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Catalogue of the Liturgical Metalwork
Dickran Kouymjian

1765; manuscript 1302-1321 copied in Sis, Mayr Maštoc‘ (main Ritual Book) of the Cathedral of St. Sophia, Sis.
Adana. Made by Yarut‘iwn mahtesi Łalēmkiar. 25x18.5cm; silver, gilded, chased, engraved. Ms. Inv. Number 9.

The remarks which follow serve to contextualize the liturgical metalwork in the Cilician Museum of the
Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia. The catalogue of some one hundred objects discussed in detail
below, though a small sample of the collections, presents the most important objects in it.1
The liturgical artifacts — silver metalwork, vestments, altar curtains, and manuscripts including
Gospelbooks, lectionaries, prayer books — formerly part of the treasury of the Catholicosate of Cilicia in
Sis and now the core of the Cilician Museum in Antelias, present one of the most important and authentic
pre-Genocide collections of Armenian religious art to have reached us. Despite centuries of invasion and
strife by determined enemies of the Cilician state and its catholicosate, including the final solution of the
Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire in 1915, which resulted in the total destruction of its former
capital and religious headquarters of seven centuries, these objects survived. Thanks to the desperate attempt
on the part of a few clergymen to save as many of its important movable and sanctified liturgical treasures,
a miraculous and representative collection is now securely preserved to be visited and admired by Armenians
and non-Armenians alike. In this volume this section of its holdings, including the catalogue of the liturgical
metalwork, is a tribute to those spiritual leaders who sacrificed everything to preserve these inanimate relics
that have been touched by the grace of centuries of faith and reverence.
Western religious institutions, whether the papacy or important bishoprics or powerful monasteries, have
fared much better than most churches in Asia Minor and the Holy Land, the cradle of the three great
monotheistic religions. The Monastery of St. John the Theologian on the Island of Patmos offers some
interesting points of comparison in studying the liturgical implements of the Catholicosate of Cilicia. At
Patmos the collection of church plate was greatly enhanced through pious donations in the twelfth century,
filling its treasury with priceless church objects many from princely patrons in the Balkans. The term church
treasury was actually very appropriate because the greater part of the church’s wealth was stored in it. In
the Western ecclesiastical world as in the Eastern, in times of disaster or distress, such accumulated wealth
was in part sold off to pay for the needs of the monks or those dependent on the church or monastery. This
was the case with Patmos.2 An additional factor also played a decisive role in the dilapidation of the treasury:
in the case of Patmos raids by pirates regularly plundering churches and monasteries and in the case of the
Cilician See and Armenian institutions in general, war, invasion, crushing taxation, and finally at the end of
the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century, massacre and genocide. In both cases, Patmos
off the western coast of Ottoman Turkey and Armenia in its eastern regions, the survival of pre-eighteenth
century liturgical objects is rare. Yet, it is with these precious remnants of the last two centuries from the
mountain top residence of the Catholicoi at Sis that the Museum and this catalogue owe their existence.
Armenian metalwork is intrinsically associated with liturgical vessels. Though secular objects in silver,
gold, and bronze have come to light through excavations of Urartean and pre-Christian sites, surviving
objects fashioned in metal from the Christian era, except for an abundance of coins from the twelfth to the
fourteenth centuries, are almost exclusively liturgical items.3 They are abundantly preserved in catholicosal,
patriarchal, and lesser collections. Unfortunately, there are few dating from before the sixteenth century;
many of those are attributed to the patronage of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia. Excavations at the early
medieval capitals of Dwin and Ani have uncovered a limited number of objects in bronze: crosses, a
candelabra, lamps, and incense burners.4 There is also the tenth-century iron cross of King Ašot Erkat‘, in a
case of a later date, and what is probably a large baptismal basin from the Monastery of Hałarcin dated
1232.5 Among exceptional secular works are at least two astrolabes. One in highly polished bronze is dated

whether a town or a workshop. 1420-1496). created an environment in which artistic innovation and exchange penetrated the spirit of Armenian artisans responsible for the creation of church art. Nicholas of 1315. lacking any other indication of origin. The study of Armenian liturgical art is based on such reliquaries. they are noted as errors by the word sic. accompanied Armenian catholicoi as they moved through the centuries from one region of Armenia to another. a town or a village. certain relics.9 the Patriarchates of Jerusalem10 and Constantinople/Istanbul. is comprised of reliquaries. and at church museums such as those in Aleppo. demonstrates that Armenian artists were aware of the modes and fashions of their times in neighboring Christian traditions. one can at least postulate the beginnings of the permanent collection now housed in different museums at the Holy See. the name of the patron. meaning “recorded exactly as it is written. which is entirely dedicated to the written word. altar curtains. were well understood and employed by Armenian craftsmen and artists. in general in an isolated or near isolated rural environment. many of the inscriptions have misspellings. that is. crosses.15 There is also a major difficulty in establishing the provenance of Armenian metalwork. that the best jewelers of Constantinople.13 as well as the Catholic Monastery at Bzommar in Lebanon. then Sis (1292). like the right hand of St. and miscellaneous items including chandeliers. accompanied by looting and destruction. however. in Armenian aĵ. whether containing fragments of the True Cross.11 the Armenian Catholic Monasteries of the Mxit‘arist Fathers in Venice12 and Vienna. are found in the collections at the Catholicosate of Holy Ēĵmiacin. with its Patriarch also headquartered in the capital from the very establishment of a Christian Byzantine Empire. or other venerable elements. fashioned during the past three centuries. We know this from textual sources as well as the comparatively abundant vestiges of church architecture of the fifth to the seventh centuries and through painting — mostly manuscript illumination from the ninth century on and a few surviving frescoes — silver crosses. must be conjectured from the style of the object or information within the inscription that can provide clues. Scribal colophons in manuscripts are usually of a substantial length. altar ornaments. censers.7 The oldest group of surviving liturgical items. by commissioning or encouraging liturgical art. chalice covers. he was responsible before the Ottoman Porte for all Greeks in the realm. Yet. Surely the patronage of the princes and kings. the Ottoman Empire’s capital. This heritage. from the glorious days of the Cilician royalty. Such reliquaries. With the election of another catholicos in Ēĵmiacin after 1441. This phenomenon was exactly the same for the Greek Orthodox community. Their use in church ceremonial helped guarantee their safety. Little survives. flabellae. Metalwork usually does not provide the abundant space necessary for such long memorials. were usually active in an urban or semiurban environment. but like the Armenian Patriarch. it is quite common for the artist himself to leave a separate colophon and often the binder to add one too. Later. but equally distinguished. During the Genocide. As in all art. censers. shows the level of literacy of those responsible for the inscription. to attribute the origin of the liturgical object to Sis. body parts of saints. miniatures. or copper. Sylvester. weak in writing skills? Or were the patrons. Gregory the Illuminator at Sis. The frequency of the errors. the shape and decoration of objects is affected by tradition and new waves of stylistic change. only rarely do we find the name of the craftsman who created the piece or the place of its manufacture as distinguished from the church for which it was intended.” from the Latin word meaning “thus”.6 the other crafted with less elegance. are known in the West as dexters. responsible directly to the Sultan for the management of Armenians throughout his vast realm. altar crosses. grammatical errors. ought to have checked the inscriptions or supplied a correct copy of the text for the engraver to execute.14 The most notable of these. has a continuous history from its residence at Hṙomkla (1156). silver Gospel covers. 1080-1375). as pointed out by recurrent us of the word sic. belonged to the late seventeenth-century printer and scholar Łukas Vanandec‘i and is today in the History Museum of Armenian in Erevan. made them. and precious stones. These errors are carefully recordered and usually not corrected. Constantinople had become the city with the largest Armenian population in the Empire as well as the seat of the Patriarch. lamps. and the like. This is in marked contrast to those who produced Armenian manuscripts.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 160 160 161 1479 and belonged to the Armenian doctor Amir Dowlat of Amasya (ca. gold. The art historian. only to point out directions for further research. those who commissioned the works? If it was not the patron’s fault. Little work has been done in this area and the catalogue was not the place to try to answer such questions. The finest Greek artistic works were fashioned by craftsmen working in the great cosmopolitan city on the Bosphorus and from there often supplying the most precious objects to the churches of the provinces as has been pointed out by various scholars. sometimes immediately followed by the correct spelling or form. opting for a splendid photograph and the date. we know by the quality of the craftsmanship of many vessels of precious metal. The Catholicosal Museum preserves the silver binding dated 1252 of the Barjrberd Gospels of 1248 and the right hand reliquary of St. a patriarch or catholicos for instance. precious objects in silver and gold inevitably disappeared. an official of the Ottoman Empire’s administrative system. candlesticks. thus recording such changes is often a difficult endeavor. the latter. after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. St. As for liturgical vestments. As the attentive reader will discover. Were the craftsmen—metalworkers and jewelers—who fashioned them. This tripartite division of the arts and crafts in medieval and early modern Armenia has not been sufficiently studied and will probably yield interesting information on the social stratification of Armenian life. There was a conscious effort to escape from the usual “beautiful album” syndrome that ignores such information. bronze. It also poses a number of questions. both the oldest dated items in their respective categories. it is quite common for the scribe to mention the name of the artist or artists responsible for the illuminations. and occasionally the use of hijrī dates of the Muslim calendar. It was my intent from the conception of the catalogue of the Cilician Museum to record as accurately and completely as possible all inscriptions to serve as an important tool for research into the history of these objects as well as the social milieu in which they were created. Metalworkers. inscriptions announce that such and such a person presented the chalice or cross to the Holy See of St. Thus. at times local dialects. As we will see with common objects like chalices or candleholders. civilizations in direct contact with Armenia and the Armenians. The Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia. Nicholas. There is every reason to believe that the transformations in minor arts taking place in the Byzantine East and the Latin West. and Southfield. It was there that the styles were often set and where the most luxurious liturgical objects were fashioned. Barsauma. often rather low in the later period. Tabriz. then in 1921 it was finally evacuated from Cilicia and in 1930 it settled in its present location in Antelias. Gregory. including the Bagratids and Arcrunis and afterward the aristocracy of Cilician Armenia (ca. Gregory the Illuminator. During the long history of invasion and occupation of Armenia. By the end of the seventeenth century. surely those who were clergy.16 Through inscriptions we know this to be true in the Armenian case too. it was relocated in Aleppo (1915). sometimes foreign words such as Turkish. St. and other decoration in the manuscript. and a fragmentary miniature cycle of the paleo-Christian period. or jewelers creating with silver. a sufficient number have survived to provide a rich overview of the beauty of these objects fashioned by Armenian artisans as a way to honor the church and ultimately the heavenly Trinity. and other textiles. or his or her place of origin. are much older than their more recent silver reliquaries. New Julfa.8 the Cilician Catholicosate. they seemed to be reserved for the skills of female creators. The remainder of the items from the Catholicosate at Sis for the most part date to the eighteenth century and after. an integral part of the object. however. chalices. or the name of the church to which the item was gifted. thus most works are anonymous and their place of origin. Yet. often enameled or graced with gems. especially the right hands of St. scribes and artists were almost without exception clergymen usually working within a monastery. now in the collection of the Sultan of Qatar. this noble patronage was transferred to the prosperous merchant class that dominated Armenian life from the . court physician of Sultan Mehmed II. Michigan. and St. including numismatic evidence from the kingdom of Cilicia. The inscriptions from liturgical metalwork demonstrate that the craftsmen and artists responsible for their execution were often laymen. This has led many. therefore. Though almost all metal vessels or other object used in church have inscriptions. is confronted with the problem of tracing the line of development of both the form and decoration of such objects from the earliest centuries of Christianity to the modern period. from the earliest Christian centuries to pre-modern times. either preserving fragments of the True Cross or right hand relics of saints. patronized by the kings of Armenia. In this way. a few dating to the tenth and eleventh centuries. whether crafting objects in iron. as well as a number of smaller ones preserved within crosses. incomprehensible forms of place names and names of individuals. However. often vardapets. The early fourth-century adoption of Christianity by the state resulted in the participation of the Armenians in the formation of the styles and forms of early Christian art. the church succeeded in integrating all elements of society around its daily ritual.

founder and first head of the church. Among the oldest surviving liturgical items are the reliquaries of a tenth-eleventh century triptych of the staff of St. Barsauma the Syrian. Gregory. In Armenia the cult of relics was governed by these precepts and followed this ranking schema. Nicholas. gave fragments of the True Cross to the Armenians on his return to Constantinople after rescuing it from Persia in 628. even though later tradition dates back the phenomenon to the first century when St. Relics were symbols of special power endowed on the possessor by God. In addition. especially right hand or arm reliquaries of which some fifty Armenian examples have been recorded. Relics and Reliquaries The cult of relics was inspired by the reverence for the remains of early Christian martyrs during the persecutions of the Roman Empire.30 and the most splendid example of the period. but among holy relics. Bzommar. brought the Holy Lance of the Crucifixion to Armenia. and the box holding her veil were later surrogate relics. are housed in Ēĵmiacin. was taken to heaven at the Assumption.23 Armenian Reliquaries Little work has been done on the overall understanding of the art and the history of Armenian reliquaries. The Armenian interest in relics dates to the same fourth century in which it adopted Christianity. one of the two Apostles to bring Christianity to Armenia (the other was St. There are two important relics from Biblical times in Ēĵmiacin.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 162 162 163 seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries. a sixth right hand reliquary is preserved in the church of San Gregorio Armena in Nardo. Gregory is the only one that has a precise function in Armenian ritual. the Virgin. courts. Peter and Paul. kings. who is responsible for the conversion of Armenia to Christianity in the first quarter of the fourth century. As already mentioned. including two triptychs in silver.29 encasements for fragments of the True Cross or relics of saints. churches. the lance. The most prominent are arm relics of the right hand of St. Because we lack sufficient specimens of metalwork from the early period it is difficult to judge if certain imported ornamental motifs from the West or even from the Greek East. . though articles and short monographs have been published on individual items. Gregory the Illuminator. being an indispensable instrument in the blessing of the Holy Oil and used in the consecration of catholicoi and in earlier times kings and even bishops. the Apostles St.31 Such reliquaries in the Cilician collection are entirely from the early modern period. Petersburg. one from Skewṙa dated 1293 in the Hermitage Museum in St. there is an added significance for the Armenian Church. and their subjects or faithful. and other nonbody elements associated with Christ. a fourth in the Armenian Prelacy of New Julfa-Ispahan. The hierarchy of relics parallels that of the principal figures of any religion. and local sovereigns. Gregory. scores of little fragments are incorporated in cross-shaped reliquaries in most important collections of church artifacts: Ēĵmiacin. John the Baptist. But a third is in Jerusalem at the Armenian Patriarchate. a considerable number of reliquaries survive. St. Hṙip‘simē of 1793 and 1825. culminating in the Genocide. as well as high church officials avidly searched for bones or body parts and aggressively accumulated relics.25 Though the large number of these preserved in ecclesiastic collections includes important figures of the early church and those associated with the conversion of Armenia. emperors.20 As in other church traditions. and St. the Holy Cross of Xotakerac‘ made in 1300 for the Prince Ēač‘i Pṙošean now in the Treasury of Holy Ēĵmiacin. because her body. as were those of male saints. Very early a tradition was established that the Byzantine emperor Heraclius ( 610-641). Stephen. Gregory the Illuminator and his immediate family. 24 Reliquaries with fragments of the cross of the Crucifixion exist in most Armenian liturgical collections.26 Many relics were associated with the Apostles. the four Evangelists. Italy. As in the rest of the Christian world the most venerated Armenian relics fall into two categories. A second variety of relic is the dexter or the right hand of a saint. Relics in addition to being sacred objects of veneration. until rather modern times. pieces of the True Cross and bones of the right hands of saints. many of these are of saints who have a direct relationship to the Armenian Church or nation. Menas. Very few examples are to be found in repositories not belonging to the Armenian Church. and St. the other Apostles. In Christianity. St. St. Bartholomew28 and of St. the ranking is Christ. who had not been present at her funeral.22 Ałt‘amar. even though her veil. followed by local saints. Jerusalem. but seemingly were not encapsulated into reliquaries. Vienna. there are two major types of relics among the Armenians. with a catholicosate until the turn of the twentieth century. the latter from Calcutta. They were thought of as prophylactic or palliative objects protecting empires. Further targeted research will certainly clear up some of these questions. In the Cilician collection there are four dexters (aĵ. they also served to reinforce authority. Venice. who seems to have had Armenian origins. Gregory the Illuminator.17 Despite the ravages caused by centuries of pillage and destruction. John and St. The Virgin’s veil was supposedly given to St.19 There is another fragment in a reliquary with the form of a spear in the Cilicia Museum (to be discussed below). Stephen the protomartyr of 1302. and. quite different from the Latin or Greek experience where innumerable reliquaries have made their way into major museums. St. The second large class of relics is related to the body parts of saints. as were the wood of the cross. Istanbul. Throughout Asia Minor and the Holy Land. with minor variants based on its own history. Peter. The first consists of pieces of the True Cross. James of Nisibis. which may have been the same as the one that materialized in Ēĵmiacin in 1441. the dexter of St. The most important surviving relics pertain to Jesus and St. Curiously. either fragments of the True Cross or the spear that pierced Christ’s side (see above). No attempt will be made to solve the riddle of why we possess multiple right hand reliquaries of St. Sylvester. special importance was given to the relics of St. they were also important signs of authority and even sovereignty. Antelias. There are no relics affiliated with the Virgin Mary. kensagir Surb Nšan). Gregory the Illuminator. followed by the Apostles and the saints. both religious and political. were thought to have powers of healing and salvation. called in Armenian variously the Holy Sign (Surb Nšan) or the Living Wood (p‘ayt kenac‘. Bartholomew. Aleppo. finally. Reliquaries A. Though the former are common among most early Christian rites. Bartholomew).21 There is one each in the Catholicosate of Ēĵmiacin and the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia. two late dexters of St. Thaddeus. Altar reliquaries Most Armenian altar or display reliquaries are associated with the Crucifixion. he is supposed to have brought it to Armenia where a cult developed around it.27 Part I. had at one time its own right arm relic of St. Though there are no large pieces of the True Cross. plural aĵer): those of St. The latter also have their order: John the Baptist. nevertheless. a fragment of Noah’s ark18 and the spear that pierced Christ’s side at the Crucifixion. like that of Christ’s. where the Sassanids had taken it after the sack of Jerusalem in 614. her belt. there are numerous reliquaries of diverse shape with relics belonging to early Christian figures including St. the relics belonging to the female saints Hṙip‘simē and Gayanē have been preserved under their respective churches according to tradition. first appeared during the late middle ages or if they are to be ascribed to more recent times. Were female saints simply left out of the cult of relics in Armenia or in Eastern Christianity? The question deserves further study.

