You are on page 1of 202

Issues That Matter

Uniquely Singapore

F1 or F9?


First Edition, October 2008.

Chief Editor: Andrew Loh
Chinese Editor: Ong Su Kiat
Producers: Tan Yunyou, Alex Lew Yan Liang
Graphic Design: Tan Yunyou

© Copyright, Dicken Pte Ltd, Singapore.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form without prior permission from the publisher.

Leong Sze Hian is a Wharton Fellow and alumnus of Harvard
University. He has authored 4 books, been quoted over 1000 times
in the media, and invited to speak more than 100 times in about 20
countries on 5 continents. He has served as Honorary Consul of
Jamaica, and is currently the President of the Society of Financial
Service Professionals. He has 3 Master’s degrees in Financial
Planning & Financial Services, 2 Bachelor’s degrees in Economics &
Insurance, and 13 professional qualifications.
Alex Lew Yan Liang is the Chairman of the Society of Financial
Service Professionals (SFSP) Student Sub-committee. He is a double
major undergraduate at Nanyang Business School and is
concurrently pursuing the CFA charter. Alex is an active student
who takes leadership positions in school clubs and external bodies.
Not only does he have a passion for finance, he is also interested in
policy-making in Singapore. He is also the founder of TIA
Conferences and is currently the leader of the group.
Tan Yunyou is a third year undergraduate at Nanyang Technological
University, majoring in Civil Engineering. He co-founded TIA
Conferences, which partners societies such as SFSP to organise
public forums on investing. He has keen interest in graphic design as
well as policy-making in Singapore.

Tan Li Ping is the Vice Chairman of the Society of Financial Service
Professionals Student Subcommittee. She is a Banking and Finance
undergraduate at Nanyang Business School and enjoys dancing and
participating in community work. Li Ping is also the leader of the TIA
Conferences marketing team.
Chen Yingren Lionel is a final year business undergraduate at
Nanyang Business School. His interests lie in the hands-on
application of processes and the marketing field in business.

Andrew Loh is the founder of The Online Citizen (TOC) and is
currently its Deputy Editor. He is a strong believer that
Singaporeans, particularly the younger ones, need to throw off the
shackles of fear when it comes to participating in the political affairs
of the nation. He presently works full-time on TOC, having
previously been involved in a family business.
Ong Su Kiat is a keen observer of the policy-making arena in
Singapore. He is a Hwa Chong Alumnus, and is currently pursuing a
degree in Banking and Finance. He also has a strong passion for
Chinese culture.

. Tan Kin Lian for his kind endorsement and our fellow Singaporeans for identifying these issues and indirectly contributing to the creation of this book.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank Mr.

........................... 8 慈善义演的开销有多少? ............ 7 HOW MUCH HAS BEEN PAID FOR CHARITY SHOWS? ......................... CHARITY 慈善事业 ....................................... 31 MAKE MINIMUM SUM PAYOUTS LAST LONGER ......... 32 让公积金最低限额支出更持久 ............................................................ 3 A DISCREPANCY IN CHARITY FUND-RAISING ................. 4 慈善筹款的差异 .............................................................. 23 RELAX CPF RULES FOR REAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP.............................................................................................. 25 放宽公积金条例,培养真正的创业精神 ........................................................................................... 5 TRANSPARENCY NEEDED FOR CHARITY SHOW CALL CHARGES ........ 21 设定公积金购屋提款顶限需从长计议 ........ 29 保健储蓄 – 低收入国民的一大负担 .......................... 10 向孩子学习:别再推卸责任 .. 13 2............................................................................5% CPF INTEREST RATE............................ 6 慈善演出电话收费须更透明 ................................................................. I PREFACE ........................................................................................................................................... 16 INCREASE 2............. 1 STOP PROFITING FROM CHARITY .............................................................................................................................. CPF 公积金 ..........................................................................................5%公积金利息 ............... 35 ....................... III 前言 ....................................... 9 LESSON FROM KIDS: STOP PASSING THE BUCK........................CONTENTS FOREWORD ................................................................. V 1........... 27 MEDISAVE A BIG BURDEN FOR THE LOW-INCOME ......................... 19 MANAGE CPF PROPERTY CAP WITH PLANNING ...................................................... 2 停止从慈善中赚取利润 ............. 17 增加现有的 2.............................................

48 公平对待债务人,更改债务偿还计划 (DRS) ............ 53 信用卡余额转账的陷阱 ............................... 42 NETS 收费上涨:反竞争法令应维护消费者利益 .. 81 5...................................................................................................... 93 ...... 58 该是时候向孩子灌输节省和谦虚的价值观 ....................... 67 JHU 与 A*STAR 的合作拆股引起更多疑问 .......3........................................................................................................................ EDUCATION 教育 ............... MOE ....................................................... 70 BETTER TO FAIL AND LEARN FROM IT .............................. 77 终身学习也可附带无形的效益。 ................... 87 购买组屋的入息顶限太低 ...... 79 教育部,请妥当分配资金 ............................................... 75 LIFE-LONG LEARNING BRINGS INTANGIBLE BENEFITS TOO .................... 45 BE FAIRER TO DEBTORS BY MODIFYING PLANNED DRS................................ CREDIT 信贷 ........... 84 彻底解除建屋局津贴的疑问 ................................................................................................................................ 38 新信用卡或导致新加坡人拖欠更多债务 ............................................................................ 65 JOHN HOPKINS UNIVERSITY’S-A*STAR BREAK-UP RAISES MORE QUESTIONS ................................................. MODESTY IN CHILDREN .......................................................................... 86 INCOME CEILING FOR HDB FLATS MAY BE TOO LOW ..................... 78 BALANCE USE OF FUNDS........... 89 LET SINGLES RENT VACANT FLATS WITHOUT PAIRING UP ................................................. 60 4. 40 NETS FEE HIKE: COMPETITION LEGISLATION SHOULD BE ABOUT PROTECTING CONSUMERS ............. 83 SETTLE QUESTION OF HDB SUBSIDY ONCE AND FOR ALL .............................................. 51 PITFALLS OF CREDIT-CARD BALANCE TRANSFERS ..................................................... HOUSING 房屋 ................ 37 NEW CREDIT CARD MAY LEAD SINGAPOREANS INTO MORE DEBT .. 72 从失败中吸取教训 .................................. 91 允许单身人士无需配对,租用空置的政府组屋 ............ 62 WHAT IS THE RATIO OF FOREIGNER TO LOCAL SCHOLARSHIPS?.................. 63 获奖学金的外籍与本地学生的比例是多少? ................. 56 TIME TO INCULCATE VALUES OF THRIFT...............................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................ 98 房屋‘降级者’须从建屋局获得更多信息 ............................................................................................................................................... 100 6............ 122 FEE HIKES FOR NEEDY SHOULD BE REVIEWED.... 135 HOW ABOUT A COMMITTEE ON CPF RETURNS? ............................ 113 医疗小组应该探讨的问题 .............................. 141 .............................. 136 是否需成立公积金回报的委员会? ......CAN A BANKRUPT LOSE HIS HDB FLAT TO BANKS? ............ 106 RAISING COSTS FOR FOREIGNERS MAY NOT BENEFIT SINGAPOREANS .... HEALTHCARE 医疗保健 ........................ 103 别提高医疗储蓄上限 .............................. INVESTMENTS 投资 .......... 138 QUESTIONS REMAIN AFTER REVIEW ON ANNUITIES ........................................... 116 RELOOK MEANS TESTING FOR DISABLED......... 125 贫困人士面对的费用上涨应受检讨 . 130 HAVE CPF INVESTORS FARED BETTER SINCE 1993-2002? ..................... 126 7.................. 95 银行能否强行占据破产者的政府组屋? ...................................................................... 128 探讨低成本的退休金 .................. 132 DISCLOSE SINGAPORE'S RETURNS ON RESERVES.......................................................... 108 提高外籍人士的生活成本,未必对新加坡人有利 ........... 111 ISSUES HEALTHCARE PANEL SHOULD EXPLORE ....................................................... 127 LOOK AT IMPACT OF LOW-COST PENSION FUNDS ..................... 97 'DOWNGRADERS' NEED MORE INFORMATION FROM HDB ...................................... 139 年金审查后仍有一些疑问 ..... 102 DON'T RAISE MEDISAVE CEILING ............. 131 公积金投资者自 1993-2002 的表现是否有进步? ....................................................................................................... 133 公布新加坡储备金的投资回报率 .......................... 119 从新探讨对残疾实施财力测试 ..............

...................... 168 实施车资顶限,贫穷人士获益最多 .......................................................................... 155 公布更多外来劳工的资料 . 160 请以数据证明外国人没有剥夺新加坡人的就业机会 ............................................ 175 为何不允许现金退款? .......... 184 APPENDIX ................................................ 154 DISCLOSE MORE INFORMATION ON FOREIGN LABOUR ...................8...... POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT 人口与就业 .... 174 WHY NOT GIVE CASH REFUNDS? ......................................... 186 ................ 162 9........................................................................................................ 164 EXPLAIN REASONS FOR BUS FARE INCREASE IN DETAIL .. 148 重新培训低薪员工:让我们面对现实 .............. 152 更多居民在过去十年内未曾加薪 .................................. 182 后记 ..... 180 CONCLUSION ......... 144 检讨政策,以协助新加坡人应付生活费的增长 ...................................... 177 WHY IS MONITORING TAXIS SO COSTLY? ............................................................................................... 143 REVIEW POLICIES TO HELP ORDINARY SINGAPOREANS COPE WITH RISING PRICES ......................................................................................... 158 SHOW THE NUMBERS TO DISPEL NOTION THAT FOREIGNERS TAKE AWAY JOBS FROM SINGAPOREANS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 170 LET FIRMS LINK THEIR NAMES TO MRT STATIONS ......................................... 165 详细解释调高巴士车资的原因 .................. 172 允许地铁站与企业名称挂钩 ............................. TRANSPORT 交通 ...................................................................................................... 167 THE POOR WILL BENEFIT MOST FROM TRANSPORT FARE CAP............................................................................... 146 RETRAINING LOW-WAGE WORKERS: LET'S BE REALISTIC .............................. 150 MORE RESIDENTS WORKING FOR AN INCOME THAT HAS NOT CHANGED FOR 10 YEARS .... 178 监督德士为何如此昂贵? ............................


humorous at others. your views clarified further and your questions. perhaps the reason is that Sze Hian feels information is important. many have consulted him on issues which are difficult to understand or too intricate to wrap one's mind around.000 such letters to The Straits Times. It is thus appropriate that Sze Hian publishes this book of selected letters. Known for his ability to "devour numbers" and explain statistics with ease. private individuals. Members of Parliament. education and healthcare – all of which are close to Singaporeans' hearts. Singaporeans will be able to make better decisions on particular Sze Hian when it comes to writing letters to the press.Foreword Foreword Not many Singaporeans are as consistent – and persistent . Today and The New Paper. but always penetrating. in both English and Chinese. If you are wondering why he gives so much of his time to all these. Questioning government policies may result in better policy formulation as well. Matters such as the changes to the Central Provident Fund. journalists and reporters all have sought his opinion on matters of public concern and interest. is his goal. Through them you are enlightened. Sze Hian's intimate knowledge forged over the last 30 years of his professional life as a I . the Business Times. Serious at times. With more information. answered as well. I suspect. His many overseas speaking engagements testify to his much-sought after status as well. perhaps. The end result is that this benefits Singaporeans ultimately which. Over the years he has written more than 1.

Tan Kin Lian II . Together with his on-the-ground experience through his volunteer work with various Non-Governmental Organisations. the reader will easily relate to the issues raised in this book.Foreword financial adviser is evident in these letters.

but right in front of us. It was a startling encounter. To address the Chinese-educated population in Singapore. We were then inspired to discover the challenges faced by the lessprivileged in Singapore. we decided to translate the articles to Chinese. As keen observers of the policy making scene in Singapore. Leong’s articles that best represent the problems Singaporeans face. there are several issues that the common man and the less. an old blind man. our nation has achieved consistent economic growth. Over the last few years. we saw the face of poverty. This book aims to vocalize the problems and issues faced by them. 1) Central Provident Fund 2) Charity 3) Credit III . However.Preface Preface We were interning at a finance institution a while ago in the central business district of Singapore when we met Mr. we decided to publish a book that consisted of Mr. we plan to raise the awareness of present policy issues. guided by his aged wife. came to our table to sell us some packets of tissue paper for a dollar. Through the articles in this book. We believe that the contents of this book are important to anyone who has a stake in Singapore. There is no doubt that Singapore has been one of the most successful nations in our region. Leong Sze Hian for lunch. There will be 9 topics of discussion. Halfway into our lunch. Across the street was the business district where top global corporations were located.privileged citizens face in Singapore.

Andrew’s wealth of experience as an editor in The Online Citizen was truly a great help to our team. Leong Sze Hian for being a constant source of help in the production of this book. we would like to thank Mr. We hope you enjoy the book! Alex Lew Yan Liang Tan Li Ping IV . His superior Chinese language skills were important in editing the translated articles. To put this book together. an alumnus of the Hwa Chong family.Preface 4) Education 5) Healthcare 6) Housing 7) Investment 8) Population and Employment 9) Transport Besides national education textbooks and ministry publications. we hope that solutions can be found to solve these problems. has also been a great pillar of support. we strongly urge Singaporeans. Ong Su Kiat. PRs and visitors to spend some time understanding the structure of our society through this compilation. By identifying these issues in this book. His articles provide a refreshing view of the policy-making arena in Singapore. Finally. Andrew Loh (Editor) sourced for the articles that best represented the selected topics.

前言 前言 不久之前,我们与梁先生在繁华的新加坡中央商业区共用午餐。进餐 时,有一位老盲人牵着他妻子的手慢慢地向我们的餐桌走过来。这一 幕实在令我感叹万分。远方的亚洲第一商业区与眼前的这一幕, 形成 强烈的对比。。。 就因当时的这一幕,我们便下决心探讨我国中产阶级以下所面对的问 题。为了追求这个理想,我们把梁先生的文章编辑成一本书,希望能 提高新加坡人民对国政的了解,对公共政策更感兴趣。 我国的繁华和稳定的经济发展是大家所有目共睹的,也是没有人能否 定的。国家的经济发展虽然重要,中产阶级以下国人的困境也是不可 忽略的。书里的内容诉说着新加坡人所面对的种种生活与社会问题。 书中的9个主题可分为;公积金、慈善事业、信贷、教育、医疗保健、 房屋、投资、人口和就业、交通等。 我们相信,除了国民教育课本以外,这本书也能助于提高公共政策和 社会结构的意识。 要感谢梁先生对我们的自持与鼓励。更要感谢他对国家政策独一无二 的见解。祝您阅读愉快! 刘彦良 陈丽萍 V .


Charity 慈善事业 1 .Charity | 1 1.

1 | 慈善事业 Stop Profiting From Charity th The Business Times. or should I just change with the times? 2 . and not for some reward (or points). I would like to express my support for this new initiative. Should children be encouraged to do good deeds for material gain? When I was a child. 29 October 2002 I refer to the newly launched National Council of Social Service on-line charity donation portal www. Perhaps I am old-fashioned. which indicated that he would receive a pencil case if he accumulated 50 points ($50) and a bag for 150 points ($150). because it is meaningful. I was approached by a primary school student with a donation card from a charity . as I feel that doing good deeds should not be motivated by the possibility of material my father taught me that one should do charitable work. Sometime ago. such as prize

2002 年 10 月 29 日 参阅由国家社会服务理事会(National Council of Social Service) 新推出 的慈善捐款网站www.Charity | 1 停止从慈善中赚取利润 商业时报,我想在此作出回应。 借此,我想表达对这项新堤议的支持,因为我相信做善事的动机不该 是为了获取物质的利益,例如奖金。 前些时候,有位小学生找我捐款。他持有的捐款卡上表示,如果累计 50 分($50)就能得到一个铅笔盒,累计 150 分($150)则可获取一个书 包。 请问,利用物质奖励来鼓励儿童做善事,究竟对吗? 小时候,父亲教导我做善事是因为有意义,而不是为了奖励(或分 数)。 或许是我是老古板,还是我该随着时代而改变吗? 3 .org.

To treat a patient.000 grant soon. 13th May 2003 I refer to media reports about the charity bread scheme running out of funds. it costs NKF $2.600 a month.000 beneficiaries.1 | 慈善事业 A Discrepancy In Charity Fund-Raising The Business Times. The above statistics seem somewhat disproportionate. It would be a pity if $20. The programme has 400 volunteers delivering leftovers from 70 bakeries to 68 welfare homes every day.000 a month cannot be raised to support tens of thousands of Singaporeans in welfare homes. The National Kidney Foundation raised $53 million in 2001 to support about 2. Has anyone or any tertiary institution done any survey or research on charitable fund-raising and giving in Singapore? 4 .200 patients for dialysis with the NKF this year.000 a month to run. The Community Chest is raising $42 million this year to fund 130 social service programmes and support 324. Although it will get a $50. the scheme costs $20. and may fold if there are no sponsors. I would like to ask whether anyone can help us understand the above phenomenon in charitable giving in Singapore.

php 5 .000 执行费用而终止计划,义 工们的心血将会付诸流水。 公益金预计将于今年筹募到四千两百万元,资助 130 项社会服务计划 并辅助 324.Charity | 1 慈善筹款的差异 商业时报.sg/experience/apr2003/Images/Coverstory.mfa.000 名受益人。 全国肾脏基金会(NKF)在 2001 年则筹募到五千三百万元的款项,辅 助 2200 名病友。NKF 每个月为一名病人承担的洗肾费是$2,600。 以上的统计数字似乎有点不匀称。关于新加坡人如何选择慈善机构来 捐款的现象,是否有人能够为我们解开疑惑呢? 不知是否有任何大专学府做过关于新加坡慈善筹款的调查或研究呢? *相关网站 http://www.000。如果没有赞助商,这项计划将无法持续下去。 在这项计划下,每天会有 400 名义工把 70 间面包店所剩余的面包送达 68 所福利机构。成千上万名在福利机构照顾下的国人将会在计划下获 益。如果因为无法筹集每个月所需的$20.000 的补助金,但要执行这项计划,每月的成 本是$ 2003 年 5 月 13 日 参阅慈善面包计划面临资金短缺的相关报道,我想在此作出回应。虽 然这项计划即将获得$50.pdf http://www.foodheart.

which I understand began in 1994? For example.2 million calls during its three charity shows in April 2004.8 million calls? If each call donation was $5. and 2. Unlike previous charity shows. does it translate to a revenue of $1.1 | 慈善事业 Transparency Needed For Charity Show Call Charges th The Business Times,12 August 2005 I refer to the President's Star Charity 2005 show on August 6 and July 31. the 20-cent call charge means that an additional 4 per cent did not go to the beneficiaries of the charity.16 million for these 5. the NKF received a total of 3. there was no 20-cent charge for each donation call.6 million during its first-ever Children's Medical Fund Show in July 2004. How much revenue has telephone companies made from all the charity shows in the past. At 20 cents each. Should we add this 4% back to determine the actual percentage that goes to the beneficiaries of the charity? Do charity shows in other countries charge for donation calls? Will charges for donation calls and SMS be scrapped for all future charity shows? 6 . I would like to ask if this is the first time that a charity show does not charge for calls.

Charity | 1 慈善演出电话收费须更透明 商业时报. 两角的电话收费也意味着 4%的捐款并没有到达受益的慈善机构。 我们在估计真正到达慈善机构的数额时是否应该加上这 4%的款项? 请问其他国家是否也对捐款电话收取费用? 在未来的慈善义演中是否会 取消对捐款电话和简讯的收费? 7 . 而在 2004 年 7 月的首场 儿童医药基金义演则获得 260 万通电话捐款。以每通两角钱的收费来 计算. NKF 在 2004 年 4 月的 三场慈善义演中总共获得 320 万通捐款电话. 580 万通电话岂不是等于 16 万元的收入吗? 若每通电话的捐款是 5 元. 2005 年 8 月 12 日 对于 8 月 6 日以及 7 月 31 日的《总统星光慈善义演 2005》,我想在此 作出回应。与往常的义演不同,今年的每通捐款电话并没有征收两角 钱的收费。我想请问这是否是第一次在慈善义演中不附加电话收费。 据我了解,慈善义演从 1994 年开始出现在荧光幕前。从 1994 年至 今,电信公司究竟从中赚取了多少收入?例如.

there has been no reply. Aug 12). say.5 million to produce the show. tell us once and for all.which was the first time that calls were free would mean that future charity shows would also be free of call charges. how much has been paid to them for all charity shows since they began in 1994? 8 . I asked how much charity revenue has been lost through the 20 cents charge for calls. If there were. instead of disclosing in bits and pieces. This amount is. I believe. more than half the total sum collected by the Community Chest in an entire year. To-date. I believe there were charity shows in almost every month of the year. and whether following the President's Star Charity Show in August . and media reports about Mediacorp refuting allegations that it profited from the NKF Cancer Show. and call charges have started again at the last charity show. NKF had paid Mediacorp $2. Before the NKF saga. Nov 18). 10 charity shows in the year. In my letter 'Transparency needed for charity show call charges' (The Business Times. the total sum received may be around $25 million.1 | 慈善事业 How Much Has Been Paid For Charity Shows? nd The Business Times,22 November 2005 I refer to the article 'Cancer Show figure covered all costs: NKF' (The Business Times. Why was the sum received never disclosed until now? I would like to ask how much in total was paid for all charity shows last year. Can TV broadcasters and anybody else who have been paid.

20 费用的慈善节 目 , 这 是 否 意 味 着 此 后 的 慈 善 节 目 也 无 需 缴 付 $0.20 的 费 用 ? 至今,针对慈善节目是否继续对每通筹款电话征收附加费一事,没有 任何相关人士出面回应。 广电媒体业者及任何曾经接受过相关款项的人士,能否能透露从 1994 年慈善节目开始数额,新传媒一共向所有慈善机构收取了多少制作 费。 9 .Charity | 1 慈善义演的开销有多少? 商业时报.20 的收费到底失去多少善 款。此外,8 月份的《总统星光慈善》是首场征收$0. 2005 年 9 月 22 日 参阅 《癌症筹款节目的数据包括所有费用:全国肾脏基金会(NKF)》 (《商业时报》, 11 月 18 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 全国肾脏基金会支付新传媒两百五十万元来制作上述节目。在 NKF 丑 闻爆发之前,我相信几乎每个月都会举办慈善筹款节目。假设一年内 有 10 项这类型的节目,新传媒这方面的总收入将有大约两千五百万 元 。 我相信新传媒所筹集的这笔款项,将比公益金一年内所筹募的款项多 出至少一半。究竟为什么这笔款项直到现在才被揭露出来呢?请问, 在过去一年里,所有的慈善节目支付的制作费总数是多少? 针对本人之前的致函:《慈善演出电话收费须更透明》(《商业时 报》, 8 月 12 日),我问道慈善机构因$0.

In gist.T.1 | 慈善事业 Lesson From Kids: Stop Passing The Buck th The Straits Times,24 December 2005 I refer to the article 'PWC rapped for not spotting lapses' and the letter 'Former NCSS president clarifies chain of events' by Dr Robert Loh Choo Kiat (The Straits Times. 10 . In fact. 'Durai pass to NKF board. the patron did not even know Mr T. board pass to patron.. 'National Council of Social Service pass to Commissioner of Charities. Durai's remuneration.' they said. auditors pass to. COC pass to Health Ministry. they were saying everyone seems to be passing the buck and making excuses.?' Dr Loh. and was struck by their satirical take on the issue. relying on the assurance of past periodic routine audits by the auditors that the financial statements did not show any unusual transactions. the Health Ministry restored it. I overheard some children talking about the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) saga. ministry pass to auditors. The COC had to be informed of this action and why it was taken'. and did not 'know and endorse' it as alleged by the board. has clarified to the media that 'the revocation of NKF's Institution of Public Character status by itself would send a strong signal that something was not quite in order. former president of NCSS. Within less than a month of the NKF's IPC revocation. Dec 22).

