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Practice Exam-Module 1

These are the types of questions you will be asked on the exam.
Classify
Place a letter next to each of the following brain structures to indicate the major division to
which it belongs (F = forebrain, M = midbrain, H = hindbrain).
1. hypothalamus
2. temporal lobe
3. pons
4. hippocampus
5. basal ganglia

6. thalamus
7. cerebellum
8. superior colliculi
9. amygdala
10. medulla

Matching
Select the behavioral function on the right that matches the brain structure listed on the left.
1. occipital lobe
2. medulla
3. hypothalamus
4. frontal lobe
5. hippocampus
6. cerebellum
7. thalamus
8. temporal lobe
9. colliculi
10. parietal lobe

a. hearing (audition)
b. diencephalic information relay
c. touch (somatic senses)
d. respiration, heart rhythm
e. emotion, memory (limbic system)
f. vision
g. executive functions
h. brainstem sensory relay
i. processes limb positions
j. internal regulation

Fill-In
Fill in the missing word(s) in each o f the following sentences.
1. ____________________________are people from many interdisciplinary fields who study the
brain and nervous system in a scientific manner.
2. According to a theory known as______________________________________, mental
functions belonged to a world reserved only for humans.
3. In trying to understand how the brain and mind work, thinkers in the past have used
______________________________to the physical world.
4. Aristotle believed that the___________________________________was the source of
nervous control and behavior.
5. The__________________________________________is the part of the peripheral nervous
system that controls and regulates the activities of internal body organs and glands.
6. Neuroscientists who are________________________________________seek to describe the
structure and organization of the elements of the brain.
7. The use of tests and behavioral observation of persons with known brain damage can produce
useful information about the brain, mind, and behavior. These activities are used
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the most complex structure known c. a product of the normal activities of the brain. both the brain and the spinal cord. Which of the following neuroscientists seeks information about the chemical functioning of the brain? a. 3. What is a brain? a. the finding that nerve cells generated electricity 6. boundless and unknowable. a specialized body organ for carrying out major acts of living b. anatomists b. a collection of billions of nerve cells and neuroglia d. Which of the following is a good example of the brain's internal regulation function? a. only the brain and its structures. Which of the following is not one of the three required components of the scientific method? 2 . c. von Waller's discovery of a chemical method for staining dying nerve cells d. Today's neuroscientists believe that the mind is: a. Cajal's discovery that individual nerve cells did not touch one another c. psychologists 2.by_____________________________________________neuroscientists. d. the somatic. 1. the sensory experience of vision due to occipital lobe functions 4. Which of the following discoveries led most directly to the "chemical-transmission hypothesis" of brain function? a. c. all structures of the nervous system. hypothalamic control of hormone release from the pituitary gland b. biochemists d. b. autonomic. and diffuse enteric nervous systems. the finding that no gases were released when muscles were made to contract in water b. all of the above are correct 7. d. 5. Multiple Choice Select the one best answer for each of the following multiple-choice exercises. an abstract concept that includes ideas about the self and the soul. The central nervous system includes: a. activities of the hippocampus to aid in memory formation c. b. physiologists c. the control of voluntary movement by the frontal lobe d. a function of the deeper structures of the brainstem.

cerebellum ____________8. pupil contraction to a sudden bright light. hypothalamus ______________5. b.4 3 ____________7. spinal cord _________3. walking and carrying on a conversation at the same time without tripping. reasoning about the results to generate hypotheses for future experiments 8. repetition of the study to allow for independent verification of findings b.6 in the textbook) with the following central nervous system structures.a. and findings c.4 and 1. observation or the accurate recording of methods. eye blinks. Locate Brain Areas Match the letters in the accompanying diagrams (Figures 1. periodic swallowing when not eating. proving that one's ideas about truth are valid d. pons ______________6. 3rd ventricle ______________4. forebrain _________2. thalamus Figure 1. medulla . d. _________1. c. conditions. One good example of involuntary movement controlled by the brain is: a.

6 4 _________13. motor cortex_____________12. Fig. frontal lobe __________10.parietal lobe . sensory cortex _________14. temporal lobe.__________9. occipital lobe ____________11. 1.

