120 75° Figure 14 Locate a dry bulb and specific humidity p oint_ Dew Point and the Saturation Line Suppose this air is then cooled . The temperature at which the moisture content or relative humidity has reached l 00 percent is called the dew point..what happens? Observe the dew on the grass on a summer morning. The air at 75° F and 60 grains is the point where these two lines meet..- 8 .. If the temperature drops still further to about 42° F. For this example. air at 75° F dry bulb temperature is anywhere on the vertical line above 75° F... 85 90 180 160 140 120 100 Ul ~ ~ I § ._P SYCHROMETRICS. As the air at 75° F and 60 grains has the temperature reduced....

The dew point temperature for air depends upon the amount of water vapor present and is found on the psychrometric chart by moving horizontally over to the saturation curve and reading the temperature there. The Figure 17 relative humidity is approximately equal to 60 divided by Relative humidity lines resemble the saturation curve... Relative Humidity Lines The saturation curve indicates the 100 percent relative humidity line..._. Figure 16 ~' 0 Determine dew point with conditions of a duct in an unconditioned space. Moisture condenses not only on the duct.-.-- ·- 20 0 120 <fWt.' .i - .. These lines nonnally appear in increments of 10 percent and indicate the degree of saturation.-.. Here.. This line gives the dew point temperatures and is called the saturation curve or saturation line.. insulation should be used to 0 db oF• 30 40 120 so 60 70 so 90 100 110 prevent the outside surface temperature from dropping be55° 67° 95° low the dew point of the surrounding air. 60 132 =- 180 - = 45% 140 132 gr g"' 120 ~ I § a: ao ~ " 0 ~ Psychrometrics 60 gr f 40 Check this by following the 75° F dry bulb temperature line db °F• 30 40 50 60 70 BO 90 100 110 up to the saturation line could be used to check thi s. air at 75° F dry bulb with 60 grains shows a relative humidity between the 40 and 50 percent lines on the chart.... or 45 percent... 132. For example.. therefore. 9 .. the duct should be wrapped with insulation then with a vapor barrier. air has 75° 132 grains of water vapor. At a space temperature of 95° F dry bulb and 100 grains of water vapor. Lines for partly saturated air look very much like the saturation line on the chart...__-+--+--o'---+----+6€--~1oogr below the dew point of the air.. but also on "' ~ any surface with a temperature ~ o. Relative humidity is defined as the amount of moisture in the air compared to the maximum amount that could be present at the same temperature.PSYCHROMETRICS.. which is the same as the 100 percent relative humidity line.. That means the 55° F duct cools the surrounding uncondias 90 tioned air below the 67° F dew point. Enough 20 . we will check to see whether sweating occurs on a 55° F uninsulated supply air duct that runs through an unconditioned space. water vapor condenses... the dew point is 67° F.Turn totheExpertS.. .... To illustrate the use of dew point. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION A line that connects these and other 100 percent saturation points is known as the saturation line.. 95 90 Relative Humidity Approx. 3 a: If water dripping is likely to "' cause damage....

. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION One use for relative humidity lines is to determine the maximum allowable relative humidity permitted inside a house in winter without having moisture condense on the windows. . start with the same pound of air at 75° F dry bulb temperature and 60 grains of water vapor... If the window surface temperature is 35° F and the room temperature is 7 5° F. This point falls between 20 and 30 percent and is estimated at 23 percent relative humidity....... the temperature of the air drops be... In this case..) Psychrometrics Turn totheExpertS..5° F db.75° F db 61 . To see how it is obtained. "' €0 <g g 40 r ~ 20 db oF• 30 : 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 0 0 120 I ~ 75° Room Temperature Figure 18 Relative humidity lines can be used to determine maximum winter humidity levels. This device is called a saturator. except for the small amount that may evaporate.. the maximum relative humidity can be found by starting at 35° F at the saturation line and moving across until the 7 5° F dry bulb temperature line is intersected.5° F is the wet bulb temperature of air at 75° F dry Figure 19 bulb temperature and 60 grains of waWater saturates the air when passed through a water spray saturator. If the sprays are 100% rh well designed. As the air goes through the water spray. after passing through the sprays is called the wet bulb temperature.. in this case... wb cause heat is absorbed to evaporate 60 gr 45% rh 82 gr the atomized water. it is saturated with almost 82 grains of water vapor. The temperature of the saturated air.. ter vapor. Therefore.. down to almost 61.PSYCHROMETRICS... the maximum winter relative humidity is 23 percent and controls should be used to maintai n this level... Wet Bulb Temperature Lines Another term that is often used in air conditioning is wet bulb temperature. Pass this air through a series of water sprays that use the same water repeatedly. .5° F..... 61.. the air temperature drops. 85 90 1eo 160 Window Temperature 140 120 35° F 100 80 ~"' ~ 2' 3 9.. At this temperature.-- 10 ...

..PSYCHROMETRICS.-. This wet bulb process is also shown on the psychrometric chart.. If these two points are connected..... To rotmd out our understanding of the information we can get from a psychrometric chart.Turn totheExpertS. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION This experiment would be difficult to perform eve1y time the wet bulb temperature was needed. Instead.-... This evaporation absorbs heat and causes the thermometer to register the wet bulb temperature...5° F wet bulb temperature line. intersecting the saturation curve at the wet bulb temperature. since measuring Figure 20 the specific humidity or dew point Wet bulb temperature is determined with a sling psychrometer. /O'!:fZ-...... When the apparatus is whirled around.. two other properties of the air need to be explained..--6"--~~~ 60gr r db °F• 30 40 50 SO 61 .. a device called a sling psychrometer can be used more conveniently and gives quite accurate results..... In a similar manner.. All wet bulb temperatures are read at the saturation line. The sling psychrometer consists of two thermometers mounted in a frame and attached to a handle by means of a swivel... The initial unsaturated air started at 75° F with 60 grains and ended up saturated at 61. the wet bulb lines run diagonally from the lower right up to the saturation curve..5° 70 80 90 100 0 120 75° Figure 21 Wet bulb temperature lines run diagonally......~. One thermometer has a wetted cotton wick wrapped around its mercury bulb.. ct'@Oi Psychrometrics • ..--... they form the BS 90 61.-"-. This piece of • Rotate device at least 2 minutes equipment provides a convenient • Read device immediately after rotation way of determining the humidity condition in the air. air is moved across the wick and some of the water is evaporated... A dry bulb thermometer is usually mounted on the sling psychrometer so that a wet • Avoid adverse conditions that can affect reading bulb/dry bulb comparison can be in• Moisten wick before procedure stantly taken. 11 ..5° F with 82 grains.... directly is difficult to do....

The lines for these Specific Volume Lines specific volumes are shown on the psychrometric chart as almost vertical lines.// . ':.r/ "' v·~' ~1 '/ . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Specific Volume Lines 65 90 The first property is specific volume. which slant to the left. 12 . .6Qgr bulb displaces a volume of 13Yz cubic feet at sea level.f?·.. it occupies only 13 cubic feet. . For example. . :. or the total heat content of the air and water vapor mixture.-.. Enthalpy is very useful in determining the amount of heat that is added to or removed from air in a given process.1 1-. If the air is cooled to 55° 75 ° 95° 55° F.// ~ / ~~! ·. Air.PSYCHROMETRICS..~ -I'. being a gas. .j' . Specific volume is defined as the number of cubic feet occupied by one pound of air at any given temperature and pressure. =Enthalpy at saturatio~.. . /• . Specific volume is used primarily for checking fan performance and determining fan motor sizes for low and high temperature applications. . <:) ~ . ~ Figure 23 The enthalpy scale is an extension of the wet bulb lines. gr lb llb. <t'@!!I> Psychrometrics Turn to the Expe1tS. . h5 = 27. Specific Humidity 180 85 90 h.5 Btu/lb .<.. one pound of air at 75° F dry A>-r---ir-~r---T-~w--~~ :... If the air is r heated to 95° F.. ~ o. ~ 100 0. it expands and takes up 14 cubic feet.. . .. 40 90 70 c:.. .. 1~ Enthalpy Scale (Total Heat Content) Another property used in the air conditioning field is enthalpy. because the air is denser at lower Figure 22 temperatures. will decrease in density as its temperature rises./ '.

.-. enthalpy. IWet Bulb Temperature I ~--~ ' ... For most comfort air conditioning calculations.....-- 13 ..~~"4~-JL~.50 Btu per pound of air. it will look like the diagram. the exact condition of the air can be located on the chart and all other properties can be found from this one point.L--'13"'--'.. gr BS 90 lb /lbd• Specific Humidity 180...Ft---+. For example. This is shown on some charts with a deviation correction and by sloped enthalpy lines on other charts." i. When any two of these values are known..... The chart now shows dry bulb temperature._.. The enthalpy actually changes as the air becomes less saturated.... dew point temperature.... the saturated enthalpy can be used without correction. State Point If all the lines that have been discussed are combined in one chart..Turn totheE>... ..-pertS: . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION It is found on the psychrometric chart by following along a wet bulb temperature line. specific humidity...-- . Enthalpy I·~ Specific . specific volume and.....-. Such a point is sometimes referred to as a state point. :.... past the saturation line. I. wet bulb temperature.) . Specific Temperature Humidity i Figure 24 Seven properties can be found on the psychrometric chart.PSYCHROMETRICS.. air at 75° F dry bulb temperature and 60 grains of water vapor has an enthalpy of 27 ... relative humidity. Psychrometrics . and out to the enthalpy scale.'Volume ~"/ ~<:._~r Dew Point ~... The enthalpy scale is shown at the extension of the wet bulb temperature lines and is read directly where the extended wet bulb line intersects the scale..

.. or locating the properties using the two properties. now gives us a useful tool to evaluate conditions of the air at any point in the air conditioning process. Normal Temperature P>ychrometric Chart <tfiiitt».. db °F• 30 %40 ~ 70 ~ "'~- 80 90 ........ _.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Using the Psychrometric Chart All the properties pertinent to most air conditioning calculations have now been defined using the psychrometric chart........ room air. outdoor air..i Psychrometrics Turn totheExpertS...-- 14 ---- .. The state point. '*'0 .... gr lb/ lb. mixed return and outdoor air.. Specific Humidity 180 ....PSYCHROMETRICS. Let's find the properties at four points common in an air conditioning system. 100 Figure 25 Complete Sea Level. / ... and air leaving a cooling coil...

For this example assume the state point conditions are 95° F dry bulb and 76° F wet bulb. and enthalpy of 39.-.. air volume of 13 . <tMd» Psychrometrics • .. specific humidity of 105gr. air volume of 14.1 Btu/lb.5° F.. specific humidity of 65 gr.. the other properties are: relative humidity of 42 percent.. dew point of 68 .5° F... dew point of 55° F... and enthalpy of 28...Turnto theExpertS. room air conditions are normally given as a dry bulb temperature and a percent relative humidity. To find the state point on the chart. typically 75° F and 50 percent. 100 ~ <. we can determine the other air properties at the outdoor condition....1 Btu/lb 62. 40 70 90 ~0... .. 85 Room Air and Outdoor Air gr lb / lbd• Specific Humidity 180 90 39. The other five air properties can then be read from this state point: wet bulb of 62..3 ft3 .! 75 ° 110 ' 0 1:...7 ft3...5° F wb 100 . which is normally given as a dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature..- ~~J 105 grl --:f'1 ._ 120 -...b ~ 0.4 Btu/lb 76° F wb ·120 28. 95 ° Figure 26 State Point Examp les for Room Air and Outdoor Air In a similar way.PSYCHROMETRICS... we locate 75° F and follow the line vertically until it intersects the 50 percent relative humidity line.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Examples Using State Points First. 15 ...4 Btu/lb.-.

LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Common air conditioning practice is to return air from the space to the unit and to mix that air with a portion of outdoor air. ... Finally. Again. the other properties can be read: relative humidity of 90 percent. specific humidity of 63 gr. the properties can be determined by finding the state point and reading the other properties. dew point of 57° F.. ) • 'fo m tothe Expert. Typical conditions are 58° F dry bulb and 56° F wet bulb.. Work Session 1 in the back of the book covers the skills covered so far. ) 1 . the typical air conditions leaving the cooling coil can be found.8 Btu/lb.·'t 80 - ~' « \ .7 Btu/lb.5° F. Finding this state point on the psychrometric chart.. air volume of 13.8 ft3. which in this instance are: relative humidity of 50 percent.8 Btu/lb 56° F wb - ... specific 85 90 gr lb / lb..2 ft 3 . Mixed Air and Coil Leaving Air ii 23 .:~""'" ~ 40 58 ° 78 ° Figure 27 State point examples for mixed and coil leaving air humidity of 71gr.7° F wet bulb... dew point of 54.i Psychrometrics ------------------------------- 16 . This is a good time to practice using the chart. We explain how this is calculated in the next section of this module. and enthalpy of 29.. and enthalpy of 23 . Using the last two examples.PSYCHROMETRICS.. air volume of 13. Specific Humidity 180 . if 10 percent of the air is outdoor air and 90 percent of the room air are mixed the resulting mixed air state point conditions will be 78° F dry bulb and 64.-":':' ~ 71 gr l su -. . We have now developed the psychrometric chart and learned how we can determine air properties using it.

Cooling coil below the air dew point Heating with Humidification . 1. 4..Chemical dehumidification wheels Pure humidification and dehumidification are rare as some heating or cooling normally occurs in the process as well........ For our purposes.Turn totheExpe1~s.. Heating and Humidification 8..PSYCHROMETRICS.Swamp cooler Cooling and Dehumidification . Cooling and Dehumidification 7.. or both change.... Eight Basic Process Types Starting at a condition on the chart.Cooling coil above the air dew point Humidification .Steam humidifier in an air handler Dehumidification ....... specific humidity. The eight processes and a typical example are: Sensible Heating . To do this heat and moisture must be added or removed. 3. These represent the basic processes. In this section. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Air Conditioning Processes Air conditioning design is the application of a number of different psychrometric processes. If the beginning and ending point are known.. we will discuss the eight basic air conditioning processes and how the chart is used to determine the heat and moisture added or removed.Residential gas furnace Sensible Cooling . Heating and Dehumidification 40 50 60 85 90 18{) 160 120 100 70 80 90 100 110 0 120 Figure 28 The Eight Basic Air Conditioning Processes Each of the eight processes is familiar though we may not always recognize them by the process definition. 17 .. the chart can be used to determme how much heat and moisture change. Notice that as the condition changes either the dry bulb temperature.Winter heating with humidifier Heating with Dehumidification .. a process could be defined as moving from one state point to another.... Air m1xmg is also a typical air conditioning process and is included in this section as well.. directional arrows show a change m a given direction. 5. Psych rometrics ... Sensible Heating Sensible Cooling Humidification Dehumidification Cooling and Humidification (Evaporative Cooling) 6. 2...Dehumidifier Evaporative Cooling or Cooling and Humidification .

.___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.... db ... Latent Heating and Cooling Processes ) • Psychrometrics Turn totheExpertS....Changes changes without a change in the dry bulb temperature... 85 90 Sensible heat changes result in a change in temperature and are indicated by a horizontal line on the psychrometric chart.. A latent heat change occurs when water is evaporated or condensed and the dry bulb temperature does not change.... Processes that increase specific humidity are hu85 90 midification and those that j j decrease specific humidity q I = 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.. gr . Processes that increase dry bulb temperature are heating and those that decrease dry bulb temperature are cooling. Iq5 = 1.... Most air conditioning calculations are done using the volume flow rate.69 * cfm * Li grains ~ are dehumidification. .Constant ~ specific humidity and dew point change but the dry bulb remains the same.. notice that the wet bulb changes. As wb ... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Sensible and Latent Heat Changes The change in dry bulb temperature and specific humidity are referred to in air conditioning processes as sensible and latent heat changes. but the dew point and specific humidity remains the same. As the dry bulb changes without a change in the specific humidity....Changes the specific humidity dp .... a simple formula may be used to determine the amount of sensible heating or cooling (q5). Latent Heat Formula db °F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 75° Figure 30 ..10 db wb dp gr - * cfm * Lit I Changes Changes Constant Constant """' 52 gr '1 Once we know the Figure 29 change in dry bulb tempera.- 18 . This shows up as a vertical line on the chart... we can determine the sensible heat added or removed...Changes notice that the wet bulb.. With these two pieces of information... .. or cfm......Sensible Heating or Cooling Processes ture.

5.120 difference between 27...30 gr 20 0 11 0 120 atr. Reading the scale between the two wet bulb lines does this..8 Btu per pound.. in Btuh.... .5 Btu/lb. the sensible heat and the la160 tent heat..·'::. '° Therefore.5 and 25 ..7 Btu per pound.. 4.--. 55° 75° The sensible heat removed is the difference between 25. air at 75° F dty bulb and 61.. If a triangle is drawn as gr lb / lb4. If this air is cooled and dehudb °F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 midified to 55° F dry bulb and 51° F wet bulb. ble cooling of the air.~-89 gr 50 ! Latent 60 ~ Heat ~ Change ..... the amount of la20 tent heat removed is the db "'F • 30 110 ~'!.. and the enthalpy difference.PSYCHROMETRICS.. sometimes called grand total heat is found by multiplying the airflow by a constant. a total of 6..8 Figure 32 and 20.-.. The total capacity.'ii· ·.. By this using a simple formula: GTH = 4.. which equals 5 Btu Enthalpy can be used to determine the total heat removed.5 * cfm * ~h The difference in enthalpy (~h) between the time it enters and leaves a space or a coil can be used to determine the grand total heat (GTH) gained or lost.5° F wet bulb has an enthalpy of 27. The total heat is the sum of 85 90 180 ..-- < dfl!Mt> . .... ~· ..8 or 1.-. Psychrometrics .8 Btu/lb. 7 Btu is Total heat is sensible plus latent heat removed from each pound of 140 1l"' 120 I ~ 100 I AO t .. the vertical distance 100 represents the amount of moisture removed . per pound. 140 latent heat..8. we can use one additional formula to calculate the total capacity. Figure 31 Therefore.that is.. For example.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Many air conditioning processes are a combination of both sensible and latent heat changes.-. The horizontal 120 distance represents the sensi"'. the enthalpy 75° 95° Sensible Heat Change leaving the cooling coil is found to be 20. Spedfte Hum idity 85 90 shown.- 0 \ When the enthalpy difference is used.. Enthalpy can be used to detennine the total heat removed from a volume of air. The 80 enthalpy at the intersection of the vertical and horizontal 60 lines is 25.Tumto theExpc1tS: 19 ...

.5 In other words. then the sensible heat factor is 1. That is approximately the condition that exists in a department store air conditioning system... the coil provides 30. then 30. The amount of sensible heat and the amount of latent heat involved determines whether the line has a gentle slope or a steep slope. 80 <. the line starts to slope.150 Btuh = 4. If the above process were reversed.i:lr 70 ~..5 * 1000 * 6.~ Psychrometrics Tum to the Experts.:CL --"'• 'i-f' I' ~.Pr.0 and the line is horizontal . If the sensible heat factor is 0.a pure sensible heat change process...7 = 30...150 Btuh is removed. This indicates more latent heat. or restaurant.x. If 1000 cfin of air is circulated over the coil... Sensible Heat Factor If cooling is combined with dehumidification and a line is drawn showing the process. 90 '"'100 . 110 Figure 33 Sensible Heat Factor <m+. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION For our example. The mathematical definition of the sensible heat factor (SHF) is shown in Figure 33..- ti> <.. the air comes down the sloping line marked TOTAL HEAT. church. the difference in enthalpy is 6.. This combination of sensible and latent cooling occurs so frequently in air conditioning that the slope of this line has been named the sensible heat factor. it would be a heating and humidifying process. . ~ .-- 20 - -- . A heating coil to add sensible heat and a water spray to add humidity or latent heat could accomplish this...!!. the line is still steeper.7.. If the sensible heat factor is 0.. 7 Btu/lb. as follows: GTH = * cfm * 6-h 4... •i· // 85 90 "/ SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR= _ _ _S_E_N_S_IB_L_E_H_EA_T_ __ SENSIBLE HEAT+ LATENT HEAT . If no latent heat change occurs. ~ I l-1')3' i:.8.... This means that 80 percent of the total heat change is sensible and 20 percent is latent. which removes this heat. or more water vapor change compared to sensible heat or temperature change. A system with this sensible heat factor would be used for a theater.150 Btuh of total cooling capacity...PSYCHROMETRICS...

Draw a line parallel to this one passing through the air at 75° Apparatus F and 60 grams... usmg the enthalpy calculated before.-.. 60 40 20 55° 75° Figure 34 Example of Sensible Heat Factor Calculation Sensible Heat Factor Scale A convenient method for finding sensible heat can be found on the psychrometric chart. In this case.... is Use the sensible heat factor scale to find apparatus dew point... If the sensi11 0 90 %... the sensible difference is 5 Btu/lb.. 48° F. found by the Figure 35 same procedure.75.... Dew Point When the air is to be cooled and dehumidified. it tells you the temperature at which the cooling coil must operate to handle the sensible and latent heat removal. 75° the apparatus dew point..-.PSYCHROMETRICS. it is 51 ° F. First.80.. get the slope of the 0. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION For example.. gr 85 90 lb / lb..7 Btu/lb.7 difference Btu/lb...rt@j» Psychrometrics - • ..90 on the scale to the white circle..90 line by connecting 0. It is called the sensible heat factor scale. is 0.Turn to the Expe1tS. take the following steps... A small white circle printed on the chart at the 80° F dry bulb and the 50 percent relative humidity lines locates the pivot point of the scale.' . in this example..100 ble heat factor is 0. To show the 0. The SHF is then calculated by dividing the sensible heat difference by the total heat difference. 140 ~-'" 120 80 ~. the total heat change is 6. <.90 sensible heat factor line for air at 75° F dry bulb and 60 grains of water vapor.. ~ The sensible heat factor is a very useful tool when making equipment selections.. the apparatus dew point is found at the intersection of the sensible heat factor line and the saturation curve.. which... Specific Hum1dtty 100. In combination with the psychrometric chart. 21 ... and the latent is 1.

follow the 100db .9. The wet bulb temperature.. . . ~ 60 Q 40 r ~ 20 60 70 70° 80 90 100 110 0 120 100° The sensible cooling process often occurs when the surface temperature of a cooling coil is above the dew point. ... has Sensible Heating Process increased to 65° F. ...!1:4. .000cfm * (70 . notice that the relative humidity has decreased. 120.. •... as 90 q5 =1 ....33.~......~o.P..... Notice that the heat energy added in the heating process and the heat energy subtracted Figure 37 cooling process are the Sensible Cooling Process same. -~fl bulb and 40° F dew point air is cooled back to 70° F. figure.•...X-:9. .. because no water vapor has been added or Figure 36 condensed... "' 100 '"*R' 80 ..000 Btuh of heat energy are required. To illustrate a sensible ® Airflow 1000 cfm ® 85 90 180 heating process.....PSYCHROMETRICS.... :t c 3 g. ....... ·····. @ . If the air starts out at 3 80 ~ 70° F dry bulb and 54° F wet bulb.•~.... Also. •••••• !?!1... the sensible heat equation can be used to detennine the amount of heat that needs to be added to heat the air from 70° F to I 00° F..:..o. .~~.. . .. . its dew point is 60 "'~ Heating Coil 40° F as obtained from the r 40 chart. . This explains why relative humidity is high during early morning hours but decreases as the day gets warmer....100)= . .. The wet bulb drops and the dew point remains the same.10*1... .• 120 "' ~ passing it over a heating ~ 100 E' coil..~°...»'.. ® Airflow 1000 cfm 100db ... ...... In this example 33 . or electric heating coils are typical examples of this process.... Air is heated by ..... ) Psychrometrics Turn to the ExpertS: 22 ..30 40 so BO 110 dew point remains the 60 90 100 120 70° 100° same. steam heating. example shown in the psy... After sensible heat20 ing to 100° F dry bulb.•.... ... ••. ./ chrometric chart in the 70db 1d0 . Cooling Coil we have a sensible cooling process.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Sensible Heating and Cooling A process that changes the sensible or dry bulb temperature without a change in the moisture content of the air is a sensible heating or cooling process.. .. If the process is reversed and the l 00° F dry .. . 65wb ···············• ...d.. . however... . 0 If the process airflow is 1000 cfm. . the 0 db °F• . . .000 Btuh ?Odb 140 . A hot water.....