To echo Dr Loh's concerns. thousands are 'screaming for blood' and asking 'who's to blame'.000. we need to reflect how many of us have to take part of the blame for our gullibility in donating to glitzy TV charity shows in the hope of winning a $500. In a sense. if regulators globally relied only on the cursory facade of routine audit reports. Don't make excuses. Parents tell their children: 'Admit your mistake. by the clarity and simplicity of their logic.700 beneficiaries than the Community Chest with more than 300. public confidence may continue to slide.' In this instance. and donating more in a year to the NKF with only 1.000 property we now know was not sponsored but paid for by our donations. We believe we have discharged that responsibility'. financial scandals like Enron and now the NKF might never come to light.Charity | 1 The auditors have responded in a statement that 'our primary responsibility was to express an opinion on whether the NKF financial statements show a true and fair view. My fear is that if the children's perception permeates through to the general population.700 charities and voluntary welfare organisations in Singapore. otherwise at stake are the hundreds of thousands of needy Singaporeans who are the beneficiaries of the 1. On Internet blogs and forums. It has been said many times that we must restore public confidence. the children may have taught us adults something. despite 'red flags' being raised periodically. 11 .

we must move on. apologise and resign. We must stop passing the buck and making excuses. the auditors or anyone else. we should say no to extravagant charity shows with prizes and telephone call charges. 12 . I believe he is the only one who has apologised . those responsible admit their mistakes.the future of the charity and volunteer sector in Singapore . I would like to commend the Health Minister.1 | 慈善事业 Going forward. where. whenever there is a serious financial scandal.not Mr Durai. the former NKF board. what is at stake is so great . so a greater percentage of donations goes to beneficiaries. perhaps we should listen to the children. To restore public confidence. Perhaps we can learn a thing or two from countries like Japan. as to date. While I do not advocate this.

2005 年 12 月 24 日 参阅《海峡时报》12 月 22 日刊登的《PWC 因没发现失误遭受批评》 与 Dr. 12 月 22 日),我想在此作出回应。 我无意间听到一些小朋友谈论起关于全国肾脏基金会(NKF)的风波。 他们对这事件带讽刺性的观点以及看法,令我非常意外。 长话短说,他们认为每个人似乎不是推卸责任就是在找借口。他们 说:“杜莱把责任推给董事局,董事局则推给庇护人”。事实上,庇护人 对于杜莱的薪金并不清楚,也未曾表示赞同,与董事局宣称的完全相 反。 “前国家社区理事把责任推给慈善委员会,慈善委员会却把责任推给卫 生部,卫生部又推给审计员,审计员推给.. Robert Loh Choo Kiat 所写的《前国家社会理事会主席为一连串的 事件作出澄清》(《海峡时报》.Charity | 1 向孩子学习:别再推卸责任 海峡时报.?” 前任国家社区理事会主席卢博士已向媒体解释:“NKF 的 公益机构 (Institute of Public Character..IPC)身份被撤销的举动,似乎表示事情 有点不对劲。当局应先通知 COC,并说明背后的原因”。 在 NKF 的公益机构身份被撤销后的一个月内,卫生部就凭过去的审计 记录恢复 NKF 的公益机构身份,原因是他们的财物数据并没有显示任 何不寻常的交易。 审计员回应:“我们首要的职责是断定 NKF 财务报告是否真实与公正。 我相信我们已履行了我们的责任”。 13 .

000 的 公寓而愚昧地支持眩目的筹款节目,到头来才发现奖品不是赞助商提 供而是源自于我们的善款。 展望未来,我们不该再举办奢华及附带奖品与电话收费的慈善演出。 这样一来,更多的善款将能直接帮助受益人。 或许我们可以向其他国家,如日本学习。每当严重的财政丑闻发生 后,便有负责人站出来认错、道歉并辞职。虽然我不建议人们这么 做,但是我们必须明白问题的严重性。为了新加坡慈善事业的前景, 我们应该继续前进。 14 .1 | 慈善事业 正如卢博士所担忧的,如果世界上所有的监管者只依赖表面的审计报 告,并忽略偶尔亮起的红灯,像 Enron 和当前 NKF 的丑闻可能永远都 不会被揭发。 家长常告诫自己的儿女:“勇于认错,别找借口”。在以上例子中,大人 们可从小朋友清晰而简单的逻辑得到启示。 宗所周知,我们必须恢复公众的信心,否则 1700 家慈善机构和志愿福 利团体旗下的十万多名贫困国人将受到影响。如果大家都与以上小朋 友持有同样的的看法,公众的信心将会持续地下降。 在互联网的博客与论坛中,众人都想知道谁是罪魁祸首,也想看到犯 罪者获得应得的处分。 或许,我们也须反省自己是否该负起部分责任。虽然 NKF 一年内所筹 募的款项比公益金来得多,但 NKF 旗下的受益者只有 1700 名,而公益 金旗下却有 300.000 名受益者。然而,许多人还是为了赢取$500.

Charity | 1 我想赞扬卫生部长,因为至今只有他一人出来道歉。杜莱先生、前 NKF 董事、审计员和其他有关人士都没有出面道歉。 为了恢复公众的信心,我们也许该向小朋友学习,不要再推卸责任和 找借口。 15 .

CPF 公积金 16 .2 | 公积金 2.

In the past. as the net cash disposable income of $100 or lower would be less than the existing $100 Workfare cash per month. and the proposed 40 per cent of Workfare is channelled to CPF.$1.5% CPF Interest Rate th The Business Times,19 December 2006 I refer to NTUC's proposal to reduce the CPF contribution for lower-income workers and put 40 per cent of the Workfare bonus to CPF. were paid 4 per 17 . if the employee's CPF contribution is lowered from 20 to 10 per cent. This is an increase in disposable cash flow of only 3. are these not contradictory? For example.200 multiplied by 40 per cent.3 per cent. those who had less than the CPF Minimum Sum (MS). divided 12). we are putting more of the Workfare Bonus cash payout to worker's CPF. we are cutting their CPF contribution so that they can have more cash for living expenses.CPF | 2 Increase 2. and chose not to withdraw half their account balance allowed. the increase in cash flow would be $60. and then pay them a lower interest when they retire. Since both Workfare and the CPF contribution cut are for lower-income workers. the CPF and Workfare changes may not improve their cash flow at all. if the Workfare bonus is left unchanged as a fully cash payout. In contrast. his or her take-home pay would increase by only $20 a month ($600 multiplied by 10 per cent. which is three times more. minus Workfare . It may also be counter-productive to use Workfare to top up workers' CPF. for a worker earning $600 a month. but on the other. For those whose monthly HDB flat mortgage repayment is $120 or more. On one hand.

Now. To further illustrate this unfairness. there were 106. they will be paid 4 per cent on the entire MS of $94. when they retire? For richer Singaporeans who have more than double the MS. as the other half will be transferred to the Retirement Account (RA) which earns 4 per cent.600.300.5 per cent.300 and only 2. Singaporeans who are risk adverse or not investment savvy may have a dire need for their CPF after the age of 55 to earn 4 instead of 2. those who turn 55 with less than the MS. Hence. presumably most of which are retirees.2 | 公积金 cent on their entire CPF account balance. Why is it that Singaporeans are not allowed to keep as much of their CPF as they like. a rich man with $189.200 will get 4 per cent on $94. With the rapidly ageing population.5 per cent.384 households with no working persons. which is $189. currently $94.5 per cent on the other $47. whereas a poor man with $94.600. to earn 4 per cent interest. are now only paid 2. the current policy pays the rich more and the poor less.600 will get 4 per cent on $47. who choose not to withdraw half of their CPF balance. According to the Department of Statistics' (DOS) General Household Survey 2005 (GHS).200. 18 .600.

3%。反之,假设就业奖励花 红完全以现金支出,员工每个月的现金流量将增加$60,多出了三倍 或以上。然而,对于那些每个月必须偿还$120 或以上房屋贷款的低薪 员工,公积金和就业奖励花红的改变,可能没有改善他们的现金流 量,因为他们所能支配的现金将会低于$100 元,比目前每个月$100 元的现金分工还要少。 把就业奖励花红存入员工的公积金户口,并在他们退休后以较低的利 息分发给他们,可能会带来反效果。 过去,那些公积金户口里存款少过最低限额(Minimum Sum),并选 择不将可移动的一半户口余额提出的人士,可在户口余额获得 4%的利 息是。但现在,55 岁或以上,公积金户口存款少过最低限额(目前为 19 .5%公积金利息 商业时报. 2006 年 12 月 19 日 参阅全国职工总会提议减少低薪员工的公积金缴交率,并将就业奖励 的 40%存进公积金户头的议案,我想在此发表看法。 一方面将更多的就业奖励现金分红存入员工的公积金户,另一方面却 削减他们的公积金缴交率,以让他们手头上有更多现金应付生活开 销,是前后矛盾的。 既然颁发就业奖励花红与减少公积金缴交率都是为了帮助低薪工友, 但同时实行这两项措施,又是否有考虑到它们的兼容性呢?打个比 方,假设员工的公积金缴交率从 20%削减至 10%,而将 40%的就业奖 励金转入员工的公积金户口,对一名平均月薪六百元的员工,每个月 所能剩余的薪金将仅增加 20 元($600 元乘以 10%,扣除就业奖励– $1200,乘以 40%,除以 12)。 这样一来,可支配的现金流量仅增加了 3.CPF | 2 增加现有的 2.

共有 106,384 户家 庭里没有任何就业人士,其大部分都假定为退休人士。随着新加坡的 人口老化问题日益严重,如果国人不懂得投资,也不具备冒险精神, 他们在 55 岁后或许非常需要赚取公积金户口的 4%利息,而非当前的 2.5% 。 公 积 金 存 款 的 另 一 半 则 会 被 转 入 退 休 户 口 (Retirement Account),其户口的利息则维持在 4%。 为何新加坡人退休后不能自由选择将多少资金留在公积金户头,以赚 取 4%的利息呢?对于那些较富有的新加坡人,公积金存款比最低限额 多出一倍以上,也就是$189,200,他们在最低限额$94,600 上可获 得 4%的利息。因此,在现有的政策下,富有人士比贫穷人士获利更 多。 让我再举个例子。一个富有的人,拥有$189,200,将能在$94,600 上获得 4%利息,而一个贫穷的人,拥有$94,600,却只能在$47, 300 上获得 4%利息,另外$47,300 侧只有 2.5%的利息。 根据统计部(DOS)2005 年的综合住户统计调查(GHS).5%利息。 20 .2 | 公积金 $94,600)的人士,若选择不提取一半的公积金余额,户口存款可获 得 的 利 息 只 有 2.

and the other 10 per cent downpayment in their CPF. The outstanding loan balance then would be $23. The National University of Singapore (NUS) Department of Real Estate's study recommends that Singaporeans have at least $70.5 per cent interest. the cap would be reached after 28 years. by Vladimir Guevarra. For the example cited in the study.CPF | 2 Manage CPF Property Cap With Planning th The Straits Times,17 October 2002 I REFER to the article. It is probably not very realistic or practical to expect young Singaporean couples to wait until they have the above amounts in their CPF.000 at 4.000 in their Central Provident Fund Ordinary Account. if one decides to do this. Oct 5). when the CPF withdrawal cap is reached. 21 . is to calculate the estimated housing-loan outstanding balance. I think many will continue as they are doing now. in that they will purchase a home once they have the 10 per cent ($40. to be able to afford a $400.000. before buying a home.000 condominium unit. This recommended minimum CPF balance is increased to $210. 'Calculate again before buying a home' (The Straits Times. when the CPF withdrawal limit for housing is reduced to 120 per cent. if one decides to buy the same unit in 2008. for a 30-year housing loan of $320.000) cash downpayment. One possible strategy.607. In all probability.

Similarly. If this accumulated amount is not required then. for the 120 per cent cap which will apply in five years. say.2 | 公积金 One could start a dedicated monthly cash savings and investment plan at. and target an accumulated amount equal to the loan balance. through financial-planning strategies such as the one described above. the home-owner starts with regular monthly savings of $16. the cap will be reached after 22 years.513. a projected return of 6 per cent.607. in order to accumulate $23. such as for one's retirement plans. Perhaps only time will tell whether most Singaporeans can manage the risks and implications of the CPF changes. increasing at 5 per cent per annum (saving more as one's salary increases in future). for 28 years. The homeowner would be required to start with monthly savings of $155. when the cap is reached. This would ensure that in the worst-case scenario. For this example. when CPF money can no longer be used. 22 . with a loan balance of $130. it could be utilised for other purposes. one would have the funds to pay off the loan.

CPF | 2 设定公积金购屋提款顶限需从长计议 海峡时报. 10 月 5 日)一文,我想在此作出的回应。 新加坡国立大学(NUS)房地产部门的一项研究报告建议,想要购买市 值 40 万元公寓的国人必须在公积金的普通户口维持至少 7 万元的存 款。 研究报告还指出,国人如果打算在 2008 年购买同样市值 40 万元的公 寓单位,公积金普通户口的最低存款则需提高至 21 万元,因为到时的 公积金购屋提款顶限将减低至 120%。 对年轻夫妇而言,要他们等到公积金存款达到以上数额才购买房子是 不切实际的。一般上,我认为大部分人士还是会和目前一样,一旦能 够支付购屋所需的首期付款,也就是 10%($40,000)的现金.并用公 积金存款支付另外 10%,便会申请购买房屋。 除此之外,公众也可预先计算在扣除公积金提款顶限后所剩余的房屋 贷款数额。以上述例子而言,一项 30 年,$320,000,4. 2002 年 10 月 17 日 参阅 Vladimir Guevarra 的《购屋前需要仔细规划》(《海峡时报》.5%利息的房 屋贷款,其公积金提款顶限将在 28 年后到达。到时未偿还的贷款余额 将是$23,607。 贷款者可以考虑以贷款余额为目标,购买回报率约 6%的投资计划,以 确保有足够的储蓄偿还这笔贷款。这样一来,即使无法再动用公积金 存款,贷款者也有足够资金来偿还贷款。就算他们不需要动用这笔投 资款项,也可用于其它用途,例如为退休做打算。 23 .

513)人们可以从每月储蓄 155 元开始。 新加坡人能否成功地使用上述的财务规划来应对 2008 年公积金制度的 变化,只有时间能证明。 24 .2 | 公积金 在以上的$23,607 贷款余额的例子中,一个家庭只需每月定期储蓄 $16 元。以 5 %的回报率为标准 ,28 年便可积累$23,607。 同样的,为了应付 5 年后公积金购屋提款顶限更改为 120 %,(22 年,贷款余额$130.

How can we expect Singaporeans to take risks when the Government shows itself unwilling to do so? Since they would be risking their own money. They are likely to be more worried about losing their CPF than the CPF Board. He also pointed out that most start-ups fail.CPF | 2 Relax CPF Rules For Real Entrepreneurship th The Straits Times,7 July 2003 I refer to the article.000.000 in his CPF account. July 1). If a person already has. at the same time. Yet we often hear other ministers urging Singaporeans to become entrepreneurs in order to help Singapore's economic development and mitigate the loss of jobs. budding entrepreneurs would probably be even more careful and start a business only after coming up with a proper business plan and projections. tell them not to risk their Central Provident Fund money on a new business because the failure rate of such ventures is high. It does not make sense to urge people to take risks and become entrepreneurs and. why not allow the amount in excess of. which reported that Acting Manpower Minister Ng Eng Hen disagreed in Parliament with calls to allow people to use their CPF money to start businesses. say $300. say $200. to be used for starting a business? 25 . 'Measures to help jobless adequate: Ng Eng Hen' (The Straits Times.

000 growing with interest until the retirement age of 62. Incidentally. If CPF policy is not flexible for those with higher CPF balances.000 that one has to set aside at age 55. 26 .2 | 公积金 With the balance of $200. we may end up with a nation full of retirees with sufficient monthly incomes but few entrepreneurs. Even private property owners who are prepared to downgrade to a new Housing Board flat to free up more capital for entrepreneurship. can there be a true entrepreneurial spirit. Perhaps entrepreneurship has to start with the relaxation of policies on what we can do with our CPF money. lower economic growth and fewer jobs.000 is more than double the current minimum sum of $80. have to wait 30 months to do so. because only when one bears full responsibility for the risks that one takes. there should be enough to provide a reasonable monthly annuity when he retires. $200.

2003 年 7 月 7 日 根据《已有适当的措施帮助失业人士:黄永宏》 (《海峡时报》, 7 月 1 日)一文,代理人力部长黄永宏在国会上反对允许人们利用公积 金存款创业的建议。他还指出,大部分创业者最终往往会失败。 然而,其他部长们常鼓励新加坡人创业,以促进新加坡的经济发展, 帮助创造就业机会。 一方面呼吁国民承担风险,成为企业家,另一方面却因高风险和高失 败率而反对人民利用公积金来创业,是前后矛盾的。 若政府本身都不愿意承担风险,又怎能期望新加坡人毅然承担风险 呢? 此外,因为用的是自己的钱,新崛起的企业家们会更谨慎,在做好适 当的业务计划和市场调查后才开始创业。 他们肯定比公积金局更担心失去自己的公积金存款。 如果一个人在他的公积金户口中已有大约三十万元,为何不允许他利 用扣除了二十万元的余额来创业呢? 到了 62 岁退休年龄时,剩余的二十万元存款,加上所赚取的利息,应 足以为他提供合理的每月年金。 此外,二十万元是目前限定 55 岁后需有最低存款额的一倍有余。 27 .CPF | 2 放宽公积金条例,培养真正的创业精神 海峡时报.

2 | 公积金 如果公积金的政策不能为具有较高公积金存款的人士而灵活变通,我 们将会有众多月入丰厚的国民,但少数的企业家。经济增长和就业机 会也会减少。 即使住在高级住宅的人士愿意搬到政府组屋,以筹集足够的款项来创 业,他们也需苦等 30 个月。 培养创业精神必须从放宽公积金政策开始。只有当人们为自己承担的 风险负起全部的责任,真正的创业精神才得以逐渐萌芽。 28 .

CPF | 2

Medisave A Big Burden For The Low-income

The Business Times,21 September 2004
I refer to the article 'Medisave: CPF cracks whip on self-employed' (The
Business Times, Sept 17).
Self-employed people who earn more than $6,000 a year have to make
Medisave contributions of up to 8 per cent. So a person who earns $6,001
has $460 a month to live on after paying Medisave.
About 20,000 households are said to be more than three months behind on
their HDB mortgage repayments or utility bills. And the number of
households three months or more in arrears on mortgage repayments
reportedly rose almost 15 per cent from 2002 to 2003.
Pay-as-you-use meters will be introduced soon to make sure 'poorer'
families don't have their electricity cut off. And about 15,000 households
are said to be unable to pay their children's school fees. Is it any wonder
that if can't pay your power bill or your children's school fees, you can't pay
your Medisave either?
The economic crisis, 9/11, Sars and stubbornly high unemployment have
made it hard for some self-employed people to pay Medisave. On the other
hand, Medisave contribution rates have increased from 3 per cent in 1992
to 8 per cent now for those aged 45 and over.
For self-employed people to renew their licence, evidence of Medisave
contributions must be produced. So chances are that some people may
have had to give up their trade and look for alternative work because they
were unable to pay Medisave.

2 | 公积金
Before 2003, those who had not previously been issued a Notice of
Assessment/Non-tax advice from Iras had to contribute Medisave based on
an assumed income of $6,000 a year. But this was raised 50 per cent to
$9,000 in 2003 at the height of the economic downturn, increasing the
burden on some self-employed people.
With such people already finding it hard to get by, should we be adding to
their stress by threatening to take them to court?


CPF | 2

保健储蓄 – 低收入国民的一大负担
商业时报, 2004 年 9 月 21 日
参阅《保健储蓄:公积金局对自雇人士加强限制》(《商业时报》, 9
月 17 日)一文 ,我想在此作出回应。
在新的条例下,年薪$6000 以上的国民需为医疗储蓄贡献 8%的收入。
因此,年薪$6001 的国民在扣除医疗储蓄贡献后,每月只有$460 的
生活费。据了解,约 20,000 户家庭拖欠多过 3 个月的建屋局房屋贷
款或水电费。报道也指出,拖欠 3 个月以上房屋贷款的国民从 2002 年
至 2003 年上升了近 15 %。
而受到电源供应被中断。据报道,约 15,000 户家庭无能力支付子女
的学费。 可想而知,若付不起水电费或子女的学费,又怎么可能付得
经济危机、 9 / 11 事件 、非典型肺炎以及居高不下的失业率等事件已
让一些自雇人士无法支付医疗储蓄。另一方面,45 岁及以上国民的医
疗储蓄贡献率也从 1992 年的 3 % 增加至现在的 8 %。自雇人士在更新
在 2003 年前,先前未收到国内税务局通知的自聘人士,须根据一年
$ 6000 的假定收缴交保健储蓄贡献。在 2003 经济萧条的巅峰,假定收
入被提高 50%至$9000,进一步增加一些自雇人士的负担。

2 | 公积金

Make Minimum Sum Payouts Last Longer

The Straits Times,15 October 2005
I refer to the article, 'How to bank on a pretty pension' (The Straits Times,
Oct 8).
The default life annuity is expected to be implemented in one to two years'
time. A default life annuity uses the prevailing CPF Minimum Sum at age 55
to purchase a fixed guaranteed life annuity payable monthly from age 62,
for as long as a retiree lives.
One can choose to opt out of a default life annuity, and leave the Minimum
Sum, currently $90,000, with the CPF Board at 4 per cent interest, and
withdraw, from age 62, $711 monthly for 20 years.
I would like to make the following suggestions to the Government:

1. Allow those who do not need the $711 each month to defer their
withdrawal to a later age than 62.
In so doing, the monthly withdrawals can last to an older age, instead of
ending at age 82. I understand that at age 82, the life-expectancy survival
probability is around 20 per cent for males and more than 30 per cent for
Currently, those who withdraw $711 when they still have other sources of
income or assets to liquidate for retirement, may just deposit the money in
a bank account paying about half a per cent interest. It would be better to
leave the amount with the CPF Board at 4 per cent interest.


This will help retirees to make discerning decisions. Have a retirement calculator on CPF Board's website to enable retirees to compute how long their withdrawals will last if they choose to withdraw an amount lower than $711. or infant dependants. Where a retiree dies before age 82. depending on their individual circumstances. but lands in unexpected financial difficulty some years later. This option may be particularly useful for retirees who are concerned about providing an income for their dependants for a period which is longer than 20 years. This may be the case because of the longer life expectancy of their spouse. if a retiree elects to draw less than $711.CPF | 2 2. as if the retiree had lived till age 82. 3. For example. invest the sum. Allow those who have more than the Minimum Sum. and the survival probability at the withdrawalending age. Consider allowing flexibility to change the amount and timing of withdrawals. and who are not financially savvy to invest the money. allow him to withdraw more. needs and concerns. This is because the retirement-account balance is paid in a lump sum to the nominees. as long as the withdrawals are such that they do not deplete his retirement account before age 82. which may result in losses. worse. and may just leave it in a fixed deposit earning around 2 per cent interest. allow the monthly $711 to be paid to the nominees until the end of the 20 years. Some nominees may not know what to do with the lump sum. or. 4. to leave larger sums with the CPF 33 .

so that they can withdraw more than $711 monthly from age 62. and providing for dependants if they die early. may be minimised if there is more flexibility in the CPF rules.2 | 公积金 Board at 4 per cent interest. not having enough income when they need it most. like living too long. Many of retirees' concerns. 34 .

5%的利息。 与其如此,不如让他们选择把金额保留在公积金户口,继续享有 4% 的 利息。 35 .CPF | 2 让公积金最低限额支出更持久 海峡时报,2005 年 10 月 15 日 参阅 《如何依赖可观的养老金》(《海峡时报》, 10 月 8 日)一文, 我想在此作出回应。 公积金的终生年金计划预计将在一至两年内实施。 这终生年金计划使用公积金会员 55 岁时公积金里所拥有的最低存款数 额来购买一个固定保证终生年金。年金将从会员 62 岁起,每月支付退 休人士一笔款项,直到终生。 公积金会员也可选择不参与终生年金计划,保留目前在最低存款内的 $90,000,并享有 4% 利率。从 62 岁起, 每月可领出$711,为期 20 年。 我想对政府提出以下的几项建议: 1.允许那些暂时不需要上述每月$711 的退休者选择在 62 岁以后才领 取款项。这样能让退休金持续到 82 岁以后。 据我所知,男性寿超过 82 岁的机率是 20 %左右, 而女性则是 30 %以 上。 当前,每个月从公积金领取$711 的人士或许仍有其他的收入来源, 所 以他们可能只会把领到的钱都储存在银行里,赚取约 0.