Answers Classify 1-F 2-F 3-H 4-F 5-F 6-F 7-H 8-M 9-F 10-H Matching 1-f 2-d 3-j 4-g 5-e 6-i 7-b 8-a 9-h 10-c Fill-in 1 Neuroscientists 2 mind-brain dualism 3 analogies 4 heart 5 autonomic 6 anatomists 7 clinical Multiple Choice 1c 2b 3a 4c 5b 6d 7c 8a 5 .

Locate Brain Areas 1D 2C 3F 4A 5E 6B 7G 8H 9F 10 B 11 A 12 E 13 C 14 D 6 .

Amino acids 21. The appearance of an organism due to gene interactions with the environment is called ______________________. multigenic 8. Messenger RNA____________________________________________________ 16. 13. Receptor Names of items ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Multiple choice 22 Amino acids are a) building blocks of mRNA b) can act as neurotransmitters c) building blocks of DNA d) building blocks of lipids 7 . Briefly describe each term 15. gene 9. The sex chromosomes are _____ and _______. gene found in neurons j. transgene 7. confers prevailing trait h. Neuron diversity 20. on the X-chromosome i. gene inserted into mouse Fill in 11. Chromosomal abnormality ____________________________________________ Naming Name some specific items in each category Category 17. Huntington’s Disease 18. encodes protein without known function e. wildtype 4. sex-linked 6. dominant 2. involving multiple genes g. 14. “Junk” DNA 19. The _______ is the entire DNA sequence in an organism’s nucleus.Matching Select the gene term on right that matches the description on the left. mutant 5. does not contribute to trait f. There are 22 pairs of _______________. 12. encodes protein b. unknown gene a. neurogene 10. rare gene in a population d. 1. recessive 3. common gene in a population c.

retention of an extra piece or whole chromosome 17. selectively binds molecule. b 23. genome 15. glutamate receptors Multiple choice 22. choreic dance-like behavioral phenotype 18. medium spiny. y 14. translated into protein 16. many different types of neurons in brain. Fragile X gene a) is on the Y chromosome b) is on the 21st chromosome c) encodes a protein involved in translation d) dendritic spines are normal Answers Matching 1-g 2-e 3-b 4-c 5-h 6-j 7-f 8-a 9-i 10-d 11. mRNA. phenotype 12. lots of repetitive DNA. building blocks of protein. pyramidal. amino acid receptors. also act as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Purkinje.23. autosomes 13. motor dysfunction. many receptors 21. DNA in human genome that does not encode proteins. autosomal dominant. x. billions may all be different in some way 20. c 8 . caudate putamen cell loss. regulatory 19.

P = peptide. the neuron has a negative potential inside compared with outside because of the differential distribution of charged particles called___________________across the plasma membrane. neurons with very short axons a. mitochondrion that act to modify electrical potentials b. 2.Classify Place a letter next to each o f the following neurotransmitters to indicate the class to which it belongs (AA = amino acid. intracellular enzymes that alter the physiological properties of a neuron subsequent to neural e. second messengers communication f. O = other). The____________________________________is the organelle in the soma that houses genetic information. local-circuit neurons 4. aspartate 5. nitric oxide 3. GABA 6. dopamine 4. collateral axons in relay neurons 2. serotonin 8. 4. 1. 9 . dopamine 6. membrane sacs that hold neurotransmitters inside the neuron 7. Chemical messengers called ___________________________are carried across the synaptic gap 3. postsynaptic neuron 3. endorphin Matching Select the term on the right that matches the definition listed on the left. glutamate 10. vasopressin 7. spaces in the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is held Fill-In Fill in the missing word in each o f the following sentences. norepinephrine 2. 1. 1. a neuron that receives a message g. a monoamine neurotransmitter 8. the attraction of opposite-charged ions and the repulsion of like-charged ions 10. M = monoamine. At rest. cytoplasmic organelle that i. ventricles generates energy for the cell j. oligodendrocyte 5. synaptic vesicles from another neuron h. anandamide 9. Sending neurons transmit signals to receiving neurons in pathways called __________________ . branches of an axon that enable a neuron to communicate with other neurons 9. electrical force myelin around neurons d. a type of glial cell that forms c.

