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The Fundamental group is a mathematical group associated to any given pointed topological space that provides a way to determine when two paths, starting and ending at a fixed base point, can be continuously deformed into each other.

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**The Fundamental Group
**

Miliyon T.

Addis Ababa University

Department of Mathematics

June 22, 2015

Miliyon T.

June 22, 2015

Fundamental Group

1 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**”First tell them what you are going to tell them. Tell them.
**

Tell them what you have told them.”

— Paul Halmos, I want to be a mathematician

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Henri Poincare

(1854-1912)

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Introduction

Basic Set Theory

Basic Group Theory

Basic Topology

Homeomorphism

Fundamental Group

Homotopy

Homotopy of paths

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Miliyon T.

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**The basic idea that we need in this section is an equivalence
**

relation which is defined as follows.

Definition

An equivalence relationa on a set X is a relation R ⊂ X × X

such that

Reflexive: (x, x) ∈ R for all x ∈ X .

Symmetric: (x, y ) ∈ R implies (y , x) ∈ R.

Transitive: (x, y ) and (y , z) ∈ R imply (x, z) ∈ R.

a

It helps us a lot in defining the elements of the fundamental group. As we

will soon enough, it would have been too hard (maybe impossible) for us to

define the elements of the fundamental group without it.

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**The other important thing we should know is a mathematical
**

group.

Definition (Group)

An algebraic structure with one binary operation (G , ∆) is called a

group iff the following four conditions(group axioms) are satisfied

Closure: ∀a, b ∈ G ⇒ a∆b ∈ G .

Associative: ∀a, b, c ∈ G ⇒ a∆(b∆c) = (a∆b)∆c.

Identity: ∃e ∈ G 3 a∆e = e∆a, ∀a ∈ G .

Inverse: ∀a ∈ G , ∃a−1 ∈ G 3 a∆a−1 = e = a−1 ∆a.

If ∆ is commutative, then G is called an abelian group. In our

definition above there is a word ”algebraic structure”. Which is

nothing but a non empty set together with one or more finitary

operations defined on it. We usually designate a∆b by ab.

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**The notion of the fundamental group for the first time appears in
**

the works of Poincare around 1895. He was trying to classify

topological spaces(Riemann Surfaces) in the same time that he

discover this beautiful concept. So, here we are defining

Topological space.

Definition

A topology on a set X is a collection τ of subsets of a non empty

set X satisfying the following axioms:

1

∅ and X are in τ .

2

The union of any number of sets in τ is in τ .

3

The intersection of any two sets in τ is in τ .

**The members of τ are then called τ − open sets, or simply open
**

sets.

The ordered pair (X , τ ) is called a topological space(TS).

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Introduction

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**Definition (Continuous Map)
**

Let X and Y be TS. A map f : X → Y is said to be cont. if for

each open subset V of Y , the set f −1 (V ) is an open subset of X .

Lemma

A function f : X → Y is continuous if and only if the inverse

image of every closed subset of Y is a closed subset of X .

Proof.

Suppose f : X → Y is continuous, and A a closed subset of Y .

Then A0 is open, and so f −1 (A0 ) is open in X . But

f −1 [A0 ] = (f −1 [A])0 ; therefore f −1 [A] is closed. Conversely, assume

A closed in Y implies f −1 [A] closed in X . Let G be an open subset

of Y . Then G 0 is closed in Y , and so f −1 [G 0 ] = (f −1 [G ])0 is closed

in X . Hence, f −1 [G ] is open and therefore f is continuous.

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**Theorem (The pasting lemma)
**

Let X = A ∪ B, where A and B are closed in X . Let f : A → Y

and g : B → Y be continuous. If f (x) = g (x) for every x ∈ A ∪ B,

then f & g combine to give a continuous function h : X → Y

defined by setting h(x) = f (x) if x ∈ A and h(x) = g (x) if x ∈ B.

Proof.

Let C be a closed subset of Y . Now

h−1 (C ) = f −1 (C ) ∪ g −1 (C ),

by elementary set theory. Since f is continuous, f −1 (C ) is closed

in A hence closed in X . Similarly, g −1 (C ) is closed in B and

therefore closed in X . Their union h−1 (C ) is thus closed in X .