2 | 公积金 2。公积金局可在官方网站上增设一个退休计算机,让退休者计算如 果他们选择每月领取少过$711 的款项,从公积金款项竟能维持持多 久,以及自己在储蓄被耗尽后,存活率是多少。 这项选择对一部分退休人士尤其重要,因为他们得关心如何在 20 年后 继续供养自己的家庭。也许退休人士预料伴侣和家属的寿命比自己 长,所以这将有助于他们根据自己的情况、需要及顾虑作出最适当的 决定。 3.使公积金制度更灵活,允许国人自由改变领取的数额以及提取款 项的时期。 比如说,如果一名退休者选择每月领取少过$711 的款项,但不料在几 年后遇上经济困难。公积金局应容许他每月领取更高的款项, 只要确 保退休户口的金额不会在他 82 岁前耗尽。 凡是退休者在 82 岁前过世,允许把每月$711 的款项支付给提名人,直 到那 20 年的时限结束。 这会比一次性的付款额来得适当,因为提名人可能会因为获得一大笔 款项而不知所措,然后随意将它放在固定存款赚取约 2 %的利息,或 因投资失败而将存款用尽。 4.公积金局应允许那些存款额比最低存款更高,却不擅长投资的人 士,把大部分款项保留在公积金户头内,继续赚取 4%利率。 这样一 来,他们可以在 62 岁后开始每月提出比$711 更高的款项。 如果公积金局制度能更灵活,许多退休人士的担忧, 例如寿命过长以 及如何在过世后继续给家人经济方面的支持, 便显著减低了。 36 .

Credit 信贷 37 .Credit | 3 3.

and don't qualify for a credit card. 38 . and about 23 per cent above the prime rate? Those who rollover their credit balance.000 a year. This new card.3 | 信贷 New Credit Card May Lead Singaporeans Into More Debt th The Business Times,24 July 2007 I refer to the article 'Citibank offers credit card for low earners' (The Business Times. will charge higher interest at 28 per cent on rollover balances. which is aimed at students and other young adults. The article said that Citibank is the first bank here to launch a credit card for those earning less than $30. It has recently announced regulations stating that the maximum interest on credit cards cannot exceed 15 per cent for those who do not default on their repayments in any 12-month period. 16 per cent more than unsecured credit lines. may end up doubling what they use and owe. 10 per cent more than hirepurchase. July 19). Whilst I can understand the rationale for making credit available to those who earn below $30.000. We may be able to take a leaf or two out of Malaysia's book. why is the interest charge so high? This is 4 per cent more than credit cards. at an estimated two years or so.

credit ratio in the world.000 Singaporeans aged 18 to 54. as well as the proportion of the population with debts. even before they start a family? How many Singaporeans may be in debt when they reach retirement. How many students may end up being in debt even before they graduate? How many young adults may be in debt.000. instead of having debts or a negative net worth? It remains to be seen in the future. as to how many of the estimated 900. and be financially stressed.000 works out to be 5. may end up in debt.Credit | 3 The annual fee of $28 for the credit card for those earning less than $30. Singapore already has one of the highest levels of debt per capita in the world and such credit cards may propel us to even more debt. As I understand.6 per cent of the credit limit of $500. 39 . may make it one of the highest fee -to. which should be the time that they should have accumulated sufficient assets for retirement. This I believe. who earn below $30.

000 的人士推出信用卡的银 行。这张信用卡是专为学生与青年而发行的。信用卡将对每月无法还 清的债务征收 28%的利息。 我固然了解让年薪少于$30,000 的人士有机会享用赊账服务的原则, 但为什么要向这些人们征收那么高的利息呢? 28%的利息比普通信用卡的利息要多出 4%,比分期付款的利息多出 10%,比无抵押信贷多出 16%,也比头等贷款最低利率高出 23%。 拖欠债务者很可能在两以后欠下比贷款多一倍的债务。 或许我国可以从马来西亚的经验借镜。马来西亚政府最近宣布新条 例:信用卡公司不可对在任何12个月期限内没有拖欠信用卡债务的 人士征收超过 15%的利息。 信用卡每年$28 的服务费是$500 信用贷款限额的 5.6%。我相信这是世 界上最高的信用卡服务费。 据我了解,新加坡人民的平均债务是世界数一数二的。这类信用卡很 可能导致更多国人的债务问题变本加厉。 究竟有多少学生在毕业前就陷入债务问题?多少成年人在成家立业之 前,就已经债务缠身?又有多少新加坡人到了退休年龄时将陷入债务 40 .3 | 信贷 新信用卡或导致新加坡人拖欠更多债务 商业时报. 2007 年 7 月 24 日 参阅 《花旗银行向低收入人士推出信用卡》 ( 《商业时报》, 7 月 19 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 文中表示,花旗银行是首家为年薪少于$30.

000,年龄介于 18 至 54 岁的 90 万名国人 当中,究竟有多少人会陷入债务和财务问题?这还有待商榷。 41 .Credit | 3 问题?照理说到了退休年龄人们应该拥有足够的资产来度过余生,而 不是债务缠身。 在不远的将来,年薪少过$30.

why is it that taxis charge a 3 per cent administration fee since Nets payment was introduced in taxis about three months ago? The CCS has said that the Nets fee hike is not an abuse of a monopoly position. it was fined billions of dollars in several countries all over the world.3 | 信贷 Nets Fee Hike: Competition Legislation Should Be About Protecting Consumers th The Business Times,6 July 2007 I refer to the report. with about 4. and that the increase does not amount to an infringement of 42 . Nets is denying consumers the very alternative payment methods which were given by Competition Commission of Singapore (CCS) as the reason why the Nets fee increase was not in breach of the Competition Act. but only if they do not have other debt or credit payment facilities. 'Anti-competition unit clears Nets fee hike' (The Business Times.000 members. By its action. Isn't this clearly anti-competitive behaviour? When Microsoft did something similar by requiring vendors to not offer competitors' software. Four heartland merchant associations. have told the media that Nets has offered to charge them a lower rate. Since Nets has said that it does not allow merchants to pass on the Nets' fee to consumers. June 26).

Credit | 3 Section 47 . more information from CCS may be helpful. so that the public may have a better understanding of what constitutes an infringement? As it would appear that even Case is not very clear about what the Competition Act entails. how many people qualify for a credit or debit card and how many organisations do not accept credit .please clear the air by telling us more and give us some guidelines as to what is 'anti-competitive'? On CCS noting that consumers have alternative payment methods such as credit and debit cards and ez-link cards.of the Competition Act. Going forward. Otherwise. Case may be 'barking up the wrong tree' again in the future. and 44 per cent and 13 per cent from 2002 to 2004. debit and ez-link cards? Moreover. which is available to anyone with an ATM card). and its application vis-a-vis consumers. CCS . The typical debit card also 43 . consumers and other organisations may also be reluctant to bring up new anti-competition cases.relating to a company abusing its dominant position . how can it be deemed as 'not amounting to an infringement or (not) abusing its dominant position'? Can the CCS give us an example of just one case of infringement of the Act since the formation of the CCS. So. those under 16 years old cannot have a debit card (unlike Nets. If a monopoly like Nets raises fees by as much as three-fold. although its profits have been increasing by 53 per cent from 2004 to 2005.

As the timing of the increase coincides with the GST hike. 44 . For the majority of the population. will it raise the issue with CAP? In other countries like the United States.800 a year. which will surely result in increased prices for consumers. It is the intent and spirit of the Act which should prevail. this may clearly be an infringement because it is a monopoly raising prices many fold despite rising profits. particularly from monopolistic providers of goods and services.000. The interchange fee after the hike may be among the highest in the world. rather than the niceties of what is within the CCS's purview on price changes.3 | 信贷 has a $20 annual fee unless one charges at least $1. there may thus be no alternative payment methods. the competition legislation should be about protecting the consumer. At the end of the day. what is the view of the Committee Against GST Profiteering (CAP)? As Case is disappointed with the CCS's decision. plus a monthly service fee of $2 if the monthly average balance is below $1.

Credit | 3 Nets 收费上涨:反竞争法令应维护消费者利益 商业时报. 2007 年 7 月 6 日 参阅《商业时报》于 6 月 26 日所刊登的报导《反竞争行为调查单位批 准 Nets 调高收费》,我想在此作出回应。 共拥有约 4000 名会员的四个邻里商会向媒体透露,Nets 提议让它们享 有较低的收费率,但条件是不能拥有其他债务或信用卡付款设施。 难道这不是很明显的反竞争行为吗? 当微软公司禁止供应商提供竞争对手的软件时,便在世界各地的数个 国家被罚款十几亿元。 Nets 的行为导致消费者无法选择其它的付款方式。这是新加坡竞争委 员会(Competition Commission of Singapore,CSS)批准 Nets 收费上涨 的前提。 既然 Nets 声称不允许商家把费用转移到消费者身上,那为何当德士在 三个月前推出 Nets 付款系统时,却征收 3%的行政费呢? 竞争委员会表示,Nets 收费的上涨并不是在滥用垄断地位。此外,费 用的上涨并没有违反竞争法令第 47 条,关于公司滥用统治地位的法 令。 如果像 Nets 一样占有垄断地位的公司,2004 年至 2005 年的盈利增加 了 53%,2002 年至 2004 年则分别增加了 44%和 13%,但还是把收费调 高了三倍,这又岂能被断定为‘没有违反法令或滥用统治地位’呢? 竞争委员会是否能举出一个自成立以来所接触过违反该法令的例子? 如此,公众才能更清楚了解到底在什么情况下才算是违反法令。 45 .

3 | 信贷 如此看来,连消费者协会(Case)本身都不清楚竞争法令包含了哪些 内容。如果能从竞争委员会获取更多信息,也许会有帮助。 否则,消费者协会可能会在再次做出不正确的判断。此后,消费者以 及其他组织也许不愿意再举报新的反竞争案例。所以,请竞争委员会 出面澄清并详细说明‘反竞争行为’的准则。 对于竞争委员会指出,消费者仍有其他的付款方式,例如信用卡、借 记卡和易通卡。但是,到底多少人有资格申请信用卡或借记卡?此 外,究竟有多少个组织不接受信用卡、借记卡和易通卡的付款方式 呢? 此外,16 岁以下的国人不能申请借记卡(相比之下,任何拥有提款卡 的人都可以使用 Nets)。市面上的普遍的借记卡往往征收每年$20 的 附加费,除非使用者每年的卡消费多过$1800。此外,如果每月的平均 余额在$1000 以下,还得缴付每月$2 的服务费。 对大多数的国人来说,他们也许因此无法选择其他的付款方式。 针对 Nets 收费与消费税同时上涨,取缔以消费税搏取暴利委员会(CAP) 对此又有什么看法? 消费者协会既然对竞争委员会的决定表示失望,它是否会向 CAP 上 诉?在其他国家,例如美国,这是个很明确的违法例子。尽管盈利上 涨,一个垄断性企业仍然把价格调高几倍,而价格的增长终究还是由 消费者负担。 在收费上涨后,这转嫁费用将会是世界最高的其中之一。 46 .

Credit | 3 到头来,竞争法令应该是为了保护消费者利益而存在,特别是对于垄 断性企业所提供的商品和服务。法令的意图与精神才是重点。我们不 该把重点放在竞争委员会对于物价上涨的责任范围之类的细节。 47 .

you can still be made bankrupt.buying a flat.000. the worst thing about being a bankrupt is that one is blacklisted for life. so that providers of credit cannot use the database to deny credit to debt repayers for the rest of their lives. car. In this connection. 48 . you have to pay the amount determined by the DRS Administrator through a repayment plan of up to a maximum of five years. Under the DRS. 26 April 2007 I REFER to the article 'Public feedback sought on debt repayment scheme' (The Business Times. there may not be much difference between being a bankrupt and a debt repayer. In a way. April 23). in that one may never be able to get credit for anything . Therefore.3 | 信贷 Be Fairer To Debtors By Modifying Planned DRS th The Business Times. Arguably. being bankrupt now may be better because you just pay what you can and what is deemed reasonable according to your income and expenses. provided the sum is not more than $100. furniture or computer. even after one is discharged from bankruptcy. unless the proposed debt repayment scheme (DRS) addresses this issue. and you will very likely be discharged in three years for debts not exceeding half-a-million dollars. I would like to suggest that the proposal to maintain a public database of cases under the DRS be reconsidered. But if you default. in effect.

Credit | 3
So, the key difference may be what the DRS Administrator deems to be
reasonable full or partial debts payable under the repayment plan, using
the 'best interests of creditors' and the 'availability of disposable income'
In this regard, I think we may need more information to assure the public
that the 'best interests of creditors' and the 'availability of disposable
income' tests under the DRS will be the same - if not better - from the
debtors' position, relative to the current tests under bankruptcy.
Otherwise, in some cases, one may actually be worse off, and still end up
bankrupt too, eventually.
On balance, the net result may be that creditors in general will be better off
under the DRS by collecting more debts than under the current bankruptcy
regime, if the failure rate of DRS is high, because for defaulters, the total
period under the DRS and subsequent bankruptcy may be much longer
than the current three years discharge by certificate from bankruptcy.
Will creditors receive more under the DRS for five years, compared with
three years under bankruptcy?
Why do you think many people today pay about $1,800 to self-petition to
be made a bankrupt? So that they can reasonably expect to start life again
after three years.
In contrast, many debt repayers may end up paying more, struggle to make
ends meet much longer, and, sadly, still default during the long five-year
repayment period when one's job may still be lost, or when business takes
a turn for the worse.


3 | 信贷
In this respect, I urge the DRS Administrator to exercise flexibility under the
DRS Modification of Repayment Plan.
If there is a substantial and material change of circumstances affecting the
debtor's ability to pay - for example, if the debtor receives a substantial
inheritance or enjoys a significant increase in his earning ability, or suffers a
pay cut - the administrator may modify the plan to increase or decrease the








Five years is a long time to not have anything go wrong for one who is
perhaps currently already at his or her wits' end financially.
Finally, “after the successful completion of the plan, the debtor shall be
released from all debts under the plan, with the exception of certain debts,
for example, debts due to the government”.
What are some examples of 'debts due to the government'? Why are such
government debts accorded special exemption? Since the DRS is to help
Singaporeans, why accord special status to government debts over other


Credit | 3

公平对待债务人,更改债务偿还计划 (DRS)
商业时报, 2007 年 4 月 26日
在债务偿还计划(DRS)下,债务低于$100,000 的欠债人须根据偿
还计划执行人所定下的数额在 5 年内还清债务。如果无法按还清债

3 | 信贷
如果偿还期限从 3 年增至 5 年,收集到的款项是否比3年的破产期更
为什么会有人愿意支付$1,800,把自己列为破产呢? 这是为了能够
反之,如果偿还时限从 3 年增至 5 年,债务人可能面对更巨大的偿还


this means that about three out of every 200 workers are currently bankrupt. June 2) and 'Life in plastic not so fantastic' (The Straits Times. which continue to climb every year. May 28).Credit | 3 Pitfalls Of Credit-card Balance Transfers th The Straits Times,7 July 2005 I REFER to reports about banks offering zero interest to vie for credit -card balance transfers and the articles 'Local consumers shuffle their plastic better' (The Straits Times. I would like to ask what is the total number of discharged bankrupts. If there are 1. an 18 per cent jump from 2003. This may be a more revealing statistic than data on the percentage of cardholders who missed monthly payments or rolled over debt. For example. once a credit -card balance transfer has been arranged. I would like to ask what is the total amount of credit-card fees that Singaporeans pay in a year. so that we know the extent to which Singaporeans are being denied credit for a lifetime.5 million Singaporeans working. the record high in bankruptcy cases. As this figure does not include discharged bankrupts. interest at up to 24 per cent per annum is charged from the date of 53 . As at the end of April.000 undischarged bankrupts. should be addressed urgently. Americans blew more than US$24 billion on credit -card fees last year. Singapore had more than 22.

I receive brochures. letters and telephone calls almost every week soliciting credit -card balance transfers. The promotional balance-transfer rate of. 3. as they apply only to balance transfers from other institutions. one may be given an interest-free period of as long as 45 days from the date of purchase. In this scenario you may be much better off had you not arranged the balance transfer in the first place. instead of from the normal statement due date.3 | 信贷 purchases. which is typically about three weeks from the statement issue date. after which it would revert to 24 per cent. Does this mean that one has to keep transferring from one financial institution to another every six months or so. Why is this so? 54 .88 per cent per annum is typically valid for only about six months. If you default on your payments. in so doing. financial institutions are discriminating against their own customers. I understand that almost all balance transfers are not applicable to a financial institution's existing customers. until one runs out of financial institutions? In a sense. This means that for normal credit -card statements. pay late or pay less than the monthly minimum required. your record at the Credit Bureau may have a negative remark which may mean that you may never be able to get another credit card or other forms of credit. What this means is that you may be stuck with having just the balancetransfer credit card which charges interest from the date of all your future purchases. say.

If you choose to take up the option. please note that normal interest charge of 2% per month will continue to apply on your outstanding balance from the date each charge was effected. If the $60 fee is factored in.a. you have been specially selected to have the option to defer your minimum payment this month.31% p. Are financial institutions upholding the spirit of the new code of practice for credit cards? 55 . and 9. As our valued customer.a. An administrative fee of $60 applies'. You will be advised on your payment due in next month's statement.m.Credit | 3 One brochure I received said 'Balance Transfer at 0. we understand the importance of financial flexibility.' on the cover. the effective interest rates are even higher. A recent credit -card bill had the statement 'Payment Holiday: With the festive season around the corner.33% p.09% p.' This statement is somewhat misleading because it is not normal for 'normal interest charge' to apply from the date each charge was effected. respectively. Effective interest rates for 12month plan and 24-month are 7. but the fine print inside said 'Interest is calculated based on front-end and add-on method by multiplying the principal loan amount by the specified monthly rates for the full tenure of the plan.

3 | 信贷 信用卡余额转账的陷阱 海峡时报. 2005 年 7 月 7 日 参阅银行推出零利配套吸引信用卡余额转账客户的有关报道,及《本 地消费者更善于利用信用卡》(《海峡时报》,5 月 28 日)和《信用 卡的日子不一定美好》(《海峡时报》, 5 月 28 日)两篇文章,我想 在此作出回应。 截至 4 月底,新加坡已有超过 2.2 万人未获解除破产的身份。如果有新 加坡的就业人口是 150 万人,这意味着每 200 名就业人中有 3 位破 产。 因为这数字不包括已获解除的破产人士,面对着有史以来最高,并持 续上升的破产人数,我们应认真面对并解决此问题。 我想请问获解除破产身份人士的总人数,并估计有多少人终身失去贷 款的权利。 美国人去年的信用卡花费高达 240 亿美金,比 2003 年多了 18%。 我想请问新加坡人每年的信用卡花费总额是多少。这项数据或许比延 期缴交或累计信用卡债务的人数比例更重要。 让我举个例子。当信用卡余额转移被启动后,高达每年 24%的利息将 从购买日期开始计算,而不是从账单的偿还限期开始。购买日期往往 比偿还期限早三个星期。 普通的信用卡帐单可为顾客提供高达 45 天的免息偿还期限。 56 .

直到没 有金融机构可求? 在某种意义上,金融机构的做法是在歧视自己的客户。为何如此呢? 我收到的一本小册子封面上写着‘余额转账每月 0.作为我们尊贵的客 户,您有机会选择延迟缴付您本月的最低款额。请注意,2%月的息将 继续适用于您的未付帐款.31%。附加 60 元的行政费用 ' 。若加上 60 元的收费,有效利率甚至更高。 近期的一份信用卡账单上写着‘佳节特惠:佳节来临.09%.24 个月则是每年 9.Credit | 3 倘若你无法付账,延迟付账或付款额低于每月的最低要求,你可能为 自己留下负面的纪录。这意味着你将从此无法申请信用卡或其他的信 贷。你将仅剩下这张从购买日期计算利息的信用卡。 若当初没有利用余额转账,就不会面对这么多问题。 余额转账的优待利息,例如 3.33%' .并从购买日期开始计算。您将在下月的账单 里获知新的付款期限。' 这项声明似乎具有误导性,因为从购买日期计算利息并不是信用卡公 司的惯例。究竟金融机构是否维护着新信用卡实务守则的精神? 57 .但细节却说 ‘利 息的计算方式是以贷款数额乘以月息.直到计划的结束。12 个月计划的 有效利息是每年 7.88%,通常只限于前六个月。之后,利息 便恢复至 24%。 我几乎每个星期都会收到信用卡余额转账的推销册子、信件或电话。 据我了解,几乎所有余额转账都不适用于金融机构的现有客户,因为 它们只适用于从其他机构转账的交易。 这是表示我们必须大约每 6 个月从一家金融机构转账到另一家.

One need only make an 'unsecured' credit -card application after putting in a fixed deposit of $10. Oct 31). Now. However. When a credit counseling service was launched recently in Singapore. 'Teetering on the brink of bankruptcy' (The Straits Times. I understand that our ratio of supplementary to main cards is one of the highest in the world.3 | 信贷 Time To Inculcate Values Of Thrift. Credit-card debts and bankruptcies have reached record levels in Singapore.7 million credit cards. 16 November 2004 I refer to the article.000 or more a year can apply for a credit card. some banks will give one a credit card even if one does not have any income. many have been driven to suicide because of credit card debts. Out of about 3. According to Monetary Authority of Singapore guidelines. In Britain. When we were young. only those who earn $30. Modesty In Children th The Straits Times. The number of supplementary cards that a main cardholder can have is unlimited. it was deluged with calls.000. the young get supplementary cards. our parents and the Post Office Savings Bank gave us piggy banks to encourage thrift. about one million are supplementary cards. 58 .

Credit | 3 As a society. when so many Singaporeans give supplementary credit cards to their dependants? One can just walk along Orchard Road and apply for credit cards from seven banks. and repayment of up to 10 years .like no down payment for car purchases. No wonder more than 30. Three out of four have rolled over their debt during the last 12 months. which would give one credit of 14 times one's monthly income.000 on their credit cards. Maybe our only salvation lies in inculcating the values of thrift. and their families.000 people in Singapore owe more than $ good for the economy but bad for the tens of thousands who have difficulty servicing their debts. which will undoubtedly be good for the economy and tourism but bad for those addicted to gambling. The loosening of credit policies . instead of thrift. Likewise a casino. modesty and less materialism in our children. 59 . are we not encouraging spending and credit .

3 | 信贷 该是时候向孩子灌输节省和谦虚的价值观 海峡时报.000 存入定期存款户头,便能申请‘无需担保'的信用卡。 信用卡持卡人所能申请的副卡数量是没有限制的。在 370 万张信用卡 当中,就有约 100 万张是副卡。据我了解,新加坡的副卡与信用卡的 比例是世界上数一数二的。 在我们年轻时,父母与储蓄银行送给我们铺满,鼓励我们养成储蓄的 好习惯。但如今,年轻一代的父母却送给他们副卡。 难道我们不该鼓励节俭的习惯吗?目前,我国的副卡持有者的数目似 乎显示着我们在鼓励后代花未来钱。 走在乌节路上,国人便能轻易地向 7 家银行申请信用卡,并得到高达 月薪 14 倍的赊帐数额。 难怪新加坡有超过 3 万名国人背负着超过$20,000 的信用卡债务。这 3 万人当中,每 4 位中就有 3 位是在过去12 个月内欠下债务的。 60 .000 者才能申请信用 卡。但是,仍然有些银行批准无薪人士的信用卡申请。这些无薪人士 只需把$10. 2004 年 11 月 16 日 参阅 《徘徊在破产的边缘》(《海峡时报》, 10 月 31 日)一文,我 想在此作出回应。 目前,信用卡所导致的债务与破产问题在新加坡史上最严重的。在英 国,许多人因破产而选择自尽。 最近我国推行的信用卡辅导服务热线服务开始后,受到热烈的回响。 根据新加坡金融管理局准则,只有年薪超过$30.