Interior (leaves open): In the center is a Crucifixion in a Western style with some Eastern elements. Jesus of Nazareth. an old tradition in the iconography for the Crucifixion. made by Master Grigor called Giwrinc‘i (from Giwrin). fig. and Mary Magdalene kneeling and clutching Christ’s feet at the bottom of the cross.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 164 164 165 1. partially chased. Exterior: When closed. used by Oskan Erewanc‘i in his Amsterdam Bible of 166632 and then occasionally with slight variations in his Psalter of 1673. Bibliography: Album. in the year (date omitted) fifth of the month of November. 1965. in a cloud band is God the Father seated with a triangular or Trinitarian halo. In the four corners are the Evangelists in wreaths fashioned as those in the upper arch. Gabriel holds a long-stemmed flower. which took place on Golgotha. but gives the day as November 5. kamaṙzbaṙ (sic. Parcel gilt silver triptych. gilded. hallmarked surfaces. the symbol of the Virgin. The model for this iconography is most certainly an engraving of the scene from an early Armenian printed book with an identical arrangement. 112. The Crucifixion shows Christ with a loincloth. Ultimately the source goes back to a wood block by Christoffel Van Sichem II. Goltz and Göltz. the hill of the skulls. On the left flap is a standing figure. chased. 6-7. Paul. on each side are smaller ones topped by crescents. Detail Inscriptions: two lines of elongated erkat‘agir at the foot FXGU ● J XYU%H ● RRøYπ& ● DGLJH ● RøYU(πE ● GPøYπ%Y&H ● NYURGSY(CJ/ ^F%GTE ● D(JDY( ● SG(:øFKπJH ● BøYπ( ● IJU(JHVJ ● &Yø(πAY(AJH>æ &øJπ$øGπKøGπIøGπV ● ZY*YS(XFøGπH ● RFEGøRπKJY& ● TG&( ● @G*G@JH ● IGTG%BEG% (sic) ● PSGIGHJH ● HY&FTEF(J GTRY& F JH Donated to the holy throne of St.5cm when closed. red seal. 1706-1733. On the cross &HPL (= INRI). 1784. Below his feet to the left is the moon. Ballian. accompanied by their symbols. 2002. Agemian. Above him in a cloud band is Christ enthroned with the sun. Note: Though a date formula is provided at the end of the second line. Below the cross is the skull of Adam. mounted. 2002. John on the right. 1768. On the right panel is another standing figure with a sword. suggesting a dating of the second half of the Eighteenth century. fig. King of the Jews. Further down on each side are smaller shrines. 44x30. gilded arch above there is an allover floral scroll separated by three wreaths. Number 187. King of the Jews]. Paul. Inv. Grigor the Illuminator of Sis. Inscriptions: 1. 84-85. 2000. In the large. Silver. meaning uncertain. Peter. On the cross of the Crucifixion: &HPL &øjryurπ Høgbys9fvjπ Pøgdguy9π Lø9=jvπ (= INRI) Iesus Nazarenus. Rex Iudaeorum [Jesus of Nazareth. Inventory Number 28. 1998. Under a fragment of wood in cursive šłagir are the words “wg7k ifhgv” (p‘ayt kenac‘. perhaps colonnaded). Above him. the Yaysmawurk‘ of Grigor Marzwanec‘i in its various editions in Constantinople. holding a large key. To the memory of the people of the metropolis of Sebastia. Silver. or wood of life). above the larger upper wreath is a dome shaped building surmounted by a cross (the Holy Sepulcher). Under glass on a round piece of paper pasted on a surface where the wings of a seraph appear. Athens. except that the Virgin usually has her hands crossed on her chest while standing before the lectern. 2. Sebastia. the two leaves depict the Annunciation to the Virgin. the dove of the Holy Spirit descends toward the head of the Virgin. Reliquary in the form of the Holy Lance (gełard) with a piece of the True Cross Late eighteenth century. 4. presumably St. The two-line inscription in erkat‘agir is below. There are rings two-thirds of the way up to open each of the arched leaves. rather than a staff. though his younger look and high forehead is usually associated with St. 2. Mary on the left and St. partially gilded. though his face is more appropriate for St. 27. 2000. intended to be a fleur-de-lys or lily. Peter. attached by hinges on each side. St. suggesting the city of Celestial Jerusalem. At the top is the Holy Trinity with a globe and cross underneath. 10. who is in Western styled robes on the right with up-raised arms in orans fashion before a reading stand with Archangel Gabriel on the left. Exhibitions: Halle. Above the arm of the cross are the sun and the moon. carved (engraved). relic behind the horn disc. it lacks the year. . beautifully fashioned. altar ornament eighteenth century for the triptych. [30]. and in a series of Šaraknoc‘ (Hymnals) of 1743. 36x12cm. hammered.

Detail . below which is the skull of Adam. below which is the knop decorated with a seraph.5cm. Inv. 114.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 166 166 167 The spear-shaped case has on the relic side a large glass window with sunrays emanating from it. 6. 2007. 2. Armenia sacra. This box is a memory of Yohannēs Vardapet. or perhaps the wings of a seraph. Inscriptions: On the interior plate 1. fig. This is a rectangular box in filigree bearing jewel stones on all sides with three shallow domes on top. 94-95. On the other side. 4. In cartouche: :GKYUGIGæH WGø&πK IFHæGV. 9x16x8. also in filigree. engraved. Venerable living wood. Was the fragment supposed to be wood from the spear but misunderstood and identified at a later moment as the living wood of the cross? There is a famous Armenian relic. Number 195. Late eighteenth century. and the True Cross 3. Bibliography: Album of the Catholicosate of Cilicia. fig. each mounted with a cross bearing jewel stones. fig. James of Nisibis. St. 392. no. Stephen. The Crucifixion shows Mary and and the Apostle John standing on either side of the cross and Mary Magdalene kneeling and embracing its base. the wreath of thorns is on Christ’s head. Fine chains are attached to the perimeters of the object on both sides. 64. Under the glass. [Sis]. Inv. Above the arm of the cross are the sun and the moon. 2000. at the top of the cross is a plaque or titulus of Pilate with &HPL (INRI). 2007. Goltz and Göltz. gilded. The mound on which the cross is planted has below it three domes and two arches with hanging oil lamps. the column of the flagellation. Silver. no. John the Baptist. venerable (relic) of the True Cross. Athens. 2000. Agemian. St. It is of iron as expected for the tip of such an instrument. Reliquary ostensory with relics of St. the tip of the spear contains a Crucifixion. emeralds. 85. suggesting the Holy Sepulcher. 96. the whip. Note: There is a problem with a spear-shaped reliquary. Exhibitions: Halle. 2002. gilded. garnets. 35. in the center of which is a whiter cloth or piece of cotton-like substance on which is written “wood of life” in modern Armenian cursive (šłagir). chased. 2. Stephen. the ladder. the pliers. it contains the wood of life and holy relics for the gratification of his person (body?) at death in the year 1804. In the box. 46. The sides are rendered with dense filigree scrollwork with a dominant S pattern. lapis lazuli. on a cloth from which a Maltese cross has been cut out. which contains a clearly identified piece of the cross. Reliquary box with relics of St. 2002. Silver. Main inscription: &J$GKGI + BG&R KYUWR &YLGHH+R SG(XG:FKOR Y( YUHJ J TJAJ JU(YUT BWG&K IFHGV FU R(EYV TGRYUH@H J SG&FNYUTH GH^JHR JU( TG(TJHH J TGL PSJH J> %T)D (=1804). Number 51 (under Relics). fig. Ballian. Ballian. 1965. fig. and St. In the upper and lower corners of the diamond shape are cherubim and below in the circular part between the point and the base is a red stone. Goltz and Göltz. Exhibitions: Halle. 2002. In cartouche: RøYU(πE ORK+WæGHYR G(JUHæ +. 112. John the Baptist (or Surb Karapet). Peter. 94-95. masunk‘nerov arkłik 1804. 92. Bibliography: Album. This is the blood of St. the axe. 3. the gełard. 42x17cm. Athens. The instruments of the Passion are shown on the two sides: the vessel for vinegar. the True Cross. There are hinges at the back to open the cover. 2000. turquoise. the design on the shaft is like that on the other side. 2. 6. In cartouche: RøYU(πE IG(G:FKæJH TGRYUH@ +. [47]. 2002. 392. 1998. The spear is being thrust into the right side of Christ by a mounted warrior with a turban and from the wound a double stream of blood and water squirts into the warrior’s eyes. which pierced Christ’s side. 2. John’s feet. This is the relic of Surb Karapet. or spear. The handle or base is decorated with a Western style floral scroll frieze. 92. fig. It was kept in the famous medieval Monastery of Gełard but is now at Holy Ēĵmiacin. 54. though the wall of Jerusalem is placed higher up under St. there are three candle holder-like sockets for the relic fragments attached to a raised plaque with floral designs in the corner and a two-line inscription within three connected cartouches. rubies. filigree. 2. [47]. 2000. Agemian. Just above this is a small fragment of wood on another bit of cloth. 1998. Armenia sacra.

Next to patriarch on right: DFK> G(øGπDFøGπN (sic) :FKø(πYR LGø&π(øGπ:FKHæ FU TGRH. Next to John the Baptist: &!LGH+Ræ TI(KCøJπHæ FU TGRH. Goltz and Göltz. James of Nisibis and St. 2000. 2002. Athens. Moving from left to right they are: 1) a feather. 7. I have considered it the obverse. 2002. One of the earliest. he extends his right hand above Christ’s cruciform halo. Note: The reading Aṙak‘eal preceding the name Petros is clear. the artist showed John in this position. appliqued. above. B. Fourteenth-fifteenth century. The Patriarch Apostle Peter and his relic. Such a pose is usually reserved in later iconography for Mary Magdalene. rock crystal. This cross is a memorial to the Church of Saint Gēworg Zoravar for his parents from the monk Mxit‘ar [many] years after. 5. 72. God with a triangular halo and below him the dove of the Holy Spirit. Only three patriarchs have that name: Catholicos Petros Getadarj of the eleventh century and two co-adjutor catholicoi of Cilicia. All around the field are the instruments of the Passion. Rex Iudaeorum). 11) the cock which crowed at Peter’s denial. 98 illus. 3) the sponge dipped in vinegar. It is supported by a knop and shaft suitable to be mounted as a processional item. 2000. fig. xač‘ajew masnatup‘ This reliquary is in the form of a sunburst and apparently was used on the altar (xorani masnatup). The equal armed cross-shaped reliquary has simple flaring ends.5cm. the mother of Emperor Constantine. as an ostensory (čačanč‘).C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 168 168 169 Inscriptions: 1. 4) three nails. Bibliography: Goltz and Göltz. Below on the cross: &HPL (INRI). 2000. 1965 [51]. Cross shaped reliquaries Norayr Bogharian’s booklet on Armenian crosses (see note 24) is devoted to relics and reliquaries of the True Cross. 7) the three-pronged whip of the flagellation. Obverse: The large oval is divided horizontally into two unequal parts with the Baptism occupying the upper two-thirds. It is difficult to determine the obverse side from the reverse. The Patriarch James of Nisibis and his relic. Next to patriarch on left: &øGπIYE T)EHGø&π (sic) LGø&π(øGπ:FKHæ FU TGRH. 61. “Jesus of Nazareth. fig. 15) the ladder of the Descent from the Cross. As it is. . 11x12. if not the earliest. 8) the rod he was beaten with. 49. Below the dove is the hinged receptacle in the shape of an octagon signet seal for the relic wood of the True Cross. An identical design in each arm is made of twisted wire with four small circles at the end preceded by a palmette or arabesque. 16) the plaque (titulus) on the cross &HPL (=INRI. in the Treasury of the Cathedral of Ēĵmiacin. 3. 121 illus. 6) the pliers to remove the nails. 12) the column on which Christ was flagellated. Small seed pearls are mounted at the eight extremities of the cross and around the rock crystal in the center with its relic underneath. 97. On reverse an octagonal seal-like element. 9) the axe. Bibliography: Album. feet firmly planted in the Jordan River with pairs of fish on either side. To the right two angels hold Christ’s garments. cast to divide his robes. Peter. a. Exhibitions: Halle. though such objects usually display much longer rays. The living wood (True Cross). Inv. Number 94. Exhibitions: Halle. The object with its carefully executed sunburst. Silver. 13) the hand of the High Priest that slapped Jesus.33 but the Apostle St. Peter. 2) the spear that pierced Christ’s side hanging from the cross. Petros Kaṙkaṙec‘i (1601-1608) and Petros Beriac‘i (1708-1719). suggests it is intended as an ostensory for the altar. thus it is not a Catholicos Petros. 2000. but since Baptism is chronologically before Crucifixion.34 Presented below are the most important True Cross reliquaries in the Cilician Museum. Reverse: Christ with a loincloth is flanked near the bottom of the central oval field by the Virgin on the left and on the right St. Inscription: on the back in a primitive bolorgir (minuscule) emerging from the mixed script. Reliquary box in the form of a cross. Ballian. the dove of the Holy Spirit appears in the clouds of heaven. To the sides are the sun and the moon and six-pointed stars. preserved Armenian reliquaries of the Living Wood. each holding the pastoral staff of his office. John who embraces the cross with his right arm. 10) a square medallion with compartments (the lantern of Malchus?). no. The reverse is plain with a poorly executed commemorative inscription for the parents of the monk Mxit‘ar. 2. 5) the three dices. the hinged cover of the compartment that held a piece of the True Cross: IFHGV/ WGø&πKH. today missing. but perhaps because of the lack of space. [So] I’ll buy apples. John the Baptist facing frontally to the left appears as usual taller than Christ. gilded. there are episodes of how Emperor Heraclius gave pieces of the wood of Christ’s cross to Armenians (see above). The iconography follows the earliest tradition found in Armenian miniatures: Christ with a loincloth. The original living cross relics must date from this event. Iesus Nazarenus. was in the fourth century.09. In the extremities of the field are four compartments for relics. c. it would not rest comfortably in an upright position. is a cross-shaped gilded copper case with enameling and colored stones. 14) the pitcher and basin with which Pilate washed his hands. probably of the eleventh century. In the lower third are two oval medallions containing upright and frontal views of the mitered patriarchs St.. King of the Jews”. It is hard to imagine why any of these would be pictured on this ostensory. coarse filigree. Adam’s skull appears at the base of the cross to identify the spot as Golgotha. 1998. #øgπcr 7j4gkøgπi = kø=π9 t3jpøgπ9 i91høguyπ9jhæ ju9 0h18gvh gt=9h (sic) 7fk zøgπtøgπhøgπijræ fh røyu9eπ xyu5h røyu9πe d=y9i b19gsg9jræ 3h6y9æ dhøfπt. The craftsmanship is such that the two sides have identical borders. pearls. engraved. Above the horizontal bar are seraphim on each side and at the top in a cloud band representing heaven. In various historical and hagiographic accounts. b. The invention of the True Cross by Helena. 114. similar to seventeenth and early eighteenth century Armenian manuscript bindings from New Julfa. Agemian. John the Baptist and his relic.