<< d@> Psychrometrics _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Turn to the ExpertS. The humidification process is a typical air conditioning process...... ... ·· . ~ P..~9 .. 80 db .. 65 dp . Sprays atomize water into the airstream to add moisture without affecting the dry bulb temperature......... The latent heat equation can be used to determine how 85 90 ® Airflow 1000 cfm ® 180 much heat energy must be added to convert the liquid water into water vapor without changing the temperature.. it is difficult to humidify without either cooling or heating the air as well. Dehumidifier db ' F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Figure 38 Dehumidification Process This process is typical of what occurs with a dehumidifier some people use in a damp basement. . during the summer. however.. 23 .... . 80 db 70wb ··············· ...-~-~ ~?.. .............• .....PSYCHROMETRICS... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Humidification and Dehumidification 85 90 180 .... If this process is reversed it is a humidification process.... 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Figure 39 Humidification Process . .. .... Removal of moisture only is not a common occunence since most removal processes also tend to cool or heat the air as well...

Mixed Air conditions nates fall on a straight line drawn to are found by ratio 25% connect the state points of the airflows of airflows being mixed. wet bulb temperature.. the mixture condition depends upon the conditions of the airstreams as they start out and the amount of each. for all practical purposes the outdoor air represents 1/4 of the total volume of air. If the outside dry bulb is 100° F. 3000 cfm of RA the mixture is equally spaced between the two... 50 percent of the difference.. dehumidified supply air that must be delivered to a space to absorb the sensible and latent cooling load Load Estimate as •o components.. and the recirculated air temperature is 80° F.... The supply air mixes 180 with the room air in sufficient quan..58) load.. If 1000 cfm of return air Example: 1000 cfm of OA is mixed with 1000 cfm of outside air. The final temperature works out to be 85° F.. Load cal60 culation programs yield three '0 numbers: the sensible. and the mixture's dew point all can be found at the state point where 85° F meets the line connecting the return air and the outside air state points... latent..... 85 90 180 The mixture's psychrometric coordi.10 * (75 .000 120 cooling load is calculated.925cfm ..000 I 35 cfm = = 1... Figure 40 The mixture point ends up closer to the recirculated air's point because of Mixing Return and Outdoor Air the greater amount of recirculated air.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION ·------------------~ Air Mixing What happens when air at two different conditions is mixed? When recirculated room air is mixed with outdoor air. Finding Room Airflow Air mixing has an important application: to determine the required quantity of cool.PSYCHROMETRICS. grains of water vapor..... Since. As long as the dew 75° 58° point is low enough the latent requirements will be met using the Figure 41 sensible load airflow. and total 20 load requirements... When the space heating and % = 44.- 24 ...•) Psychrometrics 1\irn to the Expert•'. The sensible load db "F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 °120 is used for determining the required room airflow.. the mixture ends up at 1/4 the linear distance from the recirculated air's state point to the outdoor air's state point. rearranging Airflow is calculated based on sensible load 100 the sensible heat formula and solving and supply air qt for airflow can be used to determine temperature the required supply airflow. the mixture temperature is 90° F. Calculating Room Airflow <.000 1.. db oF• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Assume the following situation: 85° 3000 cfm of this recirculated air is mixed with 1000 cfm of outdoor air...000 tity to absorb the sensible and latent q = 8.. Relative humidity.Iqs = 36.

about 3 7 to 84 grains per 84 gr pound of dry air.. . the dry bulb of the air drops substantially.. 7~ <fMllt> Psychrometrics Turn to the R~pc11S.70° F) I (100° F Figure 43 65° F)]. Filters_/ An example of evaporative cooling is the swamp cooler. some applications require cooling with high humidity.. the swamp cooler has had limited success in residences because of the high humidity it produces. .7 percent [(100° F .. a 58° F supply air temperature is assumed. the air condition 40° F dp Supply Air 36 gr moves up the wet bulb line at a constant enthalpy. Evaporative Cooling Another process that is used in the air conditioning field is evaporative cooling.. . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION An assumption needs to be made as to what the dry bulb temperature of the supply air will be in order to determine the supply airflow. When no heat is added to or removed from Spray Section \ 70° F db the recirculated water.... from 40 d. it is 85. In the example. thereby deOutdoor Air creasing in dry bulb temperature and IAdiabatic Process I increasing in specific humidity.~~. ''.. an adiabatic 84 gr process is established. with the accompanying odor and building damage caused by mildew and mold growth. The greater the satuEvaporative Cooling Process ration efficiency. ·:·: :: ··• content substantially. from ® Airflow 1000 cfm @ 85 90 180 100° F to 70° F. The example shown follows the adiabatic saturation process..P.PSYCHROMETRICS. This is essentially the same as the wet bulb process.. In addition....... When the air goes through the spray. Overall.. However. As a result. such as the production areas of a textile mill. which is one 100° F db where no heat enters or leaves the 65° F wb system. . . where substantial moisture can be added to the indoor air without creating excessive inside relative humidity.·t. which results in a required airflow of 1925 cfm. In the example 70° 100° shown. the latent heat added to the air increases the moisture . 25 . The entering air exchanges sensible heat for an equal amount of latent heat as it evaporates water sprayed into the airstream. it loses sensible heat and picks up latent heat. the lower ::. The distance the swamp cooler takes the entering air up the wet bulb line depends on the saturation efficiency of the 80 90 100 110 40 so 60 70 spray section..~5.. It provides a Figure 42 crude but low-cost and simple means Evaporative Cooling with the Adiabatic Saturation Process of using evaporative cooling to condition a space. Therefore. The swamp cooler works best for arid climates.. . ··•.... as sensible heat is removed.

. Cooling Coil 55° 80° Figure 44 Cooling and Dehumidification Process Both sensible and latent heat energy need to be removed. the sensible heat loss is equal to the latent heat gain........ down and to the left. Since no heat is added or subtracted in the total process.... Both sensible heat and latent heat decrease.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION the leaving air dry bulb temperature. ..... specific humidity and 6$ 90 ® Al....220 Btuh of heat removal by the cooling coil for this cooling process.. ... The leaving air is at 51° F wet bulb and at 4 7° F dew point.. In this example. the cold surface decreases the dry bulb temperature to 55° F. which has a surface temperature below 47° F. ) Psychrometrics 'lhrn to the ExpertS. increasing sensible cooling capacity. Cooling with Dehumidification The sensible cooling process combined with the dehumidification is the process normally associated with air conditioning... _.. it required 47. Greater saturation efficiency also raises the leaving air specific humidity. the water vapor in the air condenses...~?.. ... 26 ... 55 db In this example... air ..... about a 4-ton unit. Dry bulb.. 80 db . ....... ..... 67 wb 60 dp 51 wb "-····· . ..rflow 1000 cfm @ enthalpy all decrease. The sensible and latent heat fommlas can be used to compute the total heat removal necessary.. increasing the latent cooling load added to the space...PSYCHROMETRICS.. As the air reaches I 00 percent saturation............... at 80° F and 67° F enters a coil. As the air passes through the coil. dew point.... wet bulb.. An example of this would be an air conditioning coil. ~P. which reduces both the temperature and the moisture of the air passing through it.. .. .. This process is represented by diagonal movement on the chart........

The part that goes through freely is referred to as the bypass air. After passing through the first row of tubes..-·... The air that hits the surface of the coil ends up saturated at a temperature of 50° F... the number of fins (fins/in.-- <d@1D. If a condition closer to saturation is required.> - - - . The other Velocity characteristics of the coil that influence •-·~· cfm I face area performance are the number of rows of tubes in the airflow direction. The bypassed air is the same as when it started.. the airstream is a mixture of bypassed and saturated conditions.). Psychrometrics - . The name used for the coil' s final average surface temperature is apparatus dew point. Performance is dependent on characteristics of the coil and the air passing through it. the remainder is the contact air. then the mixture is at 70° F.. The bypass factor for the two-row coil might be close to 112.. In the above case.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Cooling Coils and the Bypass Factor In order to understand the process of cooling and dehumidification it is necessary to understand cooling coils. The Figure 45 figure illustrates one type of coil used Characteristics of Cooling Coils for cooling and dehumidifying. Air leaving the coil in this situation will be about 65° F. and the temperature of the cooling fluid in the coil. the apparatus dew point is 50° F.-- Tum to the Expe1ts..... • The mixing idea can be used to show how a cooling coil works. Some of the air hits the tubes and some of it goes right through without hitting anything.-·- 27 .PSYCHROMETRICS. then less air bypasses the coil tubes. Let us assume that air enters the coil at 80° F dry bulb and 67° F wet bulb and that the coil surface temperature is 50° F.. . If another row of cooling tubes is added. which is 2/3 the distance from the 50° F point to the 80° F point. which is the finned area length multiplied by height Height through which air flows .-. If the bypass factor is 2/3 from this one-row coil. Air cooling coils are multiple rows of copper tubes passing through either aluminum or copper fins.-. more rows of tubes can be added. One important characteristic is the face area.. The coil face velocity is then the airflow through the coil divided by the face area.

----~-~~~~__. .- 28 . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION It is apparent that • 50° F Refrigerant Temp the number of rows • 45° F Refrigerant Temp and the temperature of • 40° F Refrigerant Temp the coil will change the coil performance by allowing the air to contact more surface area or a colder surface.PSYCHROMETRICS. 0. or even fifth row.... The overall bypass factor works out to be 0.. The more Cooling coil performance. ' 180 to the saturation line.0... The bypass factor for any coil depends upon the coil conROWS struction: that is. leaving air 50° 56° 80° conditions and the average surface tern..... In the The bypass/actor indicates coil performance.. 45° F..14> Psychrometrics Turn to the Experts. the leaving air has a dry bulb temperature of 56° F.. .-. varying rows and refrigerant temperature rows there are. .q1 0.--------------./ ~ I One particular type of cooling coil shows the bypass values tabulated.. size (face area). Notice that each row added makes a smaller and smaller change in the bypass factor.1. 2 90 lb / lb"• Specific Humidity ) . The figure illustrates performance of a coil with constant air velocity and multiple rows ranging from 2 to 6 rows deep.20. It also has 40 50 60 80 70 refrigerant temperatures of 40° F..10 .Figure 46 perature.8 0...03 Figure 48 Rows of Tubes and Bypass Factor . number of fins.-.. The overall bypass factor for the complete cooling coil can be determined from the entering air 70 ~.... the gr 90 closer the coil comes .... and the tube and fin spacing. Figure 47 and 50° F.. 3 4 .5 6 BYPASS FACTOR O. the number of tubes.06 . ... third.. Economically.. it means that the sixth row of tubes in the coil is not as valuable as the second..._.. and the colder the refrigerant temperature the closer to saturation and with a lower leaving dew point temperature.. 80 90 ~ 1 00 <(l 'lconditions. example shown in the figure..

In some . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Another condition.Rows 3to 10 are to change the refrigerant tempera..18 to 0.07 equipment the system designer has • Packaged Units over 20 Tons choices as to the rows.. affecting the bypass factor is the velocity of the air through the coil.Turn to theExpertS: 29 .Rows 3to 6 area and in others.BF equipment has made the decision.. 11 'fqlf//I • 600 fpm · 0.. the lower the bypass factor.. or face . Since cooling coils are a wetted surface.Rows 2 to 4 different bypass factors.11 '"400 'fprn 500 fpm... If • Packaged Air Handlers . . • More fins Figure 50 Fin Spacing and Bypass Factor Different types of equipment have • Packaged Units to 20 Tons . AIR VE LOCITY BYPASS FACTOR 300 fpm 0..Rows 3 or4 the rows..20 11 fl/t 'f/IU. Fin surface on a tube act to increase the effective area of the tube..... fins and face area are locked ..BF 0. It can be seen that if smaller quantities of air are used with any one coil.12 to 0. the designer of the 0... the larger the coil. So.12to0.03 in for a piece of equipment the only • Air Handlers options left for the system designer ..-...03 . This is shown in the table by some typical bypass factors for various velocities. the lower the bypass factor. fins. 11 /'fr 'u.18 1 lllf/.002 ture or the velocity (airflow).. the velocity and consequently the bypass factor is reduced.. As shown in the table the greater the fins per inch. water is condensing on and running over the fin surface.BF 0..tr t//tl11!'//iit11 il!ffl 1 Figure 49 Air Velocity and Bypass Factor The final characteristic of coil construction that influences bypass factor is the number of fins. Psychrometrics . for a given airflow (cfm).PSYCHROMETRICS.BF 0. In comfort cooling FINS PER BYPASS coils typical fin spacing ranges from 8 INCH FACTOR to 14 fins per inch of tube. ·the coil LOWER BYPASS FACTORS RESULT FROM: fin spacing above 14 fins results in • Larger number of rows poor water drainage and possible water blowing off the fin surface and • Lower air velocity into the ductwork. · 1 0. The figure illustrates typical ranges of bypass factor (BF) for typical air Figure 51 Typical Equipment Bypass Factors conditioning products.32 to 0.. increasing the heat transfer effectiveness.

. Each would reduce the cost. However... for it would mean the possibility of smaller Figure 52 ducts to cany the air and a Example ofLower Supply Temperatures smaller fan and fan motor...- 30 .... The sensible heat pick up depends on the temperature difference. cooling coils are three or four-row coils with bypass factors of 0....~-___.. The limit of supply conditions depends upon how the air is brought in and the proximity of people to the outlets.12 to 0.. uses recirculating water sprays to saturate the air. Remember that a low coil bypass factor means a low air temperature leaving the coil.. In addition. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION How important is the bypass factor? Should it be high or low? There is no easy answer..PSYCHROMETRICS..... as discussed previously. Evaporative Cooling and Humidity Control 85 90 Evaporative cooling....... Of course.. this lower tempera.. very much as a conveyor belt would do. This is actually 25 percent greater.. To obtain the lower supply conditions may require the use of a larger cooling coil that would increase the initial cost. bypass factor would be de55° F 75° F sirable. which means that it would take about 25 percent less air at 50° F to do the same job.. ture obtained with a lower 50 ~ 60 50° F . For a 75° F room temperature. so the 50° F air with a 25° F difference 55° F ~ 1000 cfm can do a greater job than the 50° F ~ 55° F air with only a 20° F difference..... The figure shows the impact of lower temperature supply air going to the room to pick up heat and water vapor. on packaged products.. there are some disadvantages too.. it may not be feasible to supply air at 50° F into a small room or office without causing discomfort....07.....~~ Q ~ r db ' F• 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Figure 53 <•@Jt»• Evaporative Cooling Process Psychrometrics Turn totheE:q>ertS: . For the most common applications of comfort air conditioning. compare the heat absorbing capacity of the supply air at 55° F with air at 50° F.. VJ ~-?i' :r c 3 0: -~~~~~ ~· ~ '-. We will elaborate on this principle in light of the knowledge we have acquired so far.

The process takes place along the wet bulb line of the entering air and approaches the saturation line. Psychrometrics . Then the condenser water temperature entering and leaving the cooling tower will equalize. At less than peak cooling conditions. This process can be reversed in winter when it is desirable to heat and humidify the air. A cooling tower acts as an evaporative cooler when the compression equipment is cycled off and there is no heat added to the condenser water loop by the condenser.Figure 55 what in temperature rather than Cooling Tower . when the outside air temperature is 100° F db and 65°F wb and the condenser Cooling Process water enters the tower at 95° F. The heat is added by the mechanical refrigeration system via the condenser. Another method uses a cooling coil with recirculating water sprays.Peak Load decreasing. with the condenser pump running. the outdoor air may increase some. The heated spray water is cooled. releasing heat and humidifying simultaneously. The sensible heat given up is exactly equal to the latent heat required to saturate the air with moisture. the air is cooled and dehumidified by the spray water. area. ln this case. . the air passing through the tower has 95° F been greatly humidified. For example.No Load When operating with the compression equipment running. increasing in absolute humidity from 36 to 178 • Chiller On grains per pound of dry air. as shown here at 85° F.-- 31 - '*"*) Turn to the ExpertS. Figure 53 shows the way evaporative cooling appears on the psychrometric chart. If a continuous supply of spray water is available at a temperature below the dew point of the entering air. the psychrometric plot looks just the same as the swamp cooler.. 85° F • Chiller Off • Condenser Pump On Figure 54 Cooling Tower . under these zero-load conditions. One way the spray water might be cooled below the dew point is by using a water chiller in a refrigeration system. heat is added to the spray water to keep the wet bulb temperature of the leaving air above that of the entering air. from 100° F to 89° F. To accomplish this. In fact. The water sprays improve the performance of the cooling coil during summer operation and provide close control of humidity as well as temperature.ii Evaporative (includes Condenser Water Heat Gain) sonable leaving air condition is 89° F db and 85° F wb. The air is cooled and humidified and becomes saturated at a temperature equal to the entering wet bulb. as outside air dry bulb temperature drops. The out• Condenser Pump On door air has also been slightly cooled. The tower will cool and saturate the air flowing through it just like the swamp cooler. the cooling tower functions similar to an evaporative cooler with heat added to the spray water.Assume that the temperature of the spray water and the leaving air is the same as the wet bulb temperature of the entering air.

... Both the sensible heat and latent heat are increased. dew point..... 66... - Psychrometrics - .5 .000 Btuh humidification IS 100 db commonly practiced 70 db . and contain either a liquid absorbent. decrease.......10 * 1.69 * 1... the process is ® Airflow 1000 cfm @ 100 db adiabatic (constant .. Heating and Dehumidification Heating and dehumidification..69*1. Theoretically. or a solid adsorbent. par40 dp .-- - . winter climates.... slightly. in actual practice. or sorbent dehumidification... if the water is hot enough.~~ . is represented by diagonal movement on the chart...... Relative humidity may hold steady....Figure 56 Heating and Humidification Process ti on.... specific humidity... Latent heat is removed in exchange for a sensible heat addition.-.PSYCHROMETRICS. ····· tions located in cold 55 dp . steam....... with substantial heating load this usually proves impractical...-- .- 32 ...... <........000 cfm * (51..70) = 33.. and enthalpy all increase. .... . a heat exchanger is combined with a pad. or increase.. ·· ...... Heating and ® Airflow 1000 cfm @ q 5 = 1..... ~~... q 1= 0... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Heating and Humidification The heating and humidification process is represented on the psychrometric chart as a diagonal line. However.....·· ticularly where outdoor ventilation air is introduced. down and to the right...281 Btuh 68wb in comfort applica54wb ...... depending on the amount of humidity added... the 72wb enthalpy climbs . ··· q 1 = 0 ..... Dry bulb..5-36 ..000 cfm * (100 ... ~2 .. or atomizing humidifier to db °F• 30 40 110 50 60 70 80 90 achieve the desired level of humidifica....2 dp 61 dp ..... . --+ Sorbent dehumidifiers are installed in the central air handling unit..····· ····················• ~---~~~~~~-~--~--~ . .. At Heating Coil the air handling unit....385 Btuh enthalpy) but.. which is _..··" '"''" ' "' ' '' A heating and humidification process is possible by use of hot water spray alone..\\1. wet bulb..) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Figure 57 Heating and Dehumidification Process ••.~ ii Turn totheExpertS. moving up and to the right.97) = -11. Absorbent Dehumidifier .... ···•···· ...............000 cfm * (80 .7) = 10..b..

the moisture in the air combines with the absorbent or adsorbent. how much air is needed if the air temperature goes up to 57° F in an uninsulated duct before reaching the room? The air has lost 2° F of the original 20° F temperature difference required to handle the sensible heat. These processes are all applied in products and applications regularly used in comfort air conditioning. In fact.. returned Evaporative to the air conditioner..... in an actual air conditioning application... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION exposed to the airstream.. As the sorption process proceeds.... condensing water from the air.. the latent heat of condensation is liberated.... It may be helpful to think of the process chart as following a molecule of air on its journey through the system. the entire air conditioning process within a room from the heat Absorbed from the space. Process Chart Until now. The process chart tracks the changes in state point conditions that occur in the air molecule as it undergoes each of the processes in the air conditioning system. If 1000 cubic feet of air per minute at 55° F dry bulb temperature is needed to keep a room at 75° F.... This would indicate that 10 percent more air is needed and the decision is whether to use 1100 cfm or to insulate the duct. This concept is useful in evaluating the requirements of each piece of equipment.....Tumto theExpertS: 33 . The principles and processes discussed in the preceding two sections have identified how to find the properties of air and how the heat and moisture content change during air conditioning processes .. However.... and Cooling then supplied back to the space is a system process. the processes are part of a system and several processes are combined. (Citt#t>> Psychrometrics • .= .. increasing the temperature of the airstream and the sorbent material.... to the air delivas 90 ered to the room. As water is condensed. processes have been dealt with as if each process happened independently. db ' Figure 58 Process lines represent typical types of equipment. The principles ofpsychrometrics can be applied in another way.PSYCHROMETRICS... Temperature differences can be used when deciding whether to insulate ducts or whether to use more supply air..