Credit | 3 放宽信用贷款政策,如免付买车首期付款,及长达 10 年的付款期限, 无疑的对经济有利,但对成千上万名有债务问题的国人与他们的家人 却是无利的。同样的,赌场对经济和旅游业非常有利,但对沉迷于赌 博的国人来说则有不良的影响。 也许我们唯一的希望是在孩子身上灌输节省、谦虚及不沉迷于物质享 受的价值观。 61 .

Education 教育 62 .4 | 教育 4.

A*Star said that it would give scholarships to foreigners on the condition they become citizens when they graduate. to my letter.240 were given in Shandong. NUS gave 140 scholarships to foreigners in 2001. 13 October 2006 I refer to the Public Service Commission's reply.Education | 4 What Is The Ratio Of Foreigner To Local Scholarships? th The Business Times. foreign students make up 9 per cent of Singapore Polytechnic's 1. Forty Pre-U Two students were offered full scholarships and five Singapore polytechnics were offering scholarships that pay 80 per cent of tuition fees in Sichuan. 63 .000 each in China. Sept 21).1. China. Raffles Institution has given free scholarships in China for the past 10 years . According to media reports. 'PSC study awards given to S'poreans' (The Business Times. Sept 22). St Joseph's Institution (International) will offer up to $3 million of open scholarships over the next two years to bright students from Singapore and the region.300 students each year and almost all are on scholarships. Only about 25 per cent of PhD students in Singapore are Singaporeans. China. NUS awarded the SIA-NOL undergraduate scholarship to 40 students in India. River Valley High School gave free scholarships worth $80. A*Star is also going to sponsor five regional students a year under its Young Researchers Programme to study at SJI International. 'How many foreigners get scholarships here?' (The Business Times.

000 applied for an annual bursary of $1.4 | 教育 In reply to a question in Parliament on April 19.500 from a local university. So instead of just one public agency like the PSC telling us that they do not give scholarships to foreigners.' This means that less than 40 per cent left Singapore after getting subsidised education. I understand that now. which sparked an outcry among some alumni in newspaper forums. 2005. Against this backdrop of spending on education for foreigners. and in 2005. Subsequently. more than 20 per cent of undergraduate and postgraduate students are foreigners on scholarships or the Tuition Fee Grant. it has been reported in the media that less than 20 per cent of needy Singaporean students were successful when more than 1. how many scholarships in total are given to foreigners relative to Singaporeans? 64 . financial assistance funding was increased in tandem with a rise in tuition fees. The Ministry of Education's university bursary has a qualifying gross monthly per capita household income of not more than $900. four out of 10 students who applied for bursaries were successful. whereby they just pay 10 per cent more in tuition fees than Singaporeans on condition that they work for at least three years in Singapore after they graduate. the Minister for Education said: 'Foreign students constitute 20 per cent of the universities' enrolment and more than 60 per cent of those (foreign undergraduates who receive tuition grant subsidies) who were admitted to our universities between 1996 and 1999 have become permanent residents or Singapore citizens since graduation.

000 的奖学金。在过去的十年里,莱佛士 书院也在中国颁发全额奖学金,其中 1240 份奖学金颁发给山东省。 新加坡国立大学颁发新航与海王星东方线所提供的奖学金给 40 名来自 印度的大学生。在 2001 年,国大颁发了 140 份奖学金给外国学生。新 加坡科学技术研究所(A*Star)表示会颁发奖学金给外国人,但条件是 他们得在毕业后成为新加坡公民。 圣约瑟书院(国际)将会在两年内颁发高达 300 万元的奖学金给来自新加 坡与区域的学生。新加坡科学技术研究局(A*Star)也将会在它们的青 年研究员计划下,每年赞助 5 位来自区域各国的学生。 在 新 加 坡 修 读 博 士 学 位 的 学 生 当 中 , 只 有 25% 是 本 地 人 。 教育部长在 2005 年 4 月 19 日的国会中对一项问题作出回应:“外籍学 生占大学生总人数的 20%,其中在 1996 年至 1999 年入学的学生当 65 . 2006 年 10 月 13 日 参阅公共服务委员会对本人的致函《多少外国学生在本地得到奖学 金》(《商业时报》,9 月 21 日)所作出的回应《新加坡人有获取 PSC 奖学金》(《商业时报》,9 月 22 日),我想在此发表看法。 据媒体报道,在新加坡理工学院的 1300 名学生当中,有将近 9%是外 国学生,而且,几乎全部的外国学生都是奖学金得主。 在中国四川,40 位初级学院的二年级学生获取本地颁发的全额奖学 金。此外,新加坡的 5 所理工学院也颁发赞助 80%学费的奖学金给当 地的学生。 立化中学在中国颁发总值$80.Education | 4 获奖学金的外籍与本地学生的比例是多少? 商业时报.

500 的年度助学金,但只有少于 20%的 申请者成功获取。这引起了一些校友在报刊论坛中的强烈抗议。 随后,援助金的数额将会随着学费的涨幅而调整。在 2005 年内,每十 名申请助学金的学生就有四名成功获取。 教育部大学助学金的附带条件是:人均每月家庭收入总值不超过 $900。 仅从一家公共机构如 PSC 口中得知他们没有颁发奖学金给外籍学生是 不足够的。究竟颁给外籍学生与颁给新加坡人的奖学金比例是多少? 66 .4 | 教育 中,有多过 60%(获得补助金的外国大学生)在毕业后成为了永久居 民或新加坡公民。”这表示少过 40%在获取学费补助金后离开新加坡。 据我所知,超过 20% 的在籍大学生与毕业生都是获取奖学金或补助金 的外国人。他们所需缴付的学费只比新加坡多 10%,他们在毕业后得 留在新加坡工作至少 3 年。 紧追着资助外国学生学费的课题,据媒体报道,有多过一千名贫困的 新加坡学生向本地大学申请$1.

output in the five KPIs typically associated with academic research far exceeded their targets. A*Star's statement that Johns Hopkins University's (JHU) agreement was terminated because it failed to meet eight out of 13 performance benchmarks may raise more questions. and a shortfall of 78 and 62 per cent for full-time faculty. Even by the second year. and research scientists respectively.6 per cent for visiting faculty. only days earlier. For example. joint projects with other research institutes in Singapore.Education | 4 John Hopkins University’s-A*Star Break-up Raises More Questions th The Business Times,27 July 2006 I refer to media reports about Johns Hopkins University's Singapore arm not meeting A*Star's goals in their tie-up. the result was still zero for graduate students. graduate students and visiting faculty. described the problems as a period of 'transition' . 66. 92 per cent for senior investigators with international reputation. In contrast. Its spokesman had. papers published.a decision taken by the leadership of the American university and the agency to replace the current 'operating model of collaboration' with a 'new model of partnership' still being developed. the result was zero for training programmes. It is interesting to note that whilst five of the performance benchmarks (KPIs) relating to recruitment were not met. far 67 . and conferences organised. and 69 per cent for research scientists. papers presented at top conferences. with a shortfall of 50 per cent for training programmes. in the first year. the KPIs for number of post-doctoral participating in research.

as Singapore has clearly stumbled in its maiden major medical research effort. If JHU. JHU and Singapore. 300. It is perhaps instructive to note that all three KPIs relating to commercial end-results. failed to produce a single patent. then what is the problem? Perhaps what is more important now is to try to understand why it is so difficult to get researchers willing to come to Singapore. I cannot help but feel that the root cause of the problem may be a clash of two cultures . If you are not able to recruit the numbers you target. In this context. which is arguably one of the best in the world in its field. maybe there is a need for us to re-examine our fundamental strategies and approach. We need to find out how to make our research environment more attractive. Otherwise.4 | 教育 exceeded their targets by 20.Singapore's technocratic efficiency versus the American ideals of freedom. 68 . it is a 'no win' for A*Star. liberalism. diversity and creativity. 300 and 100 per cent respectively. we may just be reinforcing the scientific community's perception that Singapore's environment is not conducive to creativity. KPIs and agreements aside. are the goals realistic and achievable within the time frame stipulated? In the final analysis. We should focus on learning from the experience rather than concentrate on apportioning blame. 260. is not able to meet A*Star's standards. but fewer people are able to produce much higher outputs. new technologies or new products.

whereas A*Star wants researchers with international reputation. like A*Star which has a history of even taking bond-breakers to task. so Singapore's happiness ranking at 131 out of 178 countries has to improve.Education | 4 For example. Unlike other American universities and scholarships. JHU does not believe in bonds for its scholars. you need to be happy to be creative.) 69 . As one researcher I spoke to said rather profoundly. JHU prefers to recruit young researchers as they may have more passion and are hungrier for a research breakthrough. (Reply from A*Star: DJHS did not deliver as promised.

6%,拥有国际名声的高级调查员有 92%,及研究科学家有 69%。 反之,博士后参与研究的人数、与其他在新加坡的研究所合办的项 目、出版的论文、在顶端会议发表的论文、和主办过的会议,这些的 键绩效指标分别得到 20%、300%、260%和 300%。 即使无法招募到目标中的人数,但这较少的人数却够能交出较高的成 绩,那么怎能说是有问题呢?也许目前最重要的是尝试了解为何研究 员不愿意到新加坡来。我们应该检讨如何让我国的研究环境变成更具 吸引力。 70 .4 | 教育 JHU 与 A*Star 的合作拆股引起更多疑问 商业时报. 2006 年 7 月 27 日 参阅媒体对于 John Hopkins University (JHU)新加坡分校没达到 A*Star 所设定的目标的相关报导,我想在此作出回应。 据 A*Star 的声明,取消与 JHU 的协定是因为 JHU 无法达到 13 项表现 基准中的 8 项。这声明也许会引起更多疑问。几天前,A*Star 的发言 人才解释说他们处于过渡时期,而当局与 JHU 正在研究一种‘新的合伙 模式’来取代目前的‘营运为主的合伙模式’。 有趣的是,虽然有 5 项关于招募新生的绩效指标无法达到,但却有 5 项和学术研究有关的绩效指标大幅度地超越了标准水平。 例如,在第一年里,训练课程、毕业生和访问教授的成绩是零分,而 全职教授和研究科学家分别出现 78%和 62%的赤字。甚至到了第二 年,毕业生的成绩还是零分,而训练课程还有 50%的赤字,访问教授 的是 66.

新加坡讲求技术上的效 率,而美国则讲求自立、自主、多元化以及创意的发挥。 举个例子,JHU 比较喜欢招收年轻的研究员,因为他们充满激情,希望 能作出突破性的研究。反之 A*Star 招募的则是具有国际知名度的研究 员。 JHU 不像其他美国大学和奖学金,并不会和奖学金学者签下契约,但 A*Star 却会很严厉地对待毁约的奖学金学者。 当我和一名研究员交谈时,他指出:人要愉快才能有创意。所以新加坡 该提高我国在 178 个国家中排名仅 131 名的幸福指数。 (A*Star 回应:DJHS 并没有达成约定) 71 .Education | 4 引人深思的是,所有 3 项有关商业成绩的键绩效指标都无法产生专利 权、新技术、或新产品。在这样的情况下,或许我们应该重新检讨我 们的基本策略和方式。 即使是在这领域里算是世界数一数二的 JHU 都达不到 A*Star 的标准, 那定下的目标与时限是否实际,自然有待商榷。 归根结底,撇开键绩效指标和与协议,A*Star、 JHU 以及新加坡都无法 从中获益。很明显,新加坡第一次大型医学研究的尝试失败了。 对此,我们应该从这次的经验学习,而不是着重于追究责任。否则, 这会加深科学界对新加坡环境无助于发挥创意的看法。 我不禁觉得问题的根源是因为两国文化的冲突.

'Want to be entrepreneur? Don't expect govt handouts' (The Straits Times. If a person fails. He was quoted as saying: 'I'm afraid to fail.4 | 教育 Better To Fail And Learn From It th The Straits Times.' I think we need to send the message to the young that failure is all right by saying things such as: If you fail a test five times and pass on your sixth attempt. a Secondary 4 student at Raffles Institution. he'll have to answer to his teachers and parents and he is branded a failure. 72 . May 3). particularly when things get tough. The Straits Times article also referred to findings about Singapore by the Economic Intelligence Unit and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. indicated that the system could be at fault for the lack of entrepreneurship here. and someone else passes it the first time round. are more resilent and tend to have a better chance of success in the long term. such as during economic crises and the recent Sars outbreak. rather than wait until you are in university to fail for the first time? In my work experience. who do you think will know the subject matter better? Is it better to fail a little in primary school and learn from the experience. I have found that those who fail several times in attempting the licensing or professional certification examinations in the financial services industry. We've been taught since young to pass tests. It states that 16-year-old Zhang Zhen Wei. 12 March 2003 I refer to the article.

Education | 4 One finding was that Singapore ranked poorly on entrepreneurship compared with other countries but was top in Asia for its policies and framework to encourage businessmen. 73 . which is linked closely to the spirit of freedom and which requires a mindset and cultural evolution that takes years. to build and nurture. its diversity is. but rather the spirit of entrepreneurship. with the diverse range of its institutions and courses. in a sense. the American education system has often been criticised for being too liberal and lacking uniform standards. However. Also. say. its greatest strength as the system has resulted in the push for constant innovation and survival. Europe. For example. if not decades. How about scholarships to study in. almost every scholarship that I have encountered is for study at prestigious universities in developed countries in North America. Perhaps students in Singapore should be allowed a greater freedom of choice in selecting subjects. Australia and Asia. Latin America. where there are old universities which may never have had a Singaporean student? Latin America may have few ties to Singapore now but this may mean that it also offers the greatest opportunities in the future. This finding may suggest that developing entrepreneurship is not so much about policies and framework.

74 .4 | 教育 Perhaps we need to realise that it is better to fail early in business. so that we learn about the pitfalls. which would reduce the chances of failure in future ventures.

2003 年 3 月 12 日 参阅《想成为企业家,别期望政府的资助》(《海峡时报》,5 月 3 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 文中引述一名 16 岁的莱佛士书院中四学生。他表示新加坡缺乏创业精 神,可能是制度所造成的。 他接着说:“我害怕失败。我们从小被灌输考试要及格的观念。若不及 格,就必须向老师和家长交待,并被列为失败者”。 我们应该让年轻的一代明白失败是可以接受的。我们可以说:如果你 失败了五次但在第六次及格,而另一个人却在第一次及格,你认为谁 对这门科目了解比较深呢? 在小学初尝失败,并从经验中吸取经验,不是好过到了大学才第一次 失败吗? 从工作经验中,我发现那些在考取金融专业文凭的过程中失败数次的 人,往往比较坚强。长远而言,成功的机率也比较高,特别是在面临 困境的时候,如金融危机和最近的萨斯事件。 上述的报道也引述经济情报单位(Economic Intelligence Unit)与环球创 业精神观察组 (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor)关于新加坡的调查报 告。 在其中一项调查结果中,新加坡在创精神的项目中名落孙山,但却在 鼓励生意人的政策与环境排行榜中名列亚洲第一。 75 .Education | 4 从失败中吸取教训 海峡时报.

4 | 教育 这可能意味着对于培养创业精神,政策与环境并不是重点。关键在于 创业的精神。这与自由的精神息息相关,也需要观念与文化上的转 变,及长年累月的灌溉。 例如,美国学府所提供的课程非常多元化,然而,它却被批评过于自 由,而且缺乏一个统一的标准。。 但是,美国教育制度的多元化,在某种程度上却是它的最大优点,因 为自由的教育系统是推动着美国不断创新与求存的动力。 或许新加坡可以效仿美国的教育制度,让学生在科目选择上有更大的 自由。 除此之外,本人所了解到的奖学金计划目前都一致把学生送往北美 洲、欧洲、澳洲和亚洲等地的著名学府。 不妨考虑把学生送到拉丁美洲一些历史悠久的学府。或许这些学府至 今未曾录取过任何新加坡籍学生。 目前,虽然新加坡与拉丁美洲的外交关系不是很密切,但也意味着国 人在不远的将来可能在拉丁美洲挖掘出巨大的商机。 或许,我们应该了解,在早期遭受生意上的失败,并从中了解潜在的 危机,将会显著提高未来创业的成功率。 76 .

77 . Increasingly. Australia. like knowing oneself and others. or enhancing work performance and non-work interests.000 more over his lifetime than a non-graduate. 'Life-long learning a waste of workers' time and money' (The Straits Times. According to a study by the Commonwealth Department of Education Science and Training. Life-long learners may even have an advantage in that they have demonstrated their perseverance and ability to manage work and study at the same time. Perhaps Singaporeans should view life-long learning as an attitude. the acceptance of degrees and professional qualifications attained through part-time study will increase. other than getting a better-paying job. Nov 8).Education | 4 Life-long Learning Brings Intangible Benefits Too th The Straits Times 12 November 2002 I refer to Ms Jessica Tan's letter. as more employers and human-resource professionals have gone through or been exposed to life-long learning. a male graduate earns A$622. Life-long learning has many benefits. rather than a means to an end.

000 澳元。 随着越来越多雇主与人力资源专家经历或接触过终生学习,将有更多 人能接受通过半工半读考取的大学与专业文凭。 终生学习者甚至可能有优势.因为他们已证明自己具备毅力和能力,来 兼顾工作和学习。 除了能够找到更高薪的工作. 2002 年 11 月 12 日 参阅 Jessica Tan 女士的《终生学习浪费员工的时间与金钱》 (《海峡时 报》.11 月 8 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 根据澳洲联邦教育与培训部门的一项研究.一名男性大学毕业生在一生 中所赚取的收入比一名非毕业生多出$622.终生学习者也可得到许多益处,如更了解 自己与他人,和提高工作及工作以外的表现。 或许新加坡人应该把终生学习视为一种人生的态度,而不是为了达到 某些目的的一种途径。 78 .4 | 教育 终身学习也可附带无形的效益。 海峡时报.

when last year was one of the best years for the economy marked by record jobs creation and very low unemployment rate? Has the MOE's criteria been so strict in the past that 57 per cent of those who qualified last year. There may sometimes be a trade-off whenever we spend a lot of money on something new in a big way.000 students. or 133 per cent. For example. it was announced at the 'Lee Wee Kheng Fund For Needy Children Award Ceremony' that the number of FAS (Financial Assistance Scheme) recipients has increased from about 15.Education | 4 Balance Use Of Funds.000 in 2006. According to the Ministry of Education's (MOE) website.000 in 2005 to 35. 79 . but needy elderly families without school-going children were no longer eligible for a low-cost PC and Internet access. when the new NEU PC Plus Scheme was announced last year to replace the NEU PC Scheme. MOE th The Business Times. 23 January 2007 I refer to the article 'Trust fund set up to help needy pupils' (The Business Times. Jan 11). compared with 2005? The MOE recently announced that it will be working with an international research team to develop 15 schools of the future with wireless networks. The team has access to part of a $500 million fund. Why is it that the number of needy students given financial assistance has jumped by 20. could not qualify in 2005 and in previous years? How much more did MOE spend last year in helping the additional 20. in just one year. needy families with school-going children got a better package. I find this statistic somewhat alarming.000.

uniforms.4 | 教育 There are thousands of children who are unable to pay their school fees.000 plus a year and needy students at 100 schools will get $1 million this year to help pay for school lunches.000 university students are applying for a bursary of only $1. we may need to balance the $500 million fund available for the school of the future project with more help for needy students. (MOE reply: Balanced use of public funds in education) 80 . and who have no pocket money to go to school going by the number getting help under the ST Pocket Money Fund. Given these realities. from a $25 million bequest left by the late Mr Lee Hiok Kwee. spectacles. Also. There are also free breakfast schemes offered by some schools and various organisations which give one-off vouchers to needy students. transport. more than 2.

000 名大学生申请每年仅一千多元的助学金。100 所学校 的贫困学生今年也将获得总额$1,000,000 的资助,以帮助他们负担 81 . 1 月 11 日)一文,我 想在此作出回应。教育部官方网站上公布,《Lee Wee Kheng 贫困儿童 基金颁奖仪式》的财经援助计划得主,从 2005 年的 15.000 名。 我觉得这个统计数字令人震惊。接受财经援助的贫困学生人数比起去 年增加了 20,000, 或 133%。令人不解的是我国去年的经济表现优 越,就业机会创新高,失业率也同时达到最低点。 去年获得财经援助的学生当中,57%在 2005 年与 2005 年之前都无法获 取援助。这是否表示教育部过去的标准过于严格?与 2005 年相比,教 育部又拨出多少额外的资金来帮助这 20,000 名学生? 教育部最近公布,将与一个国际研究小组合作,设立 15 所装有无线网 络的“未来学校”。小组也有权动用一笔 5 亿元的基金。 每当拨出巨额款项来实行新的计划时,都应小心地权衡利弊。例如, 去年公布的新 NEU PC Plus 计划取代之前的 NEU PC 计划时,有在校儿 童的家庭享有更好的配套,但没有在校儿童的年长家庭却无法获得廉 价的电脑和网际网络服务。 根据‘海峡时报零用钱基金’的数据,新加坡有上千名学生不但无法缴付 学费,也没有零用钱。一些学校和集团也推行免费早餐计划,分发一 次性的餐券给贫困学生。 我国有超过 2. 2007 年 1 月 23 日 参阅《设立信托基金以帮助贫困学生》(商业时报.000 名增加至 2006 年的 35.Education | 4 教育部,请妥当分配资金 商业时报.

4 | 教育 午餐、校服、交通费和眼镜等方面的费用。这笔款项来自 Lee Hiok Kwee 先生的遗产。 考虑以上的现实状况,我们应该妥当利用这笔建设“未来学校”的 5 亿元 款项,以帮助更多的贫困学生。 (教育部回应:教育开支分配十分妥当) 82 .

Housing | 5 5. HOUSING 房屋 83 .

and a few examples of some projects and locations.5 | 房屋 Settle Question Of HDB Subsidy Once And For All nd The Straits Times,2 January 2007 I refer to Mr Viktor Ye Kok Kheong's letter. the HDB should keep up with the standards of disclosure in the private sector. because the HDB is not being asked to disclose the costs of every project or location. now and in the past? What the HDB is saying is akin to 'since we cannot tell you each and every item. So. Every once in a while. Jan 1). That is why it incurs an overall deficit each year for its homeownership activity. the question of the cost and pricing of HDB flats comes up in the media.. Housing and Development Board said that ' HDB does not reveal the land and construction costs of specific projects as they vary from location to location. Why not just reveal the breakdown of total costs. 84 .. The reason given for not revealing the land and construction costs is somewhat illogical. why not put a stop to the on-going speculation that HDB flats are not really subsidised? In the interest of maintaining Singapore's reputation of having the highest standards of transparency and corporate governance. as reflected in its annual accounts which is available publicly'. 'Did HDB land pricing use Raffles Place as rule?' (The Straits Times. we won't tell you anything at all '.

supposed to be used to provide such infrastructure? 85 . How can we tell whether HDB prices are 'at market price' without a breakdown of the land and construction costs for comparison purposes? As to the market price for land taking into account the 'substantial resources. etc. sewers and utilities.. thus significantly enhancing the land value beyond the acquisition costs incurred by the Government. no real-estate investment trust or publicly-listed company would be able to give the reason given by the HDB for not breaking down the information on the major cost components in its accounting statements. aren't the billions collected every year from road tax. MRT. electronic road pricing. 30 per cent water. such as roads.. for the new housing development'.Housing | 5 To illustrate the point of transparency. property tax.conservation tax. invested to provide major infrastructure.