Number 174. In the center. perhaps cast. Agemian.5cm. 90-91 illus. Athens. The surface. 32. Yovhannēs [John]. Silver. Exhibitions: Halle. Made by Gēork‘(sic) of Sufṙaz. suggests that it was also used as a processional reliquary. 97. filigree. but more pronounced. The backside contains the inscription naming the relics. [51]. there are compartments with lobed edges filling the space between the quadrants of the cross. Inv.. 61. Armenian Relics. Red and blue stones are inset in the broad triangular extremities of the cross and the corners of the square from which they emanate. no. 116. 3. is a memorial of Grigoris Awetis Vardapet. Ballian. has a tiny crucified Christ. under a circular glass window. Inscription: notrgir in two circles on the paper surrounding the piece of wood under glass. xorani xač‘ masunk‘ov Inscription: spiral. corals. Bibliography: Album. 72. 29. The shaft. Bibliography: Album. The other side is reserved for the ten-line inscription. turquoise and rubies. gilt. 2000. In the interstices. 9 fig. 12— Peg-Davit— 41[1792]. rubies. 2000.fk. originally studded with eight colored jewels. there are fragments of three relics. filigree. but without the actual cross. 1998. Inv.35 Front: An equal armed cross of lobed configuration with filigree work studded with colored jewels and turquoise of various sizes. xač‘ajew masnatup Front: The elaborate reliquary cross entirely decorated by fine filigree work. Goltz and Göltz. 8..C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 170 170 171 6. chased. 1965. in the center [there is] a piece of the living wood for the gratification of Yarut‘iwn Vardapet. The cross itself is inscribed within a delicate circle from which radiate a continuous series of long stems or rays. 49. running from the bottom up RG(DRJ &J$GKøGπI+æ RøYU(πE #GCR NYURGøUπY(CJ GP!%Y&R #GCF(O Uæ¡™>>> This cross is a memorial of Sargis for the crosses of the Throne of the Illuminator. which are hard to read because oxidation has effaced the deep curve of the G joining the two ligatured elements. rubies. 7j4gkgi = d9jdy9jr gufkjr sg9xg. corals. 12x12cm. St. Rescued Armenian Treasures. Nineteenth century. Røyu9πe h4gh ifhgv wg7k d9j2y9yr. The effect is that of juxtaposed squares.5xd.. 114. Processional cross with relics 1799. is studded with very small star elements. mounted. This equal-armed cross with wide. 37. fig. the left stroke of that ayb is the same line as that of the right stroke of :. has in its center a circular window for relics. This Holy Seal (Cross) living wood grik‘oros (sic).23cm. 98 illus. Goltz and Göltz. As on the other side. Agemian. 111. pointed arms jutting out from a square. the D floats in the emptiness of the G. sapphire. filigree. while the K is cut through the middle by the loop of the ayb. Silver. Back: The same elaborate cross entirely decorated with fine filigree work. 7. [48]. Reliquary box in the form of a cross. . Ballian. Number 37. 3. 7. St. Number 18. 1792. gilt. rock crystals. Note: In between the two parts of the date is a fancy monogram-like group of letters. Apostle Petros [Peter]. Step‘annos [Stephen]. 2002. there are four smaller crosses. Adana. Musée Cilicie. below which is a Maltese cross and below that a fleur-de-lys. which supports the cross. Exhibitions: Halle. In 12… On the back: in the center within a circle: RøYU(πE &YøSπLGHH+Ræ :FK(YR ● G%G@FGNæ RøYU(πE RKFWGHHYR/ ^F%GøTπE RYU~%GBVJ ● D+Y(@æ %T—:FD-XGSJK—#G (1241 = 1792). four on each axis. 97. gilded. Inscription: On reverse &øJπ$øGπKøGπI+æ RøYU(πE #GCRæ TøGπLøKFRπJ XGUæPJH SøGRπH LYDøUYπVæ HHCFVFNYV (sic) HYæ(JH TJAJ TGRHJ IFHGV WG&KJHæ J SG&FNYUTH &Gø(πYUPJH SG(XG:FKJHæ%T#O (1248 = 1799) PSJHæ RF:KFTEF(Jæ T+IJHæ ✠ This cross is [donated] by Mahtesi Dawit‘ in memory for his deceased kin. relic under a disc. Altar cross with relic of the living wood of the True Cross. 2002. in erkat‘agir on handle. 2000. no. fig. 99 illus. Silver. emeralds. Inv. September one. In the year 1248[1799].5x17.

36 An equal-armed. it is a relic of St. The lobed arms of the cross each contain one large green and two small carnelian red stones. 2002.5cm. rock crystal. sapphire. Etched on the upper and two lateral arms of the cross are seraphim. cameo in center. for the Church of the Holy Mother of God at Adana. 2002. . 2000. 11x11cm. gilded. Exhibitions: Halle. Athens. 37. The Holy Sign/Cross is a memorial. Crucifixion. 2000. polylobed cross with a dark cameo of the Crucifixion in the center showing the Virgin and St. At the top is a small loop for a neck chain. 116. Silver. Number: 45. 2000. Reliquary in the form of a small cross. Sis. This holy cross was fashioned for St. 10x10cm. gilded. relic under rock crystal. 28. [3]. Ballian. rubies. Reliquary in the form of a small cross Inscription: In erkat‘agir &Jæ$GKGI+ RøYU(πEæ H$GHæ Y( +æ TGRYUH@ R(EY&Hæ &GIYEG& T)EHG& LG&(G:FKJH ’Jæ XYU%H RøYU(πE GøRKYUGπ)G)æHJæ Y( ’J GKæGHG> %TLD (1273 = 1824). Silver. 117 illus. 79. The equal-armed filigree cross with the relic under crystal has a gem placed in the middle of each of the four short arms. 2000. 116. two red. 2000. 1273[1824]. The plain back is reserved for the inscription in erkat‘agir. The entire perimeter has a fillet of small beads. 2000. Exhibitions: Halle. Athens. fig. inscribed on the reverse. 2002. 11. Goltz and Göltz. 116. In the interstices are the tips of another cross from which sprouts an extension topped with a colored bead.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 172 172 173 Bibliography: Goltz and Göltz. Silver. 117 illus. 2000. gilded. As on the first side. the photo is upside down). The inscription is in ten horizontal lines neatly covering the plain space on the back. 119. 37. 37. John on each side and above in Greek the standard abbreviation for Jesus Christ. Each extremity of the cross contains a colored stone. green glass. centrally placed emerald. emeralds. Lord God. Goltz and Göltz. Number 42/44. The reverse contains the main inscription. Inv. 117 illus. Minas Zoravar [commander] for the gratification of Nersēs Vardapet. The whole perimeter has a dotted fillet. 27. In the year 1210 [1761]. 9. Bibliography: Album. fig.. James Patriarch of Nisibis. rubies. 2002. two blue. 2002. 117 illus. 118 no. IC XC. Bibliography: Album. 1824. rubies. Inscriptions: Obverse: in the four arms of the cross &øJRYUπRæ @ø(JRKYπRæ Kø+π(æ GøRKYUGπ). Athens. James of Nisibis Inscription on reverse: IG%YUVGUæRøYU(πE #GCRæ G&Ræ &GHæYUH Rø(πEøY&πHæ TJHGRGø&π BæY(GSG(JH (sic) J SG&FNYUTH IJNJIFVJæGAEGHFHV (sic)æ Y(XJ HF(æR+Ræ SG(XG:FKJHæ J PSøJπH %EQZ (1210 = 1761) GTæJH. filigree. Inv. rock crystal. 1965. the whole is surrounded with a beaded fillet. fig. 77. The back is plain with a single fillet etched around the entire outside of the cross. Exhibitions: Halle. emeralds. 2002. of the inscription (unfortunately. 118 no. Reliquary in the form of a small cross with relic of St. Number 43. 10. circular. An equal-armed cross with relic in center under crystal. son of the Cilician Aĵbaneans. Akn province (gavaṙ). the square from which they spring has eight stones divided between the two colors. 1761. Inv. Exhibitions: Halle. relic of St. engraved. Minas Reverse: circular in a run-on erkat‘agir inscription without word breaks GIHVJ F(GTJ Y(XJ TøGπLøKπGRJ (sic) TJHGR LGHDYUVFøGπN LYDJ. coral. Eighteenth century. which runs around a large. agate. For the soul of the deceased Mahtesi Minas. Adana.. 2000. Ballian. Jesus Christ. A fillet of dots defines the whole perimeter. 13x12. Ballian. [54]. which are lobed in a wide spear-shape attached to the central square. 116. son of Eram native of Akn. Bibliography: Goltz and Göltz. 26.

was placed on the altar.40 preserving remains of the most important Christian and Armenian saints. Length 48cm. would hold the dexter before the faithful at the end of the mass and with it make the sign of the cross as benediction to those present. Step‘annōs a priest of the Hṙip‘simeanc‘. Aristakēs. and St. now in Heaven. this practice never seemed to take hold in Armenia. both to St.46 St. restored and reworked at the order of Sahag Catholicos. At least one study suggests this was in Bagratid times.45 St. who struggled in the same century to preserve Christianity in Armenia.44 other apostles so graced in Armenia include St. particularly those of St. Symbolically. Hṙip‘simē. however. St. martyred in Persia just after the battle of Vardananc‘ (451). Handwork of Y. Thomas. they date to the time of the saints they represent.42 there are only a handful of other Armenian figures honored by an arm reliquary. Sahag Part‘ew. and St. indeed. Silver with gilding on the hand. the saint. The last three reliquaries are known only through an inventory of 1445 of the relics and reliquaries preserved at Holy Ēĵmiacin. they are of differing dates. but existed in the collection at least since 1765 when a special chest was fashioned to hold them. As relics. provided a blessing directly from God to the congregation. catholicos at the time of the invention of the Armenian alphabet in the first years of the fifth century. Right hand reliquary of St. Gregory. limited among Armenians because there exist few arm reliquaries outside of the four patriarchal centers: the catholicosates of Ēĵmiacin and Cilicia/Antelias. Dexters are sometimes still used to dedicate new altars. a total of thirteen. These practices are. 1928. Right arm reliquaries are also used for consecrating baptismal altars and fonts and corner stones of churches and monasteries. Galemk‘iarean natives of Ayntab 2. as reliquaries. ring with a ruby stone. Gregory in certain rites may have been borrowed from Byzantium. The presiding priest. In this respect.37 The orientalist Victor Langlois saw all four relics during his expedition of 1852-1853 and offered a short comment on each as well as the chest in which they were kept together.41 Beside St. +ATJG)JH. Dexters There are four major body part relics in the Cilician Museum. Gregory the Illuminator Pre-1765. are used for specific rites: the consecration of the catholicos and at times bishops and the elaborate liturgical ceremony of the blessing of the Holy Oil or Chrism (Surb Miwṙon). Holy Ēĵmiacin. Gregory was prepared after the ninth century. In the West.43 their present whereabouts is not clear. just under a church complex: R. and A. James. The arm reliquary of St. Suk‘ias of the Suk‘iaseanc‘ family. when not a bishop.49 In Armenia this practice is unknown. as was the case in the West and to some extent in Byzantium. because it is in that period we begin to get references to the right hand of St.48 This is in contrast to European examples. Unlike Europe where the remains of local saints were graced with arm reliquaries. The dexters of these seven figures. St. Łewond the priest. Nicholas (two dexters). The majority encases the bones of the Apostles and non-Armenian saints.vj. A colophon of 1394 mentions among others relics those of St. This pronounced difference probably arises from the function of these objects in the respective churches. Inscriptions: There are three 1. Armenian arm reliquaries do not have what would be called bases and were not intended to be placed upright on the altar.53 12. S………. the arm reliquary. to which we can add such figures as St. whose martyrdom in the first quarter of the fourth century was a major episode in Armenia’s adoption of Christianity. Arm reliquaries were used during certain services and are indispensable for some of them. founder of the Armenian Church (five known arm reliquaries). Ananias.52 The early church’s practice was to bury the remains of saints. the use of the dexter of St. Three of them are encased in arm reliquaries — St. On the other hand. the relics. James the Less. Paul. in the Armenian tradition one finds no foot or head reliquaries. On the edge of the dexter. Gregory’s dexter was separated from his remains or by whom. There was also a strong current of belief. Thus we cannot fix the date when St. that possession of the right arm relic of St Gregory legitimized the rule of a catholicos (see below). and thus the supposition that the dexter of St. In general there was apparently no obsession in enshrining body parts of saints into lavish reliquaries. Sylvester. The others are St. On the inside wrist in šłagir ^f5gdy90 &> fu G> Dgnft2jg9fgh G7hpg. Gregory and the nšxark‘ or masunk‘. St. Only two of them belong to women. Thaddeus the Apostle is one from this group. son and successor to St. Gregory the Illuminator.51 but with relics of saints often incorporated within the structure itself. St. Though we read in the oldest Armenian sources that relics of saints were buried or placed in the foundations of churches. Andrew. Effaced word(s)…. Kept with the Catholicos. Gregory (two dexters). with no canonical basis at all.38 These individual histories will be discussed below. St. there seemed to be no attempt to reconstitute bodies of saints by an accumulation of body part reliquaries as has recently been suggested for Latin Christianity. martyred in the early second century. Stephen the Protomartyr. RøYU(Eπ. . the most important arm reliquaries. John the Baptist (three dexters).47 As has been pointed out. This notion and. also a common practice in the early centuries in Europe50 and Armenia. Gregory. Gregory and St. showing the hand of the saint or bishop to whom it belonged making the sign of the cross. Nicholas. and the Patriarchates of Jerusalem and Constantinople/Istanbul. Hṙip‘simē. Beside the right arm reliquaries. weight about 1 kilogram.39 The right arm reliquary or dexter is the most characteristic of Armenian relic containers. or other body-shaped cases. Barsauma enclosed in an oval container. represent fewer than a quarter of such Armenian arm reliquaries. which have very sturdy bases and are almost always displayed upright. the fourth is the hand relic of the St.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 174 174 175 C. St. Nicholas. and most of them are directly involved in the conversion of Armenia to Christianity: St. Sylvester. the same sources make no references to reliquaries containing such relics. Aleppo. St.