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Addis Ababa University

Definition (Homeomorphism)

Let X and Y be topological spaces; let f : X → Y be a bijection.

If both the function f and the inverse function

f −1 : Y → X

are continuous, then f is called a homeomorphism.

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Definition (Path)

Let I = [0, 1], the closed unit interval. A path from a point a to a

point b in a topological space X is a continuous function

f : I → X with f (0) = a and f (1) = b. Here a and b are called

initial and terminal points respectively.

Figure : Path

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Introduction

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Definition (Homotopy)

If f and f 0 are continuous maps of the space X into the space Y ,

we say that f is homotopic to f 0 if there is a continuous map

F : X × I → Y such that

F (x, 0) = f (x)

and

F (x, 1) = f 0 (x)

**for each x. Where I = [0, 1] the unit interval. The map F is called
**

a homotopy between f and f 0 .

If f is homotopic to f 0 we write f ' f 0 . If f ' f 0 and f 0 is a

constant map, we say that f is nulhomotopic. We think of a

homotopy as a continuous one-parameter family of maps from X

to Y . If we imagine the parameter t as representing time, then the

homotopy F represents a continuous deforming of the map f to

the map f 0 , as t goes from 0 to 1.

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Definition

If f : I → X and f 0 : I → X are two paths with the same initial

point p ∈ X and the same terminal point q ∈ X . We say that f is

homotopic to f 0 if there is a continuous map F : I × I → X 3

F (s, 0) = f (s)

F (0, t) = p

and

and

F (s, 1) = f 0 (s),

F (1, t) = q

**for each s ∈ I and t ∈ I . F is a path homotopy between f and f 0
**

see figure 2.

**Figure : Homotopy of path
**

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Introduction

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Theorem

The relations ' and 'p are equivalence relations.

Proof.

(i) Given f it is trivial that f ' f ; the map F (x, t) = f (x) is the

required homotopy. If f is a path, F is a path homotopy.

(ii) Given f ' f 0 , we show that f 0 ' f . Let F be a homotopy

between f and f 0 . Then G (x, t) = F (x, 1 − t) is a homotopy

between f 0 and f . If f a path homotopy so is G .

(iii) Suppose that f ' f 0 and f 0 ' f 00 . WTS f ' f 00 . Let F be a

homotopy between f and f 00 and let F 0 be a homotopy between f 0

and f 00 . Define G : X × I → Y by the equation

(

F (x, 2t),

for t ∈ [0, 1/2]

G (x, t) =

0

F (x, 2t − 1), for t ∈ [1/2, 1]

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Proof.

The map G is well-defined, since if t = 1/2, we have

F (x, 2t) = f 0 (x) = F 0 (x, 2t − 1)

Because G is continuous on the two closed subsets X × [0, 1/2]

and X × [1/2, 1] of X × I , it is continuous on all of X × I , by (6).

Thus G is the required homotopy between f and f ”. The following

figure illustrates if F and F 0 are path homotopies, so is G

Figure : Transitive property of path homotopy.

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Definition (Concatenation)

If f is a path in X from x0 to x1 , and if g is a path from x1 to x2 ,

we define the product of f ∗ g of f and g to be the path h given by

the equations

(

f (2s),

for s ∈ [0, 1/2]

h(s) =

g (2s − 1), for s ∈ [1/2, 1]

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Definition

A loop in a topological space is a path in the space whose initial

point and terminal point are the same. If the initial point and

terminal point of a loop in the topological space X are both the

point x0 ∈ X , we will say that the loop is based at x0 .

Let X be a topological space and x0 be a point in X . Then the x0

neighborhood of curves in X , C (X , x0 ), is the collection of all

continuous mappings f : I → X of the unit interval into X such

that f (0) = x0 = f (1). i.e. the collection of all loops based at x0 .

Definition

Let f and g be two maps in C (X , x0 ) that means f and g are

loops based at x0 . Then f is homotopic to g modulo x0 if f and g

are homotopic in a usual sense with some additional restriction.