是因 为每个地段都各有差异.建屋局组屋成本与估价方面的疑问就会出现在媒体上。因 此.污水渠和公用设施”.以提供住屋工程的主要基础设施.为何不杜绝组屋是否有津贴的猜测呢?为了维护新加坡政府具有高透 明度和卓越企业管理能力的声誉.建屋局应该跟上私营企业的透明标 准。 让我详细解释透明度这个课。没有一个房地产投资基金或上市公司能 像建屋局一样.电子道路 收费.1 月 1 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 建屋局发表的文告说:“建屋局不透露具体工程的土地和建筑成本..5 | 房屋 彻底解除建屋局津贴的疑问 海峡时报.我们又如何能知道建屋局 的估价是“市场价格”? 至于市场价格中所顾及的“大量资源.产业税.地铁.因此显著地把组屋价格提高.我们就完全不透露”。每 隔一段时间. 如车行道路... 2007 年 1 月 2 日 参阅 Viktor Ye Kok Kheong 先生的来信《建屋局土地估价是否以莱佛士 坊为标准?》(《海峡时报》.因此建屋局每年的居者有其屋计划都会出现赤 字。这些数据都反映在公开的年度账目里”。 不透露土地与建筑成本的理由似乎有点不合逻辑:因为建屋局没有被要 求透露每项工程或地段的成本。为何不直接把总成本分成各项目一一 透露.再举几个过去或目前的工程和地段作为例子? 建屋局似乎在说:“既然我们不能透露每个项目..提供以上理由作为不透露公司账目里各主要项目的成 本。若没有土地和建筑的分项成本作为参考.甚至 超于政府收购时所支付的费用。政府每年征收上亿元的路税.30%的节约用水税等,难道不是应该用于提供这些设施吗? 86 .

Households with incomes of more than $3. Oct 27). If we 87 .000 to $182. Based on a family of six (couple with two children living with parents).. Even if we assume one is able to buy the cheapest at $131. According to the HDB's July 2006 fact sheet.000 ('450 new flats in Geylang for sale'..income ‘ (The Straits Times.' The HDB seems to be making the assumption that those who earn more than $3.000.000 for new three-room flats .000 for new two-room flats and $3.000. Oct 12). and we are left with $2. The Straits Times. It states: 'The household income ceiling is $2.000 can consider buying new four-room or larger flats within their affordability.000 to $292. Deduct $100 for school fees and pocket money for two children.000 ceiling stands in way of smaller flat ' (The Straits Times.Housing | 5 Income Ceiling For HDB Flats May Be Too Low th The Straits Times, 6 November 2006 I refer to the HDB 's reply. the balance per capita disposable income is $358. the price of four-room flats is from $131. 'Smaller flats for the lower.528. the monthly repayment on a 30-year HDB subsidised loan after paying the 10 per cent downpayment is $472.000 can afford a four-room flat. Its latest offer of four-room flats costs $230. Oct 23) to Ms Phang Geak Lean's letter.150. This leaves a net 'after mortgage payment' monthly disposable income of $2. '$3.

5 | 房屋 assume food at $9 and transport at $4 per person per day. assuming they don't spend any money at all on entertainment. holidays. total food and transport will come up to $390 per person per month. Denying them the purchase of a smaller three-room flat may lead to financial stress and very little CPF when they retire.000 may not be able to afford four-room flats . insurance. I suggest the HDB review its income ceiling eligibility for flats . and so on. because my example clearly demonstrates that some Singaporeans who earn more than $3. This means the family's monthly deficit is $192 ($390 . 88 . and do not have employer's CPF contribution for workers. Those who are self-employed. learning activities. maintenance and repairs. may have an even higher monthly deficit.$358 x 6).

000 的人士,可以考虑在能力范围内购买新的四房 式或更大型组屋”。 建屋局似乎假定收入$3.Housing | 5 购买组屋的入息顶限太低 海峡时报,2006 年 11 月 6 日 参阅 Phang Geak Lean 女士的致函:《$3.000 入息限额对购买较小型组 屋造成阻碍》(《海峡时报》,10 月 12 日),及建屋局的回应《较小 型组屋只限于低收入人士》(《海峡时报》,10 月 23 日), 我想在此 作出回应。 答复中声明:“购买二房式组屋的入息顶是$2.000,三房式则是$3.528。 再扣除$100 学费和零用钱后,只剩下$2.000… 家庭总收入超于$3.000 和$292.150。以一家六口(夫妇、两 名孩子及父母)来计算,剩余的每人可支配收入是$358。假设每天 食物与车资方面的开销分别是每人$9和$4,那一个月内食物与车资 的总开销将是每人$390。 89 .000 之间。目前四房式组屋的价格则已涨至$230.000 至 $182.000 以上的人士必定有能力购买四房式组屋。 根据建屋局 2006 年的资料,四房式组屋的价格介于$131.000 之间(《海峡时报:〈 450 间芽笼新组屋单位可供出售〉》,10月 27日)。 让我们假定一个人有能力购买价格最低的四房式组屋,售价$131, 000。在支付了10%首期付款后,他还得偿还每月$472的分 期付款,为期30年。扣除了这笔款项,月底的可支配收入只剩 $2.

5 | 房屋 假设以上的家庭在娱乐、旅行、学习活动、保险、维修等方面上没有 任何花费,他们还是面对$192 ($390 .$358 x 6)的赤字。 自雇人士以及没有雇主公积金贡献的人士,每月的赤字则更高。 本人建议,建屋局应重新检讨购买组屋的入息顶限。上述的例子清楚 解释,仍然有一些月薪$3.000 的新加坡公民未必有能力购买四房式组 屋。 不允许上述人士购买较小型的三房式组屋,可能造成他们面对财务上 的压力,并无法在退休后拥有足够的公积金存款。 90 .

For example.Housing | 5 Let Singles Rent Vacant Flats Without Pairing Up th The Straits Times,20 January 2005 I refer to the letter. I understand that there are about 10. 'Joint Singles Scheme stays' (The Straits Times. the doubling of resources could require an additional investment of some $900 million from the Government. 'Why build more flats when many are unoccupied' (The Straits Times. On Jan 12. I believe about half of the 224 one-room rental flats have been vacant for many years. I suggest that some of these flats be made available for rental to singles. I would like to ask what is the number of vacant HDB rental flats. Jan 17).000 HDB flats that have remained vacant for many years because the HDB has been unable to find buyers. Why talk about the cost of building new flats to meet the demand of singles when there are so many unwanted vacant flats? I understand that there are also many vacant HDB rental flats. the President's Address called for ensuring a place for everyone and for the needs of all Singaporeans from all strata of society to be looked at. In a previous parliamentary session. in addition to the many unsold HDB flats? 91 . the President's Address. Nov 27). Jan 13). Minister of State for National Development Cedric Foo said that if singles were allowed to rent flats without pairing up. and the report. 'Building a better home for all' (The Straits Times. in Block 100. Aljunied Crescent.

the Joint Singles Scheme requires two singles whose combined monthly income is below $1. what is the cost of keeping 10. San Francisco. (HDB’s reply: It's still 'no' to singles renting HDB flats singly) 92 . stress leads to physiological ageing. How many Singaporeans earn less than $600 a month? The HDB gives a six-month grace period for the remaining tenant to find a new flat -mate if the two singles cannot get along. 1 Dec 2004) by Dr Elissa Epel of the University of California.400 new flats to meet the singles ' demand. Perhaps those who decide on the singles housing policy could try to put themselves in the place of those who are elderly and single . single and earning not very much. If you are earning $900. On top of that.just to be able to qualify to rent a flat.5 | 房屋 Why do we continue to maintain public housing policies that deny needy single Singaporeans a roof over their heads when there are so many vacant rental and unsold HDB flats? If it costs $900 million to build 9.000 flats vacant for so many years? Would it not make business sense to rent them out till they can be sold? It is hard enough to be old. they have to endure the indignity of having to find a stranger to live with . The Straits st Times. with low income and no shelter. to truly appreciate their plight. poor health and a depressed immune system.500 . you will have to find another single who does not earn more than $600 to qualify. Can you imagine the pressure and stress on the elderly single with low income when such situations arise? According to a study ('Link between stress and ageing found'.

2005 年 1 月 20 日 参阅《空置单位未售出,为何兴建新组屋》(《海峡时报》,1 月 17 日);总统的致词,《为大家打造更美好的家园》(《海峡时报》,1 月 13 日);以及《保留〈单身联合租屋计划〉》 (《海峡时报》,11 月 27 日).我再次作出回应。 在 1 月 12 日的致词中,总统呼吁须确保每个国民都有栖身之所。此 外,所有新加坡人的需要,无论来自社会的任何阶层,都应该被重 视。 在一次的国会中,国家发展部政务部长符致镜表示,如果允许单身人 士无须配对就能租用政府组屋,所需的资源将加倍,以致政府需要额 外投资九百万元。 据了解,建屋局拥有着约一万间空置多年的组屋。 我建议把这一部分空置的组屋租给单身人士。 拥有这么多空置单位的同时,为何需要谈论兴建新组屋的成本,以应 付单身人士的需求呢? 据我所知,目前还有许多空置的租用式政府组屋。例如,位于阿裕尼 弯大牌 100 号,在 224 间的租用式组屋单位中,大约半数的单位已经 空置了好多年。 我想请问,当前空置的租用式组屋单位以及未售出的组屋单位总共有 多少? 93 .Housing | 5 允许单身人士无需配对,租用空置的政府组屋 海峡时报.

5 | 房屋 为何拥有那么多空置的租用式组屋以及未售的单位,仍然坚守公共住 屋政策,导致有需要的单身人士无法找到栖身之所? 如果需要花费九百万元兴建 9400 间新组屋单位来应付单身人士的需 求,那么多年保留着的一万间空置单位的成本又是多少?把空置的组 屋在售出之前租出是否比较有合乎商业常识呢? 上了年纪的低收入单身人士生活已经很困难了。除此之外,他们还得 忍受寻找陌生人跟自己同居的困扰,仅为了获取资格租用一间组屋单 位。 《单身联合租屋计划》规定申请者双方月入不得超过$1.500。如果一位 单身人士的月薪是$900, 他得找一位月薪不超过$600 的单身人士,才 有资格租用一间组屋单位。到底有多少位新加坡人每月收入少过$600 呢? 如果两位同居的单身人士无法和睦共处,建屋局将提供 6 个月的宽限 期让遗留下的租户寻找另一位室友。 你能想象在这样的情况下会对一 名上了年纪的低收入单身人士带来多少压力吗? 根据加州大学(旧金山)Elissa Epel 博士的一项研究:《已发现压力与 衰老的挂钩》(《海峡时报》,2004 年 12 月 1 日),压力可导致心理 老化、健康衰退以及免疫力下降。 或许那些决定实施单身房屋政策的人应该尝试让自己身临其境,才能 真正理解一个上了年纪、收入低、也没有栖身之所的单身人士的困 境。 (建屋局回应:依然不允许单身人士独自租用政府组屋) 94 .

000 each.000 credit card holders have outstanding balances of over $20. up 2 per cent from a year earlier. and the first-ever study of credit card usage patterns released on Sept 30 by the Consumer Credit Bureau said that about 30. However. On the other hand. With oil prices at an all-time high and rising interest rates. such as credit card companies. Bankruptcies are at a record high in Singapore. the bank which granted the mortgage loan can recall the loan and sell the flat if the loan agreement allows it to do so in the event of bankruptcy. cannot take possession of an HDB flat even if the flat owners are unable to pay their debts because such debts are not secured against the HDB flat. 95 . I also refer to media reports that if one becomes bankrupt . the costs of servicing debts may rise. and this may result in more bankruptcies. despite an improving economy.Housing | 5 Can A Bankrupt Lose His HDB Flat To Banks? th The Business Times. 8 October 2004 I refer to reports quoting a study titled Credit Cards and Consumer Lending in Asia-Pacific 2003-2005 by the Lafferty Group saying that Singapore is one of the smallest consumer credit markets in Asia. the housing loan mortgagee bank will have to foreclose and realise their security within six months of the date of the bankruptcy order. The debt of the average Singaporean was estimated to be 122 per cent of his personal disposable income. I understand that third-party creditors. it has one of the highest levels of consumer debt per person in the world. or such extended time as the Official Assignee may allow.

does it not mean that one can lose one's HDB flat due to other non.HDB mortgage debts? So. even if one does not default on the housing loan monthly repayments? 96 . is made a bankrupt and the bank sells the flat because the loan agreement allows it to do so in the event of bankruptcy.5 | 房屋 If one has credit card debts. does or doesn't one run the risk of losing one's HDB flat to banks.

2004 年 10 月 8 日 根据 Lafferty Group 在《亚太区信用卡和消费贷款 2003-2005 年》的一 项研究,研究结果显示,虽然新加坡是亚洲最小的消费信贷市场,但 却是世界上拥有最高平均消费者债务的国家。 新加坡人的平均债务是个人可支配收入的 122%,比去年增加了 2%。 破产人数在我国也创新高。消费者信贷局(Consumer Credit Bureau) 发表于 9 月 30 日的一项史无前例,关于信用卡使用模式的研究报告中 指出,虽然我国的经济正在好转.但是我国却有约 30,000 名信用卡用 户拖欠超过$20,000 的信用卡债务。 随着石油价格创历史新高,及持续上升的贷款利息,偿还债务的成本 也跟着增加。这可能导致越来越多人面临破产的厄运。 此外,媒体报道也指出,当一个人被判破产时,其提供房屋贷款的银 行必须在破产令有效日期的六个月,或正式代理人准许的期限内,把 债卷终止并兑现。 我了解第三方债权人,例如信用卡公司,即使在屋主无法还债的情况 下,也不能占据破产者的政府组屋,因为债务不是以组屋作为抵押。 然而,批准房屋贷款的银行,却有权以回收债务为理由,按照合约的 允许把破产者的组屋出售。 如果一个人在拖欠信用卡债务后被宣告破产,而银行按照贷款合约把 其组屋出售,这不也表示人们有可能因非房屋债务而失去组屋吗? 因此,一个没有拖欠房屋贷款的人,是否也冒着组屋被占据的风险? 97 .Housing | 5 银行能否强行占据破产者的政府组屋? 商业时报.

a committee. Community Development Councils. 26 November 2002 I refer to the Housing and Development Board's 30-month debarment period for private property downgraders to new HDB flats. 98 . HDB has indicated that it will waive this on a case-by-case basis for 'deserving Singaporeans who are former private property owners with genuine financial hardship and unable to afford re-sale flats'. HDB by itself. as opposed to existing private property owners. face 'genuine financial hardship' and are 'unable to afford'.5 | 房屋 'Downgraders' Need More Information From HDB th The Business Times. or in consultation with the Ministry of Community Development. Such assurances are not very reassuring. I would also like to seek clarification on whether the waiver is only possible for 'former private-property owners'. etc? Is it also possible to tell us how many waivers have been granted and what proportion of applicants has been turned down? Very often we get replies to letters' forums saying that a policy cannot be reviewed but that there will be flexibility on a case-by-case basis. And who decides such things? Is it an officer. Perhaps HDB can give some examples as to how financially-stressed Singaporeans need to be in order to be considered? Such a move would help people better understand what criteria are used to determine whether they are 'deserving'.

so as to retire less financially stressed . I would like to ask HDB to re-consider whether it is really necessary for a person to be in 'financial hardship' before their life can be made more financially palatable in the light of the current economic downturn.000 HDB flat loan.6 per cent and the average market rate of say 4.if they have to sell first and become a 'former private-property owner' before they can be considered for a waiver of the 30-month debarment period? For a $200.5 per cent is considerable. We are told that there are thousands of unsold new HDB flats. so it may be to HDB 's benefit to allow their sale to former private-property owners. Is being a private-property owner such a 'stigma' that a person has. to be 'discriminated against' when trying to explore the HDB option in one's financial planning? (HDB’s reply: Downgraders can easily buy an HDB resale flat) 99 . rather than be the judge of social and financial policies that impact our financial decisions. the difference in the monthly mortgage repayment between the subsidised rate of 2.Housing | 5 How can a person plan to downgrade and get cash out of their private property . in a sense. Perhaps HDB should focus on providing affordable quality housing for all Singaporeans. The fact that one lives in private property and has never availed oneself of a new HDB flat should not mean one has to be judged as being 'deserving' and 'genuine'.

5%利息计算,每月偿还金额的差距是十分显著的。 100 . 会在个案的基础上取消此禁令,特别是对“面临真实经 济困境的前私人产业业主,及无法负担转售组屋的这些有真正需求的 国人”。 或许建屋局应举例说明国人在怎样的经济困境下才在被考虑的范围 中。这样一来,人们便能更了解鉴定他们是否是面临“真实的经济困境” 和“无法负担”的标准。 请问谁拥有最后的决定权?是政府官员吗?是任何委员会吗?是建屋 局本身吗?或许须和社区发展部,社区发展理事会等进一步商榷? 建屋局是否能透露获批准的申请有多少,而被拒绝的又有多少? 我们经常在论坛上得到的回应是政策不会改变,但会在个案的基础上 灵活处理。如此的保证很难令人放心。 我也想澄清禁令的撤销是否只适用于“前私人产业业主”,而非现有的私 人产业业主。 如果一个人必须先售卖他的产业,成为“前私人产业业主”,才能被考虑 取消 30 个月的禁期,那么他又怎能通过改住政府组屋,以获得现金, 减轻退休后的负担呢? 对一笔$200,000 的房屋贷款而言,以获津贴的 2.5 | 房屋 房屋‘降级者’须从建屋局获得更多信息 商业时报.2002 年 11 月 26 日 参阅建屋局对私人住宅单位的屋主转购新政府组屋实施 30 个月禁期, 我想在此作出回应。 建屋局已表明.6%利息和市场平均 4.

Housing | 5 我们获知有上千个新政府组屋单位尚未售出。建屋局或许能从批准售 卖组屋给前私人产业业主中受惠。 一个人若住在私人房屋而从来未能申请新政府组屋,并不意味着他就 必须被判断是否“应得”或有“真实”的经济困境。 鉴于目前的经济不景气,我想请建屋局重新考虑是否一个人必须处于 “经济困境”才有资格设法减轻他的经济负担。 或许建屋局应该侧重于为所有新加坡人提供优质的房屋,而不是判决 影响我们财政决定的社会和金融政策。 我们对私人产业业主是否产生了不必要的偏见,以致他们在探索政府 组屋这项财务规划的选择时,在某种程度上被“歧视”? (建屋局回应:房屋“降级者”可轻易购买转售组屋) 101 .

6 | 医疗保健 6. Healthcare 医疗保健 102 .

So. The reason given was that Medishield was designed with the B2 and C class wards in mind. Higher income earners may have their Medisave contribution ceiling. so for higher income earners.000. raised in a year's time. why is there a need to lock up more of their disposable cash-flow and assets in the Medisave account? The more one's assets are locked up in Medisave. capping the Medisave contribution ceiling might mean that they would not have sufficient savings if they opted to stay in A-class wards. If the higher-income earners choose higher-class wards. we say that we want to give those who can afford the choice of a wider and competitively priced range of medical insurance schemes from private insurers. on the other hand. 26 April 2005 I refer to the report.Healthcare | 6 Don't Raise Medisave Ceiling th The Business Times. Medishield changes in the pipeline'' (The th Business Times. 103 . 25 April 2005). the less will be available for other uses like retirement expenses and desired health-related expenses. on the one hand. currently at $30. but. it is their choice because they prefer it and believe they can afford to. we are now told we have no choice but to have more Medisave for Medishield's design limitations. “Medisave. This policy change in a way contradicts the recent policy change of farming out the Medishield-Plus schemes to a private insurer because.

etc. So. health screening. The higher-income already pay more income tax and will be subject to means testing if they opt for class B1. So. The CPF cuts. instead of forcing the higherincome to contribute more. After all. lower contribution for older workers. because some may feel that they might as well use it since it cannot be used for anything else. healthcare policies should focus on the lower-income like not closing the night services at polyclinics. This may mean more cash out-of-pocket medical expenses. the balance in the Medisave account goes to one's CPF nominees upon death. Moreover. Perhaps. is it fair to make them contribute more to Medisave? Increasing the Medisave contribution and withdrawal ceilings may have the undesirable effect of encouraging people to opt for higher-class wards. and lower contribution ceiling for the higher income. B2 and C wards. why reverse the downward trend of CPF contributions by raising Medisave? 104 . it should not be the government's problem. if those with higher income do not have enough when they opt for higher-class wards.6 | 医疗保健 The restrictions on the use of Medisave actually limit the choice of many health-related services available such as out-patient. is already causing more financial hardship and stress for some higher-income earners. who have property mortgage repayments.

How much more will Singaporeans have to set aside in their CPF in the future. the CPF Minimum Sum will increase to $120. By 2013. when they reach age 55? 105 .Healthcare | 6 This may mean even less disposable cash-flow for some whose earnings were cut during the recent economic downturn.000.000 plus minimum Medisave amount of $25.

如门诊、健康检查等。这也意味着人们需挪出更多的现金作为医疗费 用。 106 .因为他们愿意而且相 信自己能够负担较高的费用。所以.6 | 医疗保健 别提高医疗储蓄上限 商业时报.2005 年 4 月 26 日 参阅《保健储蓄,医药保险的变化》(《商业时报》4 月 25 日)一文, 我想在此作出回应。 在一年内,较高收入人士的保健储蓄贡献上限可能被提高至$30000。 原因是现有的医药保险是根据 B2 与 C 级病房的需要所设置的。高收入 人士若选择 A 级病房.那是他们的自由.人们将有更少资金可转作其他用 途,例如退休开支和健康有关的开支。 保健储蓄计划的诸多限制大大减少了人们可用公积金支付的医药服务. 不调高其贡献上限可能意味着他们将不会有足够 的储蓄。 这项政策的改变,与最近将医药保险加计划外包给一家私营保险公司 的原则是前后矛盾的。一方面说要让经济能力较强的人能从众多私营 保险公司的配套中,选择价格具有竞争力的医疗保险配套。另一方面 则说因为医药保险设计上的限制而不得不调高保健储蓄的贡献。 若较高收入人士选择住高级病房. 为何要把他们更多的可支配现金的 流量和资产"锁"入医药储蓄帐户? 被"锁"入医药储蓄帐户中的资产越多.

而不是把焦点放在于强制高收入人士缴交更高的费用。倘若高收入人 士没用能力住高级病房.Healthcare | 6 较高收入人士已经缴付比一般人更高的所得税.及高收入人士的较低贡 献上限.医药保健账户中剩余的款项将留给他们生前 所指定的继承人。 或许.譬如不中断综合诊疗所的夜间服务.这些人士在选择 B1.在公积金会员过世后. 这也毕竟不是政府所该干涉的问题。 公积金贡献率的削减、年老员工较低的贡献率.尤其是 需要偿还房屋贷款的人士。 那么.外加$25000 的最低医药储蓄存款。那么,新加坡人到了 55 岁时又需要在他们的公 积金帐户里存入多少款项呢? 107 .他们可支配的现金流量将进 一步被削减。 到了 2013 年,公积金帐户内的最低限额将增至$120.显著地加深了高收入人士经济上的困境与精神上的负担.医药政策应注重于低收入人士.B2 或 C 级病房时也需经过测试。那么提高他们的公积金储蓄贡献八仙率 到底公平吗? 调高医药储蓄贡献与提款限制可能间接鼓励人们因款项不能作为其他 用途而选择高级病房。 此外. 为何要以提高医药储蓄来扭转公积金贡献率下降的趋势? 对那些在经济衰退中遭受减薪的人士而言.000.

So. the implication for low-skilled Singaporeans may be that their wages may decline too. employers in the outsourcing industry typically have relatively low margins. polyclinic and Communicable Disease Centre fees were raised. In the past. and are thus quite sensitive to higher labour costs. that the 11th to 20th percentile of households by income. take home pay generally declined. doing the same low-skilled job. With the increasing trend of outsourcing. with different pay. Increasing medical costs for foreign workers may lead to employers reducing the take-home pay. when foreign worker's levy. accommodation requirements.6 | 医疗保健 Raising Costs For Foreigners May Not Benefit Singaporeans th The Business Times. particularly for lower-skilled workers. 11 December 2006). This is reflected in the Department of Statistics' General Household Survey 2005. because they may already have committed to long-term contracts with fixed pricing. which they may have some difficulty in absorbing. particularly for low-skilled work. had 108 . 13 December 2006 I refer to the article “Foreigners to pay more for healthcare costs from October” (The Business Times. A spokesman from the Humanitarian Organisation for Migration Economics has already raised the concern that the increase in medical costs will be passed on to workers. The reality is that employers cannot have Singaporeans and foreigners working side by side.