However. including his dexter. where or when the dexter of Gregory was separated from his relics. the dexter disappeared. Contrary to the precepts of the Armenian Church it was believed among unworthy candidates that who ever possessed the holy arm relic. the most famous are those of St. a priest-painter. who saw this most precious reliquary in 1852 describes it as follows: “Elle est renfermée dans un bras d’argent ciselé dans le style byzantin. The segment at the base (the fourth side of the rectangle) changes the design into a series of symmetrical bouquets. Though no Armenian arm reliquaries have been disassembled to determine exactly what is inside. it is probable that each enshrines a small piece of a bone. The right hand relic is also used during the consecration of a new catholicos and was certainly visible during the consecration of the kings of Cilician Armenia. This detail suggests that the upper or hand part of the reliquary was tampered with during the 1928 restoration in Aleppo. St. but he adds that miraculously in the ruins of a church at the monastery of Tat‘ew they found the relics of St. But catholicos Babgēn Kiwlēsērian (Papken Gulesserian) in his massive History of the Cilician Catholicoi (col. It survived both the destruction of the last Armenian kingdom in 1375 and the election of another catholicos in Holy Ēĵmiacin in 1441. It is virtually impossible to know which of these is the oldest. During the same years another relic of the right hand of St. Karapet. Gregory plays a major role. at the time of the election of the Primate of Beria/Aleppo Zareh Payaslian as Catholicos of Cilicia in 1956. is carefully worked on the upper side and virtually plain on the bottom side. the right arm reliquary disappeared and was only found a year later in Jerusalem and brought back triumphantly to Lebanon by Archbishop. Gregory. with a pointed drooping mustache and pointed beard. It is held by the catholicos. During the momentous events. who in 1645 undertook a history of the relic of the right hand of St. Gregory that eventually was incorporated in the dexter of the Cilician Catholicosate? The arm reliquary is mentioned several times in the encyclicals of Nersēs IV Šnorhali (1163-1173). there is no regulation or statute in the church bestowing catholicosal authority merely because of the possession of the relic. the original seat of the church. Gregory and it infuses the chrism with the Holy Spirit. the soul of the Armenians. restored it in Aleppo in 1928.”58 It is hard to imagine that in the seventy-five years between Langlois and 1928. who interred them in the village of T‘ordan. though some scholars speculate the ninth century. First. The right arm relic of St. Among the treasures of the Cilician kingdom along with the holy relic of the cross. and a private collection in New York. Gregory in both Armenian Catholicosates — Ēĵmiacin and Antelias — is a pseudo-problem. Gregory’s arm relic is listed among ten other dexters at Ēĵmiacin.56 There is no absolute proof that demonstrates when any of the bones of the saint became separated as an arm relic. Catholicos Sahag. which seems not to have been modified in 1928. in 1441. in Aleppo (Church of K‘aṙasun Mankanc‘ or Forty Martyrs). The relic is a direct link with God in heaven through St. The inside of the rectangle has two narrow bands. whose reverence for this and its companion relics was without bounds. Some sources claim that King Het‘um II ransomed it. The silver forearm. Gregory and placed relics of the saint. on y remarque quelques traces de dorures. or others were created. Mystery surrounds his retreat to a mountainous hermitage where he died in solitude. below the wrist is a pointed cuff with floral designs on the inside and the wide band. The Illuminator is in full liturgical regalia with a pallium showing crosses on each side and a cross-pendant hanging waist high from a chain. Nicholas in the Cilician collection (see below no. the dexter of Gregory is mentioned as one of the objects used in assemblies. over the chrism vessel and then used to stir the mixture of various plant oils. was refashioned during the catholicosate of Sahag II of Xarberd. Whether one contains the true relic of the saint is also a futile question. Catholicos Nersēs III built the massive cathedral of Zwart‘noc‘ dedicated to St. A century later his bones were miraculously discovered by an ascetic named Garnik. It is a tenet of the church that by mixing some of the former chrism with the new oil. during the time of Catholicos Constantine II (1286-1298). But as Gulesserian has cautioned. highly stylized and newly executed bust portrait of St. Gregory kept by the two catholicosal sees. He wears a collar (vakas) and bishop’s miter ending in crosses on each point. which came from T‘ordan. Gregory is associated with the cult of relics is through his own remains. Undoubtedly. we are told that when he came out of thirteen years of imprisonment.57 at least three other open hand dexters are known: in Ēĵmiacin. Though rare. though the thirteenth century historian Step‘annos Ōrbēlean reports that the relic disappeared. the inner plain. reappeared. But Aṙak‘el of Tabriz. The lower section has a similar floral . The ecclesiastical authority associated with the right arm of St. and thus as a result of unfounded understanding. perhaps about 328. If we accept the evidence from an inscribed element attached to the dexter of St. Nicholas). after his consecration in Caesarea of Cappadocia. cites a colophon that localizes it at Holy Ēĵmiacin at Vałaršapat at the time of the transfer of the Catholicosate from Sis to Ēĵmiacin. blessed John the Baptist. Within the field there are non-symmetrical decorations. The hand is open with the five fingers together rather than the more common form making the sign of blessing. Sf9g4jhfvgu Røyu9eπ Gar Nyurguy9cjh lyduyv Lg7grkghfg7v ßj Igpy8jiyryupfgh æRglgig7 E>j 3g9e=9xvuy7/ ¡ª™• gtj Kfg5hæ ßj Ef9jg. The right arm reliquary of St.55 The third manner in which St. he is the catholicos. Later. its power to confer legitimacy on the bishop or bishops who control it. natives of Ayntab. Victor Langlois. but from there it went to the royal capital of Cilician Armenia. The election was bitterly contested and declared illegal by the Catholicos of Ēĵmiacin. Gregory the Illuminator has become an essential liturgical object of the Armenian Church. The miter has a geometrized design in the center. That there are right hand reliquaries of St. 13) and the hand reliquary of St.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 176 176 177 3. but it was back in Hṙomkla when the city was sacked by the Mamluks of Egypt whence the holy relic was taken to Cairo. Below this is a wider floral scroll of half palmettes. Sis. who leads the ceremony. that of St. Gregory. mentions the relic in a colophon of 1394 (along with the arm reliquary of St. under the four supporting piers of the large circular cathedral and the saint’s skull in a casket to be seen by the faithful. 1275) says: [We] do not know by whom. Khoren I Paroyan (1963-1983). His hand reliquary reinforces the bond between the present and the inception of Christian faith in Armenia. John the Baptist in Ēĵmiacin. only to be taken back to Ałt‘amar in 1462. This holy dexter of the Illuminator. Vazken I. Gregory holding a Gospel book and cross in the right hand and a catholicosal staff (resembling one from the Antelias collection) ending in a floral scroll in the left hand.”54 which he divided and dispersed in several localities. our example is totally plain. Was this an earlier reliquary or did it contain the same relic of St. the relic disappeared for some years. explains in great part the multiplicity of this relic. Carved on the back of the hand is a curious. On the third or ring finger is a plain gold ring with an oval shaped red stone in a sturdy tooth mount. At the wrist are four bands that completely encircle it: the first two plain and the last two hatched like braiding. Gregory himself. open handed arm relics are known in Armenia. he came back to Armenia with important relics “from the bones of the great prophet. Gregory the Illuminator is directly involved in the cult of relics on at least three accounts. Gregory. It had been brought to the catholicosal seat at Hṙomkla. Nicholas (see below) that once belonged to a right hand reliquary of St. Esayi. In an encyclical of Catholicos Gregory Jalalbekian of 1445. The ultimate chapter in the relic’s tormented history occurred in Antelias. he gathered up the remains of the martyred saints Hṙip‘simē and Gayanē and had martyria built for them. In the year of the Lord 1928 in Beria [Aleppo] St. apparently allowed the goldsmiths involved with restoration to take great liberties by removing the green emerald ring from the index finger and replacing it with a red stone on the third or ring finger. the outer twisted. avec un anneau soudé à l’index et orné d’une émeraude. Gregory. During the ceremony of the consecration of the Holy Chrism. which forms a rectangular frame down to the base. The upper side of the hand also shows very clearly the wrinkling around the knuckles and the meticulously cut and manicured fingernails. the right arm of St. His face is rendered in a strong frontal staring pose. the one in Ēĵmiacin in a reliquary case dated 1657 and in Antelias in the restored reliquary case of 1928. and of the holy martyr of Christ. the burial ground of the Arsacid kings of Armenia. the most famous being the oldest surviving dexter. The bones of saints were often partitioned or dispersed to various churches or high officials. only to be found by the newly elected catholicos of Sis. Except for the carefully incised palm lines. Athenogenes. enhancing its worth well beyond that of a relic of the founding father of Armenian Christianity. Gregory was kept at the Catholicosate of Cilicia at Sis. later Catholicos. Around 650. the fresh batch is connected directly to the original Holy Oil blessed at the beginning of Armenian Christianity by St. Yarut‘iwn and Awetis Galemk‘iarian. Gregory the Illuminator is the most important relic of the Armenian Church. the dexter was separated by Prince T‘ēodos also known as T‘ēodos-T‘oros (1100-1129). The dexter is separated into two parts: the hand from the wrist up is in gold or gold plated silver and the arm is in silver.

13. also an oval made of two narrow bands. His baldhead has a small locket of hair in the center. Martoyean. 6. Sailors from Bari. [43]. There are five separate inscriptions on the silver arm reliquary or dexter with attached gilded bands and plaques.) The fingernails and the wrinkles of the knuckles are carved or incised. It was restored in 1926. On September 13. Gregory’s is wrapped in a crude fabric not affording a view of the reliquary itself. 1861. normally periods in Armenian. with his right hand he offers a benediction in Western style. not usually associated with Ēĵmiacin.5cm. Sylvester and St. On the underside of the forearm there is another irregularly shaped rectangle formed on three sides by a continuous band of pointed petals or scallops.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 178 178 179 design. An omophorion decorated with simple quatrefoil buds is wrapped around his upper chest and hangs down the center. It is hard to tell what the original form of this reliquary was. but after its journey from Sis to Aleppo. where he took an anti-Arian position. however. 2005. 1965. The short lower band is made of alternating diamond designs. On the oval-shaped bottom of the reliquary. Kouymjian. Inv. 2. It was done before the floral design that cuts off part of the building to the left. Kouymjian. The colons in the inscription. restoration. 270-345/352) bishop of Myra (Smyrna/Izmir) in Lycia. Aščian. and a participant in the Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325.59 It should be compared with an engraving on a small silver dish in the collection of the catholicosate. Album. This is repoussé work. 125-126. plain halo touches the enclosing frame. Nikōl is an abridged form of Armenian Nikołayos. 3. above inscription no. St. in a mixed erkat‘agir-bolorgir script: IgbT=vgu (sic)æ Røyu9πe Rkfwghyørπæj gar ßj 6f5hæ Rglgigø7π f. engraved. The hand itself does not make the more common sign of benediction. Sis (?).æjriøy. and middle fingers raised and the last two fingers tucked in. beaten.60 Inscriptions: 1. The structure only vaguely resembles Ēĵmiacin. Nicholas through my heart’s desire and I gave it to be restored in my memory at the thone of St. The field is filled with a seraph with three pendants hanging from the neck with flowers on each side and a leaf design below. 1915 it was moved from the Catholicosate in Sis to Aleppo at the instruction of Catholicos Sahag II in the famous caravan that set out to Aleppo during the Genocide in the wake of advancing Turkish troops. . Catholicos Kostandin. The field is plain and bears the main inscription in a careful šłagir-bolorgir script. 1926. 2000. or perhaps a Latin (Crusader) rendering of the name. 88. also known as T‘oros or T‘ēodos-T‘oros (1100-1129). The only representation of it prior to its restoration. In the center of the back of the hand is a carefully executed circle with simple vegetal motifs at the bottom bearing the bust portrait of St. 2005. I. 1998. but a rounded dome building to the left and an out chapel to the right. Around the portrait on the back of the hand in thick erkat‘agir: RøYU(πE HJæIGæUæNøG&π.61 4. Note: The inscription is probably that of Prince T‘ēodos. Nicholas with face in very high relief. 2. gemstones. Saint Nikawlay [Nicholas]. Note. An inscription carved in monumental erkat‘agir in six bands on the wrist just below the bust of the saint: ΩBGCR (sic. width at palm 9. facing left on its hind legs turned to the right. Nicholas (Nikołayos) the Thaumaturg (Sk‘anč‘elagorc). Kouymjian. 1949. 2008. Kouymjian. In the irregularly created field is a large tree-like flowering palmetto to the left and to the right a rendering of an Armenian church complex identified as St. with the thumb. 1939. passim. masunk‘ Surb Nikołayos Lord T‘ēodos-T‘oros himself selected this dexter of Saint Gregory. but is opened. the inner made of simple hatching. though it has five conical roofs (one large and four small). 228. received this right hand reliquary of St. 5. Bibliography: Langlois. a three-line inscription in Latin uncials: S[AN]C[TU]S/ LUCA/S [Saint Luke]. Agemian. thus similar to the “speaking hands” of European tradition. The protruding fingers. the outermost of small tongues with a cross engraved in each. The dexter of Saint St‘ep‘anos [Stephen] was fashioned by Bishop Sahak. for more details). 80-84. 89. Cilicia. The oldest surviving Armenian arm reliquary contains the remains of St. It finally arrived safely at Antelias early in the 1930s. read BGAR) Rø(πEY&H BHJIGUNG& BY( REG*æ ✠ ^TGTE (sic) R(KJ RKGVG FR IYRKøGHKJHπ IGPY*øJIYRπ/æ FU FKYU IGBTFN BRG J &J$GKGI/ JH^J (?)/æ FU GPY% R(EY&H D(JDY(J/ J PGDGUY(/æYUPFGH GU$HJ FU Y(XUY&H Y(R NFUYH/æJ/ J PøJπSR CIX (764 = 1315) Note: the X of the date formula is engraved like a ligatured :X. Silver. index. Dexter. the symbol of the Evangelist St.yrjπ/ j pyu (sic) YJOæ Sf9ghy9y2fvgu (sic) 1926. 12 above. The bottom of the relic is a perfect oval. Goltz and Göltz. He was known for his miracles and was the patron saint of sailors and children. Gregory in Antelias is also of this open hand variety. within in a circle with an ox. embossed ornamental strips. 2009-2. (The dexter of St. no. 1. are placed at the end of each line. In his left hand he holds a book decorated with a slender diamond shape. Armenian Catholicosate. The top of his perfectly circular. chased. is an older group photo showing it with the arm relics of St.5cm. Nicholas the Thaumaturgus (Sk‘anč‘elagorc). The inscription St. Keleshian. but somewhat different than its look today (see Kouymjian. make clear that the hand was open. partially gilded. with the four straight fingers forming a single block. right hand reliquary of St. Ēĵmiacin. passim. 178. 1087. Nicholas. Number 2V. Luke. A raised design is in the field. restoration. Gregory during the reign of King Awšin [Ōšin] and his son Lewon in the year 764 [1315]. 1998-1999. Gulesserian. Provenance: In the possession of the (Ajabahian) family (Ajabahian literally means “guardians of the dexter”) from the time of Catholicos Karapet (1446-1477) until 1865. 200. Length 47. Italy took his remains to their hometown where they arrived on May 9. Engraved mid-way on the arm between the two relief bands. (c. 3. In the second band from the bottom in large repoussé erkat‘agir in three lines: BGKFV GAøRπ RYUø(πæE D(JDY(J ^F%øGπæTE Kø+π( P+YXYR-PYø(YRπ. Aleppo. In 628[1179]. 94-98. 2007-2. 2001. 399-400. 2000. 1270-1328. but arranged sideways along the axis of the dexter. 1315. the thumb is slightly separated.

with the various pieces now visible on the upper part of the dexter. As to how the Armenian Church got the relics of St. Stephen the Protomartyr. who studied the reliquary for exhibitions in Athens (2002) and New York (2004). The suggestion that relics of more than one saint — St. Nicholas IV. the form of the hand is also the same. the ox or bull holding his Gospel. that the inscribed band mentioning St. Venice. Luke’s symbol. shows features that could justify a twelfth century date because. one of the priest Stephen associated with the Hṙip‘simian martyrs of the fourth century. Nicholas dexter. As for Bishop Sahag. fol. or even directly from Armenians living in Bari. considering the importance of the right hand reliquaries of St. This would allow us to identify the Ōšin of the fifth line as the king of Armenia. if copied faithfully as it appears to have been. 1308-1320. 121. It mentions the right hand relic of St. assassinated when the latter became of age in 1329. says. is now just above the rectangle. but again as suggested above. In the roundels are a series of birds. are flowers with three narrow pointed leaves. The principal inscription states: “I … gave it to be restored” (or kazmel). Stephen and a certain Bishop Sahag with a date 1179. The style of the script in a rounded erkat‘agir is acceptable for that date. Nicholas was in part radically restored after its rescue from Sis. Nicholas. first century. the connection had to be from Italians trading in Cilicia. has little merit. Finally. it is hard to imagine his arm relic combined with those of another’s in the same receptacle. However. Lower still. If the inscription of 1315 were one of restoration. Based on these considerations. followed by an attached gilded band of low relief embossed with a geometricized floral design. The medallion of St. several are known from the 1170s. . but there is little evidence that the cult was popular in Armenia before the mid-thirteenth century.64 The inscription. One (no. The lower part has been reconstructed or rearranged. because the filigree rectangular element (called a window by Ballian) is approximately. Gregory’s hand” are clear. However. 3. At the very bottom of the polished arm is another attached gilded repoussé band made up of a series of very delicately worked wreathroundels in relief connected one to the other at the tangential point by a wide ring. St. The dexter of St. I do not believe there were actually multiple relics in the St. rather. The old photo shows these various plaques almost hanging loose. The orthography of the name NIKAWL also points to a pre-thirteenth century date when the classical AW diphthong gave way to the Ō in Cilician manuscripts. a borrowing from the West. new information65 suggests that there is in fact one Armenian right hand reliquary with the remains of two saints. Pieces from the other side of the arm would also be missing. in this instance a dexter.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 180 180 181 Further down. there is a difference in the identifying inscriptions of the two objects: NIKAWŁIOS in 1293 and NIKAWL on the dexter. where it was on the old photo. The original bottom band seems to have disappeared. on a band just above the filigree-decorated rectangle was apparently at one time part of a hand reliquary of St. The bottom end of the object has a Latin inscription next to a seated ox with a halo holding a Gospel book. Luke in later twelfth century Armenian manuscripts mostly originating in northern Armenia.67 founder of the Armenian Church. which can be read with difficulty on the old photo. Petersburg (see supra. and the Lewon of the inscription as his young son. Gregory. and Ōšin. Stephen.68 Using the L instead of the more correct Armenian Ł (GH) suggests a clear Latinizing or westernizing influence. but the upper part of the inscription says the dexter preserves the relic of St. The new inscription of restoration has been engraved on the silver body. Anna Ballian. is an inscription carved in monumental erkat‘agir in six bands. including some in the collection of the Cilician Catholicosate. was himself a Franciscan monk. The earliest known Armenian representation of the saint is in a medallion on the Skewṙa reliquary of 1293. for instance Erevan. while the band at the bottom of the restored object seems to be the vertical segment to the left of the photo. then when would the original reliquary have been fashioned? St. in an oriental or Fatimid style. Stephen is further strengthened by the interesting oval end of the actual object with the name and symbol of St. Most have understood this as a restoration. The words “St. Finally. If the reading Tēr T‘ēodorus proposed by Gulesserian is correct. now in the collection at Holy Ēĵmiacin. I would date the original reliquary to sometime around or just after the mid-thirteenth century. The diversity of styles in the various parts of the object suggests the accretion of heterogeneous elements over the centuries. the uncle and regent of the young Lewon IV. 1307-1322. now in the Hermitage in St. There are several such decorated first pages. there are a few with the remains of more than one saint. Stephen (Step‘annos) the Protomartyr kept in the Armenian Prelacy of Tabriz and associated historically with the nearby monastery of St. though more finely carved. in large bolorgir mixed with some erkat‘agir letters. but the first line and especially the third line are difficult to decipher. “[B]oth the reliquary of Saint Stephen and the name bishop Sahag are unknown in the literature. Chronologically.”63 In fact there exist two Armenian dexters of St. characteristic of the period. a thirteenth century date is probable. Stephen. Careful examination of the arm reliquary’s main inscription suggests a reading of 1315 rather than 1325. It was Luke in chapter six of the Acts of the Apostles who recorded so carefully the speech of St. is strikingly close to the same symbol in incipits of St. Nicholas. shown kneeling on the lower part of the inner right flap of the Hermitage Skewṙa triptych. where the relics of the Protomartyr would have been kept.” ruling out a reference to the regent Ōšin. no. The lower part of the text says that the dexter contains the relic of the saint. Stephen exist and several of St. A thin gilded plaque follows this with a three-line inscription in a crude repoussé erkat‘agir. following Gulesserian. above and below. The style and iconography of St. it is probable that the inscriptions were once part of these or others now lost. his suggestion that the reference is to Catholicos T‘ēodorus II (1382-92) would be the logical choice. fol. but not often found in Cilicia. and until recently it was believed that there is no known Armenian arm reliquary that contains the remains of more than one person. Stephen at his trial. 335. 1322-1326. where they settled as early as the late tenth century. and St. A vertical three line inscription band. The verb can mean to bring together. The six-line inscription on the wrist seems to be visible in the same place it is today. son of King Lewon II and brother of Het‘um II. The name is virtually unknown in Armenia before the 1240s and becomes very popular toward the late thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries. Gregory the Illuminator. the last line only dated 1926. It is likely.69 The dexter of St. the upper floral band could be either the original one at that spot or one of the two long vertical sections (the one to the right on the old photo) recycled to its present location. since dexters of St. which would also satisfy all three names. Stephen the Protomartyr was stoned to death in Jerusalem. 1320-1342.66 Nevertheless. Nicholas on the back end of the dexter is of the standard type seen in Byzantine and later Russian art. Gulesserian and those following him. 1288-1292. The inscription is dated 1621. 3 and 4). note 27). for the old photo shows raised gem holders for stones. Nicholas became popular as a saint in the Latin and Byzantium Churches in the eleventh century. some fabulous. V141. and their use in the blessing of the Holy Chrism. on the plain polished silver of the arm is another six-line inscription. but also to restore.62 read the inscription as 1325. The catholicos responsible for the reliquary would be Constantine III. Further down is a another rectangular gilded plaque of blind filigree work with five paste-glass stones fitted in simple raised mounts placed vertically. A photo taken in Aleppo before restoration of the three dexters belonging to the Cilician Catholicosate allows a comparison of the reliquary before and after its 1926 rehabilitation. given the fact that King Het‘um II. Nicholas — might have once been included in a single case. Patriarch of Jerusalem. thus bind or make. just above it. though no direct evidence exists. The inscription reads clearly “in the reign of King Ōšin and his son (ordwoy nora) Lewon. Stephen nearby has a very long inscription on its arm. at the wrist of the reliquary. in the Armenian cathedral in Tabriz. participant in the Council in Hṙomkla in 1179. The forearm section is today a single piece of dark silver. suggesting the reliquary was perhaps presented to the Catholicosal See during a visit in 1179 by this Sahag. In the open space between circles. Poland and the Crimea. Stephen’s dexter and the oval end piece with “Sanctus Lucas” were part of a lost arm relic of the Protomartyr brought to Cilicia from Jerusalem. the argument for this band being from a dexter reliquary of St. Though in the Latin West there are right arm reliquaries with the relics of more than one saint and among Armenian reliquaries. Gregory. the inscription of 1315 could also justify the fashioning of the reliquary then. which might have been part of the original object. perhaps exactly. Luke. the future King Lewon IV. 4) was copied on the newly fashioned silver forearm during its consolidation in 1926. it is in a mixed erkat‘agir-bolorgir script. which seem to be unrelated to the relic of St. the brother of a scribe working in Cilicia in 1241. The oldest attestation of Nicholas as an Armenian first name is in this form Nikōl. and the other of St. it is roughly similar to the portrait on the Skewṙa reliquary. including Bishop Sahag involved in the ArmenianGreek theological disputes of the 1170 and Bishop Sahag of Jerusalem. therefore. though the catholicos would then be Constantine IV. St. The other inscription. M7737. Gregory. John the Baptist. the next two occurrences of the form Nikōl occur in the fifteenth century in a Western context. though a twentieth century copy. Among indications supporting this supposition are two inscriptions attached to the case (nos. This was the time of the first Franciscan Pope.