This diagram is sometimes referred to as an "H" diagram. Air is then returned from the room to the air handler.~ - Psychrometrics 1urn totheExpe1tS. In this example. This is state point Air absorbs room load 1. 180 85 90 RA DEA OA EA SA 140 Return Air Direct Exhaust Air Outside Air Exhaust Air Supply Air 120 00 .. 4. Notice this is all-sensible gain and the specific humidity is unchanged. This diagram. Start by plotting this state point from the diagram. As the air passes through the ductwork. in conjunction with a system plot on the psychrometric chart. The required airflow is calculated as described.. 50 percent rh.. ·•11:•.. In some cases. sensible heating. 6() "' 11 0 0 ~. some air exfiltrates EA Some RA exhausted at/near AHU OA Outdoor air brought in for ventilation Figure 60 The complete air cycle is shown on an H diagram. a room control condition is generally assumed .. plotted on the psychrometric chart OA/RA mix in AHU 3.PSYCHROMETRICS.-- 34 ------------------ . " 1. we increase it by 1° F... and a process line.." 5... System plots can be used to understand and analyze performance Specdic Humidity !Jf lb / lb. Starting in the room. will be used in the next two modules to evaluate system performance.. The supply air absorbs the space sensible and latent heat loads in a heating and humidification process. "2" on the diagram and the point is Remainder returns to AHU 2..120 ~ Figure 59 Visualize systems with an "H " diagram and a psychometric chart. The air cycle of most commercial air conditioning systems has fi ve process steps .. it may pick up some heat as it passes through areas where the temperature is above return air temperature. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION It is advantageous to visualize this entire system of processes with a schematic diagram of the system and a system plot on a psychrometric chart. from the load estimate and the assumed supplied air temperature. Cool air passes through supply duct and air terminal or diffuser and mixes with room air DEA Some air exhausted directly (locally).normally something like 75° F." on the psychrometric chart.. let's evaluate the basic room conditioning process. a return air fan may be used and the heat from the fan will increase the return air temperature as well. . AHU produces cool air connects point "l" to point "2. To see how processes work as a system.

PSYCHROMETRICS. 1 .3 93.7 44..-- 35 • 11wn tot1eExperts.92 28. and solar and transmission gains.92 28..15 55.1 Mixed Air 2658 81.0 62.38 65.8 43..0 71.63 57.9 45." and the heat from the fan increases the temperature.7 Coil 2658 57.37 23." For this example... Air then passes through a fan. As is evident from this discussion many assumptions about conditions at state points in the system are made based on the system configuration and capability.15 55..5 50.1 93. Humidity (%) --% . Next.0 56. at state point "5.95 55.4 90. Using the mixing equations.3 Supply 2658 58.> . a cooling coil cools the air. we can determine the condition of the mixed air.0 64. the outside air condition is 95° F dry bulb and 76° F wet bulb.0 65.1 Return Air 2058 78.5 50.0 64..-. The air is again supplied to the space and it absorbs the heat and moisture that are added to the air by people. If the ADP and bypass factor of the equipment are assumed the condition of the air leaving the coiling coil is determined.-. this is a sensible heating process.1 Room Air 2658 75..90 55. Humidity Ratio (gr/lb) Enthalpy (Btu/lb) Dew Point (oF) Outdoor Air 600 90.. we have 20 percent of the airflow that must be outdoor air to provide ventilation..0 65. This is the cooling and dehumidification process. The outdoor air condition can be plotted.-... The resulting conditions are back at the room condition state point " l." EA db-T "" :1U Ory Bulb (oF) Airflow Ory Bulb (oF) Wet Bulb (oF) Rel.3 56... In this case.4 72.0 62. once again.7 65. process.to ...34 30.3 Room 2658 75.37 24. lights.3 63." This process results in heating and humidification of the return airstream.. state point "OA. state point "3. In the next modules.07 55. Psychrometrics .35 36.1 Figure 61 Complete System Plot This combination of an H diagram and a psychrometric chart system plot can be a powerful tool to evaluate system performance... A portion of the return air is exhausted so that the return air and ventilation air equal 100 percent of the required airflow.-- <§'D. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Outdoor air is required for ventilation of the space and it is common practice in air conditioning systems to mix the return air and outdoor air as they enter the air handler.. we use this approach to describe how changes in these characteristics will influence the system operation and conditions.8 64. This occurs at state point "4" on our system plot.92 28..

If you wish to delve deeper into the development of the formula and the psychrometric chart.-- 36 .. The principles discussed in this TDP module have many practical applications in the air conditioning industry. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION .-- Psychrometrics ------- . refer to the fourth module... The module also described how psychrometrics is used to determine the air properties. This information is a good start to understanding psychrometric calculations used in load estimating and equipment selection.-.PSYCHROMETRICS...-. <rilttt TumtotheExpertS.-- . .-------- Summary This module explained how atmospheric air is a mixture of gases. The next module develops further how to apply processes together into systems. can be used to determine the properties of the mixture. Level 4: Theory. and flow requirements of eight basic air conditioning processes.-- . Psychrometrics is the backbone of air conditioning...... The second work session that follows is a good test of your grasp of the introductory concepts of psychrometrics. and how a graph. and a thorough knowledge of the psychrometric chart is useful for efficient and economical air conditioning design. Review the five practical applications of psychrometrics presented previously. load. Psychometrics.. most importantly a compound mixture of dry air and water vapor. the psychrometric chart.-.-. you should now be able to apply psychrometrics to all these situations.

At what dry bulb and wet bulb temperature will the air leave the saturator? What will be its relative humidity? 4. A B c db wb 75 75 75 65 %rh dp w 40 80 65 65 D E F 55 30 30 55 W = specific humidity. Air at 95° F db and 104 grains of moisture enters a saturator as shown on page 10 in the Building and Psychrometric Chart Section... the conditions outside are 70° F db and 80 percent rh. How could you demonstrate this with the psychrometric chart? 7.. is there any need for a vapor barrier in the wall? 5. How do you explain this? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ 3... The vapor in an air vapor mixture is saturated and there is 78 grains of moisture present. a.Turn to the Experts: 37 ...-. find the proper values needed to fill in the blank spaces. On a summer day at 7 a...op ) Psychrometrics • ... An air duct having a surface temperature of 60° F passes through a space at 90° F db and 7 5 wb.-... What is the db temperature? ......6..PSYCHROMETRICS.m. The statement is made that the amount of water vapor needed to saturate a pound of air increases with the temperature of the air. If a house is maintained at 70° F db and 30 percent rh when the outdoor air temperature is +25° F. Will the duct sweat? Yes No b...... what is the relative humidity when the db is 90° F? ... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Work Session 1 1.. If there has been no rain. In midaftemoon the outdoor temperature is 90° F db. Using your psychrometric chart.-..-...... The saturator is 100% effective. lb/lb of dry air 2.op What is the wb temperature? _ _ __ 0 P . What is the dp temperature? ..

Dry bulb _ _ _ _ ° F 5. Show the process on a psychrometric chart and fill in the blank spaces below: db wb %rh dp 2. Dew point _ ____ ° F d.PSYCHROMETRICS. °F b.69 * cfi:n * grains of moisture removed 4. Specific humidity _ _ __ ---- grains/lb. Wet bulb c. How much sensible heat and latent heat is removed from 1000 cfm of this air? Sensible Heat Removed =1. Air at 30 Heated to 75 80 Air at 95° F db and 75° F wb is sensibly cooled to go° F db by passing it over a cooling coil. Air at 30° F db and go percent rh is sensibly heated to 75° F db by passing it over a heating coil. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Work Session 2 1.-- Psychrometrics ------------------------ 38 . Show the process on a psychrometric chart and fill in the blank spaces in the table below: db wb %rh dp 3.10 *cfm *temperature change Latent Heat Removed =0. Should the humidifier for a warm air furnace be located in the return air duct or in the warm air plenum or supply duct? Return Duct_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Supply Duct_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Explain why. <ril• . find the following properties of the mixture: a. Air at 95 Cooled to 80 75 Air at goo F db and 50 percent rh is cooled and dehumidified to 50° F and 100 percent rh.. If 500 cfm of outdoor air at 96° F db and 7 6° F wb is mixed with 1500 cfm of return air at goo F db and 50 percent rh.~ - Turnto theExpertS: ...

... A room is maintained at 75° F db and 50 percent rh by air supplied from a cooling and dehumidifying coil whose leaving air temperature is 55° F db and 53° F wb.25 and is operating at 56° F apparatus dew point temperature..°F What is the volume of one pound of dry air plus water vapor if its conditions are 95° F db and 75° F wb? v = _ _ _ __ _ __ _ ft 3/lb dry air 8......-.-...... 39 ........ Air at 80° F db and 50 percent rh passes through a coil that has a bypass factor of 0. What will be the db and wb temperature of the air leaving the coil? db = - 7. What percentage of the room load is sensible heat and what percentage is latent heat? SHF % Sensible Heat % Latent Heat 4 ' 0> Psychrometrics • ..... _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ Btu/lb dry air 9..PSYCHROMETRICS.. - .. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 6. Find the sensible heat factor line along which the supply air is warming up.TurntotheExpertS.. Find the enthalpy of air whose dry bulb temperature is 76° F with 60 grains of moisture...- °F wb= ...

Hg temperature room air dry bulb.. Btu/lb h's T enthalpy of saturated air at wet bulb temperature supply air. 0 P pressure of dry air. t. ft3 /lb Psychrometrics . Btu/lb dry bulb temperature. psfa. Btu/lb density. t" . water Btu/lb * 0 P total heat added or removed. Btuh specific heat at constant pressure. Btu/lb entropy..--:-=--------------=. °F t1wb temperature leaving wet bulb. Btu/lb temperature outdoor air dry bulb. Btu/lbcta * 0 P enthalpy at effective surface temperature. Btu/lb temperature mixed outdoor and 'retum air dry bulb.. cfm of outdoor air. ft /m cfmcta cfm of dehumidified air.. water vapor.. specific volume of water.. psia 3 3 fl Pg 3 partial pressure of water vapor cor- cfmra cfm of return air.______ 40 . and partial pressure of dry air.. Btu/lb p absolute temperature 0 R (t + 460° P) enthalpy of saturated water vapor. op tewb temperature entering wet bulb. op supply air enthalpy.. Btu/lb Ra gas constant for dry air e relative humidity. Btu/lb tes temperature effective surface. lb/ft 3 enthalpy of air. Btu/lb enthalpy of saturated liquid. 1545. Btuh Cpa specific heat at constant pressure. op t' wet bulb temperature. 0 P specific volume of air. Btuh sensible heat added or removed. psia. Btu/lb mixed air enthalpy. air Btu/lb * 0 P 3 latent heat added or removed. psia <t@Q> Turn to the Experts.PSYCHROMETRICS.. t' . in. 3 ft /lb partial pressure of water vapor corresponding to the dry bulb temperature.. t". 0 P tedb temperature entering dry bulb. % gas constant for water vapor entering air enthalpy.. 0 P tma temperature. Btu/lb enthalpy of evaporation or condensation. 0 P t1w temperature leaving water. psia cp specific heat at constant pressure.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Appendix List of Symbols and Abbreviations I Symbols Pg 3 cfmba cfm of bypassed air. op t ew temperature entering water. 0 P temperature ADP. ft Im partial pressure of water vapor corresponding to the dew point temperature. t' .. ft Im responding to the wet bulb temperature. op t" dew point temperature. 0 P t1db temperature leaving dry bulb. psia specific volume of air ft 3/lb room air enthalpy. Btu/lb Pa t t ADP outdoor air enthalpy. ft Im cf111o. °F barometric pressure. Btu/lb enthalpy at ADP.. Btuh universal gas constant. Btu/lb enthalpy of saturated air at dry bulb temperature. ft Im cfmsa cfm of supply air. Btu/lb* 0 P heat added or removed. 0 P leaving air enthalpy.32 2 3 0 (lbi/ft ) * ft /(lbmole * R) enthalpy deviation.

lb/lbda or gr oa w weight (mass).. moisture content.. p. moisture content... lb/lbcta or gr Wma specific humidity of mixed air.Turn totheExpertS: 41 ... moisture content. lb/lbcta or gr w's moisture content saturated at the dry Superscripts ( )' ( )" values corresponding to the wet bulb temperature. lb/lbcta or gr Woa specific humidity of outdoor air. lb/lbcta or gr ma sa mixed air conditions outdoor air conditions constant pressure room conditions return air conditions saturated (used with h.. t.... lb/lbcta or gr British thermal units British thermal units per hour cubic feet per hour cubic feet per minute feet per minute gallons per minute grains of moisture per pound of dry air in. Btu/lb ~t temperature difference. Eff. W sensible heat (used with q) supply air conditions total heat (used with q) Units bulb temperature.. °F W1a specific humidity of leaving air. moisture content.. lb/lbcta or gr Abbreviations ~gr moisture content difference. moisture content.PSYCHROMETRICS. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCJIQ_N w specific humidity.. t' .. moisture content.... lb/lbcta or gr Wrm specific humidity ofroom air. lb/lbcta or gr ra Wea specific humidity of entering air. t" Subscripts ba da ea es fg g I la dry air bypassed air conditions dehumidified air conditions entering air conditions effective surface liquid water vaporization saturated water latent heat (used with q) leaving air conditions Psychrometrics Btu Btuh cfh cfm fpm gpm gr ADP BF CF db dp ERLH apparatus dewpoint bypass factor contact factor dry bulb dew point effective room latent heat. lb/lbcta or gr Ws moisture content saturated at the wet bulb temperature.... includes bypassed air latent ERSH effective room sensible heat. lb/lbcta or gr Wes specific humidity at effective surface temperature... t. t' values corresponding to the dew point temperature.. moisture content. included bypassed air sensible and latent ESHF effective room sensible heat factor F Fahrenheit degrees R Rankine degrees rh relative humidity RLH room latent heat RSH room sensible heat RSHF room sensible heat factor RTH room total heat Sat.. moisture content.. ineludes bypassed air sensible ERTH effective room total heat. Hg inches of mercury lb pounds lb/lbda pounds of moisture per pound of dry air psfa pounds per square foot absolute psi a pounds per square inch absolute Wsa specific humidity of supply air.· . saturation efficiency sensible heat factor SHF wb wet bulb «<HP@ .. lb p WADP specific humidity at ADP. moisture content.... gr ~h enthalpy difference.

01733 1260977 1260977 .000326 0..9570 2.PSYCHROMETRICS.6862 -63 -62 0.15 -0.01734 626503 626503 -187 .01736 265773 265773 -181.19 -0 .36 13 2.33 1041.001863 0.9288 2.14 1037.08 1036.73 -0.11 1219.38 1027.000196 0.42 -0 ..3808 3.3705 2.000750 0.0299 2.4025 3.001086 0.000802 0.6029 -50 -49 0.33 1027...01736 206398 206398 -180.6929 -64 -63 0.001271 0.01738 105592 105592 -175.28 -0.5485 -41 -40 0.98 -0.- 42 .08 1219.000296 0. Sat.7685 -74 0.0525 2.12 1219.92 1219.5367 -39 -38 0.0908 2.5723 -45 -44 0.19 1025.002272 0.7405 -71 -70 0..000371 0.16 1037.61 -0.3829 3.03 1220..7900 -78 -77 0.191..01734 511446 511446 -185.17 -0..5309 -38 -37 0.59 1029..01734 478317 478317 -185.06 1035.5663 -44 -43 0.31 1219.6600 -59 -58 0..000857 0.7757 -76 -75 in.01732 1814052 1814052 -193..7063 -66 -65 -65 0.1538 2.01737 112058 112058 -175.41 1045.0753 2.46 1028.001749 0.3654 2.7972 -79 -78 0.000319 0.49 1219.3798 3.40 -0.3953 3.61 1220.01734 718508 718508 -187.01737 118959 11 8959 -176.9358 2.00 -0.3984 3.5251 -37 -36 0.6279 -54 -53 0.1782 2.3994 3.000211 0. 5193 -36 .000169 0.01733 1093149 1093149 -190.8806 2..01732 1456752 1456752 -191 .000498 0.000283 0.11 1219.001246 0.6470 -57 -56 0.3850 3.6535 -58 -57 0.6406 -56 -55 0..3881 3.30 -0.7131 -67 -66 0..1299 2.52 1219.91 1033.28 1040.98 1034.3943 3.86 1220.01736 219766 219766 -180.6730 -61 -60 0.000536 0.5967 -49 -48 0..0077 2.70 1220.3819 3.28 1026.7199 -68 -67 0.3891 3.0225 2.000464 0.23 1038.0 1735 322336 322336 -182 .01735 367172 367172 -183 .004575 0.000766 0. Va por ENTROPY 1Btu/lba/°Fl Sat.01735 283335 283335 -182 .000254 0.000263 0.9428 2.1620 2.84 -0.01735 447495 447495 -185.72 1219.01734 769864 769864 -188 ..0830 2.000612 0.0450 2.96 -0.6342 -55 -54 0.001642 0.85 1032.50 -0. .001013 0. 1379 2.94 -0.26 1219.44 1219.42 1220.37 1042.01737 134176 134176 -177.88 -0.8045 -80 -79 0.3860 3.001745 0.000655 0.001445 0.. 90 1219.55 -0.. Liq ui d Evap .5544 -42 -41 0.6091 -51 -50 0.3912 3. Vapo r TE MP OF Sg St S tg TEM P OF psi -80 0.01737 151518 151518 -177.000116 0.67 1219.9149 2.001865 0.02 -0.4005 3.000619 0.55 1029.9931 2..01736 249381 249381 -181 .9786 2.57 1220.000145 0.32 -0..21 1038.0985 2.39 1043.43 1220.002587 0.3644 2.65 -0.40 1044.001427 0.001333 0.67 -0.000533 0...000376 0.01737 161084 161084 -178.000275 0.00 1220..002128 0..9219 2.000498 0.01733 949067 949067 -189.53 1220.69 1220...00 1045 0.004299 0.9642 2.51 1028.4036 3.7615 -74 -73 0.1864 2.30 1219. Sat.94 1034..71 1031.3623 2. 1063 2.3974 3.01734 547041 547041 -186.90 -0.09 -0.000576 0.000135 0.001541 0.01737 142566 142566 -177.85 1219.50 1219.46 -0.18 1038. Sat.8942 2.5844 -47 -46 0.1700 2.2 112 2.01736 171304 171304 -178.27 1220..01733 825187 825187 -188.001632 0.62 16 -53 -52 0.4067 3.6996 -64 0. 01734 670800 670800 -187.000236 0.003343 0.41 1044.000304 0.05 -0.86 -0.000227 0.0 1735 343970 343970 -183 .S.34 -0.01732 1953234 1953234 -193.52 -0.000882 0.000245 0.7828 -77 -76 0. Hg htg hg -75 0.0004 2.3778 2.0677 2.9714 2.5603 -43 -42 0. Vapor Sat.001116 0.21 -0.57 -0.01733 884803 884803 -189.2028 2..07 -0.1 142 2.37 1220.0150 2.001191 0.01736 234067 234067 -180 .30 1040.000433 0.85 1220 . Liq uid V19 Vg ht Eva p. Liquid Vt ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) Evap..0374 2.000157 0. ) • Psychrometrics Turn to the ExpertS.54 -0.03 1035.7336 -70 -69 0.01733 1018381 1018381 -189.72 1220.63 1030.34 1042.000714 0.01736 182231 182231 -179 .3870 3.1 3 1220.52 1219.000344 0.24 1026.0600 2.7475 -72 -71 0.000979 0.000571 0.01732 1566663 1566663 -192 . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.3922 3.3664 2.000463 0.3963 3.75 -0.78 1031 .000701 0.3633 2.3747 2.901 1 2.3726 2.32 1219.8874 2.01733 1355059 1355059 -191.38 1043.000404 0.66 1030.12 1036.01737 126322 126322 -176..004039 0.002425 0.01734 5853 16 585316 -186 .5426 -40 -39 0.01735 418803 418803 -184..01 1034 .6153 -52 -51 0.000664 0.01736 193909 193909 -179.5784 -46 -45 0.001526 0.36 1042.01732 1685445 1685445 -192.4015 3.002247 0.20 1220.01735 392068 392068 -184 .001984 0.31 1041.71 1219.0 1735 302157 302157 -1 82.000182 0.79 -0.3757 2.3675 2.3685 2.38 -0. Units ABSO LUTE PRESSURE SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft 3/l bl Sat.3932 3.000399 0.25 1039.27 -0.3901 3.77 -0.4056 3.29 1220.6796 -62 -61 0.63 -0.44 -0.11 1220.4046 3.42 1027.000125 0.002760 0.000430 0.7267 -69 -68 0. 1220 2.88 1033.81 1032.7544 -73 -72 0.57 1220.001992 0...002390 0.01733 11 73848 1173848 -190.000350 0.6665 -60 -59 0.26 1220.003793 0.26 1039.3736 2.00 1220.3839 3.' .004866 0.5906 -48 -47 0.74 1031.92 1219.23 -0.71 1219.14 1220.•.71 -0 .9080 2.1 459 2.3695 2.13 -0.002943 0.3788 3.003137 0..003562 0.9500 2.001163 0.000822 0.000916 0.78 1220.82 -0.69 -0.3767 2.9858 2.002111 0.3716 2.1946 2.000945 0.001355 0. 11 -0.95 1220.