Medifund paid out $39.3 per cent per annum from 2000 to 2005. why not increase the subsidy for Singaporeans using the expected $36 million additional revenue? Since many Singaporeans may have to bear the brunt of the increase for foreigners and permanent residents for whom they are responsible for. reducing it for permanent residents. Giving the $36 million additional revenue to Medifund could increase the average payout to $261. may make it even harder for Singaporeans to take on low-skilled jobs. The fact that most Singaporeans have families to provide for. it is akin to a no-win situation for everyone. and Singaporeans may find it harder to survive with 20 per cent less take-home pay compared to foreign workers.1 million to 288. Instead of removing the subsidy for foreigners. if the savings are not channelled directly back to citizens. whereas Singaporeans have to. The playing field between foreigners and Singaporean workers may never be level. last year. giving an average subsidy of $136. Employers save by not having to contribute CPF for foreigners. as long as foreigners do not have to contribute CPF. compared to foreigners who are here alone. Singaporean males also have to do reservist training. For example.000 patient applications. and maintaining the status quo for Singaporeans.Healthcare | 6 declining incomes by 4. 109 .

I would like to suggest that we explore the possibility of not charging foreigners and permanent residents more. because they may have to pay for the former. In so doing. instead of one out of four (noncitizens) on the island being unhappy. so that Singaporeans do not have to end up paying for them? In trying to address the issue that Singaporeans should have more privileges than non-citizens. and perhaps another one or two of the remaining three (citizens) being unhappy too.6 | 医疗保健 Thus. but giving more to Singaporeans instead. are we inadvertently creating other problems for Singaporeans? 110 . current subsidies for Singaporeans could be increased across the board. all will be happy. increasing the help to needy patients by 92 per cent. Alternatively. for lower class hospital wards. Why not use some of the hundreds of millions collected in foreign worker levies annually.

2006 年 12 月 13 日 参阅 《从十月起,外籍人士得付更高的医疗费用》(《商业时报》 12 月 11 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 提高外籍人士的医疗费用可能导致雇主减低他们的薪水,尤其是技能 较低的员工。过去,当外籍劳工的税务、住宿、综合诊疗所和传染病 中心等方面的费用被调高后,他们的薪金一般上都会被削减。 随着工程外包的趋势日益普遍,尤其是低技能工作,提供外包服务的 承包商往往利润率偏低。除此之外,他们可能签了长期合同,以固定 的价格提供服务,因此他们对人事成本的上升较敏感,也较难承担额 外的开销。 移民经济学人道主义组织(Humanitarian Organisation for Migration Economics)已对将医药成本的增加转移到员工身上的事件表示关注。 在聘请新加坡和外籍劳工来执行同样的低技能工作的情况下,雇主不 能付不同的薪水。这意味持有低技能的新加坡员工,将面临工资下降 的可能性。 统计部(Department of Statistics)在 2005 年的一项住户调查显示,从 2000 至 2005,家庭收入的最低 11%至 20%的家庭收入每年下跌 4.3%。 只要雇主一天不需要为外国劳工缴交公积金,新加坡和外国劳工就可 能永远无法在公平的环境下竞争。 此外,本地的男性公民在退伍后还 需定时回营接受预备役训练。 111 .Healthcare | 6 提高外籍人士的生活成本,未必对新加坡人有利 商业时报.

910 万元, 平均每人的津贴是$136。 若包括这笔 3.600 万元,平均津贴将增至 $261。这将从而使到贫困病人的资助增加 92%。 或者,我们也可考虑 给予住在较低级病房的国人更高的津贴。 我提议,可否考虑不增加外籍人士及永久居民的收费,但给予新加坡 更多的津贴。这样以来,不是皆大欢喜吗?这也胜于四人中有一人 (非公民)不满意,及其它一或两人(公民)也可能不满意,因为他 们须因前者而付更多的费用。 为何不动用每年向外籍劳工所收取的数千万元税务,让新加坡人不需 要为了外籍劳工而付更多的费用? 在设法确保新加坡人比非居民享有更多优惠的同时,我们是否在为自 己制造更多问题? 112 .6 | 医疗保健 雇主应聘用外劳而无需支付公积金,开支也减少了。新加坡人在扣除 公积金后的工资,要比外劳少20%,因此生活变得更加艰难。 除此之外,新加坡人还需要养家活口。相比之下外籍劳工只需负担个 人的开销。正因如此,多数的新加坡人都不愿意接受低技能的工作。 取消外国劳工的津贴、减少永久居民的资助,并对新加坡人维持现 状,与其这样,为何不从预计三千六百万的额外收入中拨款增加新加 坡人的津贴? 外籍与永久居民的人数增加,同时影响了新加坡人的生计。若成节省 本上没有对人民有着金钱上的实在意义,这相等于一个无人获益的局 面。 例如,去年医药基金针对 288.000 名病人的申请总共支出 3.

'bringing the total number of people allowed to dip into their Medisave to one million'. high blood pressure. For this example.2 per cent of the amount deducted from Medisave. 113 . 30 August 2006 I refer to the article “MOH publishes patients' average hospital bill data” (The Business Times. 'Each transaction will carry an administrative fee of $3. With the resident population at 3.6 million. and 15 per cent of the rest of the bill. high blood pressure.05. high cholesterol and stroke will be able to use Medisave. 23th August 2006) and media reports that Medisave will be extended to cover general medical practitioner bills for those with chronic illnesses. does it mean that 28 per cent of the population has diabetes.2 per cent more than the interest that CPF pays us for OA and SA. the administrative fee works out to be 7. how many unhealthy Singaporeans are there? What percentage of the population are not in good health? This statistic is quite alarming. such as diabetes.Healthcare | 6 Issues Healthcare Panel Should Explore th The Business Times. The CPF pays 2. 'A patient will have to pay $30 out of pocket for each visit.50. Those suffering from diabetes.' In this example.5 and 4 per cent respectively on the ordinary (OA) and special accounts (SA). the amount that can be deducted from Medisave is $42. high cholesterol and stroke? If we include other illnesses. if the medical fee is $80. in percentage terms.' For example.7 and 3. the administrative fee is 4. and I would like to suggest that the Health Promotion Board step up its efforts to help Singaporeans stay healthy.

6 | 医疗保健 At this rate. According to the Credit Counselling Service. in-hospital doctors' visits. and from January 1. post-hospitalisation treatment and medicines? I understand that the trend has been to discharge patients earlier from hospital. This may have contributed to the declining share of hospitalisation costs to total costs. As to media reports that most people are able to pay health costs using Medisave and that the 'released data' 'assure Singaporeans that healthcare here has remained affordable'.000 Singaporeans do not have any form of medical insurance. than the CPF interest they earn. a survey of more than 500 Singaporeans revealed that 64 per cent of the respondents are not confident of coping with medical costs. and how much more will it collect when Medisave can be used for out-patient treatment from October for the 275. the CPF Board will collect additional revenue of $6. do the hospital bills size statistics include pre-hospitalisation consultation. 17. The statistics speaks for themselves: An estimated 400. those with health problems may see their Medisave depleted quite quickly as they grow older and generally require more medical services. If each of the one million residents with the four chronic illnesses use their Medisave just twice a year. 2007 for those with high blood pressure. high cholesterol and stroke? Why do we have to pay a fee to CPF to use our own Medisave? In a recent Lianhe Zaobao study.000 people with diabetes.1 million from the administrative fees. Thus. some Singaporeans may be paying more to CPF by way of the Medisave administrative fee. How much does the CPF Board collect in a year now from Medisave administrative fees.6 per cent of Malays who got into debt was due to 114 . diagnostic tests.

According to the World Health Organisation's World Health Report 2006.2. it will tackle issues of quality and cost'. Aug 15). the OECD median is 8. Why not consider waiving GST for health costs? A healthcare focus group of five members of parliament has been formed to examine the current healthcare system ('High-level panel to explore healthcare options. 115 . Led by Minister of State for Health. 2004 and 2005 respectively.7 per cent for 'general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total expenditure on health' and 'general government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure'. 0. BT.6 per cent.9 and 'na' for 2003. Singapore at 36. Perhaps. In contrast. According to the Ministry of Health's website which was last updated in June 2006. was ranked 164 and 140 respectively out of 192 countries.Healthcare | 6 medical costs.1 and 7. government health expenditure over GDP (gross domestic product) (%) was only 1. the healthcare focus group could look into some of the above.

2%。 这样下去,有些新加坡人所缴付的行政费可能会比他们公积金户头所 赚取的利息来得高。所以那些有健康问题而需要更多医疗服务的人, 将会眼睁睁看着自己的保健储蓄很快的减少。 116 .50。 “每项交易将带有$3.6 | 医疗保健 医疗小组应该探讨的问题 商业时报.5%和 4%。根据以上例子,行政 费分别比普通及特别户头的利息多出 4.2006 年 8 月 30 日 参阅《商业时报》于 8 月 23 日刊登的报导《卫生部发表病人平均医药 费数据》,还有媒体报导关于扩展保健储蓄的用途,让慢性疾病患 者,例如糖尿病患者使用保健储蓄支付向全科医生求诊的费用。 患上糖尿病、高血压、高胆固醇以及中风的病人将可以使用他们的保 健储蓄,“把能利用保健储蓄的总人数提升至一百万人次”。 在新加坡居住的人口有 360 万,那是否表示 28%的人口患有糖尿病、 高血压、高胆固醇以及中风呢?要是我们包括了其他的病症,那到底 在新加坡有多少不健康的人?他们的百分比又是多少呢? 这项统计令人震惊。我建议保健促进局应加紧努力,帮助国人保持健 康。 “一名病人每次求诊时得自掏腰包缴付现金$30,还有其余 15%的医药 费”。打个比方,如果医药费是$80, 能用保健储蓄支付的数目是 $42.7%和 3.2%。 公积金普通及特别户头的利息分别是 2.05 的行政费”。在以上例子中,行政费是 保健储蓄的 7.

6%的马来同胞会陷入负债的困境,是因为付不起医药费。根据国际 卫生组织在 2006 年的世界卫生报道,新加坡政府在一般医疗方面的花 费 占 总 医 疗 开 支 的 36.Healthcare | 6 如果在那一百万患上所提到的四种慢性疾病的人当中,每个人每年都 使用保健储蓄两次,那公积金局将会从行政费赚取额外 610 万元的收 入。 公积金局目前每年到底从保健储蓄赚取多少行政费?而从 10 月起,那 275,000 名的糖尿病者还有从 2007 年 1 月 1 日起,那些高血压、高胆 固醇和中风的病人,当他们使用保健储蓄来缴门诊医疗费用时,公积 金局会从中赚取多少行政费呢?当我们使用自己的保健储蓄时,为什 么还得付费给公积金局? 根据《联合早报》近期的一项调查,在受访的 500 多名新加坡人当 中,64%表示对自己没有信心应付医疗费用。然而媒体却报导,大多数 人都可以使用保健储蓄来支付医疗费用,还有“所发表的数据”再次向新 加坡人保证医疗费用是大家都负担得起的。 但是,以上所指的“医疗费 用”是否有包括住院前的会诊、诊断测试、住院后的治疗和药物等有关 费用呢?我了解最近有允许病人提早出院的趋势。这可能会减少住院 费所占总医疗费的比例。 在数据中可以清楚看出这一点:大约 40 万名新加坡人没有任何医疗保 险。根据 Credit Counselling Service(辅导贷款者的机构)的数据,有 17.9%和‘不适用’。 117 .7%,这分别在 192 个国家中排名第 164 名和第 140 名。 根据卫生部在 2006 年 6 月更新的网站,政府的医疗开支占国内生产总 值的比例分别在 2003、2004 与 2005 年是 1.2%、0.1% , 此 外 医 疗 方 面 的 花 费 占 总 政 府 开 支 的 7.

6%。 为 何不考虑取消对医疗费所征收的消费税?一个共有 5 位议员的保健专 题小组已经成立,以探讨目前的保健方案,(《商业时报》),8 月 15 日,〈卫生部部长带领的专题小组将探讨保健方案,并研究素质与 费用的课题〉)。或许,这保健专题小组该探讨以上所提到的问题。 118 .6 | 医疗保健 相比之下,经济合作与发展组织(OECD)所发表的中位数是 8.

A single parent earning $1. For example. it is a whopping increase of 3. It is difficult for. two parents earning $501 each with one dependent child will not qualify because the per capita income per dependant is $1. I would like to suggest that consideration be given to the absolute amount of the subsidy. as it may effectively consume about 92 per cent of the income. which exceeds $1. 12 January 2006 I refer to media reports that means testing will start in April for some services in the disability sector. for therapy. The percentage increase from the existing subsidised rate should also be considered. children with palsy may have to pay $920. as in this case. instead of $30 now.001 with one dependent child would also not qualify.000 per cent. a family with per capita income of $1. How could families like the above be considered as 'not poor' for means testing? 119 .001 to pay $920.'calculated by dividing family's income by the number of dependants'. instead of just an arbitrary cut-off of $1.Healthcare | 6 Relook Means Testing For Disabled th The Business Times. Household per capita income could also be incorporated in means testing. instead of just per capita income per dependant.000 per capita income .000. To illustrate how this may impact the lower income group. say.002.

6 | 医疗保健 The fact is that the disabled typically have to incur other additional expenses due to their special needs. and thus the means testing subsidy may just be one item of the overall expenses. and the highest had $1 more than the second. is discrimination against the disabled. the third and fourth 20 per cent of households had rebates of $25. Perhaps another alternative is to have another dependant like a child or parent in order to qualify? 120 . just to go below the $1. In contrast. As I understand that means testing has not been implemented for healthcare . $26. third and fourth quintiles? Shouldn't the lowest have been given more and the highest least? Affected parents may be forced to quit their jobs or take on lower paying jobs. In this connection.000 per capita. Why is it that the lowest 20 per cent had only $1 more than the highest. in a way. in order to qualify for the subsidy. rebates in 1998 and 2003 included rebates on rent and utilities for HDB flats and ERS (Economic Restructuring Shares) of $27 and $25 monthly per capita. to help lower income Singaporeans. Reducing or taking away the subsidy may increase their financial burden. why is it being introduced for some services in the disability sector first from April? This. and the highest. when the rest of the population are not subject to means testing. They were given to the lowest 20 per cent household income group and the second quintile group respectively.

those who are deemed to be 'able to pay' may become very poor overnight. How many of these disabled children qualify under means testing? Those who cannot afford may have to take their children out of the programme. and less to those who are able to pay'. all 46 of the Spastic Children's Association of Singapore's (SCAS) Eipic (Early Intervention Programme for Infants and Children) clients will have to pay $920. 121 . Unless the scheme is flexible. while another 34 awaiting admission to SCAS' new day-activity centre will have to pay $720 a month. The reason given was that 'means testing ensures that funds are allocated more to the poor and needy.Healthcare | 6 It is saddening to read that without any subsidy. and some of the disabled may in a sense become 'financially disabled' as well. The new means testing may only increase the stress on charities to get more funds to help their beneficiaries. and their condition will simply deteriorate without any therapy. stay at home. The charity sector is already challenged by the NKF saga.

6 | 医疗保健 从新探讨对残疾实施财力测试 商业时报.2006 年 1 月 12 日 参阅一些关于残疾福利社团将会在 4 月开始测试受益人的财力状况的 媒体报道,我想在此发表看法。 治疗儿童麻痹症的医药费将从过去的$30 调高到$920。 我建议当局应该考虑派出的资助金的具体数额,而不是仅以$1000 的 平均收入-“以家庭中收入除以非独立的家庭成员计算”来考量。 一个家庭如果只有$1001 的收入, 缴付$920 的治疗费用将是家庭总收 入的 92%。 医药费增加的比例也是不可忽视的。以上述的例子而言,津贴后的医 药费增加了 3000%。 除了考虑到平均收入中每位非独立家庭成员所支配到的数额外,我们 也应该考虑整个家庭的平均收入。 例如,一个育有一名子女,父母各别赚取$501 收入的家庭将不能在现 有的计划下得到援助,因为他们每位非独立家庭成员所支配到的数额 超过$1000。 一个收入$1001 育有一名子女的单亲家庭也不会被接受。 诸如此类的家庭怎么能在财力测试中被列为“不贫穷”呢? 122 .

Healthcare | 6 事实是,残疾人士需要许多的帮助,这是因为他们有许多的特殊需 要,而财力测试的资助也只是开支的一部分。 减少或取消津贴会增加他们经济负担。 据我所知,财力测试尚未在医药界实施。但为何预先在残疾人士的一 些服务被采用?这不是对残疾人士的歧视吗? 这在某种程度上的确是对残障人士的歧视,因为其他国人都不需要接 受测试。 为了帮助低收入新加坡人,政府在 1998 和 2003 年给予房屋租金与水 电费的回扣,及每月平均$27 与$25 的经济重组股份(Economic Restructuring Shares)。上述的回扣与经济重组股份分别提供给家庭收 入最低的 20%与 20%至 40%的家庭。 相对之下,收入阶层 40%至 60%的家庭可获得每月平均$25 的回扣, 收入阶层 60%至 80%则是$26。为何最低收入层所得到的津贴仅仅比 最高层多出$1,而最高收入层比最低的 20%至 80%所得到的回扣多出 $1 呢?最低收入层不是因该获得更多援助吗? 受影响的父母可能在没选择的情况下被迫辞去工作,或选择较低收入 的职业,以符合申请津贴的条件。或者他们可为家庭增添多一名非独 立人士,如父母或子女。 很令人遗憾的,在没有任何补贴的情状下,新加坡痉挛儿童协会 (Spastic Children's Association of Singapore) 的 婴 儿 及 儿 童 预 防 计 划 (EIPIC,Early Intervention Programme for Infants and Children)的 46 名 123 .

6 | 医疗保健 病友每月需缴付$920,而等待申请加入新加坡痉挛儿童协会日间活动 中心的 34 名病友则须交付每月$720。 上述的残障儿童在测试中是否符合申请津贴的标准?无法缴付$920 医 疗费用的痉挛儿童,情状往往每况愈下。 全国肾胀基金会事件已严重打击了慈善界,新的计划肯定会影响各慈 善组织所筹得的款项。 实施财力测试的宗旨是为了更妥善地分配资源,以确保贫困人士能受 益。除非能够灵活处理,否则一些人可能因此而无法缴付医疗费用。 124 .

3 in 2005.2% a year from 1995 to 2005. because the needy should be spared the brunt of rising costs of so many increases all within a period of just one year. 2002. against inflation of just one per cent.6%. electricity and gas tariffs' price indices rose by 8.5 in 1990. Transport fares were increased in 2000. I would like to suggest that fees for C class wards and polyclinics be kept unchanged by having perhaps higher hikes for higher class wards. This trend of increasing fees for the lowest segment of needy Singaporeans should be curtailed or reviewed. The benefits of workfare and GST offsets for the lower-income may be diminished by all these increases in basic necessities and services. While I can understand and appreciate the need to raise fees. 2001. but it is a 10 per cent rise. 125 . According to the Department of Statistics' (DOS) Singapore.5 per cent in 1970 to 7. 2. and 6. The distribution of government health expenditure to private health expenditure has changed from a 50/50 percentage split in 1965 to 25/75 in 2000.Healthcare | 6 Fee Hikes For Needy Should Be Reviewed th The Business Times. 2005 and 2006. 6. government operating expenditure on health as a percentage of total government operating expenditure has declined from 9. the water. 1965-1995 Statistical Highlights: A Review of 30 Years' Development. According to the Yearbook of Statistics Singapore. 23 March 2007 I refer to the increase in polyclinic and hospital charges. The 80-cent increase for polyclinic fees may seem small in absolute terms.8 per cent in 1980. HDB one-room and two-room rentals were increased in November last year. and 4.8%.

6%, 2.2007 年 3 月 23 日 参阅了综合诊疗所和医院的费用上调,我想在此作出回应。 综合诊疗所增收的八角钱收费固然是个小数目,但却是 10%的涨幅。 根据新加坡统计署(Department of Statistics)发表的“1965-1995 重点 数字:回顾 30 年的发展”,政府医药保健的营运开支,作为总开支的 百分比率,从 1970 年的 9.8%,1990 的 6.8%和 4.6 | 医疗保健 贫困人士面对的费用上涨应受检讨 商业时报.3%。 政府对私人医药开支的比例从 1965 年的 50/50 改变至 2000 年的 25/75。 建屋局一房和二房式组屋的租金在去年 11 月上调了。 对于低收入阶层,较有需要的新加坡人费用上涨的趋势应该受到控制 或检讨。 根据新加坡数据年册,水,电和煤气的价格指数从 1995 至 2005 分别 上升了 8.2%,而通货膨胀率只上升 1%。 公共交通车资在 2000,2001,2002,2005 和 2006 年内都有所增加。 就业花红和消费税补贴计划为低收入者所带来的帮助,也随着基本生 活必需品与服务的涨价削弱了。 我可以了解提高收费的需要,但我建议通过对更高级病房实施较高的 收费调整以让 C 级病房与综合诊疗所的收费能够保持不变。如此便能 缓和短短一年来多项费用上涨对有需要人士的冲击。 126 .5%下降至 1980 的 7.5%,和 2005 年的 6.

Investments | 7 7. Investments 投资 127 .

If one had been appointed. 22 November 2002 I refer to the articles “CPF takes in consultant for low-cost pension plans” th (The Business Times.50 per lot. I would like to ask whether a consultant was appointed when unit trusts were first included in the CPF Investment Scheme. annual operational charges or expense ratio of between 0. sales charge of up to 5 per cent. In addition to looking at low-cost pension funds. I would like to suggest that the consultant examine the feasibility of putting a cap on the total expense ratio (investment fund's expense ratio plus CPF agent bank's charges) of existing investment vehicles included in the CPF Investment Scheme. with a minimum charge of between $2 and $5. and “Navigator shows the way” th (The Business Times. 128 .6 per cent of the NAV (net asset value). According to the CPF website. and annual performance fees of up to 20 per cent of excess returns over benchmark for the unit trust. I would like to support the recommendation of the Economic Review Committee's CPF working group that the government facilitate the provision of low-cost private pension plans for CPF members. the typical charges for investing CPF funds in unit trusts are a transaction fee of between $2 and $2. maybe we need to find out how the current high costs of investing have come about. 14 November 2002).8 and 5. 20 Nov 2002) by Genevieve Cua. redemption charge of up to 6 per cent of NAV. service charge of $2 per unit trust fund per quarter.7 | 投资 Look At Impact Of Low-Cost Pension Funds nd The Business Times.

and the economy. Why is the country having one of the best low-cost pension systems in the world also the one with one of the worst-performing stock markets? In this connection. 129 . I understand that Sweden is the worst-performing stock market in Europe. in addition to the merits and mechanics of such pension funds. unemployment. financial services industry.Investments | 7 I understand that in the United Kingdom. having lost 62 per cent since its record high. after a study showed that consumers were paying higher investing costs than a decade ago. the consultant could also look at the likely impact and implications of low-cost pension funds on the stock market. a cap on the expense ratio of pensions was introduced about two years ago. I would also like to suggest that. perhaps. I believe it has been suggested that Singapore follow Sweden's low-cost pension system.

50,附加每季$2 的服务费。最低的交易费是$2-$5;最高的服务费 是 5%,每年的业务费用或开支的比例在于资产净值的 0.2002 年 11 月 22 日 参阅《公积金局为低成本退休计划聘请顾问》(《商业时报》,11 月 14 日)及 Genevieve Cua 的《公积金局指引方向》(《商业时报》,11 月 20 日)两篇文章,本人想在此作出回应。 经济检讨委员会的公积金工作小组建议,政府应为所有公积金会员提 供低成本的退休金。对于委员会的建议,本人非常支持。我想请问, 当一个信托基金首次加入中央公积金投资计划时,是否有征询专业顾 问的意见?如果有的话,我们需要知道投资成本为何那么高。 根据公积金的官方网页,投资公积金的款项的交易费是每手$2 至 $2.7 | 投资 探讨低成本的退休金 商业时报.6%。 还有,赎回费是资产净值的 6%,年度业绩表现的费用也可高达超过基 准的 20%。 除了价格低廉的退休金,我也建议有关顾问研究公积金投资计划所有 投资产品的总支出比例(基金的支出比例加上带领银行的收费),也 考虑设定总支出费顶限的可行性。英国在两年前实施退休金支出比例 的顶限,因为一项调查显示消费者缴交的投资费用比十年前高。 曾有人建议我国的退休计划按照瑞典的低成本养老基金计划。据我所 知瑞典是欧洲股票市场表现最差的国家。为什么这个国家有着价格最 低廉的养老基金计划,却同时有欧洲市场最差的股票表现? 我建议我们研究在研究价格低廉的养老基金计划时,当局的顾问必须 考虑到我国股市,金融市场,就业率及整体经济的表现。 130 .8%致 5.