”70 This is a curious statement because it is more elaborate. 1998. 2004. and then exiled to the deserts. a perfectly cylindrical silver base with gilding and carved decoration. . there is a long section about the purported journey of St. Only the first line passes entirely around the arm. 2. 80-84. figs. 2007 (catalogue entry only. right hand reliquary of St. chased. est aussi conservée dans un bras en argent. 244-235. Inv. who were responsible for their conversion to Christianity. going from one mountain to another. A likely date for its invention would be during the reign of King Lewon I (1198-1219). 2007-3. 136-137. who was later attributed the honor of having baptized Emperor Constantine the Great. 83-86. Ballian. 31. 400. Ballian. no. The acceptance or persistence of this apocryphal relationship is graphically affirmed by a full page miniature in a manuscript of 1529. Ballian. Album. Album. 87-90. no. 72. Kouymjian. 73. 8. figs. a large composition extends from the bottom to the lower part of the inscription. Nicholas by Catholicos Sahag II (1902/31939) before it was given for restoration to Coadjutor Catholicos Papken Gulesserian (1931-1936): “… Letting the St. engraved. 2002. 200. 27. that is what would be the inside of the right arm.73 This parallel of king and emperor with their respective church heads. 62. EGBYUI RøYU(πE GAJR RF*EFRK(YRJ SF(GHY(YDFGNæG(XFGTE FW(FT IGPY*JIæYRJ J PSJH %TJG (1221 = 1772).74 The present reliquary was restored in 1772 according to its inscription. as is clear from the widely published photo of the three dexters taken in Aleppo before their restoration. symbolizing the unity and singularity of Christ. reaching the brink of death. A connecting stem joins them with small balls on each side decorated with very small punches. 78-79. a miscellany with both the History of Agat‘angełos and the Concord. showing King Trdat and Emperor Constantine with their armies meeting each other and above. 2002. The shaft of the dexter begins with an inscription pertaining to the hand’s restoration in tall. Sylvester (314334) was directly related to the legendary fraternal relations between the pope. 17. is clearly reflected in later Armenian tradition. 1965. 112 no. In the year 1221[1772]. Number 3V. On the bottom or the end of the relic. The story goes back to the fifth century. To the left and the right of this juncture are two crosses of equal rectangular arms. Gregory and King Trdat to the Emperor Constantine and Pope Sylvester (not mentioned by name in Agat‘angełos) in Rome. The hand is unadorned and made up of irregularly cut thin pieces of gold or thin silver highly gilded. 171-182. At the end of the History of Agat‘angełos. To the left. and the mutual admiration the pope and catholicos had for one another. 89. 111. 2000. 223-229. Gulesserian. 2002. The central ornament on the main vertical axis of the back of the hand has a full-length single stemmed plant with three tiers of half palmette leaves on each side. composed around the time of the coronation of the first king of Cilician Armenia. The bottom of the plant is tapered like the foot of a chalice. 2005. 1939. 1270-1328. Keleshian. 1939. Kouymjian. The seams of the layers or sheets of metal are visible and the unadorned surface is rather granular. New York. patriarche grec de Smyrne. Gulesserian. there is another large rosette similar to those on the arm. Bibliography: Langlois. the dexter was never loaned). in the time of Ep‘rem Catholicos. … St. fitted with gold foil. Goltz and Göltz. fig. 88. 2007-2. Kouymjian. 171. 75. masunk‘ Surb Sełbestrosi Restored in 1772. The inscriptional bands were adjusted to fit the already existing decoration. rather casually executed. covered with crude nails and damaged — a true example of the suffering of the Armenian nation. why should the sacred objects venerated by the Armenians have remained exempt from the perennial misery endured by the Armenian people! Like us. 1949. who baptized the king of Armenia. Trdat. placed between the two texts. and the thumb and second finger touching. Floating in the polished field are pairs of rosettes at the top and the bottom of the plant made of nine large punched circles. Inscription: The inscription is at the top of the cylinder from which the hand extends. also underlines the close relationship between the Roman/Byzantine emperor and the Armenian king. Sylvester. 2000. we freed [those of] Saints Sylvester and Nicholas by stripping them of their rotten shrouds — their fetters and chains.”72 Bibliography: Langlois. Kouymjian. 88. Gregory the Illuminator. These are attached to the hand by very small rivets or studs of gold. It is in three lines of thinly engraved erkat‘agir. 2005. 276-277. and St. the arm is overlaid with gilded silver foil. After all. 1861. 1965. passim. mais d’un travail plus simple que le premier. [46]. 232. 2009-2. 74. Kouymjian. The late twelfth-century Letter of Love and Concord. Above this is a pod from which sprouts a shallow lobed diamond in which a simple square divided in nine compartments is inscribed. made of fine punch dotting. The arm of the holy right hand reliquary of Sylvester recently restored by Catholicos Ep‘rem. 14. 1861. Martoyean. Goltz and Göltz. the dexters too have barely survived. thin.71 There is a moving and precious description of the arm reliquary of St. 5. At the bottom of the arm is a bracelet-like band made of a woven braid composed of four strands framed by double fillets of twisted wire. 2002. 239. in the same early fourth century. 439-447. Two other rosettes are placed to the right side mid-way up. 1949. The whole may represent the tree of life. though a fifteenth century date during the struggle for authority between Cilicia and Ēĵmiacin is also a possibility. with no finials. Pope Sylvester and Catholicos Gregory enthroned and in discussion. Dexter. erkat‘agir in three tapered lines. one in the center and eight around it like petals.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 182 182 183 The only other pre-twentieth century description is by Langlois when he examined the reliquary in 18511852: “La dextre de saint Nicolas. The square’s central part forms a cross with arms of equal length. Athens. Nicholas’s dexter was crushed …. thus appropriate to both. 2. from one fortress to another. figs. Paris. Athens. 2004. Keleshian. Kouymjian. Kouymjian. [46]. The dexter is made up of two parts. 1325-1328. the end of the first line even effaces a part of one of the flower buds already chiseled on the object. and a golden hand with the index finger pointing up. Two large squares with slightly convex sides are placed with the angles in the cardinal directions. 400. Kouymjian. The invention or the creation of a right hand reliquary for relic fragments of Pope St. Exhibitions: Halle. Album. 200. 91. 2000. Lewon. 2007-1b. Exhibitions: Halle. patched. Agemian. 2009-1. 39x10cm. 1998-1999. The design repeats on the inside of the arm. 1965. 2000. Illuminator’s dexter rest in peace. 2008.

est conservée dans une boîte de forme ovale en argent. appointed to Sidon in 1582. 2002.5cm.77 Within the box-reliquary there is a small hand. however. The lid has two hinges on the back and a pair of rings toward the front. thus suggesting this might be the one meant. silver. lattice inset. The identification of St. The top of the lid of the rectangular box with semi-circular ends contains the thin and elongated erkat‘agir inscription around its perimeter. In the Armenian liturgy. 400. 96 illus. Samoorian. however. or liturgical calendar. and Barsauma 1723. he was a proponent of Monophysite doctrine and thereby condemned by the Council of Chalcedon. &øJπ$øGπKøGπI+/ RORVYV> J> #HX(Y& GA EGH O%ORPGD+R/ @GLGHGø&πJH ^F%GTE TGLKFRJ *GENGHJH J XYU%H RøYU(πE NYURøGπUY(CJ GT PJS %QLE (1172 = 1723) :GLG(GHR R(EY&H :G(RGTG/ QDHGUY(JH. Artisan: Łablan Mahtesi.. Made by Mahtesi Yarut‘iwn Łalēmkiar. points out that the cult of his relics became very popular in the twelfth century and spread among the Armenians and Crusaders. visited Sis in 1583 and saw the relic of Barsauma. 2000. Sis. This reliquary of the right arm of the hermit St. engraved. nevertheless. without a wrist. and later moved to Persian territory. Ballian. there 1765. Reliquary chest.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 184 184 185 15. for the dexters of Saints Gregory. Antioch. Nicholas. 1861. one of whom was an archimandrite. Inscription: in an oval band along the circumference of the upper lid. In the Domar. Goltz and Göltz. 111. 87. Sylvester. while in that of Athens. 16. In the year 1172[1723]. 2002. chased. She. 84. This Barsauma was an aggressive Nestorian and the Armenian Church would hardly accept a Nestorian as a saint. 60x24x23cm. There were other Barsaumas.”78 Bibliography: Langlois. The most famous of that name was Barsauma Bishop of Nisibis who died in 489 and who participated in the Councils of Ephesus II and Chalcedon.76 The Latin bishop Leonard Abel of Malta. published by Fr. mounted on a wooden chest lined with red velvet. arkł. Under the lid is an open grill of small circles. 2000. Barsauma (or Bar Sauma) is uncertain. surrounded by floral scrolls in niello. . Number 26V/235. Anna Ballian is unclear about which Barsauma’s hand is in the box. silver. 9x16x8. A large central circle flanked by two smaller ones has equal-armed stylized Maltese crosses. enveloppée d’étoffes. niello. who opposed the Nestorians and died in 458. Surb Parsamay čgnavori aǰin tup‘ě are a series of hermit saints who are mentioned by name including Barsauma. Inv. Approx. which was not kept in a reliquary.75 In the catalogue of the Halle exhibit the identification was for St. Athens. much the same as when Victor Langlois saw it on his expedition of 1852-1853: “La main de l’ermite Barsame. the choice is for Barsauma Bishop of Edessa who died in 250. Barsauma who died in 458. this case/box was fashioned by Mahtesi Łablan. Right hand reliquary of St. The sides also contain roundels with crosses. Barsauma or Bar Sauma. Barsauma is a souvenir by request of the natives of Sis to priest Tēr Aristakēs at the church of the Holy Illuminator. as confirmed by specialists who have recently handled the container. Exhibitions: Halle.