20 -0.016654 0.24 1220.011438 0..03 -0.3690 2.71 -1 67.3202 2.2966 2..6425 2.5745 2..21 1220.023288 0.07 1220.01744 0.3541 -0.70 -1 53.7015 2.4577 2.82 -160.3366 -0.62 -0.3740 2.01742 0.2782 2.019495 0.7443 2.3892 2.4687 2.76 -155.010252 0.006600 0.01744 0.01739 74341 70187 66282 62613 59161 74341 70187 66282 62613 59161 -172.3418 -0.18 -153.5912 2.3284 -0.010594 0.7694 2..43 1220.8739 2.006186 0..01742 0.18 1220..003443 0.023975 0. Evap.01740 42333 40073 37943 35934 34041 42333 40073 37943 35934 3404 1 -168.3407 2.6024 2.056872 0.4797 2.3100 2.87 1061 .6366 2.022774 0.3141 -0.007337 0.3264 -0.52 1219.14 -162.035744 0.42 1220.0 1743 0.05 1220.69 1049.051375 0.14 1219.006550 0.00 -1 58.009995 0.6309 2.027396 0.018689 0.31 1220.79 -155.7821 2.011892 0.75 1220.5968 2. Vapor TEMP 'F Sg St Stg TEMP 'F psi Ytg Vg -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 0.01743 0.3510 2.8470 2.53 1057.2691 2.6541 2.44 -171.61 1219.0174 1 32256 30572 28983 27483 26067 32256 30572 28983 27483 26067 -165.3346 -5 -3 -2 -1 0.91 1066.4469 2.3305 2.01743 14797 14073 13388 12740 12125 14797 14073 13388 12740 12125 -158.70 1064.4523 2.32 1055.3572 -0.3791 2.007898 0.26 1054. Sat .3107 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0..059817 0.027933 0.13 1220.012595 0.62 1219.8142 2.43 1047.029379 0.S.43 -172.01742 0.01744 0.8338 2.3243 -0.23 -0.01738 0...01744 11543 10991 10468 9971 9500 11543 10991 10468 9971 9500 -156.83 -156.2920 2.066131 0.002702 0.06 1220 . Sat.34 1051 .5856 2.16 -167.035878 0.4909 -35 -34 -33 -32 -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 0.76 1056.68 -162.60 -163. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.6835 2.015795 0.7757 2.062901 0.30 1220.005848 0..3013 2.3202 2.3394 2.97 1058.90 1051.95 -173 . Units ABSOLUTE PRESSURE 3 SPECIFIC VOLUME lft /lbl Sat..28 -1 60.16 1056.97 -157.87 1055.4046 2.4742 2.3551 -0.83 -174.01738 0.4098 -20 -19 -18 -17 -1 6 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 0.90 -165.Turn totheExperri.4151 2.012077 0.016718 0.65 1219." .3151 2.018502 0.17 1060.054059 0.7197 2.22 1052.3294 -0 .21 -161.013456 0.38 1220.3120 -0.003655 0.2736 2.6896 2.7075 2.01 1050.6717 2.-.92 1047.01739 0.7631 2.22 1220 .28 1220.29 1059.5022 2.7505 2.93 -157..01738 0.62 1220.01745 0.64 1057.3315 -0.3489 -0.009428 0...003242 0.34 1052.40 1050.028906 0.99 1219. Hg Vt ht htg 1219.007763 0.72 -154.96 -169. Liquid Vapor ENTROPY IBtu/lba/'F) Sat.3274 -0.076748 0.008380 0..36 -0.3171 -0.41 -0.48 1046.56 1219..0 1741 0.009179 0.09 1219.3479 -0.3603 -0.74 1220.21 -152.3130 -0.43 -170.39 -173 .25 1048.046369 0.01740 55915 52861 49986 47281 44733 55915 52861 49986 4728 1 44733 -170.003879 0.99 -0.06 1061.8012 2.004366 0.01744 0.3541 2.88 -159.021629 0.3500 -0.3223 -0.01739 0.039693 0.30 1220.020537 0. 3438 -0 .3335 -0.94 1062.26 1063.3212 -0.6599 2..3249 2.024590 0..5801 2.01740 0..009702 0.004909 0.7948 2.44 -164.3492 2.42 1220.8077 2.002872 0.47 1065.05 1219.003052 0.012750 0.37 1220.7137 2.6252 2.014117 0.19 1220.81 -166 .36 1220.51 -169.43 1220.4256 2.037696 0.6137 2.005203 0.73 1060.022050 0.38 1062.5078 2.01739 0.3459 2..4632 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 0.3182 -0.032159 0.38 1220.69 1063.033908 0..8273 2.010830 0.08 1220.01739 0.01738 99522 93828 88489 83474 78763 99522 93828 88489 83474 78763 -174.01 1226 0.025233 0.025958 0.008890 0.8670 2.01738 0.005514 0.42 1220.3253 2.51 -173.01740 0.3356 2.42 1220.3233 -0.030894 0.01738 0.2873 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0.. Liquid Evap.43 1045.048813 0.3592 -0.005502 0.90 -157..01740 0.33 1220.015806 0..3377 -0.55 1053.01741 0.005841 0.01743 0..3469 -0.3397 -0.3841 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 0.034140 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.43 -171.3161 -0.3531 -0.3387 -0.63 1220.007009 0.6195 2.11 1053.08 1057.014977 0.79 1067.3448 -0.7382 2.52 1219 .3325 -0.3110 -0.58 1065.01743 0.004116 0.41 1220.01739 0.008211 0.2827 2.59 1046.13 1049.006933 0.78 -0.01744 0.4853 2.66 1219.01741 0.94 1220.6776 2..2645 10 11 12 13 14 -4 in.01741 0.7569 2.47 hg -4 <«@@) Psychrometrics • .014197 0..4309 2.35 1066.6081 2.50 1061.4362 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 0.01742 24730 23467 22274 21147 20081 24730 23467 22274 21147 20081 -163.8404 2. Vapor ENTHALPY IBtu/lbl Sat.01741 0.8537 2.6955 2.8207 2..4965 2. 43 .026552 0.03 1046.14 1064.3428 -0.017678 0.82 -0.35 1220..01740 0.020873 0.013336 0.52 -164 ..47 1219..8604 2.041813 0. Liquid Evap.3192 -0.3520 -0.57 1219.5136 2.01743 0.41 1220.008683 0.3591 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 0.57 -0..3154 2.7884 2.07 -168.037671 0.3298 2.41 1220.01738 0.73 -152.11 1220.24 1065.7320 2.6658 2.01745 9054 8630 8228 7846 7483 9054 8630 8228 7846 7483 -154 .01740 0.3060 2..26 -166 .019753 0.3443 2.41 -169.004630 0.35 -1 59.01742 0.3943 2.014939 0.002542 0.43 1054.3995 2..032480 0.3640 2.01743 0.01739 0.44 15 2.7258 2.3561 2.4203 2.069511 0.073047 0.80 1048.005175 0.007441 0.86 1220.67 1053.017556 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 0.3346 -0.46 1050. Sat.006213 0.01742 0.01741 0.3582 -0.03 1058.030493 0.01742 19074 18121 17220 16367 15561 19074 18121 17220 16367 15561 -161 .98 -164 .6482 2.85 1059.044037 0.

0594 0.13 2631. 15 2631 .21 1335.01747 0.01604 0.2292 2.4887 2.12654 0.59 0.22202 0.1657 2.01602 0.06 1067.93 1090.01745 0.43591 0.90 1084.45 1076.052970 0.11 1068.88 3.0081 0.1105 2.01602 0.01603 0.55 1218.1191 2.76 -1 51.23864 0.045841 0. Vapor ENTROPY (Btu/lba/°F) Sat.07 1062.1159 2 .89 1085.32 -148.01602 2035.1535 2.70 1075.0334 2.32407 0.5044 2.87 1247.10403 0.5096 2.08 1219.01602 0.94 8.143233 0.30 1764.22035 0.38 1073.01746 0.1589 2.01602 2945.1590 2. 3089 -0.01603 1703.27 -150 .1321 2.20 1644.070349 0.02 2110.0909 2.2936 2.5417 2.68 2836.13153 0.130408 0.24783 0.07 1064.0321 0.07 30.3038 -0.01602 0.63 1057.30 1166.1064 2.63 -0.055563 0.06 19.01603 0.1951 -0.084671 0.04 12.60112 0.06 17.73 1218.01603 0.01746 0.23020 0.40 0.09229 0.75 1071.62 1382.084669 0.96 0.01602 0.18 1644.1554 2.87 1070.97 1064.1052 2.20355 0.2467 2.07 21 .31 1070.35 -143.30 -149.52 1079.34935 0.21 1085.53 1080.0202 0.92 1068.48 1068.58 1076.0478 0.06 16.38 11 27.85 1218.01 -0.25765 0.S.01746 0.36263 0.2915 2.11 28 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 0.15326 0.24735 0.0843 2.24 1587.11257 0.2967 -0.63 1533.073706 0.3079 -0.60 1382.62 1070.1372 2.05 14. ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) Sat.01745 0.14 1061.87 1894.09 3178.0895 2.5363 2.01602 0.5149 2.124398 0.4835 2.48588 0.67 2355.02 6.3069 -0.0878 2.058271 0.58 1061 .59 1074.1487 2.31205 0.0947 2.0637 2.10822 0.0182 0.18484 0.01604 0.07 32.46 1083.2946 2.24 1480.34 1084.85 1894.1319 2.0497 0.01745 0.84 -1 47.95 1090.1224 2.01602 3606 3450 3302 3302.067133 0.18791 0.46 13.0186 2.2205 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 0.01602 0.75 1071 .85 1218.107849 0.26780 0.3059 -0.99 2.22 1480.49 -144.1002 2.85 -143.15 1082.01 5. Hg h1 Vg •Mi».73 1828.01747 0.94 1055.32 1166.2335 2.07 1059.0102 0.04 11.88 1072.050489 0.31 1206.52 1086.67 1290.01602 0.0222 0.01602 0.32 1058.14203 0.2035 2.83 1088.71 1828.55 1068.1212 2. Units ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TEMP SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft'!lbl Sat.61 121 8.85 1247.21 0.0739 2.71 1082.118641 0.1623 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 0.45 1059.42029 0.78 23.01604 1206.45 1072.211 80 0.22 2270.05 1069.56029 0.11707 0.46869 0.01602 0.14 1075.16 3059.26 1074.16527 0. Sat.164632 0.90 1963.65 1533.2379 2.77 1078.0284 2.0848 2.23835 0.5635 2.83 1063.0536 2.13669 0.25635 0.02 0. Vapor Liquid Evap.40516 0.27519 0.07 25.1000 2.1761 2.01603 0.23 1066.1812 2.33 1077.1096 2.89 2535.59 2732.39053 0.180474 0.0282 0.24 1067.40 1127.27 1062.82 -148.07 3178.1909 -0.2926 2.06 20.0575 0.20 1057.78 -150. Liquid Evap.27831 0.07 26.150066 0.5256 2.65 1086.2077 2.102796 0.30042 0.0242 2.4938 2.01746 5657 5404 5162 4932 4714 5657 5404 5162 4932 4714 -149.82 -0.05 15.1755 2.1454 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0.03 1073.0302 0.0061 0.0385 2.00 4.19 1071 .PSYCHROMETRICS.28506 0.172387 0.01602 0.09 1079.67 1068.28 1081.07 31 .0122 0.96 1080.19 1219.08 1086.0142 2.09607 0.05 1070.0000 2.01745 7139 6811 6501 6205 5924 7139 6811 6501 6205 5924 -1 51.1240 2.01603 0. h tg hg 17 18 19 33 34 Psychrometrics Turn to the Experts.28 1764.09 1065.92 1963.2119 2.3008 -0.2987 -0.0555 0.89 1077.0940 2.43 1219.14 0.041587 0.3049 2.79 1218.1692 2.1288 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 0.86 2945.080860 0.1481 2.50 1072.18 1076.97 1069. Liquid Evap.01602 2443.92 2443.31 1071 .07 29.33 1219.07 24. 44 .043666 0.15917 0.35 -0.2248 2.0818 60 61 62 63 64 in.0517 0.41 2189.35 -145.1832 0.0459 0.45204 0.26 1587.40 1063.17158 0.1387 2.84 1081.0536 2.0689 2.5310 2. 85 -145.1 796 30 31 32 32 35 36 37 38 39 0. Sat.29 1219.77 0.47 3606 3450 3302 3302.01602 0.01604 0.33650 0.66 2836.18049 0.22919 0.5526 2.4991 2.2162 2.07 27.1867 2.07 1072.077207 0.0235 2.157195 0.088640 0.37635 0.69 2355.5689 2.0262 0.38 1219.080621 0.52192 0.5202 2.0632 2.0791 2.01745 0.01604 0.01746 0.064051 0.87 2535.01 1060.039597 0.01 1074.50362 0.1867 0.0020 2.04 10.44 2035.0971 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 0.00 1218.01747 0.01747 0.2977 -0.01603 1430.0381 0. 3028 -0.35 -144.0485 2.35 1078.01602 0. 3018 -0.1033 2.0439 2. Sat.1700 2.01746 0.85 -146.048113 0.0586 2.28918 0.96 1055.1867 0.94 1073.33 -1 47.5580 2.09998 0.2997 2.0435 2.01747 4506 4308 4119 3940 3769 4506 4308 4119 3940 3769 -146.0162 0.65 1290.49 1075.2956 -0.19900 0.67 1072.24 2270.33 28.01602 0.29524 0.061099 0.0361 0.92 1218.65 1079.58039 0.65 1066.76 1058.04 2110.02 7.01602 0.20643 0.1427 2.08865 0.03 1218.1992 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 0.4782 2.088905 0. 1645 2.79 1067.81 1219.03 1083.19 1335.13 1219.12172 0.093332 0.14 3059.21410 0.54081 0.01602 0.136684 0.91 18.1726 2.113128 0.07 22.2511 2.27 1088.2556 2.2423 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 0.1256 2. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.19559 0.097960 0.39 1087.03 9.17811 0.01747 0.0613 0.76 1430. Vapor TEMP OF St Sg S tg OF psi Vt Ytg 15 16 17 18 19 0.0400 0.0978 2.14755 0.1354 2.89 1703.0420 0.1521 2.14 1075.99 1069.07 1087.2600 2.70 1083.1265 2.01747 0.0041 2.0341 2.01603 0.26562 0.43 2189.43 -0.34 1219.5472 2.16 1074.70 1089.19181 0.61 2732.

50736 0.00 1030.96 1034.01606 0.0698 2.01607 0.03 69.59 1093.9560 1.9419 1.0802 0..8479 1.53 1106.55931 0.04 1045.57763 1.01611 0.8097 1.67 1099.55 1102.77 287.98 1106.01607 0..06 47.01614 349.43162 2.1098 1.0088 2.84 576.1080 0.06 46.07 40.02 71 .37586 0...39138 1.53 1034.01609 0.92 272.84 392.97930 1.0039 1.66 1108.71478 0.86776 0..03956 1.1260 0.66189 1.0187 2.38 237..01611 467.90 340.71364 1.8523 1.90 1046.31381 1.01 76.13 330.01608 0.1508 0.72111 0.99387 2.-- 45 .0914 1.01613 0.19 867.73964 0.15 330.37 594.29 1049.9497 1.56 613.69889 0.74394 0.0896 0.39 1109.71 321.1152 0.81 511.1455 1.1134 0.36 1041 .01617 0.11 1052.0352 2.01 82.03 66.62249 0.01610 0.01610 0.56244 1.29440 1.69 1102.04 415..40217 0.61151 0.9973 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 0.46 43.24 1032..0324 2.30574 0.10301 1.8785 2.01611 0..55 312...76 1096.04 62.01612 0.13877 1. Liquid Evap.9819 1.9327 1.8653 1.0970 0.93 1098.1170 0.1278 1.15 481.79 1041. Liquid Evap.85 763.19 1044.44 1090.32 381.05 1048.81883 0.06 652..01606 867.81 1033.45226 2..44465 0.1296 0.1061 0.01 77.0523 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 0.25385 1.01609 0.22 1095.8874 1.75 1092.0840 0.0951 0.31656 0.0610 2.8741 1..52 1038.8056 1.92 340.8919 1.40 0.54150 0.01606 0.94 526.9750 1..02 244.0133 2.68 1053.02 1036.12 925.9941 2.93587 0.01608 0.43008 0.36 73.83288 2.01609 0.9797 1.01618 265.0079 2.01 79.79 511.16977 1.44 360.33608 1.01614 0.06 1050.1314 0.36 237.26 1107.54 1099.01617 0. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.06 1043.92 1094.81 0.1349 0.8830 1.49100 0.62 1044.0689 0.05 1093.87 763.26 1101.23999 2.Turn to the ExpertS: .13597 1.31 0..01607 739.9546 1.26 0.1332 0.0765 0.51 453.38 673.27644 1..61 1093.51468 1.9053 1.8013 1. Sat.0494 2.04 244. Vapor Vt Vtg ENTHALPY (Btu/lbl Sat.40 1100.04 652.01612 0.76678 1.66724 0.69 321 .9099 1.0988 0.92 526.97 956.0746 0.24575 2.68 1108.11 1108.08 1100.1367 1.38 1104.0214 2.07 39.76526 0.9768 1.1188 1.10 925.92207 1.0708 0.S.45 895.07 35.38 1029.45 1019.01617 0.08 1096.9513 1.45966 0.02 75.19 370.46820 1. Liquid Evap.35212 1.21442 1.9654 1.50 1055.01605 1020.33 1045.01 1090.61 53.04 60.01610 542.57 1090.42295 1.01604 0.36 839.01612 0.98 1103.08 295.01608 0.07 1056.01612 0.65622 0.01605 0.1006 1.9281 1.75293 2.9990 1.0269 2.39 787.44 716.05 56.01 1033.78 1095.35 594.00 987.24 1089.73 279.42 1091 .1242 0.05 57.76 58.51 1069.67726 1.0783 0. Sat.0933 0.95 1038.01606 0.51 694.90 78.9702 2.0877 0.18 1092.88 265.11667 2.9693 1.65 0.34 839.05443 2.06 415.22 496.01608 632.04 61.59 542. Sat.69 68.8139 1.75 287.9373 1.63 632.9594 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 1.01 257.01 81.96732 0.95 1097.17606 0.01609 0.10 1031..01605 0.9474 110 111 112 113 114 71 <@@.0552 2.84166 0.9144 1.00904 1.87 33.18034 0.85 1021.1043 0.10 1035.03 65.03 64.9844 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 0.92 559.53 694.24 1110.04 59.0787 2.0668 65 66 67 68 69 70 72 73 74 0..76740 0.67 1032.90532 0.0136 2. Units ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TEMP OF psi in.07 34.8351 1.81 1110.33921 0.87564 0.9793 1.99 403 .03298 1.9893 1.8308 1..83 1107..05 52.8566 1.89456 0.1025 0..9619 1.16 1048.54 0.40 673.1385 0.01605 0.01613 403.91 251.88 1091 .79164 0.07 37.65 48.1116 0.23 1028.37 1054..8181 1.0821 1.12 0.53 312.02 70.01 80. Vapor TEMP OF Sg St Stg hg 65 66 67 68 69 0.99968 0.07 36.86 1050.05 54.0758 2.21 370.88 813.01615 0.1525 0.79150 1.84682 0.0639 2.42 359.01605 0.82134 1.67 349.9466 2.90 559.97 0.8697 1.11 1099.41 1103.43 895.93 251.90 272.1490 0.06 49.0106 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 0.42 716.0409 2.01613 0..37 787.0160 2.91 440.1438 0.9921 1.0000 1.0297 2.52464 0.10 295.01616 0.59885 2.37892 0.05 55.13 481..44 739..81 1037.1473 0.9607 1.06 44.35107 0.9668 1.20 496.82 576.9870 1.80 1029.34 381.95 1030.53 453.38168 2.01618 0.23 1102..41592 0.06 50.66 0.83 1101.1224 0.0380 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 0.7931 1.34 304.38 1037.02 1047.21 38.74 467. Vapor h1 Vg h19 ENTROPY (Btu/lba/°Fl Sat.7972 1.65 1040.81 1054.54 1051 .1543 1.8394 1.0242 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 0.81625 0.01616 304.49 1042.71 279.03 257.69065 0.87736 0..84 1104.-.9008 2.9570 1.47510 0.20444 1.8610 1.96 1109.76 428.95031 0.61584 0.0858 0.93 440.69 1105.67494 2.9845 1.9236 2.8436 1.98 1051.0670 0.35 1094.PSYCHROMETRICS.10250 1.9895 1.02 72.24 1098.01 63.06 45.9521 1.9643 1.0026 2.01615 0.48 0.07 41.32772 0..0437 2.36328 0.07088 1.-.93485 1.12 1105.07 42.0651 0.59647 0.38882 0.55 1105.9189 1.64452 0.1420 0.03 67.8266 1.78 428.0727 2.0053 2.01616 0.8223 1.9743 1.91481 0.54 613.06 1053.01614 0.01606 0.0728 2.22 1040.05 51.86 813.31285 2.63575 0.86 392.94 1055.98 987.02 74.52419 0.01607 0.1206 0.9947 1.0580 2.> Psychrometrics .95 956.04 1042.1402 0. Hg SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft3/lbl Sat.01604 0.72 1049.66 1036.38 1097.9718 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1.0465 2.8963 1.06725 1.03 1039.