The total amount invested has increased by 195 per cent. to Sept 30.5 per cent interest rate on the Ordinary account. from $8. Now that another year has passed. asking for the cumulative rate of return for CPFIS investments. the number of people investing their CPF under the CPF Investment Scheme (CPFIS) has increased by 103 per I wrote to the Forum. While a fully self-reliant retirement system has its merits. relying on the CPFIS.Investments | 7 Have CPF Investors Fared Better Since 1993-2002? st The Straits Times. from Oct 11. and the CPFIS crosses its 10th anniversary.2 billion in 1996 to $24. According to the CPF website (www. How has CPF investors fared over the years? Last year. 1 October 2004 I refer to the articles. on a cumulative basis for nine years.666 this year. it would seem that the majority of Singaporeans may not have done well.2 billion this year.675 in 1996 to 729. 131 . 'New rules give CPF investors more legal protection' th (The Strait Times 29 September 2004) and “CPF sounder way for th retirement” (The Straits Times 15 September 2004). from 359. 1993.cpf. The CPF Board replied that 65 per cent of CPF investors did not beat the 2. I would like to ask whether the statistics have improved.

675 人次,至今年的 729.7 | 投资 公积金投资者自 1993-2002 的表现是否有进步? 海峡时报.5%的利息回报 率。 转眼一年又过去了,CPFIS 也跨越了十周年大关。我想请问以上数据是 否有进步? 一个完全自足的退休制度固然有其优点.gov. 2004 年 10 月 1 日 参阅《新条例给予公积金投资者更多法律保障》(《海峡时报》,9 月 29 日)和《公积金-更健全的退休方式》(《海峡时报》,9 月 15 日) 一文,我想在此作出回应。 根据公积金局网站(,通过公积金投资计划(CPFIS)投资 的人数增加了 103%,从 1996 年的 359.但大部分依赖 CPFIS 的新加坡 人似乎表现有欠理想。 132 .666 人 次。总投资额增加了 195%,从 1996 年的 82 亿新元到今年的 242 亿新 元。 请问公积金投资者历年来表现如何? 去年,我曾在报章社论版上询问 CPFIS 投资的累积回报率。公积金局回 应说,以九年的累积回报率来计算,从 1993 年 10 月 11 日,至 2002 年 9 月 30 日,65%的投资者无法超越公积金普通户口 2.cpf.

in its article for which it paid $390. 5 October 2004 I refer to the article HKs investment strategy beats Singapore's: S&P by st Daniel Buenas (The Business Times 1 October 2004). 5. and the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation's ( GIC ) annual returns which have exceeded the targeted 4-5 per cent above inflation. suggesting that the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) change the policy of not disclosing the return on Singapore's foreign reserves. I am very proud of our achievements and reputation. 16 per cent.Investments | 7 Disclose Singapore's Returns On Reserves th The Business Times.000 for defamation on the issue of nepotism.5 per cent). So. since the agency was formed in 1981. MAS replied on Aug 14 that 'our policy of not disclosing the annual rate of return on the reserves is to avoid undue emphasis on year-to-year variations in returns that would detract from MAS's core objectives'.5 per cent (if inflation was 1. and am dismayed whenever I see organisations like S&P and The Economist poking fun at Singapore's returns and the issue of non-transparency. is the return 1.7 and 4 per cent from 1999 to 2003. 133 . in contrast to Temasek's compounded annual rate of return of more than 16 per cent over the past 30 years.7-4 per cent. Standard and Poor's estimates that the Singapore Government's annual returns on its assets averaged between 1.7 per cent.7 per cent? I wrote to the press on Aug 12. Like all Singaporeans. The Economist magazine (issue dated Aug 14-20) said that Temasek's return was 1. or 1.5-6.

Since the Prime Minister's National Day Rally speech on Aug 22. for the sake of Singapore's future.7 | 投资 This may affect others' perception of Singapore globally. 134 . like the five-day week for the civil service and schools. Perhaps it is time to kill the 'sacred cow' of not disclosing the returns. because in a sense every Singapore has a stake in the reserves. and make it harder to attract business and investment into Singapore. This underscores the PM's call for the need to change and adapt. many 'sacred cows' have been slaughtered.

5%(以 1.2005 年 10 月 5 日 参阅 Daniel Buenas 的《香港的投资策略比新加坡有效:标准与普尔》 (《 商业时报》, 10 月 1 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 标准与普尔(Standard and Poor)预计新加坡从 1999 年至 2003 年,资 产回报率平均大约在 1.5-6.Investments | 7 公布新加坡储备金的投资回报率 商业时报.7%至 4%左右,与淡马锡集团 30 年来 16%的复 合年增长率相比之下有天渊之别。1981 建立起的新加坡政府投资公司 (GIC),每年预计回报率也超越了通货膨胀率 4-5%。《经济学人》杂志 (8 月 14-20 日)表示淡马锡集团的回报率只有 1.7-4%,16%,5.000。究竟回报率是 1.7%,因而被告诽谤, 并被迫赔偿$390.5% 通货膨胀率为比例),还是 1.7%? 在 8 月 12 日,我曾在报章上致函,建议新加坡金融管理局更改不公布 新加坡外汇储备回报率的政策。新加坡金融管理局在 8 月 14 日回应: “我们不公布外汇储备的回报率的政策是为了避免过分强调与往年同期 的回报率,造成新加坡金融管理局偏离核心目标。” 如同所有的新加坡人,我为国家的成就与名誉感到骄傲,也对标准与 普尔和《经济学人》诸如此类的组织嘲笑我国的回报率和透明度感到 难过。这会影响其他国家对新加坡的印象,也会影响新加坡对外来投 资者和企业的吸引力。 在 8 月 22 日总理的国庆群众大会后,许多根深蒂固的政策都一一被给 改变了。其中一项便是公务部门与学校实施的 5 天工作日。或许,这 正是时候改变多年来公布新加坡储备金回报率的禁忌,毕竟储备金属 于每个新加坡人。这样做也正好响应了总理的号召,为了新加坡的未 来改变和适应。 135 .

7 | 投资

How About A Committee On CPF Returns?

The Business Times, 25 September 2007
I refer to the article, 'Longevity Insurance committee may report in 6
months' (BT, Sept 21), and the debate in Parliament on CPF returns. In reply
to a question by opposition MP Low Thia Khiang (Hougang) on whether the
GIC uses funds from the CPF funds to invest, Dr Ng said: 'The answer is no.'
Using a banking analogy, Dr Ng said: 'You put money in a bank and you
agree that you put it there and you get 2 per cent. The bank publishes a
report and says of all its earnings, it earned 8 per cent. You go to the bank
and say, 'I want 8 per cent'. It doesn't work.'
He said that the government bears the liabilities in the same way the bank
does. 'The Ministry of Finance has taken our liabilities. What the Ministry of
Finance does with its money is (its) consideration. But . . . the CPF Board . . .
promises a risk-free rate to (CPF) members. And that is how it works.'
The analogy used may not be very appropriate, because the bank's
customers and shareholders are two different groups of people, who in
many ways are on different sides. In contrast, for CPF members and the
(ultimate) shareholders of Temasek , they are the same, the citizens of
Singapore. We are all on the same side.
If Temasek (or GIC) do not use CPF funds to invest, where do CPF funds go
to, since the budget is in surplus for most years?
Also, unlike the bank analogy, Singaporeans are not asking for the entire 8
per cent - just some of it to enable more of us to retire with enough money.


Investments | 7
Since a committee on Longevity Insurance has been formed, why not also
form a committee on CPF returns, or have the same committee study CPF
returns too. We should be studying the causes of the problem, instead of
just the solutions to the problem of Singaporeans not having enough CPF to
retire on.


7 | 投资

商业时报,2007 年 9 月 25 日
参阅商业时报于 9 月 21 日刊登的报导《长寿保险委员会可能在 6 个月
有用公积金的资金来作投资。 黄博士回答:“答案是没有”。
黄博士利用一个银行的比喻:“假设你把钱存入银行,并同意获取 2%
的回报率。如果银行发布报告,公布年度利润是 8%,你不可能去银行
要求 8%的回报率”。黄博士表示,政府和银行所承担的责任是相同
如果淡马锡控股(或 GIC)不是利用公积金的款项来作投资,那公积金
外,新加坡人并不要求全部的 8%回报–只要能让我们拥有足够的退休

Investments | 7

Questions Remain After Review On Annuities

The Straits Times, 28 December 2007
I refer to the article, “Annuities: Return of capital under study” (Straits

Times, 8 Dec 2007).
Since it took six years of comprehensive review to come up with the CPF
reforms, why were independent actuaries not used in the first place?
The minister in charge of ageing issues, Mr Lim Boon Heng, said a report
given to him on the CPF changes was 22 pages long. Why not make such
reports and studies available to the public, for public feedback?
By offering more options like capital return, earlier annuity payout and so
on, the scheme may be skewed to benefit poorer Singaporeans less. This is
because the cheapest premium option at age 55 may be the original age 85
life annuity, which most poorer people may choose because I estimate the
median CPF balance at age 55 is only about $20,000 plus.
As to the scrapping of the private pension plan ('Private pension plans - the
one that got away'; ST, Dec 8) because 'the probability of getting below 2.5
per cent over a 20-year period was 10 per cent, this meant that one out of
10 would get less than what they are getting today in their Ordinary
Accounts. Is that risk worth bearing?' - I understand the historical
probability of getting below 2.5 per cent over a 20-year period is less than 2
per cent, for a globally diversified portfolio of 50 per cent equities and 50
per cent bonds.
As cited by the Finance Minister, such a portfolio returned 5.9 per cent per
annum over the past 30 years.


7 | 投资
In this connection, I would like to ask what asset mix and methodology
were employed in the simulation study on CPF returns?
Isn't it worth the risk to have a less than 2 per cent chance of getting less
than 2.5 per cent, against the average return of 5.9 per cent, instead of the
current state of affairs whereby the median CPF balance at 55 is only about
$20,000 plus?
In this regard, to illustrate the effect of compounding on higher returns, a
25-year-old Singaporean earning $1,450 a month, with CPF contribution of
$500 which is assumed to remain at the same amount, from age 25 to 65,
will grow to $412,567 at 2.5 per cent, and $973,906 at 5.9 per cent.
Finally, according to the Department of Statistics, life expectancy at age 85
is 4.7 years, and at age 55 is 26.8 years.


Investments | 7

海峡时报, 2007 年 12 月 28 日
既然公积金改革用了 6 年的时间,为何没有咨询独立精算师的意见
书有 22 页。为何不公开类似报道,以征求公众的意见?
海峡时报在 12 月 8 日的一篇关于私人养老金计划的报道中指出,私人
养老金计划在 20 年内回报率低于 2.5%的机会只有 10%。这表示,10
人当中有一人的公积金普通户口回报率会少于现有的 2.5%。据我所
知,若以全球多元化的投资组合,其中包括 50%股票和 50 %债券相
比,以过去的 20 年的纪录,回报率少于 2.5%的机率低于 2%。财政部
部长也表示,上述组合过去 30 年的回报率是每年 5.9%。
一个平均回报率 5.9 %的投资组合,回报率少于 2%的机率实际上低于
2.5%。 这样的“风险”难道不比现有的公积金计划好吗?


7 | 投资
打个比方,一名 25 岁,月薪$1450 的国人,每月的公积金贡献是
$500。假设公积金缴交率保持不变,他65岁时,以 2.5%的回报率来
计算,他的储蓄将增长至$412,567。如果回报率是 5.9%的话,数额则
最后,根据统计部的数据,85 岁国人的预期寿命是 4.7 年,55 岁的预
期寿命则是 26.8 年。


Population and Employment | 8

8. Population and


3 January 2008). Earlier media reports said that about 7.969 new S'poreans” (Straits Times.600 in the past five years . Dec 30).011 new permanent residents (PRs). “Rising living costs: Spare a thought for the middle classes” by Ms Kamala Dewi Poologanathan rd (Straits Times.969 (new citizens in the first 10 months) by 7. and 46.300 Singapore citizenships were granted in the first half of this year. “Basic needs: Prices up far more than inflation rate” by rd Mr Koo Seng Cheong (Straits Times. According to the National Population Secretariat.310 taking up permanent residency.900 foreigners were granted PR status in the first nine months of this year. In the first 10 months of this year.209 foreigners taking up Singapore citizenship and 57. does it mean that the number of new citizens grew by 91 per cent in the last four months? 144 .91. a 21 per cent rise compared with the average of 43.8 | 人口与就业 Review Policies To Help Ordinary Singaporeans Cope With Rising Prices th The Straits Times,7 January 2008 I refer to the letters. the whole of last year saw 13. Dividing 13.and 53. So.300 (new citizens in the first 6 months) gives 1.600 in the last five years. 3 January 2008) and the report “13. Singapore attracted 13.969 new citizens much higher than the average of 9.

In this connection. and HDB one.and tworoom rental applicants have all increased to record highs. This means that new PRs grew by 13 per cent in the last one month. dividing the broadening of the criteria for citizenship applications in 2004 . be reviewed to balance population and economic growth with more help for Singaporeans to cope with rising prices and the competition for jobs and housing. Our foreign labour. Jan 4). which appeared in the report.5 per cent.5 million may have contributed to inflationary pressures on prices. 145 . At these growth rates.Population and Employment | 8 Similarly. The above statistics may be a call for policies . based on how effectively the gains of growth are being distributed.13. record number of investments and robust economic growth of 7. Polyclinics Medical Assistance Scheme patients. pushing the Consumer Price Index to a 25-year high. citizenship and residency policies to grow the economy and population to 6.011 (new PRs in the first 10 months) by 46. lowest unemployment in a decade. about 30 per cent of workers have not had any real increase in wages over the last six years or so.900 (new PRs in the first nine months) gives 1. 'My three hopes for the new year' (Straits Time. Despite a record number of new jobs created. I would like to echo and support the remarks: 'Success is more than GDP .What is needed are new benchmarks to measure how we as a society fare. the number of ComCare beneficiaries. Medifund applications. the number of foreigners and PRs may exceed citizens in about 10 years' time. especially to the weakest and neediest'.

209 名外国人取得新加坡公民,另 外,57.报 2008 年 1 月 7 日 参阅 Koo Seng Cheong 先生的《价格上涨远远超过通货膨胀率》(《海 峡时报》,1 月 3 日),Kamala Dewi Poologanathan 小姐的《为中产阶 层人士想一想》(《海峡时报》,1 月 3 日)及报道《13.969 名新公 民》(《海峡时报》,12 月 30 日),我想在此作出回应。 我国人口秘书长表示,去年有 13.300 名人士获得公民权。而 9 月 之内,近 4690 名的外国人得到永久居留权。 获得公民权的人数,照我 计算,在前 4 个月增长了 91%。获得永久居留权的人士,在一个月内 也跟着上长了 13%。 如果这个趋势持续下去,在十年之内外国及永久居民人数将超越新加 坡公民。 我国的外地劳工,公民,及永久居民等方面的政策,加上 6 百 50 万人 口的目标,造成通胀率不断上升,也使消费物价指数达到 25 年以来的 最高点。 尽管新就业机会创新高,失业率十年内最低,经济增长蓬勃,在 7.600 名上升了 21%,达 53.011 人次。 媒体较早前报道,今年的上半年有近 7.8 | 人口与就业 检讨政策,以协助新加坡人应付生活费的增长 海峡时.310 外国人得到永久居留权。 至今年以来的十个月内,新加坡吸引了 13.5%。然而,仍然有 30% 的人民在过去六年内没有实质的工资上调。 146 .969 名新公民。这数字比前 五年的平均 9600 名高出许多。获得永久居民的人数也从前五年平均的 43.

Population and Employment | 8 除 此 之 外 , 社 区 关 怀 机 构 ( ComCare ) 的 受 益 人 , 申 请 医 药 基 金 (Medifund)的人士,综合诊疗所援助计划下的病人,及租用一或二 房式组屋的人数都创新高。 以上的数据意味着政策可能需要改变-如提高 2004 年申请公民权的标 准,以确保我国的人数与经济增长取得平衡,并帮助新加坡人应付物 价上升,及就业与申请房屋的竞争。 最后,我想重声《我在新年的三个愿望》(《海峡时报》,1 月 4 日) 这篇报道中的一段话:“真正的成功不可单单凭国内生产总值来衡量。 社会的表现须考虑是否能有效地分发我国经济发展收益,特别是对于 最需要帮助的一群”。 147 .

I have come across an elderly road sweeper. “Contract workers: Caught in the pay squeeze” (The th Sunday Times 8 June 2008). an initiative supported by the Workforce Development Agency and National Trades Union Congress. 25 June 2008 I refer to the article. This job of building custodians or multi-skilled cleaners comes with a $1.8 | 人口与就业 Retraining Low-Wage Workers: Let's Be Realistic th The Straits Times. how realistic is it to expect them to undergo re-training to expand job duties and responsibilities? How many companies have sent cleaners on this re-training programme? How many of the 37. an 84-year-old 148 . pests and killer litter. seeks to enhance the skills of cleaners to value-add in work such as changing light bulbs.000 starting wage. such as sighting and reporting defects. As I understand most cleaners are elderly with low education. clearing blockages and 'custodial checking'. how likely is it that one paying the lowest wage of $700 will pay the $1.775 course fee and allow time off for the 112-hour course? With regard to the advisory to all companies and contractors on responsible outsourcing practices issued by the Ministry of Manpower in March. compared to a cleaner's $700 to $800. The Building Custodian Job Re-design Programme.000 contract cleaners have so far been sent for retraining? As most cleaners are employed by contractors which have to bid for contracts at the lowest competitive price.

Although no minimum wage is imposed. and try to influence their outsourced contractors to pay decent wages. 149 . Government agencies. statutory boards. For example. government-linked companies and so on should take note of the very low wages of workers on their premises. cleaning companies are required under the new contracts to send their workers to the National Skills Recognition System Clean Residential Estates course.000 starting wage for full-time workers and $500 for part-time workers. they could follow the example of the PAP town wage increment. bonus and so on. and an elderly woman who works 24 hours a week as a housekeeper at a community club for just $300 plus a month . which have recommended a $1.Population and Employment | 8 Singaporean man who works 55 hours a week for $650 a month. in new cleaning contracts since April.

000 名和约清洁工人中有多少已被送去再培训? 由于大部分清洁工人都被承包商聘佣,在需要以最低价格竟标和约的 同时,支付$700 最低薪金的雇主又怎可能支付$1. 2008 年 6 月 25 日 参阅《合约员工:薪酬挤压的受害者》(The Sunday Times,6 月 8 日)一文,我想在此作出回应。 大厦保管人员工作调整计划,一项由人力发展理事会与全国职工总会 提倡的计划,旨在提升清洁工人和例如换灯泡,清理淤塞,检查并报 道破损,蚊虫与高楼抛物之类员工的技能。 大厦保管人员或多技能清洁工人的起薪是$1000,相比之下普通清洁 工人的薪水只有$700 至$800。 据我所知,清洁工人大多是教育程度低的年长人士。要求他们接受再 培训以扩大工作范围与职责的实际性还有待商榷。 请问有多少公司已派出清洁工人参与此再培训计划? 此外,请问 37.8 | 人口与就业 重新培训低薪员工:让我们面对现实 海峡时报.775 的学费,并批准 员工休假参与这 112 小时的课程呢? 人力部在三月发布了一篇文告,关于公司和承包商负责任的外包程 序。我曾遇到一名 84 岁的新加坡男子,每周工作 55 小时,赚取$650 的月薪。还有一名年长妇女在社区俱乐部里每周工作 24 小时,只赚取 区区$300 月薪,加薪与花红等皆无。 政府机构和政府相关公司等应注意在他们旗下工作的超低薪员工,并 设法促使承包商缴付合理的薪水。 150 .

000 的全职起薪与$500 的兼职起薪。 虽然没有设定最低工薪,在新的合约下清洁公司必须送他们的员工参 加全国技能确认系统清洁住屋课程。 151 .Population and Employment | 8 例如,他们可以根据人民行动党社区委员会的榜样,四月以后在未来 新的清洁和约里推荐$1.

and now 51 per cent last year. the number of unemployed for residents (Singaporeans and PRs) was 28.600 last year. unemployed residents increased by 149 per cent from 28.5m population ' (Straits Times. According to the MOM Report on Labour Force in Singapore 2006. National University Sociologist Associate Professor Pauline Straughn said that Singapore needs to assure its people that growing the population will not result in more competition for jobs. housing and places in school so that tension does not arise in the community.200 for locals.373 million to 1. The Manpower Ministry (MOM) said last year's figure for jobs creation was the largest number recorded and the highest ever at 88. 23 February 2007 I refer to the article.737 million. In percentage terms.000 in 1991 and 69. Against an increasing population. from 1991 to 2006. the percentage of jobs created to locals appears to be the lowest ever. a more significant statistic is the Unemployment Rate (Non-Seasonally Adjusted) for residents.6 per cent. 'Singapore gearing up for 6.000 to 69.8 | 人口与就业 More Residents Working For An Income That Has Not Changed For 10 Years th The Straits Times. This means that the resident labour 152 . 56 per cent in 2004 and 2005. 10 February 2070). which covers the period 1991-2006. which increased from 2 to 3. having declined from 90 per cent for the period 1997-2002 to 70 per cent. While the resident labour force increased by 27 per cent for the 15-year period from 1.600.

9 per cent a year in the past decade to $2. In view of the 118 per cent increase in part-timers for the last decade. Income growth may have been negative. This means that income grew by only $40 from 2001 to 2006. more residents are working for an income of $500 that has not changed for 10 years.300. 153 . after adjusting for inflation for the last five years.6 per cent per annum. expanding their share of employment from 3.5 per cent to 6.000 for the years 2001 to 2004. the number of part-timers has more than doubled over the decade from 51.Population and Employment | 8 force increased by 1. The median monthly income for part-timers is still the same at $500 compared to 10 years ago.400 to 112.3 per cent per annum. 'Although the median gross monthly income of full-time employed residents has grown 2.4 per cent per annum. The median monthly income for all employed residents (full-time and parttime) stagnated at $2. while unemployed residents increased by 6. or 0.3 per cent.040 as of June 2006'.

9%,至 2006 年 6 月的$2,900。兼职就业人口却增加了一倍,从 51,400 至 112,300,分别占总劳动人口的 3.7 万,也就 是 27%的增长,但是失业率却上升 149%,从 28.8 | 人口与就业 更多居民在过去十年内未曾加薪 海峡时报,2007 年 2 月 23 日 参阅 《新加坡为 650 万人口做准备》 ( 《海峡时报》, 2 月 10 日) 一文,我想在此作出回应。 国大社会学副教授 Pauline Straughn 表示,新加坡必须向人民保证,人 口的增长不会造成工作、房屋及学额等方面的竞争,以避免社区出现 紧张的气氛。 根局人力部 2006 年发布的《新加坡 1991-2006 劳动力报告》,居民 (新加坡公民和永久居民)的失业人数从 1991 年的 28,000 人增加至 去年的 69,000 人。更显著的是,失业率(未经过季节调整)从 1991 年的 2% 增加至 2006 年的 3.6%的增长,而失业率每年则有 6.000 至 69.4% 。在经过通货膨胀的调整后,可 能是还会出现负增长。 兼职员工的中位数月入过去 10 年来还是保持在$500。 若在过去 10 年内兼职员工人数增长了 118%,这也表示更多人目前领 取 10 年不变的$500 工资。 154 .6%。 虽然本地劳动人口在过去 15 年内有从 137.600。这数据 表示劳动人口每年有 1.000。这表示在这段期 间,收入增长只有每年$40,或 0.3 万增长至 173.3%。所有就业居民(全职与 兼职)月入的中位数从 2001 至 2004 年保持在$2.3%的增长。 居民的全职就业人口的每月总收入在过去十年内每年增长 2.5%和 6.