St. In each of the corners there are palmettes. The four full-length standing figures. 1939. Gregory the Illuminator. On the left are enthroned higher clergy facing each other. Comme je l’ai dit. The central panel has a patriarch seated on a throne on the left giving blessing and holding a staff. St. The whole presents a striking. is the cauldron used for the consecration of the Holy Oil with the dove of the Holy Spirit hovering above emitting very long rays of light from its halo. vakas-collar. Sylvester. cope. under his feet. which once locked the box. skipping the central panel. Before him are the walls of a large monastic building from which a smaller mitered figure orans descends the steps facing the enthroned figure toward a chapel or shrine nestled between the two hillocks. Before the Catholicos. Each figure has an omophorion. St. St. holding a book against his right shoulder and facing right toward the central panel. Sylvester — represent those whose right hands are stored in the box. in the center of the scene. The single sheet of repoussé silver is nailed to the boards with round silver studs around its perimeter. each mitered and holding a bishop’s staff. Nicholas.gl) (conservateur de la dextre de saint Grégoire). The inscription was published by Catholicos Papken Gulesserian. 1994. In the opposite panel is seated another patriarch. 4) RøYU(πEH SOæ(PGH+R. Karapetian. It was on behalf of the Catholicos that his nephew bishop Ep‘rem Aĵapahean. of the casket. The artist has varied the decorations of the vestments of the five figures. Gregory was indispensible for the installation of the newly elected patriarch of the church and the consecration of the Holy Chrism. Sylvester. standing in three-quarter pose. and reprinted in quatrains by B. son and successor of St. in erkat‘agir with many ligatures and abbreviations. The two flanking saints — Aristakēs and Vrt‘anēs — are the sons of St. The chest designed to store the dexters belonging to the Cilician See is unique. A konk‘eṙ hangs on his right side. en argent massif. are carved in relief on several planes providing a sculptural effect. commissioned the reliquary chest while in Antioch in 1765. A pair of rounded cartouches to the left of each saint contains their respective names in erkat‘agir. holding a book in his right hand and a staff that ends in a dragon head. turning very slightly toward the right and making the sign of benediction with thumb and third finger and with a konk‘eṙ (a catholicosal purse) hanging from his belt. St. brother and successor of St. his miter like that of St. ornée d’arabesques ciselées. The crafting is a combination of repoussé work similar to that on the front panel. see no.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 186 186 187 Inscription: There is a very long inscription of more than sixty lines on the underside of the chest by Bishop Ep‘rem in twin cartouches... 3) RøYU(πEH HJIæY*Gø&πYR. Gregory the Illuminator. and St. bearing a dexter. Barsauma (small hand of bones kept in a small. 306-307. The back panel is divided into two segments separated by a large vertical floral meander. and in the lower reaches of the four external panels of medium relief lozenges. Aristakēs (325-333). and St. The top of the lid of the box is divided into three panels along its length. St. The next arches and their inner columns are made of a chevron pattern in high relief above and low relief on the columns. the Catholicoi Łukas (1731-1737) and Mik‘ayēl (17371758). The ground throughout is made of round punches. Vrt‘anēs (333-341). The panel is also held in place by the overlap of the silver from the right and left sides and the bottom. one must turn the reliquary box ninety degrees to the right. The columns have bases and four-part capitals. même après la séparation de 1441. the patriarchs who followed him. In the center of the arch is a tripartite scroll from below which is a three-lobed flower with a bud.There is a third. Sylvester’s is divided into two vertical parts each with an upright diamond design and granules at the extremities. Each of the four circles contains a full length standing Evangelist holding his Gospel in the left hand. The two extremities have columns of a twisted rope design with the outer columns in very low relief and the inner ones and the arches in high relief. assigned to carry out the commission of the chest and the author of the long inscription on its bottom. (Pope) St. Each . almost tangent to the arches are a series of two winged cherubs with very slight differences. qui prend le titre de g4. To the left is a bearded and haloed deacon. Just above his head are the clouds of heaven with the dove of the Holy Spirit from which three spear-like rays project toward Gregory’s head. though the faces are rather similar. silver box. the living Catholicos Gabriēl. Nicholas. All are shown in full liturgical regalia. holding a censer in his right had and an incense box in his left facing St. Though there is no identifying inscription. a Western iconography known in late sixteenth and early seventeenth century Armenian printed books. There is a column which separates the Virgin from the archangel Gabriel. 2) RøYU(πE RF*æEFRK(YR. but employing roundels to frame the many scenes and portraits of the design carefully highlighted by a play of the silver studs or nails employed regularly as a design motif. In the spandrels reaching up to the edge. slightly turned to the left and giving benediction. younger figure in the doorway of the edifice. there is simpler diagonal hatching with scattered four-leaf clover designs. which must represent a carpet. The silversmith responsible for its execution was Yarut‘iwn Łalēmkiar who crafted the historiated repoussé silver panels that adorn all four sides and the upper lid of the box. right side. The very long inscription of Bishop Ep‘rem was engraved on the bottom. The inscription and the scenes on the outside explain that the chest was fashioned to store the four right hand reliquaries of St. His miter is the same as those of the figures on the adjoining arches. who appears standing. below the lozenge hatching. if at times only in the ornaments of the staffs. with tunic. The reliquaries were used at the consecration of successive catholicoi and that of St. Victor Langlois made the earliest description of the chest during his visit of 1851-1852: Ces quatre reliques sont renfermées dans une châsse. The central arch employs a series of overlapping triple-leaf chevron designs in medium relief. Gregory. from which three-pointed rays are directed toward the Virgin. omophorion. the nephew and himself future catholicos. intended to keep together the reliquaries of saints that not only preserved the holiest of relics but that served as the symbol of the authority of the catholicoi and the sign of the continuity of their office from the time of the conversion to Christianity of the Armenian nation. with a large single palm tree behind him. The frames around the four compartments are made with a bead design with the addition of thicker braids separating the upper and lower rectangle from the central one. et sont toujours restées en la possession du catholicos de Sis.”79 On the front panel. Aristakēs. the latters’ brother and successor and the commissioner of the reliquary chest. Gregory. To view Yarut‘iwn Łalēmkiarian’s finely executed repoussé picture. His hands are held out in orans fashion. the omophorions. 15 above). double peaked miter. he is St. The five arches are decorated symmetrically in three different patterns. Nicholas (NIKOŁA[Y]OS).gh (sic. From left to right. On the square-shaped left side. and bishop’s staff. the upper and lower ones each taking up about one-fifth of the space and the large central panel the rest. and the miters. On the opposite. Each pair is joined in the middle by a connecting seraph. Gregory. this is lacking in the other arches. if somewhat over-charged. moving upward from the two sides to meet at the top.. a sequence of five arches serve as frames for four saints and a central panel with a seated patriarch and a deacon or priest. I imagine they are the brother-catholicoi Łukas and Mik‘ayēl Aĵapahean for whose memory the arkł was commissioned. The background vine motifs behind Gabriel recall miniatures from the sixteenth century. Above this is attached a thin cartouche-shaped plaque from which two multi-faceted studs protrude. Bishop Ep‘rem. To the left facing the patriarch-catholicos is a kneeling clergyman with a monk’s cowl (vełar) representing in all probability. elles constituent la légitimité du patriarche. Gregory. A single palmette-like sprout of foliage is attached to the capitals at shoulder height as an additional framing element. The upper and lower panels are each made of two very large wreath-like circles almost tangential to the enclosed frame on three sides. read ga. There is a cloud band in the upper reaches of each of the arches to the left and right of the mitered heads. alternating groups of hollowed and incised types. brothers catholicoi like were Łukas and Mik‘ayēl to whom the casket is dedicated. Under his throne is a two line inscription: KøFG%πH DGE(J+NH (sic) F(GHøFNJπ To the blessed Lord Gabriēl. The three central figures — St. the Annunciation to the Virgin is shown with the dove of the Holy Ghost in a cloud. later Catholicos (1771-1784). effect. 511-513. These must have been for the latch. above and below which are festoons of flowers ending in more delicate floral scrolls. they are: 1) RøYU(πEH G(JæRKGX+R (sic G(JRKGD+R). cols. Catholicos Gabriēl Aĵapahean (Kapriel Ajabahian) of Sis (1758–1770) donated the chest or arkł in memory of his brothers and immediate predecessors. a mitered figure is seated on a throne placed on a hillock or small mountain.

Gregory dressed in humble clothes. The work is in high. 511-513. The four corners between the roundels and the oval are filled with symmetrically open cross-shaped flowers with a stud in the center. the silver binding of the Mayr Maštoc‘. the last quatrain has the date formula. St. Athens.80 Note: Gulesserian (1939) writes that Bishop Ep‘rem (later catholicos 1771-1784). intended to mean that he has just emerged from his imprisonment in the deep pit. an ox for Luke. crouching boar (varaz). 22. Goltz and Göltz. His omophorion is decorated with three raised crosses over a delicate. 14-15. between them is King Trdat shown as a small crowned. the others are made of tiered lozenges in relief with dots. no. Nicholas. used. 2001. all turned toward the saint except the bottom one who faces out. The four empty corners and the rest of the ground have round punch dots. medium. The entire central scene was probably copied from an engraving. 96. The spandrel spaces formed by the roundels and the outer border are filled with three types of decoration: above and in the center is the dove. The roundels contain scenes from the life of St. dexter. The exception is in the lower right corner. reproduces the inscription of Ep‘rem. and a bishop’s staff in medieval style from Łalēmkiar Mahtesi Yarut‘iwn (or Harutiun Kalemkiarian). The ground around the figure is made of minute punches.81 He refers to the inscription as a work of sixty lines in fifteen quatrains. Gregory after he preached Christianity before him and his court. and reproduces the poem in cols. 400. Gayanē and the other holy virgins. He also mentions himself (eleventh quatrain) as well as his trip to Antioch (yAndak‘). Gregory holding a patriarchal staff and offering blessing. Above there is a cloud band. Album. below a wavy ground. Between the oval and the frame are fourteen interconnected roundels each with four plain studs placed at the tangent positions. to the right a tree and to the left a floral motif. though there are more lines. but here the punching is carefully executed in a diamond pattern. 80. The oval in high relief is punctuated with six double-winged cherubim. The scene encapsulates the conversion of Armenia to Christianity in 301 AD (a date accepted by convention). 509-513. but not once are the name of Grigor Lusaworič‘ nor his dexter nor the word aĵ. The central panel has a large oval containing a full-length figure of St. 306-307. one centered at the top and bottom and two on each side. 1994. 30. 69. Połarian. The inscription is in sixty-four lines. a winged lion behind Mark. a copy of an earlier one of 1628. [45]. standing to the right is a retainer with an oriental turban. Karapetian.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 12:30 AM Page 188 188 has a small domed aedicule with arched doorway placed toward the outer side of the lid. Armenian Catholicosate. commissioned the chest. and low relief and the backgrounds are left plain. In the seventh quatrain he mentions the relics of St. the incumbent catholicos Gabriēl (1757-1770) in the ninth quatrain and the Catholicoi of the same family Łukas (1733-1737) and Tēr Mik‘ayēl (1737-1758) in the thirteenth quatrain. 2002. in the center on both of the longitudinal sides are small foliate motifs. which shows a classic scene of St. representing Jerusalem. 2002. 1861. The inscription mentions his relatives of the Aĵapahean family. Gulesserian. as is that of the broad expanse of the inside of his chasuble. 96. and a single line is added with the name of Łalēmkiar. Sylvester. Gregory. All except one are devoted to a standard repertory of tortures. when traveling to Antioch in 1765. arabesque. Exhibitions: Halle. 111. the form Trdat was metamorphosed into as punishment for killing Hṙip‘simē. which according to the legend in Agat‘angełos was exorcised from the king by St. Barsauma. one in particular of 1731 from Venice. Ballian. fig. but flat. and an eagle for John. 5. Toward the inner side of each roundel is the symbol of the Evangelist: a winged angel for Matthew. Bibliography: Langlois. The penultimate quatrain has five lines. 2000. of which there are many variants and earlier prototypes. 1971. the last two for the memorial of the craftsman. . 92-93. The relief is carried out on various planes giving a striking sculptural effect. 2000. 1965. 1939. and St.

Pour une approche comparatiste des reliques et de leur culte. Saints. 204-205. 72. Kévorkian and C. “Reliques et reliquaires. Reliquary Triptych of the Skewṙa Monastery. Musée des tissus et des Arts décoratifs and Musée d’art religieux de Fourvière (Lyon: 2007). Treasures of Heaven. Armenia sacra. Comment les Arméniens honorent leurs saints” Robert Dermerguérian and Patrick Donabédian. 73. Ioanna Rapti and Dorota Giovannoni. 1861). (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ors et trésors d’Arménie. 279-280.” 2007. no. Paris. Kévorkian. 2007). 116. “The Right Hand of St. Croix-reliquaire (?). Durand. at the Hotel Drouot. eds. who over the years have supplied photographs and answer to specific questions. 30 Alvida Mirzoyan. exhibition catalogue. “Reliques et reliquaires. Treasures of Ēĵmiacin. 2010). 208-218. Gregory and other Armenian Arm Relics. Graziella Vigo.” Maria-Anne Privat-Savigny and Bernard Berthod. “Bras-reliquaire de saint Thaddée. Treasures in Heaven.” 230-234. Merian. no. Rescued Armenian Treasures. For general remarks with earlier and useful references. “The Right Hand of St. no. no. 331-333. John the Evangelist. “71.” Durand. Armenian Relics. text in Armenian and English (New York. 41 Both are discussed in Kouymjian. Armenia sacra.” Ballian. XVII (1983): 635-642. Armenia sacra. Armenia sacra. Sanjian. 190. objects and pages without numbers. Göltz. 414-415.” Cynthia Hahn. no.” Philippe Borgeaud and Youri Volokhine. 19 December 1997. Gregory in Caesarea/Kayseri. Textile Treasures from the Armenian Orthodox Churches of Istanbul (Istanbul: Armenian Patriarchate. Patmos.” 78-89. where the reliquary of the skull of St. 34 Jannic Durand.1441. Armenia sacra: Mémoire chrétienne des Arméniens (IVe–XVIIIe siècle). 4a. Relics. Haykakan Xač‘er [Armenian Crosses]. 38 Victor Langlois. experts. 75. 34.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 8:56 PM Page 284 284 285 NOTES I would like to thank Agnès Ouzounian and Jirair Christianian for helping me decipher a few enigmatic inscriptions and Hrair Hawk Khatcherian for supplying many of his photographs of objects in this catalogue from which I was able to read inscriptions otherwise concealed. Anna Ballian. 2004). Evans. vol. Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557). The celebration of the translation of the belt and box of the Holy Mother of God were introduced into the Armenian Church by Catholicos Simeon Erewanc‘i (1763-1780). 2 Details on the history of the liturgical collection at the Greek Orthodox Monastery are presented by Yota IkonomakiPapadopoulos. 36 The date seems to read 1210 for 1761 and not 1762 as found in Goltz and Göltz. Treasures of the Monastery (Athens: Edotike Athenon. exhibition catalogue. M. Armenische Silberarbeiten aus den Sammlungen der Mechitharisten-Congregation zu Wien. 2011). (Ēĵmiacin: Holy See. 45 Kouymjian.” 171-182. 2002). 33 Ballian. Treasures of Ēĵmiacin. (Geneva: Peter Lang.” Revue des études arméniennes. Lucy Ardash. no. Gli Armeni in Italia (Rome: De Luca. no. Rescued Armenian Treasures from Cilicia. A convent was established there of faithful nuns who honored and protected the relic. 14-15. 49-54. It was rather a relic. 32 Probably originally inspired by a woodblock of the Annunciation in the Bible de Natalis. 2010). but not in the form of a right hand reliquary. 221-224. La culture arménienne hier et aujourd'hui (Aix-en-Provence: 2008). 1992). Gregory in Naples.” Armenia Sacra. Armenian Relics.. Gregory and other Armenian Arm Relics. 2005). Gregory. Sylvie L. NY: Caratzas.. 306. 184. no. Bartholomew brought it with him to Armenia and placed it at “Darbneac‘ K‘ar” in the province of Anjeweac‘. with Michael Stone and Avedis K. I Tesori di San Lazzaro degli Armeni (Milan: Silvana Editoriale. Armenia sacra. 39 “[C]ollections of reliquaries and a goal of ‘reunification’ of the body also seem to have been important in some cases and perhaps just as powerful as a spiritual image. ARMENIACA 2. 2007. the triptych reliquary that encloses the spear was fashioned in 1687. Breu. Artists. eds. her personal belongings became articles of pious devotion. no. Armenia sacra. eds. Originally. Łazarean. 4 Jannic Durand. 27 Dickran Kouymjian. Gregory. 15 Ideally. 11 Ronald T. I thank them both for making my task easier. allowing me to have a global sense of the collection even far away in Paris or Fresno. B. for which see Sarah Laporte-Eftekharian. 37. 1984). Armenian Relics. Armenia sacra. 44 Kouymjian. “73. details in Kouymjian. le Louvre (Paris: Somogy. “L’orfèverie liturgique en Arménie. Testimony to a People–The Alex and Marie Manoogian Museum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. According to Armenian Church tradition. Bartholomew for being unable to attend her funeral or see her. quoting Hamazasp Oskean.. Les objets de la mémoire. at an early stage in the preparation of this catalogue. Vol. 1299-1300. 412-414. T‘umanean. 136 (Vienna: 2008). 78-89. 6 It was sold at auction by Claude Boisgirard. ed. published in 1593 by an uncertain printer. Armenian Relics of Cilicia from the Museum of the Catholicosate in Antelias.. Armenia sacra. “Arts de la diaspora arménienne. 31 Durand. 12 Boghos Lewon Zekiyan. 40 On Armenian reliquaries in general see Kouymjian. 1988). Patmut‘iwn Kat‘ołikosac‘ Kilikioy . a relic once at the Church of St. 171-182. Comment les Arméniens honorent leurs saints. 1990). for background. 1993). 43 Babgēn Kiwlēsērian (Papken Gulesserian). mostly nineteenth century objects. 51-57. A Legacy of Armenian Treasures.“L’orfèverie liturgique en Arménie. Kilikiayi Vank‘erě [The Monasteries of Cilicia]. which she had blessed and given to St. 16 But as one author points out. Azadian. 94. Armenian Art Treasures of Jerusalem (New Rochelle. 8 Manya Łazarean. Armenian Relics. 23 Kouymjian. 171. St. “Church Silver.” 80-84. 17 A recent exhibition with a splendid catalogue provides a detail examination of the cult of relics: Martina Bagnoli et al. 7 B. See also Kouymjian. no. 233-234. (Jerusalem: 1991). Lebanon (Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag. 19 Gełard in Armenian. L’évolution des arts visuels au XVIIe siècle à la Nouvelle-Djoulfa. 20 Kouymjian. Łazarean. “L’orfèvrerie liturgique en Arménie.. a piece of bone of the right hand of St. especially to the current vice-director Barouyr Vardapet for diligently providing me with over fifty fresh photos of details of object and their inscriptions during the past year and patiently answering my many questions. 134-136. 122.” Durand.” Series Byzantina IX (2011): 95. Dickran Kouymjian.. I am also indebted to successive directors of the Cilicia Museum.” Hask Hayagitakan Taregirk‘ [Hask Armenological Yearbook]. Ēĵmiacin (1962). 143. Le reliquaire de Skevra. A. 71. 37 Perj Karapetean (Berdj Garabedian). 186. 2 on metalwork forthcoming. 29 Ibid. idem. The Arts of Armenia (Accompanied by a Collection of 300 Slides in Color) (Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. see also Ballian. he was given a veil with the image of the Holy Mother. 35 I would like to thank Jirair Christianian for suggesting the solution.” Bagnoli. At the beginning Raffi Gergian was quick to supply his photographs of most of the objects. 3 Dickran Kouymjian.. “L’orfèvrerie liturgique en Arménie. 5. (Vienna: 1957). Splendor & Pageantry.” in Helen C. eds. 420. no. in that article I had mentioned another example in the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople/Istanbul. 399-401. 21 . Dickran Kouymjian. 9 Hermann Goltz and Klaus E. no. fig. as solace to St. 83. but further enquiry reveals that no such dexter exists in Istanbul. Durand. 2013). and Ballian. Sacred Art of the Kilikia Museum Antelias.. “Ethnic Origins and the ‘Armenian’ Policy of Emperor Heraclius. Gregory is still conserved. Voyage dans la Cilicie et dans les montagnes du Taurus (Paris: Benjamin Duprat. English). Lebanon (Athens: Olkos. 1 Dickran Kouymjian. 203. 14 A catalogue of the objects has now been published: Edmond Y.. 96. Treasures of Ēĵmiacin (text and legends in Armenian. when it is not accompanied by clear inscriptional evidence. and 221-222. 42 See supra notes 22. 185. 114. ed. 13 Heidi Buschhausen. formerly preserved in the Church of St. “The Spectacle of the Charismatic Body: Patrons.” Durand. “Bras-reliquaire de saint André. 5. respectively 207. Armenia sacra.. see Dickran Kouymjian.ēn Minč‘ew mer Ōrerĕ [History of the Catholicoi of Cilicia – From 1441 to the Present]. no. especially 80-84. 409-411. Massis Vardapet was of great assistance in providing accurate transcriptions of many inscriptions that were not visible on the photographs. 215240. 10 Bezalel Narkiss. ed. (Antelias: 1939). 5 Durand. “Bras-reliquaire de sainte Rhipsimé.” 80-84 on dexters. and Body-Part Reliquaries. As there are no relics of the Holy Mother’s earthly body since she was assumed into Heaven. 2000). “Bras-reliquaire de sainte Hṙipsimé. 46 Kouymjian. Marchese and Marlene R. 22 Ibid. eds. Russian. In November 2000 Pope John-Paul II formally presented to Catholicos Karekin II of Ēĵmiacin a reliquary containing the thighbone of St.” Athanasios D. . Steine Sprechen. 26 According to the narrative. 1979). “attribution of an item to workshops of the capital. 6 (1994). 24 Norayr Archbishop Covakan (Połarean/Bogharian). remains problematic. “Hin haykakan astłagitakan gorcik‘ner” [Ancient Armenian Astronomical Instruments]. no. 34. 28 Durand. “Reliquaire de la main de saint Jean-Baptiste. 25 For an overview. “Surb aĵeru xnamatar u pahapan Aǰapahean patmut‘iwn [History of the Care and Preservation of the Holy Dexters by the Aǰapaheans]. the catalogue or catalogues in this volume should have also been accompanied by an index of person and place names as a guide for establishing workshops and craftsmen. 131. 202.” in Durand. 4. and Devotion in Medieval Europe (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 18 It is housed in a triptych reliquary case of 1698. no. Koinis.