PSYCHROMETRICS, LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation : U.S. Units
A BSOLUTE PRESSURE
TEMP
"F

psi

in. Hg

SPECIFIC VOLUME lft3/lbl
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap.
Vapor
Vt

Vtg

ENTHALPY IBtu/lbl
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap.
Vapor
h1g

hg

ENTROPY 1Btu/lba/°Fl
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid Evap. Vapor TEMP
Sg
"F
S1g
St

Vg

h1

115
116
117
11 8
11 9

1.47286
1.51512
1.55842
1.60277
1.64820

2.99878
3.08481
3.17296
3.26327
3.35577

0.01619
0.01619
0.0 1619
0.01620
0.01620

231.61
225.53
2 19.63
213.91
208.35

231.63
225.55
219.65
213.93
208.37

83.00
84.00
85.00
86.00
87.00

1028.09
1027.51
1026.93
1026.36
1025.78

11 11.09
111 1.51
11 11.93
11 12.36
1112.78

0.1560
0.1577
0.1595
0.1612
0.1629

1.7890
1.7849
1.7807
1.7767
1.7727

1.9450
1.9426
1.9402
1.9379
1.9356

11 5
116
117
118
119

120
121
122
123
124

1.69474
1.74240
1.79117
1.84117
1.89233

3.45052
3.54755
3.64691
3.74863
3.85282

0.01620
0.0 1621
0.01621
0.01622
0.01622

202.97
197.74
192.67
187.76
182.97

202.99
197.76
192.69
187.78
182.99

88.00
89.00
90.00
90.99
91 .99

1025.20
1024.62
1024.05
1023.48
1022.90

11 13.20
11 13.62
1114.05
11 14 .47
1114.89

0.1647
0.1664
0.1681
0.1698
0.1715

1.7685
1.7645
1.7605
1.7565
1.7525

1.9332
1.9309
1.9286
1.9263
1.9240

120
121
122
123
124

125
126
127
128
129

1.94470
1.99831
2.05318
2.10934
2.16680

3.95945
4.06860
4 .18032
4.29465
4.41165

0.01623
0.01623
0.01623
0.01624
0.01624

178.34
173.84
169.47
165.23
161 .10

178.36
173.86
169.49
165.25
161.1 2

92.99
93.99
94.99
95.99
96.99

1022.32
1021.74
1021 .16
1020.58
1020.00

1115.31
111 5.73
1116.15
11 16.57
1116.99

0.1732
0. 1749
0.1766
0.1783
0.1800

1.7485
1.7446
1.7406
1.7367
1.7327

1.9217
1.9195
1.9172
1.9150
1.9127

125
126
127
128
129

130
131
132
133
134

2.22560
2.28576
2.34730
2.41025
2.47463

4.53136
4.65384
4.77914
4.90730
5.03839

0.01625
0.01625
0.01626
0.01626
0.01627

157.10
153.21
149.44
145.76
142.21

157.12
153.23
149.46
145.78
142.23

97.99
98.99
99.99
100.99
101.99

1019.42
1018.84
1018.26
1017.68
1017.09

1117.41
11 17.83
1118.25
1118.67
1119.08

0.1817
0.1834
0.1851
0. 1868
0.1885

1.7288
1.7249
1.7210
1.7171
1.7132

1.9105
1.9083
1.9061
1.9039
1.9017

130
131
132
133
134

135
136
137
138
139

2.54048
2.60782
2.67667
2.74707
2.81903

5.17246
5.30956
5.44975
5.59308
5.73961

0.01627
0.01627
0.01628
0.01628
0.01629

138.74
135.37
132.10
128.92
125.83

138.76
135.39
132.12
128.94
125.85

102.99
103.98
104.98
105.98
106.98

1016.51
1015.94
1015.36
1014.77
1014.19

1119.50
1119.92
1120.34
1120.75
112 1.17

0.1902
0.1919
0.1935
0.1952
0.1969

1.7093
1.7055
1.7017
1.6978
1.6940

1.8995
1.8974
1.8952
1.8930
1.8909

135
136
137
138
139

140
141
142
143
144

2.89260
2.96780
3.04465
3.12320
3.20345

5.88939
6.04250
6.19897
6.35888
6.52229

0.01629
0.01630
0.01630
0.01631
0.01631

122.82
119.90
117.05
114.29
111.60

122.84
119.92
117.07
114.31
111.62

107.98
108.98
109.98
110.98
11 1.98

1013.60
1013.02
1012.43
1011 .85
101 1.26

1121.58
1122.00
1122.41
1122.83
1123.24

0.1985
0.2002
0.2019
0.2035
0.2052

1.6903
1.6865
1.6826
1.6789
1.6751

1.8888
1.8867
1.8845
1.8824
1.8803

140
141
142
143
144

145
146
147
148
149

3.28546
3.36924
3.45483
3.54226
3.63156

6.68926
6.85984
7.034 10
7.21211
7.39393

0.01632
0.01632
0.01633
0.01633
0.01634

108.98
106.43
103.96
101.55
99.20

109.00
106.45
103.98
101.57
99.22

112.98
113.98
114 .98
115.98
116.98

1010.68
1010.09
1009.50
1008.91
1008.33

1123.66
1124.07
1124.48
1124.89
1125.31

0.2068
0.2085
0.2101
0.2 11 8
0.2134

1.6715
1.6677
1.6640
1.6603
1.6566

1.8783
1.8762
1.8741
1.8721
1.8700

145
146
147
148
149

150
151
152
153
154

3.72277
3.81591
3.911 01
4.00812
4. 10727

7.57962
7.76925
7.96289
8.16061
8.36247

0.01634
0.01635
0.01635
0.01636
0.01 636

96.92
94.70
92.54
90.44
88.39

96.94
94.72
92.56
90.46
88.41

117.98
118.99
119.99
120.99
121.99

1007.74
1007.14
1006.55
1005.96
1005.37

1125.72
1126.13
1126.54
1126.95
1127.36

0.2151
0.2167
0.2184
0.2200
0.2216

1.6529
1.6492
1.6455
1.6419
1.6383

·1.8680
1.8659
1.8639
1.8619
1.8599

150
151
152
153
154

155
156
157
158
159

4 .20848
4.31180
4.41725
4.52488
4 .63472

8.56854
8.77890
8.99360
9.21274
9.43637

0.01637
0.01637
0.01638
0.01638
0.01639

86.39
84.45
82.56
80.71
78.92

86.41
84.47
82.58
80.73
78.94

122.99
123.99
124.99
125.99
126.99

1004.78
1004.19
1003.60
1003.00
1002.41

1127.77
1128.18
1128.59
1128.99
1129.40

0.2233
0.2249
0.2265
0.2281
0.2297

1.6346
1.6310
1.6274
1.6238
1.6203

1.8579
1.8559
1.8539
1.8519
1.8500

155
156
157
158
159

160
161
162
163
164

4.74680
4 .86120
4 .97780
5.09690
5.21830

9.66460
9.89740
10.13500
10.37740
10.62460

0.01639
0.01640
0.01640
0.01641
0.01642

77. 176
75.472
73.813
72.197
70.620

77.192
75.488
73.829
72.213
70.636

127.99
128.99
130.00
131.00
132.00

1001 .82
1001 .23
1000.62
1000.03
999.43

1129.81
1130.22
1130.62
1131.03
1131.43

0.2314
0.2330
0.2346
0.2362
0.2378

1.6166
1.6131
1.6095
1.6060
1.6025

1.8480
1.8461
1.8441
1.8422
1.8403

160
161
162
163
164

<M>

Psychrometrics

Turn to the Experti - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - --

46

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

PSYCHROMETRICS, LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.S. Units
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE
TEMP
OF

psi

in. Hg

SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft3/lb)
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap.
Vapor
Vt

Vtg

ENTHALPY (Btu/lb)
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap.
Vapor
h,

Vg

htg

hg

ENTROPY (Btu/lba/°F)
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap. Vapor TEMP
OF
Sg
St
Stg

165
166
167
168
169

5.34220
5.46850
5.59740
5.72870
5.86270

10.87680
11.1 3400
11 .39630
11 .66380
11.93660

0.01642
0.01 643
0.01643
0.01644
0.01644

69.085
67.588
66.130
64 .707
63.320

69.101
67.604
66.146
64.723
63.336

133.00
134.00
135.00
136.01
137.01

998.84
998.24
997.64
997.04
996.44

1131.84
1132.24
1132.64
1133.05
1133.45

0.2394
0.2410
0.2426
0.2442
0.2458

1.5989
1.5954
1.59 19
1.5884
1.5850

1.8383
1.8364
1.8345
1.8326
1.8308

165
166
167
168
169

170
171
172
173
174

5.99930
6.13860
6.28060
6.42530
6.57290

12.21480
12.49830
12.78740
13 .08210
13.38250

0.01645
0.01646
0.01646
0.01647
0.01647

61 .970
60.650
59.364
58.112
56.888

61.986
60.666
59.380
58.128
56.904

138.01
139.01
140.01
141 .02
142 .02

995.84
995.24
994.65
994.04
993.44

1133.85
1134.25
1134.66
1135.06
11 35.46

0.2474
0.2490
0.2506
0.2521
0.2537

1.5815
1.5780
1.5745
1.5712
1.5677

1.8289
1.8270
1.8251
1.8233
1.8214

170
171
172
173
174

175
176
177
178
179

6.72320
6.87650
7.03270
7.19180
7.35390

13.68860
14.00060
14.31860
14.64260
14.97270

0.01648
0.01648
0.01649
0.01650
0.01650

55.695
54.533
53.398
52.291
51.210

55.711
54.549
53.414
52.307
51.226

143.02
144.02
145.03
146.03
147.03

992.84
992.24
991.62
991.02
990.42

1135.86
1136.26
1136.65
1137.05
1137.45

0.2553
0.2569
0.2585
0.2600
0.2616

1.5643
1.5609
1.5574
1.5541
1.5507

1.8196
1.8178
1.8159
1.8141
1.8123

175
176
177
178
179

180
181
182
183
184

7.51910
7.68740
7.85890
8.03350
8.21140

15.30910
15.65180
16.00080
16.35640
16.71850

0.01651
0.01651
0.01652
0.01653
0.01653

50.154
49 .126
48.121
47.141
46.185

50 .171
49.143

148.04
149.04

989.81
989.20

1137.85
1138.24

48.138
47.158
46 .202

150.04
151 .05
152.05

988.60
987.98
987.38

1138.64
1139.03
1139.43

0.2632 1.5473 1.8105
0.2647 1.5440 1.8087
0.2663 1.5406 1.8069
0.2679 1.5372 1.8051
0.2694 1.5340 1.8034

180
181
182
183
184

185
186
187
188
189

8.39260
8.57700
8.76490
8.95620
9.15100

17.08740
17.46300
17.84550
18.23500
18.63160

0.01654
0.01654
0.01655
0.01656
0.01656

45.250
44.339
43.448
42 .578
41 .729

45 .267
44 .356
43.465
42 .595
41 .746

153.05
154.06
155.06
156.07
157.07

986.77
986.16
985.55
984.93
984.32

1139.82
1140.22
1140.61
1141.00
1141.39

0.2710
0.2725
0.2741
0.2756
0.2772

1.5306
1.5273
1.5240
1.5207
1.5174

1.8016
1.7998
1.7981
1.7963
1.7946

185
186
187
188
189

190
191
192
193
194

9.34930
9.55120
9.75670
9.96590
10.17880

19.03530
19.44640
19.86480
20.29070
20.72420

0.01657
0.01658
0.01658
0.01659
0.01659

40.901
40.091
39.300
38.527
37.773

40.918
40.108
39.317
38.544
37.790

158.07
159.08
160.08
161.09
162.09

983.71
983.10
982.49
981.86
981.25

1141.78
1142.18
1142.57
1142.95
1143.34

0.2787
0.2803
0.2818
0.2834
0.2849

1.5142
1.5108
1.5076
1.5043
1.5011

1.7929
1.7911
1.7894
1.7877
1.7860

190
191
192
193
194

195
196
197
198
199

10.39550
10.61600
10.84040
11 .06870
11 .30100

21.16530
21.61430
22.07120
22.53610
23.00910

0.01660
0.01661
0.01661
0.01662
0.01663

37.035
36.314
35.611
34.923
34.251

37.052
36.331
35.628
34.940
34.268

163.10
164.10
165.11
166.11
167.12

980.63
980.02
979.40
978.78
978.16

1143.73
1144.12
1144.51
1144.89
1145.28

0.2864
0.2880
0.2895
0.2910
0.2926

1.4979
1.4946
1.4914
1.4882
1.4850

1.7843
1.7826
1.7809
1.7792
1.7776

195
196
197
198
199

200
201
202
203
204

11.53740
11 .77790
12.02250
12.27130
12.52440

23.49040
23.98000
24.47800
24.98470
25.50000

0.01663
0.01664
0.01665
0.01665
0.01666

33.593
32.951
32.323
31.709
31.110

33.610
32.968
32.340
31 .726
31.127

168.13
169.13
170.14
171.14
172.15

977.53
976.92
976.29
975.67
975.05

1145.66
1146.05
1146.43
1146.81
1147.20

0.2941
0.2956
0.2971
0.2986
0.3002

1.4818
1.4786
1.4755
1.4723
1.4691

1.7759
1.7742
1.7726
1.7709
1.7693

200
201
202
203
204

205
206
207
208
209

12.78190
13.04360
13.30990
13.58060
13.85580

26.02410
26.55710
27.09910
27.65030
28.21080

0.01667
0.01667
0.01668
0.01669
0.01669

30.523
29.948
29.387
28.839
28.302

30.540
29.965
29.404
28.856
28.319

173.16
174.16
175.17
176.18
177.18

974.42
973.80
973.17
972.54
971.92

1147.58
1147.96
1148.34
1148.72
1149.10

0.3017
0.3032
0.3047
0.3062
0.3077

1.4660
1.4628
1.4597
1.4566
1.4535

1.7677
1.7660
1.7644
1.7628
1.7612

205
206
207
208
209

210
211
212
213
214

14.13570
14.42265
14.70960
15.00605
15.30250

28.78060
29.36475
29.94890
30.55260
31.15630

0.01670
0.01671
0.01671
0.01672
0.01673

27.778
27.271
26.763
26.277
25.790

27.795
27.288
26.780
26.294
25.807

178.19
179.20
180.20
181 .21
182.22

971.29
970.66
970.03
969.40
968.76

1149.48
1149.86
1150.23
1150.61
1150.98

0.3092
0.3107
0.3122
0.3137
0.3152

1.4504
1.4473
1.4442
1.4411
1.4380

1.7596
1.7580
1.7564
1.7548
1.7532

210
211
212
213
214

<tW•>


_Psychrometrics
_:__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Turn to the Experts.

47

PSYCHROMETRICS, LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.S. Units
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE
TEMP

OF

psi

in. Hg

SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft3/lbl
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap.
Vapor
Vt

Ytg

ENTHALPY IBtu/lbl
Sat.
Sat.
Evap.
Liquid
Vapor
ht
htg
hg

Yg

ENTROPY IBtu/lba/°Fl
Sat.
Sat.
Liquid
Evap. Vapor TEMP
'F
St
Stg
Sg

215

15.60885

31.77995 0.01674

25.326

25.343

183.23

968. 13

1151.36

0.3167 1.4350 1.7517

215

216

15.91520

32.40360 0.01674

24.861

24.878

184.24

967.49

1151 .73

0.3182 1.4319 1.7501

216

217

16.23155

33.04775 0.01675

24.416

24.433

185.25

966.86

16.54790

33.69190 0.01676

23.970

23.987

186.25

966.23

1152.11
1152.48

0.3197 1.4288 1.7485 217

218
219

16.87460

34.35685 0.01677

23.544

23.561

187.26

965.59

1152.85

0.3227 1.4227 1.7454 219

0.3212 1.4257 1.7469 218

220

17.20130

35.02180 0.01677

23.117

23.134

188.27

964.95

1153.22

0.3241

221

17.53860

35.70870 0.01678

22.708

22.725

189.28

964.31

1153.59

0.3256 1.4167 1.7423 221

1.4197 1.7438

220

222

17.87590

36.39560 0.01679

22.299

22.316

190.29

963.67

1153.96

0.3271

223

18.22400

37.10435 0.01680

21.908

21.925

191 .30

963.03

1154.33

0.3286 1.4106 1.7392 223

224

18.57210

37.81310 0.01680

21.51 6

21.533

192 .31

962.39

1154.70

0.3301

225

18.93130

38.54445 0.01681

21.141

21.158

193.32

961.75

1155.07

0.3316 1.4031

226

19.29050

20.765

20.782

194.33

961.10

1155.43

20.422

195.34

960.46

1155.80

0.3330 1.3986 1.7347 226
0.3345 1.3972 1.7332 227

20.062
19.717

196.35

959.81
959.17

1156.16

0.3359 1.3957 1.7316 228

1156.53

0.3374 1.3913 1.7302 229

1.4136 1.7407 222
1.4076 1.7377 224
1.7362 225

227

19.66105

39.27580 0.01682
40.03030 0.01683

228

20.03160

40.78480 0.01683

20.405
20.045

229

20.41385

41.56300 0.01684

19.700

230

20.79610

42.34120 0.0 1684

19.355

19.372

198.37

958.52

1156.89

0.3389 1.3868 1.7287

231

21. 19020

43. 14365 0.01685

19.024

19.041

199.38

957.88

1157.26

232

21.58430

18.692

18.709

200.39

957.23

1157.62

233

21.99065

43.94610 0.01686
44.77335 0.01687

0.3404 1.3839 1.7272 231
0.3418 1.3809 1.7257 232

18.374

18.391

956.58

1157.98

234

22.39700

45.60060 0.01688

18.056

18.073

201.40
202.41

955.93

1158.34

235

22.81575

46.45330 0.01689

17.751

17.768

203.43

955.28

11 58.70

0. 3462 1.3722 1.7213 235

236

23.23450

17.446

17.463

204.44

954 .62

237

23.66610

47.30600 0.01689
48.18465 0.01690

17.153

17.170

205.45

953.97

1159.06
11 59.42

0.3476 1.3693 1.7198 236
0.3491 1.3679 1.7184 237

238

24.09770

1159.77

0.3505 1.3664 1.7169

238

16.596

206.46
207.48

953.31

24.54230

16.860
16.579

16.877

239

49.06330 0.01691
49.96855 0.01692

952.65

1160.13

0.3520 1.3621

239

240

24.98690

50.87380 0.01692

208.49
209.50

0.3534 1.3577 1.7140 240

51 .80620 0.01693

16.314
16.044

11 60.48

25.44485

16.297
16.027

951.99

241

1160.84

0.3549 1.3549 1.7126

242

25.90280

52 .73860 0.01694

15.757

15.774

210.51

951.34
950.68

1161 .19

0.3563 1.3520 1.7111

197.36

230

0.3433 1.3780 1.7242 233
0.3447 1.3751 1.7227 234

1.7155

241
242

243

26.37445

53.69885 0.01695

15.498

15.515

211.53

950.02

11 61.55

0.3578 1.3492 1.7097 243

244

26.84610

54.65910 0.01695

15.238

15.255

212. 54

949.36

11 61.90

0.3592 1.3463 1.7083 244

245

27.33165

15.006

213.56

948.70

14.739

14.756

214.57

948.03

11 62.25
1162.60

0.3607 1.3434 1.7069 245

27.81720

247

28.31705

55.64775 0.01696
56 .63640 0.01697
57.65405 0.01698

14.989

246

14.499

14.516

215.59

947.36

11 62.95

0.3635 1.3391

0.3621

1.3405 1.7055
1.7041

246
247

248

28.81690

58.67170 0.01698

14.259

14.276

216.60

946.69

1163.29

0.3649 1.3377 1.7026 248

249

29.33130

59 .71905 0.01699

14.029

14.046

217.62

946.03

1163.64

0.3664 1.3335 1.7012

250
251

29.84570

60.76640 0.01700

218.63

945.36

61 .84410 0.01701

13.798
13.576

13.815

30.37500

13.594

219.65

1163.99
11 64.34

252

30.90430

62.92180 0.01702

13.355

13.372

220.66

944.69
944.02

1164.68

0.3678 1.3293 1.6998 250
0.3692 1.3265 1.6985 251
0.3706 1.3237 1.6971 252

253

64.03045 0.01 703

13.141

13.159

221.68

943.35

11 65 .03

0.3721

254

31.44885
31 .99340

65.13910 0.01703

12.928

12.945

222.69

942.68

11 65.37

0.3735 1.3181

255

32.55345

66 .27940 0.01704

12.714

12.732

223.71

942.01

11 65.71

256

33. 11 350

67.4 1970 0.01705

12.501

12.51 8

224.72

941.33

11 66.05

0.3749 1.3154 1.6930 255
0.3763 1.3126 1.6916 256

257

33.68940

12.329

225.74

940.65

1166.39

34.26530

68.59230 0.01706
69.76490 0.01707

12.312

258

12.123

12.140

226.76

939.97

1166.73

259

34.35745

70 .97045 0.01708

11 .932

11.950

227.78

939.29

11 67.07

260

34.44960

11 .759

228.79

938.61

1167.40

35.55825

72.17600 0.01708
73.41525 0.01709

11.742

261

11 .559

11.576

229.8 1

937.93

11 67 .74

262

36.66690
37.29245

74.65450 0.01710
75.92810 0.017 11

11.376

11.393

230.83

937.25

1168.08

263

11.200

11.217

231.85

11 68.41

264

37.91800

77 .20170 0.01712

11 .024

11 .041

232.87

936.56
935.87

<(@Ol•
Turn to the Experts. - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

1168.74

249

1.3209 1.6957 253
1.6943 254

0.3778 1.3112 1.6903 257
0.3792 1.3097 1.6889 258
0.3806 1.3056 1.6876 259
0.3820 1.3015 1.6862 260
0.3834 1.2988 1.6849 261
0.3848 1.2960 1.6835 262
0.3862 1.2933 1.6822 263
0.3876 1.2905 1.6808 264

Psychrometrics
- - - - --

48

----------------

6402 296 64.35 1171 .4318 1.75 0.684 10..40 0. Sat.6488 289 290 291 292 293 294 57.450 6.01735 7.6476 290 58.70400 91.146 253.4044 1.6677 274 275 45.14 926.98 931.827 6.01734 7.88060 85.04195 134.08130 130.4127 1.6742 269 41.907 240.6664 275 94.6415 295 0.51035 0.2009 1.08 39.18 925.81280 103.50780 0.59 265.01714 10.3932 1.31 0.72 0.01728 8.944 6.19 1169.26970 0.6354 295 296 297 298 299 300 Psychrometrics .33 921.6575 282 51. Liquid Vapor Vt Vtg ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) Sat.26 0.49870 0.179 245.Turn to theExpertS: .2716 1..01721 9.4058 1.374 236.09 928. Vapor ht Vg ENTROPY (Btu/lba/°F) Sat.854 10.> .44060 106.4209 1.2635 1.2851 39.71 911.27545 108.4030 1.92585 278 47..445 9.2476 1.70 0.2689 1. Liqu id Evap.6626 278 97.16950 0.2569 1.92 933.47785 7.36 0.20235 83.2555 1.16 926.664 7.26 0.6563 283 1.24 1178.4345 1.755 241.4182 1.4359 1.01 931.64980 0..77195 0.217 237.6690 273 44.6651 95.2609 1.871 233.444 7.01737 916 .67940 279 48.46980 0.890 8.043 263.01713 10.05 929.337 7..129 8.2035 1.6513 287 55.627 8.04 1176.48 261 .2305 1.926 6.75 0.22600 100.701 234.3904 1.01744 6.96 0.20350 79.571 258.890 9.94 933.2345 1.1982 1.231 7. Sat.2371 285 286 287 288 289 53.S.893 7.01810 0.4196 1.05 1171 .2450 1.042 10.45 917.54 915.56 1172.2163 1.95 1172.51285 0.01715 10.56 1178.644 249.4278 1.16340 0.01729 8.321 244.03 1174.738 9.10590 0.35 920.05 0.82250 113.01725 8.01718 9.66 0.28 922.25 923..01733 7.11295 0.520 10.32 1174.3890 1.2662 1.38 919.22500 0.04 0..00760 0.2397 1.355 7.96 932.681 257.01745 6.45270 92.2743 1.89 0.01717 10.6716 271 43.373 8.778 7.4141 52.86 1172.57 0.94 0...01740 128. Vapor TEMP hg htg St Stg Sg OF 0.6768 267 40.23 924.2111 1.01720 9.65 1171.01726 8.51 1169.03 930.89 935.51 916. Liquid Evap.500 8.3988 1.22240 122.15 1173.6439 293 7..462 243..043 246.6781 266 276 1..199 10..76 1176..65 267.04980 66.4305 1.4085 1. Sat.11030 110.13 1170.01715 10.91255 0.4291 62 .2291 56.4113 1.6550 284 285 1.81900 0.910 255.62670 105.89410 0.028 254.3960 1.16760 63.591 9.6390 297 65.45 1173.6613 279 280 281 282 283 284 49.4099 1. Hg SPECIFIC VOLUME (ft'!lb) Sat.461 259.390 251.45 0.609 242.2783 1.538 235.2086 1. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Water At Saturation: U.74 0.2215 1.68 912 .47060 0.37770 119.2823 1.3946 1.16 1179.65055 0.844 264.4250 1.2423 1.01940 101.6600 280 50.44 0.13 0.6451 60.26 1172.48270 0.67 0.62 913.19 1175.44 1170.01719 9.268 252.4154 1.4264 1.128 7.38 0.70 1178.01741 6.56200 0.01742 6..01736 120.2189 1.74 910 .' ..77 1179.2060 1.652 266.07 0.. Evap.51 911.3974 1.6729 270 42.04 1179.2582 1..01739 7.57800 117.11 927..57425 0.4236 1.02 0. Units ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TEMP OF 265 266 267 268 269 psi in .PSYCHROMETRICS.2837 1.2516 1.35 0.6588 281 50 .01727 8.6366 299 67.43 1177.2318 1.6525 286 54.30005 61.026 7.4071 98.98880 89 .758 8.22990 0.30 1180.251 8.65560 0.07 928 .01738 124.4168 1.059 238.6703 272 43.11280 126.2137 1.4332 1.3918 1.99 0.01724 8.05 0.01730 8.542 6.44250 0.6795 265 38.57710 86.796 256.01743 6.635 6.6464 291 59.15 1177.357 10.2878 1.146 262.6427 294 0.56 914.01723 9.86380 81.74 1173..17230 277 46.776 248.44275 0.52410 82.01731 8.45580 0.4372 1.303 9..20 0.82 1169.86 0.162 9.68780 0.01716 10.88875 0.01722 9.-- 1.4002 1.6755 268 41.41 0.2253 1...03410 136.467 269.560 268.01722 9.30 921.61 1174.4223 1.47 1175.517 250.82 0.74 1170.748 132.554 7.51 0.6639 277 270 271 272 273 274 1.07610 0.96640 111.77010 0.70025 115.4016 1.84040 0.43 918.1996 1..011 8.06200 0.63 0..40 919.60 1177.46260 0..248 260.88 1177.731 6.32 1176.907 247.27360 88.026 9.6378 298 300 <ttfiD.20 924.90 934.56075 78 .43815 276 46.01732 7.90 1175.6500 288 292 1..54185 0.-- 49 - - - .6538 54.97 913.01731 7.

