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What is a Proposal?
- A document that offers a solution to a problem or a course of action in response
to a need.
- The act of presenting a plan, suggestion, etc., to a person or group of people.
- A document that offers a solution to a problem or a course of action in response
to a need.

Describe a Proposal?
- A formal description of the creation, modification or termination of a contract. A
proposal may serve as the blueprint for a future agreement and may be
accepted or rejected by the entity or entities that receive it.
- Proposal is something to be said or offered to someone or everyone to show
them that you are proposing and suggesting plan/s that you want to be finished
to make something successful with it.


Comparison and Contrasts from other types (Instruction & Report)
1. Instruction- The definition of instruction is the act of educating, giving the
steps that must be followed or an order.
2. Report- A document containing information organized in a
narrative, graphic, or tabular form, prepared on ad hoc, periodic, recurring,
regular, or as required basis. Reports may refer to
specific periods, events, occurrences, or subjects, and may be
communicated or presented in oral or written form.


Types of Proposals
1. Internal vs. External - An internal proposal is meant for a party within
your organization, such as your boss at a company or government agency. An
external proposal is meant for an individual or organization outside your
organization. You may omit certain sections from an internal proposal that
you would include in an external proposal, such as your qualifications,
according to "Power Tools for Technical Communication.”
2. Solicited vs. Unsolicited - Often,when individuals or organizations must
complete a project, they’ll request that interested parties bid on the job, that
is, submit a proposal. This type of proposal is called solicited because it was
requested. An unsolicited proposal is one the recipient has not requested. The
two differ in that the recipient of an unsolicited proposal may need convincing
that the project is necessary.

3. Business and Financial Proposals - If you have an idea for a new
process at work, then you may write a proposal to explain your plan to the

boss. Or perhaps you’re an independent contractor and you want a firm to
hire you to complete a certain project. You would write a proposal to explain
why and how you’d like to do the project and why you are the right person for
the job. Or if you need a loan or investor funds to open a business, then you
would write a proposal to the bank or investor explaining how you'll operate
business and how you'll use the money.
4. Sales and Marketing Proposals - If you’re trying to market or sell a
good or service, then you might have to write a proposal to prospective
buyers and retailers. A sales proposal, for example, would explain your
product or service to a prospective buyer and attempt to persuade the buyer
to make a purchase. Or if you have a product to market, then you may write a
proposal to retail buyers to convince them to sell the product in their stores.
5. Research Grant Proposals - Scientific and scholarly researchers who
need funding submit proposals for grants to universities, businesses and
philanthropic organizations. A grant proposal generally consists of an
explanation of the proposed research project and its methods and goals, the
qualifications of the researchers and a description of how the researchers will
use the funds. Organizations that receive grant proposals, such as the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting, provide proposal guidelines.

6. Book and Article Proposals - Authors who are attempting to pitch an
idea for a book or article to a publisher will often submit a proposal. Such
proposals generally include an introduction to the author, a description of the
proposed piece, an outline and sample chapters or sections.

Elements of a Proposal

Executive Summary: State the rationale for putting the proposal into
effect, and summarize the proposal. (This allows a decision maker to
quickly get the gist of the proposal, hence the name.)


Statement of Need: Detail why the plan or project the proposal
recommends is necessary.


Project Description: Explain specifics of the plan or project, and how it will
go into effect and how it will be evaluated.


Budget Analysis: Provide and explain how the plan or project will be
financed and categorize and annotate operating expenses.


Organization Details: If the proposal is being submitted to an outside party,
provide information about the beneficiary organization, including its
mission, its stakeholders and who its serves, and the scope of its programs
and services.



Conclusion: Summarize the proposal’s main points.

Tips on How to write a proposal
* Writing a proposal is similar to but not exactly the same as crafting a
persuasive essay or producing a report. Here are suggestions for developing a
proposal, including some pertinent to its specific purpose.
1. A proposal should define a problem and describe a solution that will
persuade busy, thrifty, skeptical readers to support it.
2. Employ facts, not opinions, to bolster the argument for approval. Research
similar plans or projects and cite them, emphasizing their successes and/or
how your proposal resolves the weaknesses, omissions, or mistaken priorities
apparent in them.
3. Analyze your plan or project, demonstrating possible outcomes. If possible,
model a small-scale version of the plan or project, report on the results, and
extrapolate how the full-scale plan or project will turn out based on the test.
4. Any discussion of financial or other resources should be conducted
carefully and should present a realistic picture of the expense required.
5. Be meticulous in writing, editing, and design of the proposal. Revise as
necessary to make it clear and concise, ask others to critique and edit it, and
make sure the presentation is attractive and engaging as well as well
organized and helpful.