Here is the restriction: If H is the homotopy between f and g ,

then H(0, t) = x0 = H(1, t).

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Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Theorem

The set of path homotopy equivalence class of loops based at

x0 ∈ X is a group under the ”multiplication” defined by

[α][β] = [αβ]. This group is denoted by π1 (X , x0 ) and is called the

fundamental group of X at x0 .

Proof outline.

I. The operation is well defined.

II. Associative

III. The identity element is ex0 .

IV. The inverse of α(t) is α(1 − t).

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**Instead of the fundamental group of X based at x0 it would be nice
**

to have the fundamental group of X . In other words, we would like

to have the fundamental group depend only on the space, and not

on the particular point of the space that we base our loops at.

Theorem

Let x0 , x1 ∈ X . If there is a path in X from x0 to x1 then the

groups π1 (X , x0 ) and π1 (X , x1 ) are isomorphic.

Proof.

To show the two groups are isomorphic is just a matter of finding a

bijective map from one to the other.

Let γ be a path from x0 to x1 . If α is a loop based at x0 , then

(γ −1 ∗ α) ∗ γ is a closed path based at x1 .

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Outline

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Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Proof.

Figure : The importance of base point

**We therefore define uγ : π1 (X , x0 ) → π1 (X , x1 )
**

by uγ [α] = [γ −1 ∗ α ∗ γ] that is, follow γ −1 from x1 to x0 , then

follow α around back to xo , then follow γ back to x1 , all giving a

loop based at x1 .

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Proof.

uγ ([α] ∗ [β]) = uγ ([α ∗ β])

= [γ −1 ∗ α ∗ β ∗ γ]

= [γ −1 ∗ α ∗ γ ∗ γ −1 ∗ β ∗ γ]

= [γ −1 ∗ α ∗ γ] ∗ [γ −1 ∗ β ∗ γ]

= uγ ([α]) ∗ uγ ([β])

Thus, uγ is a homomorphism.

Using the path γ −1 from x1 to x0 we can define

uγ −1 : π1 (X , x1 ) → π1 (X , x0 )

by uγ −1 ([α]) = [γ ∗ α ∗ γ −1 ].

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Proof.

Now, check

uγ −1 uγ [α] = uγ −1 [γ −1 ∗ α ∗ γ] = [γ ∗ γ −1 ∗ α ∗ γ ∗ γ −1 ] = [α]

uγ uγ −1 [α] = uγ [γ ∗ α ∗ γ −1 ] = [γ −1 ∗ γ ∗ α ∗ γ −1 ∗ γ] = [α]

So, uγ is bijective and hence an isomorphism.

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Conclusion

Determining whether two given topological spaces are

homeomorphic is a fundamental question in topology.

• Showing two space are homeomorphic is a matter of

**constructing a continuous map from one to the other which
**

has also a continuous inverse.

• If we can find some topological property that holds for one

topological space but not for the other, then this two spaces

are not homeomorphic.

Example

1

**[0, 1] is not homeomorphic to (0, 1) since the first is compact
**

and the second is not.

2

**R is not homeomorphic to R2 since deleting a point from R2
**

leaves a connected space and deleting a point from R doesn’t.

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Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

Example

i. R2 is not homeomorphic to R3 . Because deleting a

point from R3 leaves a simply connected space, but

deleting a point from R2 does not.

ii. S 2 T using similar argument.

As we have seen earlier, the idea of simple connectedness is

generalised through the fundamental group, which includes

simple connectedness as a special case. The condition of simple

connectedness is just the condition that the fundamental group of

X is the trivial group. So, the most important way of determining

two spaces are not homeomorphic is by using their fundamental

group.

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

**Just for Fun
**

A Man is topologically equivalent to torus.

**Figure : Drawing by Fuad M.
**

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June 22, 2015

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Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Addis Ababa University

References

James Munkres

Topology, Second Edition.

I.M singer

Lecture notes in elementary topology and geometry.

Seymour Lipschutz

Genereal Topology (1965).

Miliyon T.

June 22, 2015

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