02649 0.693 0. Hg) ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) VOLUME (ft 3/lb) TEMP 'F ENTROPY (Btu/lb.000 9.000882 0.0000172 9.060 -14.0000319 10.00012 0.680 0.00002 -17.012 0.000319 -76 -75 0.03481 0.043 0.03233 -184.02518 -179.006601 -31 c«fiMt> -0.01641 -173.00002 -18.00003 -17.015 -1 6.000 9.298 0.02107 -176.329 0.0001081 10.593 -9.02049 -176.0000198 10.3943 -67 0.002760 0.145 -32 -31 -63 0.592 -40 0.526 -0.019 -1 4.491 0.87 -0.1 13 -8.565 -0.810 -44 0. 3736 -0.00021 -9.48 -0.4036 -0 .66 -0.02533 0.03781 -188.0000120 9.078 -62 -61 0.187 0.416 -1 1.00007 -58 0.182.009 0. 29.849 0.07 -0.000255 -80 -79 -78 0.3675 0.87 -0.769 0.00011 -0.655 0.029 -0.005502 -34 0.001163 -57 0.3633 -0 .3829 0.454 -0.03240 0.01846 0.000619 -67 0.135 0.3623 -0.1 67 0.392 -0.807 0.001 10.0000844 10.424 -0.505 -0 .629 -1 8.609 0.215 -0.035 0.39 -0 .746 -7 .90 -0 .719 -33 0.03476 -1 86 .00003 9.888 0.806 -0.000463 -71 -70 0.24 -0.001 10.10 -0.000 9.643 -38 0.26 -0.3850 -60 0.03724 0.012 -16.001 10.001246 -57 -56 0.002587 -46 -45 0.001 10.3716 0.211 -0.4046 0.516 0.00019 -9.04217 0.0000149 9.033 -13 .00002 -0.00034 -0.3974 0.568 -9.001 10.771 -0 .721 -8 .04093 0.3778 -0.005 -19.781 0.111 0.007 -18.0000067 9.006 -18.52 -0.288 -0.04279 0. Sat.975 -0 04531 0.541 0.85 -0.136 0.0001150 10.778 0.150 -0.04340 -191.02244 0.32 -0.005848 -33 -7.010 -0.00002 -0.00005 -0.644 -8 .22 -0.001 0.841 -0.213 0.52 -0.375 0.0000184 10.013 -66 0.47 -0.03061 0.0000541 10.3912 -0.0000744 10.0000390 10.03663 0.00006 0.03300 0.45 -0.002 10.0000298 10.968 -0.00016 -45 -10.02591 0.770 -0.040 -12.3808 -0.0001379 10.00020 -0.010 0.3891 0.000714 0.02283 -1 77. Ha TEMP 'F -80 0.00003 -0.000498 -70 0.0 11 -0.002425 -47 -10 .389 0.579 0.731 -1 7.137 -13 .001992 0.057 0.001427 0.02130 0.0 11 0.034 -0 .78 -0./°F) Ws Sat.03659 -187.604 -18.529 -0.00004 -15.086 -1 4.67 -0 .01816 -174.00010 0.000 10.000430 -72 -71 0.000665 -66 -17.00002 -0.001 -0.3922 -16.031 0.04028 -189.883 0. Liquid Evap.8 1 -0.697 -0.03415 -1 85 .984 -62 -61 -60 -42 -41 0.744 0.100 -9.094 -37 0.002128 -48 0.666 -0 .27 -0.3726 -49 -48 0.0000062 9.95 -0.680 -18 .0000057 9.447 0.005175 -35 0.08 -0.0000279 10.04 -0.016 0.0000656 10.541 -0.263 0.289 -12.22 -0.00004 0.02 -0.04529 -193. Ps in.001865 -51 -50 -49 0.010 -14.0000104 9.04594 0.000 0.S.339 0.01699 -173.543 -9.68 -0.01790 0.006 0.934 -15.02934 -182.3644 0.288 0.832 -16 .000371 -74 -73 0.64 -0.629 -76 0.000 0.04215 -191 .81 -0.772 -7.908 -15.0000072 9.03121 0.00006 -14.365 -11.567 0.120 -8.3582 -0 .001086 -59 -58 0.001 10.00002 12 10.27 -0.01677 0.302 -0 .03720 -187.007 -18.182 -0.000 10.0000053 9.02302 0.02943 0.725 -0.66 -0.00008 -12.553 0.324 -0 .056 -11.237 0.3953 -0.0000898 10. 50 .03420 0.00002 -77 0.008 0.001 10.3798 -0.024 0.579 -18.237 -0.807 -1 6.648 0.01991 -175.027 -0.011 0.3685 -0.259 0.10.02359 0.74 -0.797 -7 .117 -0.002272 -47 -46 0.00009 0.687 0. 3963 -0.3695 -0.00005 -15.734 -0.0001298 10.3901 -0 03536 -1 86.000 9.340 -11 .01874 -174.000 0.90 -0 .0000699 10.04152 -190.000 9.01902 0.531 0.00004 -0.016 -0.068 -65 0.02187 0.3572 0. Sat.161 0.517 .3819 0.238 -12.03843 -188.001 10.251 0.000766 0.771 -11.795 0.02708 0.03846 0.083 -0.908 0.0000129 9. 02577 -179.668 0.290 0.00005 -0.083 -13 .441 -10.4067 -79 -0. 95 -0.933 0.107 -8.000 9.876 -0.03904 -189.002 10.00015 -0.000 10.972 0.0000475 10.00030 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.493 -0.00013 0.3603 -0.03969 0.364 0.02874 -182.3664 0.655 -1 8.04403 -192. Vapor lbw/Iba Va Vas Vs ha has hs Sa Sas Ss CONDENSED WATER HW Btu/lb Sw Btu/lb/°F VAPOR PRESS.000 9.212 0. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.04155 0. Liquid Evap.883 -1 6.001 10.0000956 10.003562 0.003793 -40 0.3592 Psychrometrics 1urn to the ExpertS'.000 9.02400 -1 78.004575 0. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.368 -39 -65 -0.000 10.756 9.3870 0.128 0.0000243 10.053 0.0000160 9.03 180 0.088 -64 0.002 10.695 -8.3613 0.018 -15 .00003 -69 0.162 -13.000945 0.003137 -43 -42 -41 -9.02755 -181.47 -0.617 0.046 -0.004866 -37 -36 0.02696 -180.060 -10.984 -15.414 0.466 -1 0.782 -17.00005 -0.3881 0.000400 -73 -72 0.001 10.453 0.001 10.022 -0.908 -0.407 0.002 10.04468 0.038 -12.895 0.856 0.02825 0.020 -14.128 -7.002 10. 3747 -50 0.001745 -53 -52 -51 0.0001017 10.440 0.047 -0 .003343 0.933 -64 0.00011 -11.3860 -0.44 -0.00027 -35 0.0000577 10.38 -0.0000097 9.02224 -177.001 10.252 -0.00006 15 10.732 0.001 10.799 -0.04405 0.481 -0.00007 -13.21 -0.001013 -59 -13 .570 -43 0.3788 0.019 0. Liquid Evap.263 -1 2.4056 0.01932 -175.089 0.111 -1 3. 65 -0.15 -0 .857 0.02993 .006214 -32 -7.0000445 10.060 0.604 0.63 -0.415 0.0000139 9.817 9.03053 -183.00002 -75 0.00014 -0.001 10.187 -13.80 -0.000344 -74 0.4005 0.34 -0.492 -0.37 -0.280 -0.136 0.551 -0 . 04592 -193.0000049 9.000576 -68 0.46 -0.00003 -0.06 -0.3757 -0.0000507 10.035 -12.02475 0.6 16 0.001 10.02417 0.00036 -0 .705 0.000 10.294 -0.047 -0 04031 0.359 -0.00017 0.02073 0.073 -10.10.03173 -184.001333 -56 -55 -54 0.04277 -191.994 -0.6 19 -9. 3839 -0.065 0.3705 -0 .096 0.0000227 10.000 9.002 10.07 -0.670 -8.939 -0.025 -14.756 -1 7.0000341 10.03294 -184. Vapor Sat.0000416 10.314 -12 .3654 -0.553 -19.03602 0.002943 -44 0.0000260 10.02814 -181.02166 -176.085 0.4015 -0 .927 0. Sat.001 10.959 -15.00023 -0.02884 0.01733 0.0000793 10.02459 -179.980 0.06 -0.00009 0.788 -0 .0000365 10.050 -11 .465 0.04342 0.3994 -0.538 0.03113 -183.03785 0.02766 0. 740 0.02342 -178.00024 -8.600 -0. 03966 -189.634 -0.004039 -39 -0.003 10.02016 0.3984 9. 03907 0.313 0.693 -34 0.00017 -10 .000296 0.008 -18.221 0.000536 -69 0.654 0.390 -11 .98 -0.0001222 10.02636 -180 .002 10.001 10.03354 -185.705 -1 7.000 9.035 -14.000 9.500 9.01 959 0.750 -0.4025 0.001526 -55 -54 -53 0.832 0.000 9.009 -17.00025 -36 0.03541 0.00028 0.050 0.174 0.731 0.03360 0.001 10.0000090 9. Vapor Sat.0000078 9.858 -16.213 -12.261 -0..959 -63 0.04090 -190.492 .00008 0.577 -16.01758 -173.00032 0.03002 0.0000112 9.001 9.000236 0.001 10.3561 0.921 in.000822 0.336 0.04466 -192.03597 -187.3767 0.004299 -38 0.00003 -68 0.001632 -52 0.3932 -0.57 -0.0000084 9.000275 -78 -77 0.016 -15.

961 1.039694 1 2 0.203 2.00053 -160.076751 14 Psychrometrics 0.3294 0. 3418 0.386 -1.108 -0.207 -5.0012512 11.85 -0.17 -0.725 1.478 0.910 2.121 0. Sa Sas Ss CONDENSED WATER HW Btu/lb Sw Btu/lb/°F VAPOR PRESS.882 0.022 11.0015286 11 .3335 0.00157 0.0006722 11.01351 -170 .70 -0 .00317 -157 .240 0.301 0.00766 -154.02 -0.00582 0. Hg) TEMP OF w.36 -0. Sat.005 11 .441 1.00905 0.180 -3.427 0.835 0.008 -0.00294 -162.0013158 11.0008742 11.022 11 .487 -1.3151 ••• --=-----------------------------------.584 0.751 0.553 -0 .0013835 11.873 -6.714 5. 29 921 in.00048 -0 .413 -2.25 -0 .00105 0.027 -5.335 -2.01014 -0.3489 0.14 -0.117 0.0004128 11.00966 -153.00045 -0.515 -1.3182 0.950 -6.00466 0.831 2.00128 -0.044037 3 4 0.95 -0.266 3.051 -0.00591 -164 .029 11 .016 11 .47 -0.014939 -17 -16 0.0001555 10.033909 -2 -1 0.884 2.069511 12 13 0.699 0.00506 -156.0007472 11.753 0.038 -0.0009207 11.00316 0.348 -3.00040 -0.92 -0.00060 -0.286 -0.023289 -9 -8 0.00422 0.67 -0.42 -0.011 11.024 11.013 -0 .792 0.713 -0.0002346 11 .00414 -163.007442 -29 -28 0.051375 6 7 0.3253 0.032160 -3 -2 0.019754 -12 -11 0.01033 -152.00832 -154.00 109 -0.052 -5.0003694 11 .048 0.182 -0.921 0. Sat.009 11.00259 0.025 11.01060 -1 68 .3212 0.00038 -0 .3141 0.004 10.00083 -0.0001858 10.00743 0.037671 0 1 0.464 -1 .284 0.0003121 11 .00826 -166 .309 -2.922 0.0007875 11.01069 0.1 3 -0.00210 0.031 11 .030 1. 3541 0.843 0.078 -4.277 -4.00363 0.972 0.0001751 10.332 3.011226 -22 -21 0.283 -2.00254 -158.63 -0.91 5 -0 . 3438 0.0007088 11.47 -0.155 -4.027 11.00369 0.220 -5.00330 0.0002786 11.480 0.098 0. Ha TEMP OF -30 0.00381 -0 .845 0.00174 -161.00475 0.103 -4.311 -4.544 -1.00363 0.059819 9 10 0.00568 0.896 0.010 11. Ps in.00052 0. lbw/Iba ENTROPY (Btu/lb.00142 -0.00311 0.3120 0.564 0.084 0.00286 0.233 -5.00619 0.073049 13 14 0.149 0.011893 -21 -20 0.00898 -153.23 -0.835 0.573 -1.006 11.00174 0.235 -0.804 1.00104 0.257 -3.640 -0.00043 -0.01467 -171 .173 -6.0011895 11.978 1.681 1.351 0.527 -0.01233 0.552 -0.848 -6 .65 -0 .0016062 11 .013 11 .002 10.01583 -1 72.00156 0.003 10.124 0.0003493 11.006 11 .162 0.937 3.206 0.00063 -0.655 0.01288 0.048814 5 6 0.00213 0.798 -0.010594 -23 -22 0.00670 0.642 0.028907 -5 -4 0.480 0. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.778 1.009428 -25 -24 0.01123 0. Liquid Evap.01178 0.378 -0 .606 -0.0004867 11.680 0.015806 -16 0.011 11.516 -0.3130 0.005 0.003 10.0003905 11.751 1.013336 -19 -18 0.015 11 .3459 0.326 0.0004362 11.056872 8 9 0.3305 0.961 0.857 2.00234 -162.00272 0.0001970 10.721 0.00050 -0.09 -0.495 -0.003 10.726 0.271 -0 .01409 -171 .3100 0.675 -0.163 -6 .804 0.005 11.3356 0.01510 0.0002485 11.3110 0.568 -0.820 0. Liquid Evap.005 11 .0001650 10.857 0.435 -2.754 -0.025959 -7 -6 0.123 0.0002088 10.00721 0.00768 -1 66.007898 -28 -27 0.017679 -14 -13 0.70 -0..00315 0.447 -0 .721 0.00157 -0.947 0.47 -0.964 3.184 -6 .054060 7 8 0.0003303 11.475 4.008890 -26 -25 0.302 -0.554 0.3284 0.007009 -30 -29 0.009 11.292 -0.01 -0.00528 0.01118 -1 69.3387 0.01454 0.293 -4.494 0.3510 0.0004608 11.046370 4 5 0.922 1.3551 0.014117 -18 -17 0.00943 -167.008 11 .00224 0.077 0.3223 0.0002950 11.246 -5.363 1.0009695 11.89 -0.976 -5.00380 -157.630 4.00 -0.00192 -158.0008298 11.00246 0.01293 -170. Vapor Va Vas Vs ha has h.884 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.232 -3.3171 0.997 0.00851 0.123 1.00052 0.3243 0.3479 0.01343 0.00347 0.642 1.783 -0.200 0.3520 0.01102 -152.286 0. 162 1.00689 0.00650 -165.966 0.3325 0.36 -0.09 -0.991 0.402 0.00114 -0.561 -0.604 0.973 -0.731 0.3274 0.024591 -8 -7 0.007 11.0014544 11.00202 0.441 0.525 0.324 0.545 -0.00570 -156.871 0.00263 0.402 0.01911.053 -0.486 0.76 -0.00114 -1 61.490 -0.933 0.3531 0.672 0.00130 -159 .016718 -15 -14 0.00121 -0.529 0.3469 0.883 0.022 0. Sat. Vapor Sat.77 -0.0005425 11.00260 0.00135 -0 .908 0.30 -0.503 0.330 -3.57 -0.377 0.022050 -10 -9 0. Liquid Evap.620 0.00885 -167.012595 -20 -19 0.765 0.0005726 11.882 1.201 0.3397 0.804 0.00443 -157.00088 -0 00709 -165 .276 0.00182 0.00057 -0.00635 -155 .0006041 11.00008 -160.153 -7.3202 0.924 -6.066131 11 12 0.027397 -6 -5 0.020 11 .390 -2.014 11 .00079 -0 .603 0.00071 -15 0.579 0.0010743 11.551 4.460 -2.00473 -1 64.832 0.39 -0.00069 -159.3428 0.007 11.630 0.1 88 0.00517 0.433 0.408 0.00532 -164.041814 2 3 0.016 11 .3407 0.61 0.412 -1.928 1.0010207 11.699 0.21 -0 .00700 -155.225 0.00075 -0.261 -4.00000 0.83 -0.81 -0.012 11.3448 0.009995 -24 -23 0.05 -0.594 0.006 11 .402 1.68 -0 .3264 0.0011306 11. 51 .453 0.881 1.013 11 .019 11 .143 2.782 0.3233 0.002 10.00053 -0 .00354 -163. Vapor Sat.0006373 11.00093 -0.174 0.Tum~ilie Expeni.206 -3.835 -0.3500 0.004 11 .3315 0.250 0.073 0.30 -0.085 2.681 0.646 0.3192 0.004 11.062901 10 11 0.044 0.647 -0.20 -0.01621 0.194 -6.803 -0 .899 -6.57 -0.368 -3.005 11.00192 0.00208 0.S.438 -1.008381 -27 -26 0.001 -5.01235 -169.55 -0.271 -0.240 0.003 10.00165 0.00149 -0.0002214 10.00960 0.542 -0.020873 -1 1 -10 0.017 11 .007 11 .0002632 11 .00098 -0.0001465 10.3366 0.018690 -13 -12 0.030494 -4 -3 0.0005139 11.245 0.00797 0.129 -4.12 -0.000 0.58 -0 . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION ---- Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.822 -7.01176 -169.201 1.027 11 .52 -0.00067 -0.17 -0.01525 -172.035744 -1 0 0.00414 0.3161 0.807 0.3377 0.01399 0.706 0./°Fl ENTHALPY (Btu/lbl VOLUME (ft3/lbl Sat.00635 0.01565 0.3346 0.009 11 .00235 0.01002 -168.00103 -0.363 0.402 3.93 -0.756 0.00300 0.710 -0.360 -2.