no. 1900). 1973). col. 97. Ēǰmiacin. “La vie mouvementée des reliques dans l’Orient syriaque. III. 87. illustrated in both volumes. “The Decoration of Medieval Armenian Manuscript Bindings. 223-229. 299. cf. 2005. fig. Yovhannēs Dastanakertc’i. 81 Gulesserian. 400. 97.” in Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261–1557). 88. Nicholas. Lusavorč‘i Luys Nšxarnerě [The Splendid Relics of the Illuminator]. History. History. From Byzantium to Iran: Armenian Studies in Honour of Nina G. 166-169. Goltz and Göltz. are well illustrated in Goltz and Göltz. 91 Yarut‘iwn K‘iwrtean (Harutiun Kurdian). Gli Armeni in Italia. 133v. 1221-1222. “Armenian Manuscript Illumination in the Formative Period: Text Groups. ms 1920. 115-123. Lebanon. XIII (1986): 190. Gregory in the Armenian Church). 453-474. 111.. A Revised Diplomatic Edition with Historical and Textual Comments and English Translation (Leiden: Brill. C. and Vardan Tēmirčean. (Antelias: Catholicosate Publications. Agathangelos. 371. 82 Erica Cruikshank Dodd. Paris. 84 Boghos Levon Zekiyan. Armenian Relics. 17. and Ballian. vol. Dickran Kouymjian. Jean-Pierre Mahé and Robert W.” Całkep‘unĵ: K‘arozneru ew usumnasirut‘iwnneru 1957-1981 [Bouquet: Sermons and Studies 1957-1981]. 2-4 November 2005. (Paris: Presses de l’École normale supérieure. Les Arméniens de Marseille. with inventories of twenty-one bindings from 1653 to 1741. unpaginated. 87 Dickran Kouymjian.. 2009-2. IV. Mouradian. (Holy Ēĵmiacin: 2000). 95 I have discussed them in a long series of articles. 1-2: 25-36.” 163-176. 75. 21. “The Voices of Saints. 8 and 346. 69 For details and sources. 64 Ačaṙean. 67 See Kouymjian. Evangelists’ Portraits. 72 Gulesserian.” n. ed. The Letter of Love and Concord. 122. vol. Garsoïan (Atlanta: Scholars Press.. Armenian Relics. cf. Rescued Armenian Treasures. 65 Kouymjian. Loin de l’Ararat : les petites Arménies de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée. The Calendrical and Liturgical Cycle of the Armenian Apostolic Orthodox Church 2003 A. 11-12: 670-680. 85. see Dickran Kouymjian. 348-349 § 810. 2007. S. 54 Robert W. 57 Kouymjian. Armenian Relics.” H. Constantinople. 2010). in press). 2007). 266-267.1914-1975]. 277. 58. ed. Surb Ēĵmiacni metałē krknakazmerě (The Metal Double Bindings of Holy Ēǰmiacin). 1993). “Silver Covers. 1997). vol. I (1948).. plate facing page 128 for a colored example of 1628.. exhibition catalogue (Geneva: Fondation Martin Bodmer. 10-18. History. 1015-1051.” Hask (1998). Łazarean. 62 Gulesserian.. 2007). 509-513. 146. Armenian Relics. La composition du codex au Moyen Âge. 287-289.” 83. Nicholas. “Reliquary of St. Armēn Malxasean. (Beirut. see Kouymjian. See now Zara Poghossian. Illuminations d’Arménie. 162 no. Ottoman Silver Marks (Istanbul: Mathusalem. 9. Arts du livre et de la pierre dans l’Arménie ancienne et médiévale. 89 See Kürkman. Printing and Publishing from the Middle East. Recherches de codicologie comparée. Mansi. Ballian. 92 Armēn Malxasean. 2002). 2003 (Brepols: 2008). Thomson. cf. Byzantine Silver Treasures (Bern: Abegg-Stiftung.” Gesta 36/1 (1997): 22.D. on which see Gulesserian. idem. 14 fig 18. “L’orfèvrerie liturgique en Arménie. 63 Ballian. 1. 71 Gulesserian. 88 Hakobyan. (1999). Treasures in Heaven. 407-415. “The Evolution of Armenian Gospel Illumination: The Formative Period (9th-11th Centuries). Syvie Merian. Gregory and other Armenian Arm Relics. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Mathews. 70 Langlois. 53-79. no. 14. Morel-Deledalle. who forwarded photographs of the dexter attached to his explanatory email of 30 August 2012. no.” in Thomas Mathews and Roger Wieck.” in Armenia sacra. 163-176. 244. For a twentieth century reproduction by the Mekhitarist Fathers of Venice.” Valentina Calzolari.” Joseph D. “Reliquaire de la main de saint Jean-Baptiste. Eusebian Apparatus. Alchermes. 76-77. Maksoudian. History. “Arm Reliquary of Saint Nicholas. Nicholas. 348. Spoleto. “The Armenian Right Arm Reliquary of St. 66 I owe this information to Bishop Krikor Chiftjian. “Recueil de textes sur la fondation et l’histoire de l’Église arménienne. In his inscriptions and transcriptions. 74. 17. Philippe Hoffman. 90 See “Reliure d’un livre des Évangiles. Hayoc‘ Anjnanunneri. “Body–Part Reliquaries and Body Parts in the Middle Ages. 1981). exhibition catalogue (Rome: de Luca. (Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern. Byzantium Court Culture from 829-1204 (Washington.. Voyage dans la Cilicie et dans les montagnes du Taurus. “From Manuscript to Printed Book: Armenian Bookbinding from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century. ed. Rescued Armenian Treasures. Additional specimens have been identified since. Athens. citing Ernest Hönigmann. 166-167. idem. I want to thank Bishop Krikor for his kindness and promptness at a moment of turmoil in Tabriz. the young orientalist often confused the a with the 4. ibid. 209-218. Ed. 211-214. 355. 58 Langlois. Armenian Art of Jerusalem. 2009). 78 Langlois. 83 Ballian. ed. exhibition catalogue. 60 See the eye witness account by Archbishop Xad Aĵabahean (1883-1968) in Part I of this volume. vol. 287-289. Journal of Semitic Studies. 68 Ačaṙean. “Surp Grigor Lusaworč‘i nšxarnerun tełě Hayastaneayc‘ Ekełec‘iēn ners (The Place of the Relics of St. Prelate and Delegate of His Holiness Aram I in Tabriz. 13-21. 226. May 22-24. and later in the article (193) offers the information from Bishop Abel’s travel account published by G. 51-61. nos. 9-10: 519-527. Anna Ballian. Hayoc‘ Anjnanunneri baṙaran [Armenian First Name Dictionary]. nos. 63 illustrated items. Niki Tsironis.” ed. 75. Musée des civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée et Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Marseille (Paris: Hazan. nos.” The Armenian Communities of Cesarea/Kesaria. unpublished English translation by Aris Sevag. 76 Ballian. 93 See the catalogue that follows of some thirty silver bookbindings in the Cilician Museum. 171. Maguire. 82. 1997). in a note she suggests that the lamp could have meaning in several Middle Eastern cultures: St.” 209-218.. Gregory.. 1325-1326. Goltz and Göltz. 90-91. “The Right Hand of St. 293. History.” La reliure médiévale. 75 Ghevont Samoorian. 102.” Ibid. 2005. IV (Lucques. Vivlioamphiasts 3. Richard Hovannisian (Costa Mesa: Mazda. 59 The reference is probably to the church of St. the Armenian text can be found in Buzand Ełiayan (Puzant Yeghiayan). The Book in Byzantium: Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Bookbinding. no. note 20. 106-7.. 1987). Armenian Relics. Gerson. 51 Kouymjian. vol. Jean-Maurice Fiey reports that Jocelin. Gregory and other Armenian Arm Relics. Studies in Honor of Thomas F. Domar. Kouymjian. “Kesarahay kazmarowesti patmut‘yunic‘” [From the History of the Art of Binding of Armenians of Caesarea). Gregory’s lamp for Armenian sanctuaries.. Ēĵmiacin in Sis. vol. History of the Armenians (Albany: State University of New York Press. An English translation of this text is published in Goltz and Göltz. 157.” Philippe Hoffman. Speaking Reliquaries. “The Decoration of Medieval Armenian Manuscript Bindings. §§ 873-884. Žamanakakic‘ patmut‘iwn Kat‘oghikosut‘ean Hayoc‘ Kilikioy. II (Erevan: 1944).1914-1972 [Contemporary History of the Armenian Catholiocosate of Cilicia . 400. “The Right Hand of St. Ottoman Silver Marks. “Post-Byzantine Armenian Bookbinding and Its Relationship to the Greek Tradition. Voyage dans la Cilicie. 79 Langlois.” Philip Sadgrove. Agathangelos. Ballian. Papers from the Second International Symposium on the History of Printing and Publishing in the Languages and Countries of the Middle East. 137. see M. Rescued Armenian Treasures. vol. 80 Mesrop Aščean (Mesrob Ashjian). Rescued Armenian Treasures. Hayoc‘ Anjnanunneri Baṙaran. 1975). DC: Dumbarton Oaks. “Les reliures de manuscrits arméniens à inscriptions. idem. Hask Hayagitakan Taregirk‘ [Hask Armenological Yearbook]. idem. nos. 115. Supplement 24 (Oxford: 2008). 94 Dickran Kouymjian. Colophons. The Cilician Catholicosate also has one of the two most important dexters of St.” 226-227. (n. History of Armenia (Atlanta: Scholars press. on 216. en Orient et en Occident. “Helping hands for the Empire: Imperial Ceremonies and the Cut of Relics in the Byzantine Court.” proceedings of an international conference. 1704). Paris. 77 Fr. Armenian Relics. 87. 53 Navasard Martoyean. Voyage dans la Cilicie. the miḥrāb for the Islamic world. n. 85 Narkiss. “Kesarioy Oskerč‘akan Dproc‘in Arcat‘ Kazmerě” (The Silver Bindings of the Caesarea Goldsmith School). 74 Mat. I (Holy Ēĵmiacin: 2011). 2. eds.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 8:56 PM Page 286 286 287 The latter two. Pizzorni-Itié. Armenian Illuminated Manuscripts (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library. Baluzii Tutelensis Miscellanea. 25. 1327. Kouymjian.” 223. 279-280. though the majuscule form he usually got correct. Greece. fol. Walker Bynum and P. ed. ed. F. (Athens: 2008). 1996). Nicholas”.p. conference proceedings Institut de France.” passim. no. Ballian. for example Dickran Kouymjian. 122.” Acts of the 43rd Annual Conference of the Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medioevo. Thomson. 61 Hrač‘eay Ačaṙean. Ballian. 86 Garo Kürkman. 14-15. 213217.” Parole de l’Orient. Treasures of Ēĵmiacin. the Count of Edessa. 1325-1328. nos.. Philip Sadgrove. “Reliquary of St. 48 Kouymjian. 52 Ioli Kalavrezou. 73 Thomson. Henceforth: “Reliquary of St. 1998).” Gesta 36/1 (1997): 3. 259-274. vol. ed. 49 Cynthia Hahn. 96 Kouymjian. D. notice by Jannic Durand. 53 (May-June 1996). 174-190. “Kilikioy hayoc‘ vank‘ern u ekełec‘inerĕ [The Monasteries and the Churches of the Armenians of Cilicia]. Armenians and the Bible (Atlanta: Scholars Press. 228. 400. translation Krikor H. 56 Yovhannēs Catholicos. 55 “[H]e took a part of the saints’ relics in order to establish their commemorations in other places. sacked the convent of Barsauma in 1148 and made off with the 47 sacred relic of the right hand of Barsauma. see also idem. “The Armenian Silversmiths of 17th and 18th Century Kesaria. Italy (Spoleto: 1996). eds. for archival documents listing by name those working in the capital. 1976). Ibid. IV (Erevan: 1948). History. 1994). idem. October 13-16. “Identifying the Apostles in Armenian Narrative Miniatures”.. Le couvent de Barsauma et le patriarcat jacobite d’Antioche et de Syrie (Louvain: 1954). Kouymjian. 50 C. 364. both preserved in the Cilician Museum of the Catholicosate of Cilicia in Antelias. Armenian Relics.” 279-280. ed. 1976. 2007-1b. 125-142. 276-297 (plates). . with several more recent articles on individual examples. typescript 2005. “Post-Byzantine Armenian Bookbinding. the Holy Sepulcher for the Byzantines.