ions move through spaces in the membrane called ___________________________.___________________:___________________ 6. the ion pumps that move ions across the membrane. d. message neurons. either excitatory or inhibitory. ______________________________________circuits influence a large number of neurons in a non specific way. When the nerve impulse is generated. positively charged neurotransmitters. The soma and dendrites constitute the__________________________________surface of the neuron.5. b. c. the cytoplasmic action of mitochondria to produce energy for the cell. b. circuit neurons. d. Neurons that are lowest in a hierarchy (closest to the world event or the muscle being activated are called: a. 2.___________________:___________________ 4. 7. conditional signals.___________________:___________________ Multiple Choice: Select the one best answer for each of the following multiple-choice exercises. sodium ions enter cell signal is propagated resting state reestablished polarity reversal channels close ion pump removes sodium "gated" channel opening 1. 10 .___________________:___________________ 3. d. The plasma membrane's selectivity is possible because of: a. the myelin sheath that surrounds the axon.___________________:___________________ 7. There are two types of synaptic messages:_______________________and______________. c. All receptors in the brain work by opening ion channels. channels that allow the passage of specific substances. b. primary neurons. Which of the following statements would be a general conclusion about neural communication? a. second messengers. 8. 6.___________________:___________________ 2. The insulating covering of the axon formed by oligodendrocytes is called________________. Each neuron receives only one type of message. c. 3. List and Describe Rearrange the following list of eight events in the action potential to indicate the temporal order of events and then write a brief phrase to describe each process. relay neurons b. 4. A neuron is stimulated to fire when it receives: a. 1. 9. excitatory messages.___________________:___________________ 5.

Whether a synapse is excitatory or inhibitory depends on the: a. b. 5. c. All neurotransmitters bind and act at more than one kind of receptor. b. monoamines b. 10. amino acids. amino acids 8. d. d. The neurotransmitters that account for the vast majority of signals in the brain are the: a. neurotransmitter. when the threshold of strength is met b. b. They are absorbed into the cerebrospinal fluid. membrane. In the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). They are either destroyed by enzymes or are reuptaken into the presynaptic neuron. myelin. ions in the synaptic gap. catecholamines. Which of the following will always cause a neuron to fire a nerve impulse: a. 9. b. when an excitatory signal is received by the cell 6. peptides c. Answers 11 . type of receiving neuron. d. peptides. c. others (unclassified as yet) d. They are taken directly into the blood stream and excreted by the kidneys. d. d. Drugs that are used to treat depression (antidepressants) affect which class of transmitter? a. when there are no inhibitory messages to the cell d. when sodium ions enter the postsynaptic cell c. What ultimately happens to the neurotransmitters that are released into the synaptic gap? a.c. the damaged part of the neuron is the: a. 7. monoamines. receptor and the neurotransmitter. Each neuron produces all of the known neurotransmitters for sending messages. mitochondria. microtubule. They enter the postsynaptic cell to deliver the excitatory or inhibitory messages. c. c.

M 7. Polarity reversal: the inside of the cell is now positively charged compared to the outside 4. P Matching 1-f 2-h 3-e 4-d 5-a 6-g 7-j 8-b 9-c 10-i Fill-In 1. circuits 2. O 2. M 3. excitatory and inhibitory List and describe 1.Classify 1. Ion pump removes sodium: molecular mechanisms in the membrane take the excess sodium out of the cell and bring in potassium 12 . single-source-divergent 8. AA 5. AA 4. ions 5. Channels close: the ion channels revert to their closed configuration 5. channels 6. mylein 9. AA 9. Signal (impulse) is propagated: channels along the membrane open in turn so that the potential can move down the axon to the terminal 6. O 8. M 10. P 6. nucleus 4. Sodium ions enter cell: sodium is pulled into the cell because of its positive charge 3. neurotransmitters 3. receptive 7. “gated” channels openings: Pores in membrane specific for sodium ions open because of electrical currents 2.

a 4. c 10. d 3. b 13 . d 5. a 6.7. c 2. Resting state reestablished: the cell returns to its resting state with the interior negatively charged compared to the exterior Multiple Choice 1. a 8. c 7. b 9.