696 9.920 0.02808 0.40518 0. 11 9 12.0517 0..587 0.0459 0.389 0.0032984 12.08 11.877 12.05 5.484 25.192 13.0420 0.006581 12..01055 14.034 12.708 10.170 0.11 0.01223 0.570 5.00554 0.2936 0.48589 0.08 10.0222 0.973 55 56 57 58 59 0.01617 7.01665 0. 162 13. 29.21181 0.00822 0.760 0.3069 0.02052 0.687 7.046 0.200 13.541 10.04884 0.005640 12.00832 0.0034552 12.02231 -144.0031480 12.378 6.175 16.229 23.03281 0.07 0.01096 14.0182 0.086 12.088 2.0142 0.369 4.0162 0.05132 0.0536 0.0037895 12.01470 0.00728 0.068 12..349 6.008259 0.293 0.404 13.02570 2.. Sat.42030 10.850 24.233 15.20356 0.082 12.060 0.0400 9.012 12.02148 -145.582 12.389 0.02715 0.453 0.009580 0.0036190 12.00636 0.02339 0.3059 -0.01229 0.667 3.0021531 12. Vapor Sat.01592 19.216 13.154 12.33651 0.177 13.521 7.093334 0.004452 12.0027339 12.05259 23.102798 0.085 0.04415 20.006334 12.146 0.621 8.684 7.414 0..01987 -146.464 0.03472 0.02655 3.02915 0.441 22.0478 0..02433 0.03004 0.2987 -0.790 11.990 5.01455 -149.3008 -0 .010692 12.694 0.447 7.03095 0.005216 12.80 0.107849 0.945 0.27 0.186 0.089 12.843 4.01568 11.213 0.02122 0.11 0.23835 20.338 0.27831 0.648 0.01183 0.04084 0.648 8.868 21.004820 12.2997 0.00607 0.01 322 0. 164 0.-- 52 ---- .07 9.293 9.124396 20 21 22 23 0.726 3.157 13.22 0.193 5.114 7.939 12.02740 0..2967 -0.1 80479 0.0020515 12.00872 0.02148 0.28 0.318 9.02358 15 0.637 8./°Fl ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) Sat.008897 12.171 13..768 0..78 0.869 0.00977 13.0122 0..917 0.01374 0.02198 0.81 -0.804 2.11 0.46870 0.01383 -150 .0229 1 0.0262 0.02480 0.801 1.19559 19 24 31 32 32 33 34 0.03187 17.641 0.687 3.531 11 .0030039 12.726 9.02622 0.02386 0.110 0.2926 0.1 64 13.00796 Ss 0.45205 0.01123 0.04 0.197 11.010 0.0022592 12.044 5.246 6.009233 0.00923 0.02855 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.378 8.00870 12.00505 0.22035 0..062 12.05006 0.136 0.3018 -0.005863 12.408 8.927 8.04302 19.0041 0.018 11 0. ha has h.00529 0.01420 0.089 0.143233 0..492 34 0.285 5.207 13. 131 25.0381 0.00973 0.294 VAPOR PRESS.107 7.01312 -1 50 .01908 -146.03 0.01677 -148 .816 10.0321 0.04645 22.02315 -144.618 23.757 0.01016 13. Sat.051 12.02668 0.3079 -0.164631 0.065 12.01073 0.736 0.072 0.115 12.032 11.206 7.515 0.602 4.507 0.053 12.045 0.0497 0.3028 -0.004633 12.02067 -145.02100 0.001 12.959 0..0 1977 0..295 14.435 32 0.059 12.009938 0.492 12.140 0.28918 40 42 43 44 13.711 3.130413 0.01479 18.01023 0.02827 0.792 0.849 0. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.129 12.966 3.756 0.0282 0.692 0.134 0.05 4.004109 12. 105 12.046 13.908 12.005424 12. Liquid Evap..124 12.097 12.404 0.0361 0. .01908 0.01371 0.537 2.09 0.01830 -147.007955 0.01139 0.11 27.01956 0.02575 0.182 12. Vapor Sw Btu/lb/°F -0.330 6.81 0. Ha 0.009 0.3089 in.934 0.793 0.00482 0.262 13.237 5.09 0.00580 0.128 9.616 0.394 7.035 0.03669 0.02901 0.31 -0.02487 -1 43.653 0..793 25 26 27 28 0.265 0.215 0.167 4.74 0.2977 -0.313 0.252 12..0439 0.464 33 0.930 3.406 31 0..540 0.3038 -0. 30 -0.195 13.157198 29 0..01519 11 .056 12..042 12.008573 0.991 0.174 45 46 47 48 2..564 20 21 0.039 12.00419 6.11 0.02487 0.172390 0.194 5.756 10.0017724 11.150066 25 26 27 28 0.00771 0.01275 0.11 25.0019543 12.01860 0.330 0.084673 0.0202 0.00665 0.110 12.02 0.11 0.127 4.10 0.00440 7.01907 0.03375 Ps 0.667 0.0302 0.0341 0.765 2.662 2.072 3.80 -0.0242 0.10 16.072 12.851 6.25765 0..970 12.591 0.984 0.04192 18.237 0.462 7.10 17.136684 0. Sa Sas 1.02244 0.02528 0.084 49 0.243 4.01173 8.00400 5.888 4.685 0..184 13.846 10.222 6.566 0..624 5.32408 0.006094 12.075 12.558 0.03570 8.888 9.0020 0.322 0..660 17.0102 6.065 12.0061 0.050 11 . Liquid Evap.088907 -0.00460 6.921 in.003790 12.878 0.078 12.093 12.616 8.01528 -149.03873 0.025 22.321 0.30 0.0024863 12.01714 0.412 0.01425 18.287 0.31 -0.609 0.71 Vas Vs lbw/Iba Va 0.11 0.007103 12.00905 12..212 0.021 13.988 2.01241 -151.01763 0.01534 19.439 0.30042 45 14. Hg) VOLUME (ft3/lbl TEMP OF Ws Sat.970 11 .743 0.. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.072 15 16 17 CONDENSED WATER 6.228 13.995 13.773 0.262 0.01753 -147.02762 0.34937 46 47 48 49 0.43592 0.893 1.S.949 TEMP OF 38 39 41 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Psychrometrics Turn to the Experts.0117 1 -151.152 0.36264 50 51 52 0.080623 0.22920 0.11 3130 0.732 12.02196 0.005 6.700 16.01324 0.935 9.894 0.01 8 0.01651 22 23 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 0.224 13.717 0.0081 0.10 15.324 19 0.608 0.793 4.086 15.303 24 0.129 0.01272 0.037 12.06 7.00761 30 0.01617 11.075 12.04763 0.010309 0..003947 12. HW Btu/lb 0.579 0.550 0.31206 0.418 2.79 0.03978 0.099 4.11 24.363 0.02277 0.2956 0.25 0.464 32* 0.033 12.441 0.26781 0. Liquid Evap.03770 0.0016874 11.048 0.00870 0.161 0.486 6.02400 -143.397 10.11 26.50363 <tW•> • 16 17 18 35 36 37 0.209 12.18791 0..04529 21.0028660 12.152 50 51 52 53 54 0.0026073 12.02004 0.525 5.2915 0.005014 12.073 10.18050 30 18 4. Vapor ENTROPY (Btu/lb.603 3.187 Sat.24784 0.00696 0.76 -0 .01774 0.016 10.39054 0.073 4.37636 0.004277 12.02048 0.844 0.843 12.09 12.0018613 12.06 0..2946 0.01602 -148.097 12.822 8.760 0.006838 12.118645 0.490 0.0023703 12.335 0.3049 0.0000 1.810 6.30 -0.291 11 .097962 0.786 10.985 8.306 20.01712 0.818 0.101 12.071 0.01840 0.044 0.771 7.007378 12.420 0.007661 0..036 12.00941 0.104 29 0.

862 28.11 34.90533 0.023109 0.047592 0..855 13.51471 1.0632 0.356 14.1278 1.73966 0.1061 0.261 0.963 14.52 193 0.858 14.04063 0.969 15.577 13.05522 0.04633 0. HW Btu/lb Sw P• Btu/lb/°F in.913 14.260 69.023902 0..03930 0.248 13.21445 1.959 35.329 13.08 0.699 14.17608 80 81 82 83 84 20.03766 0.12525 0.06598 0. Liquid Evap.= .04558 0.08 64.043219 0. 29.437 0.912 0.03811 0.08 61.1006 1.09264 0.445 50..856 16.03269 0.728 13.576 41 .15108 68 .81882 0.06685 33.653 13.1 83 85 86 87 89 0.1 1 44 .. 1098 1.011087 0.940 66. 1349 0.09597 0.04 165 0.011919 0.016976 0.211 27 .271 24..026 22.07967 0.702 19.05795 0.039225 0.010 1.03802 0.02994 0.208 TEMP OF w.06 71.0951 0.0746 0. Vapor Sat.08642 0..13752 0.866 22.687 37.03855 0. 135 15.07 69 .273 13. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.02902 0.016395 0.03900 0.422 0..04859 0.032 14 0.1 1955 58.069 23.1116 0.13882 1.10645 53.583 75.299 17.318 0..0858 0.56248 1.323 22.0877 0.04199 0.62252 0.11 31.526 13.07253 0.096 13.04687 0.198 63.779 17.157 27.020170 0.04484 0.951 57.11 42.132 14.107 22.09703 0.349 13.626 32..03003 0.385 29. Psychrometrics .09306 0.988 0.04730 0.647 14.602 13.04339 0.07694 0.353 71.018833 0.0765 0.10 45 .270 13.578 68 .977 1.840 31 .03496 0.06810 0.020871 0.794 45 .450 14.681 51.843 16.09052 0.10 47.664 20.09930 0.326 13.668 78 79 0.1188 1.577 0.795 95 96 97 98 99 0.871 43.505 0.717 0.627 13.621 54.741 18.03631 0.11 412 0.425 13.583 40.87745 95 96 97 98 99 0.615 39.0575 0.071 30.PSYCHROMETRICS.1170 0.69065 0.613 13.624 0.04944 0.158 14.07875 0.393 13.804 14.264 15.406 0.467 27.08250 0.242 0.025563 13..1134 0.006 14.984 15.1025 0.515 41.752 24.364 0.14413 0.10252 1.981 20.84684 70 71 72 38.05447 2.0727 0.779 13.56032 0.415 14.013270 0.87567 0.37893 85 86 87 88 89 14.09 57.93492 1.238 0.015286 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 88 CONDENSED WATER VAPOR PRESS./°F) Sat.06844 0.11 35.479 25.11 8 15.669 14.10 0..646 0..017 31.197 49.818 17.06 0.650 15.02947 0.504 13.0840 0.901 18.04773 0.343 64 .469 13.233 0.04077 0.082 100 101 102 103 104 0.0689 0.133 14.25388 1.462 19.026433 0.172 13.476 13.09 0.02617 0.764 13. 1260 0.82141 1.03944 0.12821 0.10163 0.804 13.595 21 .332 26.42298 1.09 52.1 8037 100 101 102 103 104 TEMP OF 73 74 77 78 79 •• .11 29 .Tum to the ExpertS.944 14.05657 0.05809 0.145 21.0594 0.0783 0..10 49.309 23.652 80 81 82 83 84 0.58041 0.33613 1.787 0.045 1.02804 13.1296 0.0802 0.403 14.751 21.032 14.04901 0.66196 1.07 70.03438 0.01 1496 0.014246 0.09 54.626 21.592 42.03315 0.310 14.02528 0.940 52.882 13.03677 0.1152 0.398 13.06 72.346 0.376 12.030189 13.12237 0.012355 0.021594 13.02442 0.271 61.03556 0.183 14.943 20 .036757 0. Sat.09022 0.0914 0.76685 1.1080 0.031203 0.03302 1.10895 0.500 18.0613 0.06080 0.250 54.08 60.433 13.03223 0.0670 0.703 0..021 30.299 13. Hg) VOLUME (ft3/lb) ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) ENTROPY (Btu/lb.655 14. lbw/Iba 60 61 62 63 64 0.08480 0.027329 0.364 13.019491 0..701 44.66725 0.06376 0.373 79. Vapor Sat.1224 0.993 47.424 20.0988 0.339 0. 53 .058 17. Sat.0555 0.588 34. 11 36.1332 0.089 14.542 19.312 50.005 14..852 0.76528 0.454 0.678 13.46824 1.502 12.378 0.269 44.1043 0.06226 0..084 15.61154 90 91 92 93 94 0..823 0.529 16..105 33.018194 13.279 17.07343 0..60113 60 61 62 63 64 0.076 22..803 13.577 14.351 0.062 48 .99970 75 76 24.1 2 30.03 178 0.05936 28.761 73.582 29.175 14.889 34.07 0.337 16.04787 0.688 13. 199 55.044 32.04471 0.324 0..033323 0.597 14.046090 0..04601 0.11 40.04384 0.251 0..11 39.097 34. 769 0.10207 0.551 13. Ha 0.02709 0.11 32.1242 0.09897 0.03406 0. Liquid Evap.325 35.09 0.11 0.04121 0.05389 0. 14079 0.014758 0.730 49 .602 0.0970 0.08060 0..034433 0.07 67 .204 19.10 50.828 23.468 14..07007 0.905 13.905 21..04816 0.633 0.06529 0.10401 0.542 0.455 14.79167 0.754 13.07516 38.022340 0.851 23.743 37.198 65 66 67 68 69 0.0896 0.03721 0..04340 0.11 661 2.550 23.452 77.13124 0.260 18.08 59.05626 0.203 15.037972 0.07173 0.04644 0.06192 0.029208 0.032247 0.1367 1.222 19.049140 14.880 13.281 0..0651 0.539 17.450 0.96733 0.11 41. Liquid Evap.895 15.09481 48..582 0.1 0 51.08747 0.99396 2.726 13.03360 0.326 24 031 24..03541 0.304 0.08220 0.094 16.03586 0.54 7 14.54082 0.692 0.07 65.04297 0.487 0.1206 0.71372 1.314 0.041848 13.677 30.03040 0...017575 0.020 18.489 36.93589 0.07723 0.1 0 46.375 13.040516 0.04253 0.044634 0.147 13.046 18.967 13.08444 43.052 12.220 14.501 13.11 9 28.447 13.07484 0.400 13.035577 13.29443 1. 13434 63 .43 1 33.S.05448 0.11 0.04209 0.07 66 . Sat.223 13.616 15.949 53.11 37.015832 0.254 0.057 14.03676 0.829 0.540 13.03451 0.924 39.582 0.028254 0.14756 0.012805 13.923 13.841 36.04427 0.355 58.03986 0.09 56.71479 65 66 67 68 69 0.522 0.913 47.09 55.942 26.11 0.03325 0.0933 0.1 11 50 0.03132 0.024720 0.1314 0.956 0.107 14.04514 0.06728 1..06392 0.512 24.08844 0.742 0.055 43.05278 0.0821 0.11680 0.04033 0.03107 0.07028 0.981 14. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.013750 0.64454 0.292 0..930 13.08 62..081 1. Vapor Va Vas Vs ha has hs Sa Sas Ss 0.0708 0..05998 0.143 15.097 16.790 40.921 in.05108 0.881 0.498 90 91 92 93 94 0.710 46.264 19.347 22.122 13.03086 0.794 60.561 14.

05 80.569 16.437 109.11189 0.244 15.065 129.16605 0.26382 0.127 18.1 18 15.233 230.13434 0.249 31.489 31.827 128.34490 0.02 104.486 14. Sat.02 0.079036 14.949 259.163 143.180467 0. 0.03 92.21239 7. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. Vapor Sat.385 14.25096 0.25375 0.931 231.074211 0. Liquid Evap.050737 0.04 0.957 32.657 25.600 244.33203 0.29477 4.284 14.404 2.75310 2.374 174. 13848 0.05533 0. 11 894 26. 54 .38918 0.1681 0.05156 0.39413 145 146 147 148 149 Sa Sas 81. 707 3.740 209.865 14.815 14.055826 0.872 15.02 0.195 56.294 183.033 17.45232 2.872 156.04 89.361 28.06 75.18046 4.05616 0.916 14.04 84.06068 0.076586 0.840 2.714 25.34082 0.585 140 141 142 143 144 0.06631 0.06230 0.PSYCHROMETRICS.03 0.054077 0.326 2.45871 0.322 15.17258 5.23880 0.583 35.20518 0.05029 0.892 224.119023 0.588 15.1508 0.796 169.754 217.098504 0.26973 0.18181 0.242 3. Hg) VOLUME fft 3/lb) ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) Sat.352 3.05 81.432 132.744 2.169 87.192668 0.835 3.530 116.108270 130 131 132 133 134 105 106 107 108 109 w.02 112.06190 0.279 1.181 16.414 1. 29.193 17.394 18.54764 3.05 77.S.095456 0.714 125 126 127 128 129 0.411 14.941 14.792 126.520 17.897 34.05324 16.27054 0.44985 5.947 16.219 145 146 147 148 149 0.1885 4.06149 0.1438 0.05492 0.825 18.390 15.967 4.02 100.286 30.776 70.1935 0.29190 0.860 35.052383 0.512 14.143 15.04987 0.24614 0.854 196.37861 0.06109 0.41181 125 126 127 128 129 124.1 612 0.2085 0.l"F) Sat. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U.1664 0. 175 161.194 15.511 1.1834 0.24581 2.370 164.409 30.527 30.534 18.907 0.2118 0.299 17.06863 4.356 0.02 109.138 34.688 14.921 in.03 91.22731 0.1800 3.05740 0.67500 2.02 106.30499 0.084 0.16608 0.02 110.106 2.06671 0.30973 5. Sat. in.678 32.2019 0.076 160.18272 0.799 15.464 33.656 33.05198 0.726 1.040 19.651 251.045 30.19640 0.609 16.1783 0.875 17.1595 0.669 1.39981 0.02 102. 161 11 0.869 5.061 0.1749 0.05658 0.069676 0.965 147.1 48696 14. 12641 0.31297 2.85298 120 121 122 123 124 106.53148 4.484 2.1985 0.05071 0.144019 0.95961 4.135 3.1402 0.784 1.250 2.168 177.971 32.1902 0.934 3.2101 0.06551 0.1732 0.059486 0.760 74.03 96.22471 0.505 178.02 116. 14713 0.992 15.927 105.467 3.063378 0.174694 15.2002 0.52473 TEMP "F 105 106 107 108 109 0.74871 3.64704 3.1525 0.77919 4.17839 0..23298 0.02 0.794 16.885 61.05823 0.182 205.37887 0.1455 p.1420 0.156 1.532 237.196 1.17008 HW Btu/lb 73.263 16.881 133.28707 0.205792 15.06 76.04944 0.41081 108.06351 0.05699 0.45871 0.083 29.857 183.05 79.514 267.26335 3.233 25.1715 3.866 14.35587 0.770 93.03 95.35586 115 116 117 11 8 119 119.999 31.320 15.102 14.452 146.06471 0.528 1..23876 0.04 86.1952 0.587 1.564 29.59324 5.35924 103.05864 0.1577 0.03 99. Ha 2.05575 0.73970 135 136 137 138 139 3.26161 0.06 74.15630 0.955 26.18716 0.2035 0.44611 0.21149 0.04256 6.964 102.607 223.704 4.168 15.68932 6.474 25.061401 0.057628 14.092 0.23163 0.767 31 .1711 5 0.436 14. Ss ) Psychrometrics Turn to the ExpertS.05946 0.035 107.084169 0.21799 0.824 202.91 6 0.45052 3.460 85.11537 0.36890 0. Liquid Evap.03 94.06271 0.245 18.111738 0.27745 93.02 107.35018 0.092500 14.14274 0.081560 0.562 14. Liquid Evap.245 189. Vapor CONDENSED WATER VAPOR PRESS.842 29.802 0.093 3.844 63.120 28.497 85.28457 0.1698 0.753 17.259 18.386 68 .101 16.786 110.02 0.398 65.139494 0.989 17.436 26.890 28.20615 0.754 189.40384 0.799 90.917 27.739 14.186460 0.126804 14.950 92.987 32.295 15.455 15.86009 7.130895 0.05240 0.393 4.432 27.879 28.06311 0.06391 0.19906 0.815 19.17640 0.438 117.1817 0.877 113.346 16.135 19.179 33.2068 0.163748 0.10525 0.03435 7.066 137.06511 0.805 90.2052 5.169122 0.099 94.071908 0.47174 113.06710 0.21 122 0.05781 0.158 27.845 120 121 122 123 124 0.153538 0.135124 0.16218 0.42218 0.237 1.06591 0.635 17.158643 0.234 14.18740 0.360 14.2134 6.36724 0.367 1.30723 0.971 2.65397 4.550 216.15165 0.461 1. 17305 3.32351 0.21644 83.663 14.99883 3.613 14.83291 2.742 99.06431 0.259 14.482 140.709 96.237 72.065411 0.824 211.037 2.067 15.20121 0.089633 0.730 31.04 0.601 77.03 0.03844 130 131 132 133 134 18.638 14..837 2.521 15.345 .05986 0.966 2.677 26.115322 0.104910 0.342 35. lbw/Iba 0. 1741 8 0.212 135 136 137 138 139 0.15839 0.789 14.906 1.548 33.122855 0.017 15.02 105.067512 115 116 117 118 119 TEMP OF ENTROPY IBtu/lb•.023 0.88945 6.12262 0.35898 6.04 85.090 17.1473 0.403 141.546 4.04 90.189 20.999 20.1647 0.176 16.02 101.461 1.27811 0.396 79.05366 0.05 Sw Btu/lb/°F 0.379 34.15469 0.05450 0.06027 0.02 117.008 0.868 103.655 2.59891 2.297 19.32447 0.1385 0.02 114.415 166.519 16.907 82.978 19.637 19.33470 0.142 57.373 194.617 113.05 82.309 14.599 87.19315 0.04 87.05905 0.5224 1 140 141 142 143 144 4.891 14. Vapor Va Vas Vs ha h as hs 1.29573 0.1560 0.22180 0.38173 2.934 156.1851 0.908 136.19918 6.677 200.362 0.199110 0.375 83.1868 0.693 151.1969 5.323 29.25729 0.05114 0.101 35.639 27.29944 0.31456 0.90755 5.43395 0.537 14.042 15.269 15.1629 2.878 151.02 115.91491 110 111 112 113 114 0.111 120.03 97. 13032 0.1543 2.02 111.101657 0.31524 98.700 16.1490 0.335 110 11 1 112 113 114 0.320 97.05282 0.602 99.1766 0.103 4 .620 172.615 1.612 122.05408 0. Sat.10852 0.727 15.06750 0.08488 3.385 34.1919 0.562 15.764 14.986 59.19172 78.086860 0.24480 88.