115 Both wood engravings are illustrated and discussed in Nichanian and Sordet. 110-111. 204-205. 43. for a color illustration of the upper cover. 2012). no. 120 An undated binding covering what must be a book of 1899 has on its upper silver cover an Annunciation in the top corners and John the Baptist with the Lamb of God in the lower left opposite St. 137 The translation was offered by Yervant Pamboukian from Antelias in a letter to Claude Mutafian of 11 May 1993 on the occasion of the installation of the cross stone in the exhibition at the Chapel of the Sorbonne in the same year. 174-175. (Antelias: Catholicosate. 114. 132 Gabriella Uluhogian. notice by Jannic Durand. 2002). “Le Synaxaire de Grégorie de Marzevan. 2013).” The predominance of this mixed script with the majority of minuscule letters is in keeping with the relatively late date for this transitional writing form. fig. upper cover. 22. I (Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 8:56 PM Page 288 288 289 For details on the manuscript. 131 Other variants using Jirair Christianian’s suggestions and other changes: ١٢٦٧ k+@ DgH)gHg@(sic)KGh NRHJ(Fgkgh (or NRHJ(Fg kgH or NJYURKJ(Fgkgh) RøYU(πE gøRKYUGπ)g)JH FæIF*FvJRH Y*øYπ(TYuPøJπUøHπ HY7FtEF( +( CFH+@K+ :yuNYuHgH @ø(JπRKYHFG&OHng? Variant 1: 1258 [1842 if meant to be a hijri date. vol. “Mixed Script. see note 106 above for more details. Armenian translation. Testimony to a People. 1978). 39-79. Sanjian. An Armenian Master of the Seventeenth Century.” in Le sacre scritture e le loro interpretazioni (Milan: Accadmia Ambrosiana. 55-60. Surb Ēĵmiacni. Le livre arménien. The Arts of Armenia. See Aspects of Armenian Art. 2013). 24. Sinai. see Dickran Kouymjian. George Saving a Youth from Captivity and Its Depiction in Art. “Some Iconographical Questions about the Christ Cycle in Armenian Manuscripts and Printed Books. no. Nichanian and Sordet.” Treasures in Heaven. eds. 68-69 no.csufresno. 36. 1809 if intended as the Armenian era]. Monasteri e santuari dal I al XVII secolo (Ravenna: Longo. also on internet http://armenianstudies. 123 On Oskan’s printing venture see Raymond H. 117 Edmond Y. It should be noted that the binding of 1771 has just been published. 208. or text of the printed book the binding is attached to. 106 A list of them with their English and Latin names can be found in Goltz and Göltz. 132.” 464.C.s. Un’ antica mappa dell’ Armenia. Manafis. 66-67. I would like to thank Agnès Ouzounian of Paris for suggesting this reading. Armenian Gospel Iconography. 1973). 120 fig. 101 Armenia sacra. on the artistic influence of printing woodcuts on silver bindings of the Caesarea/Kayseri school. passim. Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era A. Musée Cilicie. vol. Azadian. 1796. “Identifying the Apostles in Armenian Narrative Miniatures. 233. clearly showing the Evangelist holding his Gospel just below his waist with his right hand. Kortoshian. 99 For the illustration of the Crucifixion of the Glajor Gospel see. 119 The upper cover from a nineteenth century silver binding in the collection of the Armenian Patriarchate in Jerusalem has the 97 98 same monumental single column supporting nothing as the main element in the Nativity. 30. 1986). no. Variant 2: 1258 ( = 1842 if meant to be a hijri date. I (1964). which resembles in overall appearance that of 1850. Un’ antica mappa dell’ Armenia. Le livre arménien. The central trunk terminates with a doubled-headed eagle. but the date is clear. 130-132. The inscription on the spine of the binding is difficult to make out in the photograph. Washington. fol. but a Resurrection on the lower cover. notice by Helen Evans. On that cover. The manger and the broken column are lacking and the Virgin and Child. Le livre arménien de la Renaissance aux Lumières: une culture en diaspora (Paris: Bibliothèque Mazarine & Éditions des Cendres. in Nichanian and Sordet. (Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Mayr c‘uc‘ak hayerēn jeṙagrac‘ Meci Tann Kilikioy Kat‘ołikosout‘ean (Master Catalogue of the Armenian Manuscripts of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia). see also Ballian’s well-informed remarks. it was November. Surb Ēĵmiacni Metałē Krknakazmerě [The Double Metal Bindings of Holy Ēĵmiacin]. Le livre arménien. The Tradition of the Glajor Gospel (Washington. 112 Photo archive from Aleppo. they might represent the imperial emblem. 47 and a detail of the eight staffs and explanations. Exhibition in the State Museum of the Moscow Kremlin (Moscow: 1997). 119-122. 299. Color illustration of the page and for a discussion. I (2003): 27–77. no.. 1267 ( 1851 hijri. 509-513. there is greater clarity in the standing portraits. 30. and the color plate. on 137.15. “The Legend of St. 136 Dickran Kouymjian and Mikaël Nichanian. 49-50. Kouymjian. D. catalogue (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art and Harry Abrams. 116 Malxasean. “Encensoir. L’Arménie du Levant (XIe-XIVe siècles). 124 Der Nersessian. 28. 335. similar to those on the bindings in Antelias already discussed. vol. no. fig. 125 Kouymjian. vol. 2000). This might suggest that we reconsider a possible Greek inspiration for the iconography or the style of the whole series and look toward an Armenian source. figs. 115-123. 112. item number 16007. From the sole (tek) treasury of the church of the Holy Mother of God of (the village of) Lsnierea or Liusteria. 107 A photograph of the unpublished binding is in an archive of the Aleppo Museum of the Forty Martyrs Church sent to me more than a decade ago in which there are more than two dozen silver bindings of different periods. as well as solving other inscriptional problems. unnumbered pages.” Series Byzantina. 843-1261. originally in Revue des études arméniennes. 113 For a discussion of the theological background see Mathews and Sanjian. 306307. a reuse of the 1706 engraving. Krikor Markarian indicated he had acquired the staff in Aintab in 1977 from a man who was half Armenian. 110 Name attested in a colophon of 1606. Nathan Hovanessian. I have no way of determining provenance. 347348. Thomas F. un monument typographique”. 25. 426-427 illus. FGA 36.” in Armenia sacra. Monasteri e santuari dal I al XVII secolo (Ravenna: Longo.edu/arts_of_armenia/captions. for a complete description. my notes have apparently failed to record the book or manuscript to which it belongs. see Sylvie Merian.” vol. “Le réliquaire de Skévra et l’orfèvrerie cilicienne aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles.18. ed. 69 no. Catalogue des «Incunables» arméniens (1511/1695) ou chronique de l’imprimerie arménienne (Genève: Patrick Cramer. 121 The identity of St. Wixom. I (Holy Ēĵmiacin: 2011). 134 Ibid. 47 and a detail of the eight staffs and explanations. Album of Armenian Paleography (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. uncrowned. 2003). čenek Christians are established (or found) (bulunan). 59.. 12.C. From the charity or alms of the sole (tek) treasury of the church of the Holy Mother of God of (the village of) Lsnierea or Liusteria. 1267 ( = 1851 hijri. 126. 174-175. II. 2013).. 133 Gabriella Uluhogian. 111 I would like to thank Sarah Laporte Eftekiarian for originally suggesting this meaning. History. Armenian Relics. the earlier catalogue of manuscripts is also very useful. 97. Armenian Relics. 1990). Armenian Manuscripts in the Freer Gallery of Art. 102 Jerusalem. An Exhibition (London: Sam Fogg. 135-137 figs. 1991) 561. 195. 105 See Agemian. 28. 1818 Armenian era). Rescued Armenian Treasures. where he is on the right holding the book with his left hand. tenth-twelfth century. 135 In a private communication. 126 Treasures of Eĵmiacin. Colophons. 20. nos. 90. and figure on p. in Mikaël Nichanian and Yann Sordet. 100 Helen C. fig. fold out of the map after p. 130 Goltz and Göltz. VI.. 1818 Armenian era). 2. date. 1809 if intended as the Armenian era). Armenian Gospel Iconography. including the overall look of the box-like binding. thus despite their serpent-like tails. Ltd. almost in mirror image to his posture on the binding of 1850. 714-716. no. 163. A second binding of 1776 also dedicated to the church of the Holy Mother of God in Ayntab has a similar upper cover of the Virgin. no. For details see Michael Stone. Kévorkian. see in Part II of this volume. The Inscriptions of Aleppo.htm. On the general question. Bishop Anušavan Daniēlean (Anushavan Tanielian). Raffi Kortoshian. Musulmans et Croisés. no. The Kalfayan Collection (Athens: 2010).: Dumbarton Oaks. The Inscriptions of Aleppo (Erevan: RAA. Sylvia Agémian. fig. no. Mathews. 113. the alms giving of November erčenek (where) Christians are established (or found) (bulunan). n. 128 Konstantinos A. 73. Hakopyan. 90-91. 118 Ballian. see Kouymjian. ed. no. 25. Evans and William D. Sylvie L. A full discussion will be found in notices nos. Rescued Armenian Treasures from Cilicia. Dickran Kouymjian. on which see note 107 above. no. I. Stephen as deacon. 114 See the entries by Kouymjian. John the Evangelist is confirmed by the lower cover of a silver binding of 1834 in the museum of the Holy Martyrs Church in Aleppo. 34-35.. 62-63. Merian. no.D. 2012). Les Arméniens entre Grecs. 109 See note 107 above for details on the Aleppo collection. fig. Other elements are also similar. Mathews and Avedis K. fig. He is on the left. 25. (Ēĵmiacin: 2006). Armenian Patriarchate. at Sis. 1997). 96-99. the entry by Sylvie Merian. 127 Mesrop of Xizan. Armenian Art (London: Thames and Hudson. but with the addition of two shepherds and their sheep in the lower left. 29. 131: “Ce Saint Signe à la . The Alex and Marie Manoogian Museum(Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Catherine (Athens: Ekdotike Athenon. forthcoming 2014). A few of the items have inventory numbers. D. A Legacy of Armenian Treasures. 27. 1963. 108 Armēn Malxasean. He also reports that there is an additional but similar inscription below a serpent: “ ”. “Silver Covers. 104 Gulesserian. Claude Mutafian. 2000). The Glory of Byzantium. illustrated in color in Sirarpie Der Nersessian. no. Henning Lehmann. no. 28. 288v. 129 Ballian. Armenian Illuminated Manuscripts. 82. vol. 2 (Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. see Gerard Dédéyan. upper cover. “Miniatures et Manuscrits au musée Cilicie. more recently. 1. 1245. but other than what is on the photos themselves. The Tradition of the Glajor Gospel. are seated under a carefully executed arch. a reuse of that of 1717.” 101-102 and the bibliography for individual articles. Lucy Ardash. 1. 1974. 103 Sirarpie Der Nersessian. 1984). On the upper cover is the Adoration of the Magi.. Treasures of Armenian Church. 30 as cited in the previous note. fold out of the map after p. 9. Though I photographed it in 2009. 33. 122 This special iconography is discussed in Piotr Grotowski. 160-161.

gh (bazban) sg9gdy79 (varagoyr). banner Gospel religious crown. lamp Latin.ghgi (tapanak) egb. aspersoir. the Cross holy water sprinkler image.gkyut (arcnapatum) lgkjigbg9xyut (hatikazardum) wy9gd9yupjuh (p‘oragrut‘iwn} iyh2f5 (konk‘eṙ. III. (for holy water) banner. 3higtgh (xnkanoc‘. pectoral cross. For more details. maniple curtain Dexter. k. Catholiccosate of All Armenians. 644-645. diamond-shaped pouch. no.gh (bazpan) sf8g9 (vełar) r9rigtgh rgwy9 (srskman sap‘or) 3gcsg5 (xač‘vaṙ) . Mayr c‘uc‘ak hayerēn jeṙagrac‘ Maštoc‘ anuan Matenadarani (Master Catalogue of the Armenian Manuscripts of the Mastoc‘ Matenadaran). vo. (mahtesi) iyuz (kuž) Hg9fi (Nareg) k.ghgifg7 (panakiay). sign of authority liturgical collar liturgical crown majuscule script. Latin calix. radiant crown cuff.). ostensory. vol.fk( vardapet) kg. M588. xnkaman) 3higtgh kg. II. (Colophons of Seventeenth Century Armenian Manuscripts (1641-1660).” 138 The couple are apparently the same as those mentioned in a colophon of 1655. staff Cross cross-shaped rf8gh(sełan). casket chrism vessel (dove-shaped) chrism clasp communion pyx crosier. r9ritgh rgwy9 (srskman sap‘or) . pendant/s for a miter) &HPL.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 8:56 PM Page 290 290 291 sainte apparence fut dressé pour la protection de la tombe de Vasil serviteur de Dieu. chalice or the flower-form within which the cup of the chalice is held g4kghgi (aštanak) 4yu9ag5 (šurjaṙ) igpy8jiyr (kat‘ołikos) igpy8jiyryupjuh (kat‘ołikosut‘iwn). 3higtgh (xnkanoc‘. col. 3highyv. vessel for blessing the Holy Chrism censer ceramic hand cross hermit chalice chalice cover chandelier chest.yug0 (tpuac) . processional base or foot of a vessel basin bejewelled belt binding. see O. bearing image of Virgin Pantocrator parcel gilt parchment patriarchal/pontifical pilgrim to Jerusalem pitcher Prayerbook of St. right arm reliquary doublure dove dove-shaped vessel for the Chrism [repeat] embroidery enameling encrusting engraving epigonation. 318v. sphere and cross. stole.ghgi (pahpanak) 3y79 (xoyr) sg9gb (varaz) pgr (t‘as) qg9tghx (čarmand) rijl. I thank Agnès Ouzounian for pointing out this colophon. Armenia) Ryu9e Tju5yh. Erevan. 1404. gilding gold thread gonfalon. Lebanon dydhyv (gognoc‘) sg9xg. pouch.fkgigh (hayrapetakan) tglkfrj. fr. (Surb Miwṙon) Ryu9e H4gh (surb nšan) t4kji (mštik). cope catholicos catholicosate cauldron cauldron.ghgi (xnkaman tapanak) g9kg3yu9gi (artaxurak. uncial minuscule script miracle worker. pp. cover bishop‘s miter bore bowl buckle calyx (cup of the chalice) candlestick cape. collar Antelias apron archimandrite ark of the covenant armband Armenian monk’s cowl aspergill. sign of patriarchal face. g90hg.gkif9 (patker) 3yuhi (xunk) 3highyv. King of the Jews rgwy9 (sap‘or). xač‘uaṙ) gufkg9gh (awetaran) rg8gug9k (saławart) ryu9e (surb) Ryu9e +atjg0jh (Surb Ēĵmiacin. hanging ornament All Mighty yrifb10 (oskezōc) tgdg8gp (magałat‘) lg79g. Erevan: Nairi. &øjryurπ Høgbys9fvjπ Pøgdguy9π Lø9=jvπ (Yisus Nazovrec‘i T‘agawor Hrēic‘). cover fanon filigree fine carving flabellum/rhipidion gold dipping. curtain for altar front. Iēsus Nazarēnus. LITURGICAL VESSELS altar altar candlestick altar cross altar frontal altar incense burner or container amice. chalice. Rēx Iūdaeōrum. casque holy Holy Ēĵmiacin Holy Oil. Eganian et al. xnkaman) 7g3qg. grf8hgdy90 (asełnagorc) g90h (arcn).gl. picture incense incense burner incense container infula.gkyughxgh (patwandan) iyh2 (konk‘) dylg9gbg9x (goharazard) d1kj (goti) igbt (kazm). literally double threading) df8g2ghxgi (gełak‘andak) 24yv (k‘šoc‘) yrifb10 (oskezōc) yrifpfn (osket‘el) 3gcsg5 (xač‘vaṙ. Jesus of Nazareth. encolpion. meṙonat‘ap‘ aławni df8gljur (gełahiws). qgqghcg3gc (čačanč‘axač‘) pgd (t‘ag) egb. Chrism Holy Sign. thaumaturgus miter modern cursive script with attached letters molding notary script omophorion. cane. infulae INRI jug lance lantern. sign of patriarchal authority x9yugd (druag) g9kg3yu9gi (artaxurak) byudgpfn (zugat‘el. tju5yh (miwṙon) qg9tghx (čarmand) tgrhgkyuw (masnatup‘) dgugbgh (gawazan) 3gc (xač‘) 3gcg6fu (xač‘ajew) cross. .. sflg9gh (veharan) igprg7 (kat‘say) Tju5yhj Igprg7 (miwṙoni kat‘say) eyu9sg5 (burvaṙ). 987. 1984. dydhyv (gognoc‘) ga (aĵ) grkg5 (astaṙ) g8guhj (aławni) tju5yhgpgw g8guhj. 2005. Gregory of Narek printe ngtwg3gc (lamp‘axač‘) qgqghcguy9 3gc (čačanč‘awor xač‘).gij (yaxčapaki) 6f5gv 3gc qdhgsy9 (čgnavor) rijl (skih) rijlj 0g0iyv (skihi cackoc‘) agl (ĵah) g9i8 (arkł) tju5yhgpgw g8guhj (miwṙonat‘ap‘ aławni).g0y7 (tpatsoy). GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS. fol. 3y9gh (xoran) g4kghgi eftj (aštanak bemi) 3y9ghj 3gc (xorani xač‘) rf8ghj dydhyv (sełani gognoc‘) 3highyv (xnkanoc‘) sgigr (vakas) Catholicosate of the Great House Of Cilicia. sort of a pallium ostensory panagia. ephod. Hayeren jeṙagreri žē dari hišatakaranner (1641-1660 t‘t‘. wg9c (p‘arč‘) df8g9x (gełard) ighpf8 (kant‘eł) globus cruciger sgigr (vakas) pgd (t‘ag) f9igpgdj9 (erkat‘agir) eyny9dj9 (bolorgir) R2ghcfngdy90 (Sk‘anč‘elagorc) 3y79 (xoyr) 48gdj9 (šłagir) 3yunyut (xouloum) h1k9dj9 (nōtrgir) =tjwy9yh (emip‘oron) qgqghc (čačanč‘) . Vazgen Hakopyan.

ghgi (tapanak). Lisbon: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era A. Relics. 4. 2003. Puzant). tabernacle box throne tunic. Ełiayan.D. [Der Nersessian. Saints. Paris: Somogy. (Legends and text in English and Armenian. Erevan: Nayiri. 2000] Aspects of Armenian Art. 2004. Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557). originally published in Revue des études arméniennes. s9gh (vran) dgl (gah) 4g. Hayoc‘ anjnanunneri baṙaran [Armenian First Name Dictionary]. 2005. Lebanon. The Kalfayan Collection. asa stamp for making of the Eucharistic waifer spear sticharion. Maštoc nf5hg7jh eju9f8g. ed. illustrated. “La vie mouvementée des reliques dans l’Orient syriaque. no. Saints.” Gesta 36/1 (1997). n. Sylvie L.C-CATALOGUE 2014 KOUYOUMJIAN_Layout 1 9/15/14 8:56 PM Page 292 292 293 processional cross protomartyr radiating relic relic box relief carving reliquary reliquary box reliquary box in the form of a cross reliquary chest repoussé restored right hand or right arm reliquary Ritual Book rock crystal rug. Steine Sprechen. tf5yhgtgh (meṙonaman) ryu9e h4gh ifhgv wg7k (surb nšan kenac‘ p‘ayt) The Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia. tunic of deacon stole (liturgical) superhumeral Synaxarion tabernacle. 2001] Aščean. 2004] Agemian. Jannic Durand.” Series Byzantina. Fr. 2ghxgigdy90 (k‘andakagorc) rf9ysw= (serovpē). [Der Nersessian. Les Arméniens entre Grecs. et al. O. London: Thames and Hudson.glg9gh (masanc‘ paharan) x9yugdyut (druagum). [Goltz and Göltz. Hrač‘eay. Norayr Archbishop. 2007] Goltz. 136. Piotr. Anušawan Bishop (Tanielian. wy9yu9g9 (p‘orurar) sgigr (vakas. DC: 1963. 1973. Treasures of Heaven. and Body-Part Reliquaries. 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