532 16.121 1877.06868 0.87350 133.86058 0.7190 180 181 182 183 184 16.09 159.101540 1.420290 1.S.042 30.269 37.05 146.06 0..08506 2.527 24.820 12.26837 143.139 29.25043 2.337 0.466 2203.382 999.259 908.73959 128.451 43 2..05 144.2297 8. Vapor Sat.-- - ENTROPY 1Btu/lb.426 247.656 37.43954 1.2149 12.1 3943 1.061 793.602740 0.6430 14.351 437.431 46.763 1050.09253 1.43017 0.74 165 0.2537 12.82858 0.882 32.08690 3.012 353.61320 0.426 Ps <fi#ll!l1t> .767 619.5367 23.229 670.643 405.52881 0.243309 15. 161 53.1 90 46.7 42 44.2725 0.04 139.505 22.62129 0.2426 0. 137 67 ..2647 0.06829 0.56871 8.96306 8.530190 0.08433 0.401310 0. 793 43.08580 0.04 140.084 2688.57977 7.07758 0.959 26.6648 9.648 15.552940 0.497 15.PSYCHROMETRICS.00 10 14.1343 11.218 71.02 122.372 511 .982720 1.04412 2.78949 0.526 25.12733 2..321 1381.788 37.547 2640.638 256.129 25.2378 9.838170 0.006 20.690120 0.07796 0.64932 1.033 1924.834 11.046 46.749 15.2694 15.715 38.6522 16.08470 0.750 25.07414 0.457 4 16.1 6 1 40. 787 35.659110 0.469050 0.3965 11.103 14.352 12. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic Properties of Moist Air: U. HW Btu/lb Sw Btu/lb/°F in.487 864.8 1744 1.4 14 27.330 16.528 698.242 180 181 182 183 184 0.35931 1.06790 0.876 685. 370 15.49925 0.10 161.93664 0.1353 10.12 166.381 16.525 644.08543 0.356 573.57430 148.66622 0.256 552.07567 0.921 in.3191 14.9731 175 176 177 178 179 33.951 15.80332 2.112 364.99378 9.04 0.073 759.00658 1.02 129.76958 7.433430 0.751 37.2910 0.448 728.56073 0.08321 0..278 952.17087 1.783 1468. 07985 0.695 51.2895 0.913 40.02 126..421 15.02 121 .926 15.08284 1.2346 0.028 239.2151 0.032 513.19787 3.984 45.08653 0.089 42.49078 0.705 301.2506 0.6 152 22.501 44..305 36.60025 0.471 5.910 22.22 16 7.263 350..0823 13..261 315.83276 4 .052 16.10 162 .07181 0.43677 155 156 157 158 159 0.580 50.4634 17. Liquid Evap.664 23.2394 0.466 955. Liquid Evap.2679 0.388 23.314 1121.456 16.229 16.09 160.06986 0..962 867.582 1623.04828 1.2710 0.013 1670..197 39. Vapor lbw/Iba Va Vas Vs h.2233 0.07606 0.71623 0.166 828.231 532.607 41.010 43.507 28.44507 0.07104 0.08396 0.00644 1.430 1789.1 17 10.271 477.233 283.2787 0.2458 10.58007 0.522 15.304540 16.. Sat.477 36.992 38.737 389.238 1564. has hs Sa Sas Ss 150 151 152 153 154 0.07720 0.630020 16.07910 1.396 15.07 154.2521 0.523960 16.813 43.2926 0.723310 0.879 1303.03 135.450 6.610 363.08210 0.2569 0.1 13 24.310270 0.572 15.07529 0.96707 0. 799 2 1. Hg TEMP OF 0.069 2076.4 16980 15.53576 2.42397 1.265 908.834 1422.2553 0.4906 196 197 198 199 200 Psychrometrics .450790 0..438 338.850 9.503 14 .273 0.685 0.848 175 176 177 178 179 0.976 10.32183 1.02 119.64325 0.269644 0.244710 1.02 0.554 170 171 172 173 174 0.6894 14..84415 0.07065 0.63216 123.2249 0.2265 0.235218 0.13 0.2663 0.426 823.608 16.029 274.726 10.05 147.103 13.431 16.577100 0.97067 1.2442 0.08247 0. 125 41.797030 16.140 628.59499 0.260512 0.583 16.4988 12. Sat.8652 20.37873 1.223 6.501 376.138 554.564 185 186 187 188 189 0.355 9.02 125. Liquid Evap.614 1335.2314 0.6641 11.2616 13.219 5.36256 150 151 152 153 154 0.579 0.598 6.47494 155 156 157 158 159 0.355 21.295 43.099750 2..50457 1.2474 0.09787 3.406 16.190 21.557 16.504 595.151 37.07872 0.81617 0.017 21. Hg) ENTHALPY (Btu/lb) VOLUME (ft3/lbl TEMP OF Ws Sat.833 39.2772 17.3776 10.07337 0.875 15.21297 9. Units (STANDARD ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE.668 2452.11 163.07452 0.305 16.07 0.707 24.07682 0.039510 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 CONDENSED WATER VAPOR PRESS.03 131.89423 0.2167 0.2913 20.204 16.48524 0.3097 15.2741 0.08359 0. 724 7.245 275.508670 15.197 0.175 430.894 27.446 15.02 0.299450 0.825 15.54441 118.633 43.901 15.2834 0.800 15.489 532..4 77 48.2362 0.29888 1.699 15.0092 23.06 150.365 44. 55 .50724 0. 2600 0.40 1 28.05 145.08 155.07947 0.08098 1.972 22.082 23.92962 0.02 120.435 45.38589 2.03 137.673 46 . 18927 1.943 292..69022 0.2818 0.56797 1.490 283.002 16..730 18.13 168..13 167.2585 0.0714 22.251738 0.91210 2.03 0.08060 0.3569 16.040 24 .884 41.298 11 66.12624 1.279166 0.1 6684 2.793 47.956 39..09 0.2281 0.0358 19.9322 1 1.942 26.70208 2.757 1742.260 749..623 15.8978 10.33494 3.920 40 .262 1006.160 577.642 39.6250 160 161 162 163 164 445 .6323 185 186 187 188 189 1.01505 153.937 28.673 15.52030 3.078 16.331 42. 29.366 4 1.24914 3.596 5.3831 170 171 172 173 174 42 .2184 0.034 8.188 2029.260 716.908 34.638 47.544 461 .Turn to the Expert$.07834 0.892 1106.64834 1.69388 0.73534 1.51375 0.386390 0.546 36. 12 165.8771 11 .849 304.452 321 .498 41.08416 1.08 156.03 132.551 20.02 127.06 149.778 44.345720 15.08023 0.774 15.07 152.589 20.243 2 1.488290 0.07143 160 161 162 163 164 0.03 134.174 1186.909 17.578 63. Sat.2880 0.019 44.403 5.397 47 .064 36. 739 495.924720 2.787 37.399 123 1.793 0.2200 0.758850 0.2864 19.879 48.848 0.197 655.49332 1.325 402.03 136.57749 0.828 27.0880 17.280 16.2330 0.45973 0.572 42.8462 18.928 56.128 16.07644 0.797 6.933 7.07375 0.640700 1.741 15.289101 15.609 19.772990 1.2357 18.77915 8.-.2756 0.949 46 .159 265.547 15.65188 0.06 151 .4 76 46 .01244 3.315 60.474 38.11 1 40..505 30.91929 4.095 376.359 342.76397 0.67245 0.388 38.150 1061.02 124.07220 0.130 30.679 39.73006 1.2803 0.416 25. 153 16.054 602 .4642251 .212730 0.496 32.04 0.923 77./°Fl 59..08135 0.120 326. 358650 0.2410 0.87 1 785.07025 0.227429 0.882510 0.118 331.07259 0.883 34.914 1257.865 421.41656 0.219945 0..793 31.21815 1..930570 0.2632 0.52434 0.04 142. 155 47 .06947 0. 76924 0.1661 190 191 192 193 194 195 1.08172 0.02 130.60647 3.1 6087 8.90425 0.254 16.536 43.56064 0...' .720 21.169650 1.4468 19.755 36.61738 2.327880 1.7244 21.301 93 2.037 33.333360 0.71535 0.321 0.9370 165 166 167 168 169 491.06908 0.048 1517.2490 0..418 16.372200 0.027 16...707 45.315 11.321560 0.82963 1.686 6.510 37.377 39.481 16.402 40 .07491 0.661 45.630 472 .816 311 .533 165 166 167 168 169 0.2849 0.205 0.11 0.04427 138. Vapor Sat.102 2404.001 9.00 14 16.542 16 0.978 391 .04 141 .07298 0.2941 21.7880 13.79821 0.08 157.28477 164.225 45.08617 0.459 7.578 454.178 16..233 22.341 8.849 293.24236 1.635 55.88838 158.740 8.

..1r.ii · II ••lil••mc •tii!••••111 il••• .' ""-Y~·~z."'.'!!!i1C~i\~9!!!S!!FJa~~·!!•S!!!~~~~~! . '5.. 70 75 \ 0 '"'~ .:.1=~-=u=~==~r11~==§'1ffeli~1=~xa=11:. • 170 - 180 Pounds of Moisture Per Pound of Dry Air ·z"-.. ....~~~¥~!!1~~~Zi~!!S!!!~\1q'"~:.... .O 40 95 .r. 90 Grains of Moisture Per Pound of Dry Air ""'t1••t1& . Normal Temperature.. ......~~""'====·~=n1 !!L~r $_....._~ ~~~!!~~~._~ 3 • ..... 60 65 \ ~ ..~~~r. Btu per pound of dry air Z --i z 0 --i 0 Io c I~ I ..fl "t1 ~ • I I..... \ 00 120 .m 01 ~ I.. 80 85 \ "'~ . ~ .w -: . so 55 \ ~ s . . r m < m Ir (/) 0 ::a --i m ~ fll'\. 90 95 \ ....:.••co•o · •• !i tl~~il==....a••••N•r.... •.· a3 ::r '< (') I ~l (D tOl -ti (D ~ ..' PJ~1~~~=1C~=====i ~~== lJl§!~-"ti::•BJ' .~~~=~t.ii. ..a••m ••ii:._.... - "N•I t I ~ii _'I'--- -•ir-""I .fl ct> .....~ "'~ . ~ "'"""'"' I .&' 105 110 115 1'8' · . Wet-Bulb Oewpoinlor Temperature °F . ~ 0 ·o .O . 35 45 \ ••• 100 ~•11: ! N •F ..J Q "'T'1 OI -< (/)"'U ..._.._ 30 Ory-Bulb Saturation Temperature °F _.•: arH-.... ""<>g_ 90 ~1 _.... ~ 'IJ....1 :. 100 130 I t •8. · •. Psychrometric Chart..ff"'-... 100 105 \ .... 11 0 11 5 ~ 'I> .. . '"'"'l•g ·•co. ~ ... Sea Level ~ ''I> .. it41~ -~ .. nr •'-""• 85 ~ ~Enthalpy at saturation....

_P_s_y_c_h_r_o_m _e_t_ri_c_s___________________________ _ 57 <f8> Turn 10 theExpertS.. / )j 40 _..r6 gr '"'""3 " "'40 0... ' f! . 70 <../(! ~ ... 110 1Specific Humidity gr lb/Ibo• 180 . A B c db wb 75 75 75 65 59.~lllilll""'.1! f-Jctor .5 55 s pe clflc Humidity gr lb/l b. \ ~ o.~../-~ ·_()..5 W= specific humidity lb/lb dry air w dp 59.~iiim--~>•"'~ ". 40 90 70 '"'100 o.---/'..7 65 90. ..5 80 64.6 '· 20 .8 65..5 57 64.5 65 E 86.._~iiiililili+.....5 F 67.8 % rh 58 40 61 38 30 30 76 52.. 100 0.-.. 180 _ _..7 D 82.PSYCHROMETRICS. _.. ~ 80 90 '" ~ ..5 55 51.5 49./·'·' ...~~~lf... .i!. --...--... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Work Session 1 Answers 1.5 61.. 110 ~ <.oo -.9') Sens ibh: H 1-.') l595°Fdg-4"!..ro --$5 .

... Any object in the space with a temperature of less than 69° F will cool the moisture below its saturation temperature and condensation will occur.1s 1-./" ~60 Condensation will occur at any point 69°F dp below69° F dp----. 6 5 140 :.. . ' 180 .. " · t..1ble Heat .. . . db °F + 30 3. 40 "'<..PSYCHROMETRICS. . Yes b._ . temperature .) Psychrometrics Tum to the Experts.. a._.. 60 .. Air at 90° F db and 75° F wb has a dew point of approximately 69° F.. . 70 i i 80 90 "100 a._ ... The dew point at 70° F and 30% relative humidity is 37° F... 58 .90 Duct surface /'. ..-~-~~~~~""'~H ..!· 4. Specific Humidity gr lb/ lb.. Therefore. f" v .. 120..... 40 '"<. \' ....80 • . ~..--. Water vapor will go from the higher dew point area to the lower one.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 2. .·~ --.. The relative humidity at saturation is 100%. A vapor seal on the warm side of the wall is needed.·85 -. 80 70 ''"~ Factor 90 The air vapor mixture leaving the saturator will be saturated at 76° F. the vapor will try to pass through the wall and will condense within the wall when cooled below the dew point temperature. 110 « 95 .! Sens.50 ' r · · 55 •.. r.•.70 _._. ~' ..

LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 5.t> •• . 100 110 ~ .._ 45 / p ' ... the specific humidity.70 --. When the temperature is 90° F....90 ~~~""'""'~.. The relative humidity will vary during the day with the dry bulb.PSYCHROMETRICS. 59 .'? >' -!' / ... _ _.... 110 6.....-. Psychrometrics . -. 90 180 !...75 --SO ....... SS .l r ./...... / /" ·ss Specific Humidity gr lb/lb. .' ..'}·1 I .-..-' .~~..ii-"""'~~~ 95 Scnsib'0 Heat Factor ~ 80 70 "'~· ~ 90 ~0 ... remains constant through out the day . / ::.. 40 ~ 70 ~...~~..-.... 50 '"'0.. 80 ~~ 90 ~ 100 ~.. the relative humidity is 41 %..- lO :---...Tum totheExpe1tS. ~~ db OF •30 ~ 40 o. If there is no precipitation...85 f...-..-~ J'· '-~ .

..5 15 26 Spee Ifie Humidity 85 90 gr lb/lb.. h l"'~ ~ t L 1< :m f db ' F • 30 .! . ~ 0 .. 4.:Y.(IJ ~C ll'... Heating air at constant moisture content reduces the relative humidity.·1 :.PSYCHROMETRICS. wet bulb and dew point temperature establishes the amount of water vapor present. db wb %rh dp Air at 30 28 80 26 Heated to 75 51.:. --· ---"' /'. the dry bulb.. 40 90 " . •. . LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 7... the process is a horizontal line on the chart as from point 1 to 2. 110 Work Session 2 Answers 1... When air is heated with no moisture added.. 60 . • ·/ ~·_. Specific Humidity gr 180 lb/lb1 . 60 <dffet> Psychrometrics Turn to the Experts.S5 - 80 .·<. I <>) -. 100 .. What is the db temperature? 60° F What is the wb temperature? 60° F What is the dp temperature? 60° F When the vapor in an air-vapor mixture is saturated.

000 cfm * (77 gr.. <.54 gr) = 0. 61 .69 * 1.-.000 cfm * (80° F-50° F) = 1. Cooling air at constant moisture content increases the relative humidity.69 used in the latent heat formula is also a combination figure. and also takes into account the amount of heat removed to condense moisture.870 Btuh The factor 0. db wb %rh dp Air at 95 75 40 67 Cooled to 80 70. and also the amount of heat required to raise 1 lb of air 1 degree Fahrenheit.10 * 1.000 cfm * 23 = 15. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 2. 180 160 ' /_55 > · .69 * 1.000 Btuh = = The factor 1.8 65 67 Specific Humidity gr lb/lb. which converts cfm to lbs per hour.·:: ~ . 0. Sensible Heat Removed 110 1. lb/lb.000 cfm * 30 = 33 . "'100 l95°F d~l 70 ""o ." :::> ~' db "F .~ 110 < cififMt> _P_s_y_c_h_ro_m_e_t_r_ic_s____ _ _ _ ________________________ Tum 10 the Experts.' 3. the process is a horizontal line on the chart as from point 1 to 2.. When air is cooled without condensing moisture. Latent Heat Removed = Speclflc Humidity gr ~ 40 90 0..60 _ __.PSYCHROMETRICS. which converts cfm to lbs per hour.10 used in the sensible heat formula is a combination figure. 40 <.65 ::. 30 9~ .10 * 1.' ' 'b 100 c.10 * cfm * temperature change 1..69 * cfm *grains of moisture removed = 0..

-- 62 . Five hundred cfm of outdoor air represents 50012000 or '.-· .. 85 .. . The temperature difference between point l (80° F db) and point 2 (96° F db) is 96-80 or 16 degrees..SO Note: The temperature of the mixture can also be determined by calculation as follows: = (cfm1 x t 1) + (cfm 2 x t 2 ) = (1500 x 80) + (500 x 96) = 120.• ... Therefore. • 85 90 ./ Heat F. See the chart below.. c.2° F 62° F 83.30 gr) on the supply (100 gr .-..75 gr/lb Dry bulb Wet bulb Dew point Specific humidity The mixture will be closest to the larger air quantity. water evaporates more readily in the warm air stream. a. The total cfm is in the mixture is 500 + 1500 or 2000 cfm.PSYCHROMETRICS. the air can only absorb (60 gr. we can determine the other prope1ties by using the chart...000 + 48..- .~/ .. it is the 80° F db condition.. One-quarter of 16 is 4 degrees.-- Psychrometrics .......4 of the way up from point 1 on line 1-2... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 4. 84° F 69.. b.....30 gr) or 70 gr..~. d. By locating 84° Fon line 1-2.. Therefore.. Warm air has a greater capacity for moisture than cool air.-.lttO!" ~ 40 90 "·~ 'l< 100 .4 of the mixture..-. the mixture will be located '. Therefore. 1500 + 500 2000 2 The humidifier should be located on the supply side in the warm air from the furnace. ~. •• Specific Humidity gr lb/lb. . On the return side. 90 . the mixture is at 80° F +4° For 84° F db or point 3.. In this case. . Kt@@> • Turn to the ExpertS.000 = 168 = 840 F t cfm 1 + cfm2 m 5.

100 90 "·1- 110 The bypass factor of 0...25 means that 75% of the 80° F db and 50% rh will contact the coil and be cooled to 56° F saturation (point 2).. Air at 95° F db and 75° F wb falls between the 14 and 14..3 cu ft/lb wb dp °F db ' F + 30 'lo 40 "·~ 90 70 i '100 "· j95•fl1 Psychrometrics 110 . db= 62° F wb = 58.. ·. Point 1 is estimated to be 0.... db leaving the coil = 56°F+114(80° F+56° F) = 56 + 6 = 62° F (point 3) From the chart. Volume at point 1 = 14 + 0.---------m tm = 42 + 20 = 62 7. 25% of the air at point 1 will pass through the coil unchanged. The air leaving the coil will be a mixture of air at these two conditions... This could also be checked by using the mixing equation: t (0.0 .9° F...5 cu ft/lb volume lines.0 cu ft line. 60 70 '..Turn to the Expert& 63 ....75 * 56) + (0. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 6.9° F -...PSYCHROMETRICS.......25 * 80) 1...........6 x (14...~ -.6 of the distance to the left of the 14........ the wb leaving the coil is 58.5-14) = 14.

Room latent is 100% -80% or 20% of the room total heat.... ~~. Then draw a line parallel to line 1-2 through the pivot point dot at 80° F db and 50% rh to the sensible heat factor scale.. Specific Humidity ~ ~/ .. 180 ... To determine enthalpy of air at condition 1...65 t<. . Read 0.7 Btu/lbda· Per the recommendation on page 13. (CM@> Psychrometrics Turn to the Expert$. 9._. ~~ ... ~50 !.8.. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION 8.:2? Sensible Heat F<ii:...PSYCHROMETRICS. 64 ... 60 120 . Room sensible heat is 80% of the room total heat..<lO 80 _.. 60 70 90 110 "' lss°Fdbl .. Factor "' o.tor " ~· ~ ·.70 ----. In this case it is 27....75 00 -.55 .--"..-~~.. .85 --.. / /"·'. 85 gr 90 lb/lb.... follow from point 1 parallel to a wb line and read enthalpy Btu/lb dry air on the scale to the left of the saturation line. 5 pee Ifie Humidity gr 90 lb/lb. . ·as .. 180 160 140 ..... Draw a line connecting points I and 2. we have not included a correction for enthalpy deviation..

wet bulb temperature temperature indicated by a psychrometer when the bulb of one thermometer is covered with a water-saturated wick over which air is caused to flow at approximately 900 ft/min (4. One pound of dry air is equal to 7000 grains relative humidity the ratio of the amount of vapor contained in the air to the greatest amount the air could hold at that temperature. p = pressure. superheat extra heat in a vapor when at a temperature higher than the saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure. humidification the process of adding water vapor to the air moisture content the weight of water vapor. when the heat of vaporization is supplied by the sensible heat of the air. dehumidification removal of water vapor from air. expressed in pounds or grains. associated with one pound of dry air. LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Glossary adiabatic process thermodynamic process during which no heat is extracted from or added to the system Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure each constituent of a mixture of gases behaves thermodynamically as if it alone occupied the space. Normally expressed as percentage. and v = volume. h = E + pv. where h = enthalpy or total heat content. The sum of the individual pressures of the constituents equals the total pressure of the mixture. E = internal energy of the system.PSYCHROMETRICS. dew point temperature at which water reaches the saturation point ( 100% relative humidity) dry bulb temperature temperature of air on a thermometer that measures sensible heat energy enthalpy thermodynamic quantity equal to the sum of the internal energy of a system plus the product of the pressure-volume work done on the system.5 mis) to reach an equilibrium temperature of water evaporating into air. «'dffllti _P_s_y_c_h_ro _ m_e_t_ri_c_s_ _ __________________ ______ Turn to the Expert& 65 .

.._ ... LEVEL 1: INTRODUCTION Notes <M !I! ..PSYCHROMETRICS..~ Psychrometrics TurntotheExpertS............ . : _ _ __ _ __ 66 .....

etc. Book Cat. Title TDP-102 796-026 797-026 ABCs of Air Conditioning Learning Objectives: After completing this module. basic concepts of the air conditioning . Depending upon the topic. video. The following TDPs are good reference for this material: Form No. .Prerequisites: This module assumes the participant has an understanding of industry terminology. quiz and quiz answers . Level 3: Application Psychrometrics. participants will be able to: • • Understand the properties of air and water vapor mixtures. Vinyl 11 " x 17" Chart SHF Alignment Ruler Pad of 25 Paper Normal Temp 11 " x 17" Charts Instructor Information: Each TOP topic is supported with a number of different items to meet the specific needs of the user. Level 2: Process Psychrometrics. Build the psychrometric chart. No. and the mechanical refrigeration process . the instructor CD may also include sound. No. 796-031 796-032 796-033 796-01 8 796-013 796-016 797-031 797-032 797-033 Title Psychrometrics . Supplemental Material: Form No. spreadsheets . Understand how the processes can be combined into a system using a system plot diagram and psychrometric chart. Use the psychrometric chart to determine the properties of an air/water vapor mixture. Level 4: Theory Normal Temperature. No. This always includes: slides. forms . Instructor CD Cat. presenter notes. Instructor materials consist of a CD-ROM disk that includes a PowerPoint™ presentation with convenient links to all required support materials required for the topic. Use the psychrometric chart to understand the basic air conditioning processes. TDP-202 TDP-203 TDP-204 Book Cat. and may also include forms . Instructor CD Cat. calculators. worksheets. No. or other material required to present a complete class. Self-study or student material consists of a text including work sessions and work session answers . text file including work sessions and work session solutions.

TDP-3 Cat.training. 791-409 . TDP-201A Supersedes Form No. No.carrier. No. 796-030 Supersedes Cat.Turn to the Experts.com Form No. Carrier Corporation Technical Training 800 644-5544 www.