Keeping data secret may be disadvantageous to Singapore. the total population grew from 4.3 million” by Anna nd Teo (The Business Times, 2 Feb 2006). It has often been asked whether the inflow of cheap.351. who said greater clarity will only be possible if the government releases more data on the size and skills makeup of the foreign-worker workforce in individual industries. I support the workfare proposals as they encourage self-reliance by working. It does not want to expose Singapore's vulnerability in terms of its dependence on foreign labour. This may have been a contributing factor.Population and Employment | 8 Disclose More Information On Foreign Labour th The Business Times.100.240. and would like to suggest that we explore more measures to help Singaporeans to get jobs vis-a-vis foreigners who may be competing for the same jobs.400 in 2005 .300 in 2004 to 4. as we may in a sense be letting others draw the conclusion that we are so dependent on foreign labour that we are afraid to reveal it. According to the Department of Statistics' latest data. 9 February 2006 I refer to the article “Employment hits all-time high of 2. 155 . The government has maintained that this is sensitive data kept secret for reasons of national interest. low-skilled foreign workers into Singapore over the years has depressed wages at the bottom end. according to National University of Singapore economist Basant increase of 111.

686 new permanent residents). it's necessary to know the proportion of the 110.8 | 人口与就业 Singapore residents.000 unemployed? The seasonally adjusted unemployment rate for Singaporeans and permanent residents was 3.000 new jobs created in 2005 that went to Singaporeans vis-a-vis non-citizens.314)? If this is the case. in order to get a more detailed picture of the unemployment situation.500 foreigners plus 44. from 3. down from 4. This means that the increase in the population due to foreigners was 44.314.600 minus 21.486. comprising citizens and permanent residents. the net increase in the resident population was 21.553. This is 80 per cent of the 111. As total live-births were 37. Which is the bigger problem? Not letting others know how dependent we are on foreign labour. The question that may be on the minds of some Singaporeans is: what is the unemployment rate for Singaporeans? 156 . or helping the 64.174 and total deaths were 15.900 to 3.860. then the increase due to foreigners and permanent residents was 89.500.600.500.686 (66.100 increase in the total population.3 per cent last December. If Singaporeans accounted for only 20 per cent of the population increase. increased by 66.4 per cent in September and 4 per cent in December 2004. Does this mean that the increase due to new permanent residents was 44.186 (44.

200 a month. 157 .Population and Employment | 8 I think we need to balance the need for foreign labour data secrecy with more transparency to enable all stakeholders to work together to help the 300.000 people who earn less than $1.

351.8 | 人口与就业 公布更多外来劳工的资料 商业时报.553.2006 年 2 月 9 日 参阅 Anna Teo 在《商业时报》于 2 月 2 日刊登的报导《就业率达到 230 万的新高》,我想在此作出回应。 经常有人质疑,这几年流入新加坡的廉价与低技术的外来劳工,是否 会压低最低收入层的工资。 根据新加坡国立大学的经济学家 Basant Kapur, 这或许是其中的因素之 一。 引述 Basant Kapur.500 人。这表示在总人口的增长里,有 44.400 人。 涨幅使是 111.若政府能公布更多有关外来劳工在分别行业里 的人数与技能的数据,将有助于提高透明度。 政府坚持的立场是,为了国家利益,这些敏感的数据应该保密。政府 不透露新加坡对外来劳工的依赖性,是以免曝露我国的脆弱性。 但是,把数据保密也有可能会对我国不利,因为这可能让别人误解我 国是对外来劳工过于依赖,所以所以才不愿意公布数据。 我支持就业奖励的提案,因为它鼓励人们从工作中获取自立。我建议 当局采取更多措施帮助新加坡人寻找工作,特别是当我们面对外籍人 士带来的竞争。 根据统计部的最新数据,我国总人口从 2004 年的 4.500 人是外国人。 158 .240.900 人到 3.600 人次,从 3.300 人增加到 2005 年的 4.486.100 人次。 新加坡居民,包括公民和永久居民,增加了 66.

314)? 如果是这样,那外国人和永久居民的总增长便是 89.500 外 国人和 44.000 新就业机会中,新加坡人与 非公民的就业比例相比下是多少。 不让别人知道我国对外来劳工的依赖性, 还是帮助 64.860 人,所以 居民人口的净增长是 21.100 总人口增长的八成。 如果新加坡人只占总人口增长的两成,那想要了解更详细的失业情况 就必须先知道在 2005 年所创造的 110.3%,比 9 月的 4.Population and Employment | 8 此外,我国总婴儿出生率是 37.686 人次(66.4%和 2004 年 12 月的 4%低。一些新加坡人的心里也许有这样的 疑问:新加坡人的失业率到底是多少? 我们有必要在保密外来劳工数据以及维持必要的透明度之间取得平 衡。只有这样,我们才能让所有国民齐心协力,帮助我国 3 万名月入 少过$1200 的同胞。 159 .186 人(44.174 人,而总死亡率是 15.000 名失业人 士,这两个问题究竟哪一个比较重要呢? 新加坡人和永久居民在去年 12 月季节性调整后的失业率是 3.314 人次。这是否表示永久居民的增长是 44.600 减 21.686 新永久居民)。 这是 111.

22 December 2006 th I refer to the editorial “The forgotten retrenched” (Straits Time. increase in monthly household incomes. the incomplete or nonavailability of statistics. and what is the percentage of new jobs created that went to Singaporeans. In the latter article citing the recent study conducted by journalist Mafoot Simon. The editorial says that there is a need to study the issue of prolonged unemployment of older executives. about whether Singapore's foreign talent policies favour the Chinese. emails and coffee-shop talk on what is the unemployment rate for Singaporeans. may lead to perceptions.8 | 人口与就业 Show The Numbers To Dispel Notion That Foreigners Take Away Jobs From Singaporeans th The Straits Times. it revealed for the first time in Singapore that the Indian and Malay minority races have done better than the majority Chinese population . particularly on a hot topic affecting a large segment of the populace. in terms of proportional population mix. rumours and unjustified grievances. What this study has highlighted is that sometimes. 9 October 2006). and over-reliance on foreign manpower. 19 Dec 2006) and the article 'Singapore's population and the quest for foreign th talent: When statistics give the lie to perceptions' (Straits Time. This debunks the perception of Singaporeans and puts to rest the questions of marginalisation of the minority races by our neighbouring countries. 160 . against popular belief. educational attainment. One example is the profusion and continuing debate in the internet blogs.

to dispel the notion once and for all that foreigners are taking away jobs at the expense of Singaporeans. The latest statistics for this year do not have this number. our neighbours. If the study had not disclosed the race statistics in Singapore. and the opposition political parties may continue to perpetuate the myth that the minority races are being marginalised. Some 55 per cent of new jobs created last year went to locals.Population and Employment | 8 This controversy need not arise or continue if the labour statistics do not refer just to locals. With the bouyant economy. 161 . very low level of unemployment. and the percentage of foreigners and permanent residents at an all time high of 20 per cent and 11 per cent respectively of the total population. perhaps now is the time for the authorities to give a breakdown of the employment statistics of the locals. Telling more is better than telling less. job creation at a record high. who are defined as citizens and permanent residents. some Singaporeans.

2006 年 12 月 22 日 参阅《海峡时报》的《被遗忘的失业者》(《海峡时报》,12 月 19 日)与《新加坡人口与外国人才的追求:数据与观念的差异》(10 月 9 日)两篇文章,我想在此作出回应。 以上社论文章表示我国有需要探讨长期失业年长人士和过于依赖外国 人力资源的问题。 在《新加坡人口与外国人才的追求:数据与观念的差异》一文中引述 记者 Mafoot Simon 的一项调查。调查结果显示,印度族与马来族同胞 在学习上和每月平均收入的增长方面都超于华族,与普遍的观念恰恰 相反。 很显明的,邻国所说的种族歧视根本不存在,也证明了我国的外来人 才政策并没有偏袒华族。从这项研究中可看出缺乏统计资料,特别是 对热门话题的影响很大,很可能导致不确实的看法与不合逻辑的谣 言。 人们时常在网上以及咖啡店议论新加坡人的失业率到底是多少以及新 创造的就业机会到底有多少百分点归于新加坡人。如果劳工统计数据 能把新加坡人和永久居民分别统计,诸如此类的议论就不会产生或持 续。 幸好种族统计数字能把事实公开,否则邻国与反对党将会继续散播我 国少数种族被排斥的谣言。 目前的经济蓬勃,创造出的就业机会也比往年高,失业率低。外国人 与永久居民的人数也创了历史新高,分别占总人口的 20%和 11%。因 162 .8 | 人口与就业 请以数据证明外国人没有剥夺新加坡人的就业机会 海峡时报.

Population and Employment | 8 此,这正是有关当局公布分别统计的人民就业数据,并大家对外国人 是否有抢走新加坡人就业机会的疑惑。 去年所创造的就业机会当中,55%归新加坡人。今年的最新数据报告中 却没有这项数据。 多透露一些资料总比少透露好。 163 .

Transport 交通 164 .9 | 交通 9.

since each transport voucher is worth $30. 165 . like that of the Federal Reserve Board in the United States.000 needy families to get $30 transport vouchers” (Straits Time. the public may like to know the criteria. “Bus fares to go up by 1-2 cents next month' and th '100. the number of transport vouchers will be 100. Instead of just announcing the decisions to approve the increase in it bus. feeder. train.000. Can the Public Transport Council (PTC) explain the reasons and the criteria it used to reject the application for train fare increase and approve that for a bus fare hike? Do more Singaporeans generally take buses more often and spend more on bus rides than on train rides? Also. reasons and process in the determination of fare increases . or senior citizen concessionary . 12 Sept 2007).Transport | 9 Explain Reasons For Bus Fare Increase In Detail The Straits Times. As for the $3 million set aside to help the needy cope with the impending bus fare hike. why are fares for senior citizens being increased? What criteria did the PTC use to grant that? Aren't senior citizens generally more adversely affected by fare increases. relative to the general population? The minutes of the PTC's deliberations should be made public. student.and how the quantum of hike was arrived at. 14th September 2007 I refer to the reports. It was reported that those who need more help can also tap into the Citizens Consultative Committees' ComCare Fund.

9 | 交通 As I understand that there are more than 100.with an estimated 400.000 households with per capita monthly income of only $160 .500 .the bottom decile of non-retiree households alone has an estimated 90.000 households with monthly household income of below $1.000 residents. will the vouchers issued be enough? 166 .

Transport | 9 详细解释调高巴士车资的原因 海峡时报,2007 年 9 月 14 日 参阅《海峡时报》于 9 月 12 日刊登的两篇报道《巴士车资将在下月上 涨 1-2 分》和《10 万户贫困家庭将获$30 交通礼券》,我想在此作出回 应。 公共交通理事会(Public Transport Council)是否能解释理事会拒绝地铁 车资上涨,却又批准巴士车资调高这两项申请的理由与标准? 大多数新加坡人乘搭巴士的次数和花费是否比乘搭地铁更多?此外, 为何乐龄人士的车资也被调高? 公共交通理事会究竟应用怎样的标准 来做这样的决定?相比之下,乐龄人士不是比一般人民对车资的调高 受到更大的应影响吗? 公共交通理事会应该像美国的联邦储备局学习,把理事会商讨的会议 记录对外公布。 除了被通告车资上涨,公众也想了解决定调高车资-无论是巴士、地 铁、支线服务、学生或乐龄优待卷-的理由、原因和过程,还有上涨的 数目如何被决定。 面临巴士车资上涨,有关当局将拨出三百万元,以帮助人们应付即将 上涨的车资。每张交通礼券是$30,所以总共会有十万张礼券被派出。 据报道,需要更多协助的人也可以求助于人民商议委员会所设立的的 社区关怀基金(Citizens Consultative Committees' ComCare Fund)。 据我所知, 在本地有超过十万户家庭的每月家庭收入少过$1500–单单 在最底层的非退休家庭中,便估计有九万户家庭的人均月薪只有 $160–在大约有四十万名居民的情况下,所预备分发的礼券是否足 够? 167 .

" SMRT's reason for not having a fare cap like in other countries is somewhat illogical because the fact that less than one per cent pays more than $ 1. I believe they would not mind sharing the cost for the benefit of the needy among the "less than one per cent". since public transport is a necessity for those who cannot afford private transportation. The main reason why there is normally a fare cap in other countries is to protect the small number of needy. If we ask the other 99-plus per cent of Singaporeans. while transferring the cost to others. Why not conduct a poll of Singaporeans? 168 . who may be affected most if there is no fare cap.90 means that a fare cap would have very little impact on the other 99-plus per cent who may have to share "transferring the cost to others". The latter states that “less than one per cent of passengers pays a fare of $1. which is the sharing of costs. 28 th November 2006) and SMRT's reply th "Fare cap will benefit only few passengers" (Straits Time.90 or more. 30 September 2006). so that a minority will not be penalised.9 | 交通 The Poor Will Benefit Most From Transport Fare Cap The Straits Times. Therefore. 30th November 2006 I refer to Jason Chiam Chiah Sern's letter "Much to learn from HK public transport system" (Straits Time. It goes against the basic principle of public transport. having a fare cap would benefit only a small proportion of passengers.

if there is more than one operator. it noted that average fares in Singapore were lower than in New York.Transport | 9 In the "Report of the Committee on the Fare Review Mechanism" last year. The monthly pass recently introduced by SBS Transit is only for travel on SBS buses.059. which Singapore does not have. However. and the price is high relative to other cities of the developed countries. the Department of Statistics (DOS) puts the two statistics at $795 and $2. Monthly passes in other cities are typically multi-modal or multi-operator. However. Why does the report's statistics differ from the DOS's? How has this discrepancy impacted on the computations on the affordability of transport fares? 169 . The reports also cited the Household Expenditure Survey (HES) 2003 data that the lowest 20 per cent and second quintile group of household income had average monthly household income of $1.279 and $2. London. and Hong Kong. all these cities have fare caps and monthly passes.651 respectively.

90或以上的 车费,实施车资顶限对其他99%的乘客的费用自然影响不大。 SMRT违背了公共交通的基本原则,既是:共同承担费用。对于少数的 贫穷人士来说,公共交通是不可或缺的。因此公共交通必需能够为他 们分担费用。 其他国家实施车资顶限主要是为了帮助贫穷人士,因为这对他们的影 响是最大的。 其余99%的新加坡人应该不会介意为 ”少过1%的乘客” 分担费用。为何 不做一个市场调查呢? 一项关于车资检讨方式的报告中指出,我国的平均车资低于纽约,伦 敦和香港等国。然而但这些国家都有实施车资顶限与发行月票,而新 加坡并没有。新加坡巴士公司(SBS)最近发行的月票只适用于新巴巴 士,而且价格比其他发达国家高。此外,其他城市所发行的月票往往 适用于多种交通工具。 170 . 2006年11月30日 参阅Jason Chiam Chiah Sern的《因该向香港的公共交通系统学习》 (《海峡时报》,11月28日),与新加坡地铁公司(SMRT)的答复《限 制交通费的增长只能帮助少数乘客》(《海峡时报》,9月30日).我想 在此发表看法。 我国地铁公司表示,既然少过1%的乘客缴付$1.90或以上的车费,限制 交通费只是把费用转移给其他乘客,而且只有一小撮的乘客受益。 SMRT的说法是毫无逻辑的。既然只有少过1%的乘客缴付$1.9 | 交通 实施车资顶限,贫穷人士获益最多 海峡时报.

059。 如此的数据差异对检讨乘客对车资的负担程度又有怎样的影响? 171 .Transport | 9 报告中也列举2003年住户开支统计调查的数据:收入占全国最低20% 与20至40%的家庭,平均家庭收入分别是$1279和$2651。然而,统计部 的数据却分别是$795和$2.

and for Q3 2004. In Kuala Lumpur. I would like to suggest that we explore the possibility of having a similar scheme in Singapore. allowing companies to bid on an annual or periodic basis for their names to be announced whenever a train stops at a station. For example. or may even reduce current fares. Its profits for 2002 and 2003 rose 27 and 24 per cent respectively. it climbed 25 per cent. 172 . In this connection.9 | 交通 Let Firms Link Their Names To MRT Stations th The Business Times. to have their names associated with a station. 24 February 2005) and “SMRT Q3 profits boosted by lower taxes and costs” (The Business Times. With tens of thousands of commuters seeing daily the station's name with the company's name. 16 March 2005 I refer to the articles “SMRT looking to expand into retail sector” (The th Business Times. SMRT has indicated since the fare increases in 2002 that it may have to raise fares again in the future. which I believe is in the millions. Jan 29-30). I think the sky is the limit in view of the novelty and impact of the advertising value potential. the Monorail stations have names like Bukit Bintang Coca Cola and Titiwangsa Telecom because companies pay a lot of money. I understand that a company is paying the Land Transport Authority (LTA) more than $200 million over 15 years or so for the right to build and manage the advertising panels at some bus and taxi shelters. it may generate revenue which may be used as a cushion against future MRT fare increases.

After all. it may also act as a cushion against future bus fare increases. 173 .Transport | 9 If some of this money is given back to bus operations. in a sense. this money is derived from bus operations in Singapore. or even lead to a reduction in current fares.

一家公司在十五年内支付陆路交通管理局超过两亿元的. 以在一些巴士和德士车站建设和管理其广告屏。 若部分的盈利能用来维持巴士的运作.开放让企业在每年或定期投 标.单轨列车站带有 Bukit Bintang Coca Cola 和 Titiwangsa Telecom 等等的名称.以让车站 贴上公司的名字。 我建议我们探讨在新加坡实施类似的计划.9 | 交通 允许地铁站与企业名称挂钩 商业时报.或许能创造新盈利。这 新盈利可用于抵制未来的车资上涨.据我所知.这或许也能抵制未来的车资上调. 这笔钱也是来自巴士公司在新加坡的运 作。 174 .因较低的税率与成本》(《商业时 报》.据我了解约数百万.未来可能需要再调高 车资。新捷运 2002 及 2003 年的利润分别增加了 27%和 24%。2004 年 第三季的利润则增加了 25%。 本人认为,广告潜伏的创意及影响力是无限的。 例如.是因为其公司支付了大笔的钱.甚至还能降低车资。 往这方面想. 甚至减少目前的车资。毕竟.2 月 24 日) 及'《新加坡地铁公司第三季利润增长.新捷运在 2002 年车资上涨时曾表示.让列车到达某车站时公告他们的名字。 当成千上万的搭客每天看到以公司命名的车站.1 月 29-30 日)的报道,我想在此作出回应。 在吉隆坡.2005 年 3 月 16 日 参阅《新加坡地铁公司计划进军零售市场》(《商业时报》.

it artificially creates a secondary market for a commodity that need not exist.000 certificate.500). The certificate system is an inconvenience.Transport | 9 Why Not Give Cash Refunds? th The Straits Times.000 x $2.500. and the article.000 cars were taken off the road last year and that faster turnaround of certificates from exportprocessing zones was causing a glut. and the scams may go th too” (Straits Time 8 May 2003). When we sell low.500 each? The total amount is about $150 million (60. by doing away with the Parf? 175 . instead of a certificate? By having a certificate. Would it not be better if cash is paid for a deregistered vehicle. It was stated that for a $50. The article also states that the Land Transport Authority is currently setting up a $40 million intelligent online system that will do away with practically all forms of paper transactions and documentation. does it mean that the 60.' In a sense. in which it was stated that 60. it's the consumer who suffers. and is expected to plug all loopholes when it is up in 2006. A spokesman for Singapore Secondhand Motor Vehicle Dealers' Association said: 'At the end of the day. 16 May 2003 I REFER to the commentary. the discount on the certificate was as much as 13 per cent in 1998. “Dealers offer 5% discount on scrap papers”. we also buy low.000 Singaporeans who sold their cars have lost on the average about $2. Is it possible to save some of this $40 million of taxpayers' money. and causes delays and risks to the consumer. the savings are as much as $2. “Drop the Parf system.

000 vehicles were scrapped last year and 62 per cent of cars are less than five years old. $5. the sum in a sense destroyed last year was about $480 million. say.000 if it continues to be used. What is the impact on the economy? Can the economic experts give us their views? 176 . If each car scrapped has a value of.9 | 交通 I understand that a record 96. and 85 per cent. less than 10.

2003 年 5 月 16 日 参阅《取消拥车证回扣系统(Parf),诈骗案也会跟着消失》(《海峡 时报》, 5 月 8 日)以及“经销商为汽车销毁卷提供 5%折扣”这两篇文 章,我想在此作出回应。文中指出,在去年内,有 60.000 名新加坡公民.000 辆车子被撤销,创下有史以来的最高纪录。 当中 62%的车子车铃不超过 5 年,85%则少过 10 年。假如一辆被撤销 的车有$5.500)。既然如此,何必颁发证书.Transport | 9 为何不允许现金退款? 海峡时报.证书的折扣率高达 13%。 文中也表示,陆路交通管理局正在研发一个四千万元的智能线上系 统。新系统将取代所有的纸上交易。预计,新系统在 2006 年启用后, 便能够完全弥补现有的漏洞。若取消拥车证回扣系统,是否意味着纳 税人能就能省下这四千万元的一部分呢? 据我了解,去年有 96.5 亿元(60.000 部车辆被撤 离道路。同时,出口加工区的证书周转率增加,导致现有的系统无法 负荷。 据报导,一张$50.个个 都损失了$2. 不如让车主用现金购买已撤销注 册的车辆?发行证书创造了一个二级市场,买卖一些无形的商品。此 外,证书系统确实造成许多的不便,同时也为消费者带来不少风险; 在 1998 年.000 X $2.000 的证书,能带来高达$2.000 的价值,也表示有总值四千八百万的车辆被撤销。请问 这对经济有怎样的影响?是否有经济学家能对此表达看法? 177 .500 的节省。新加坡二手 汽车交易商协会的代言人表示:‘到了最后,还是消费者吃亏。我们卖 出的价格低,买进的价格也低。’ 在某个程度上,这是否表示那些把车出售的 60.500? 这个数目经过统计,总共约 1.

9 | 交通 Why Is Monitoring Taxis So Costly? st The Business Times,31 January 2003 I refer to your report. Why does it cost 540 times more to monitor taxis? Is it possible for the LTA to give a more detailed breakdown of how it costs $5.000 a month. “Meter ticking for taxi operators” (The Business th Times 28 January 2003). and fares are increased. if any. The Land Transport Authority (LTA) has announced that taxi operators will have to pay a new monthly licence fee of $25 per vehicle. 178 . If the LTA is wrong. Could cost savings. With almost 19. so that the consumer does not end up having to pay more. from this change of plans be used to reduce this $25 fee too? The LTA said 'the fee is less than $1 a day a taxi. what is the annual surplus (profits) of the LTA? May I suggest that some of the surplus be used to reduce the new $25 “taxi monitoring fee”? I believe it was reported in the media last year that the LTA had changed its mind about moving to a new building.400 a year to monitor service levels of buses.6 million a year to monitor taxis? Also. so we don't think it will affect fares'. I would like to suggest that the new fee be adjusted to offset any fare increase.000 cabs here. that's $470. It was reported in the media that LTA charges SBS Transit and Tibs only $10.

Perhaps Singaporeans should not complain too much if the result is having to pay more. errant taxi operators could be fined up to $100. the costs of living and doing business in Singapore may continue to rise. If. and the solution is for the relevant authority to charge a new fee to monitor the service in order to improve it. is it possible for the LTA to use any fines received to reduce the $25 fee too.000 for each contravention. there is also another issue. whenever the public complains about the poor service of an essential good or service. 179 . so that the impact on consumers is lightened? In my opinion. If fares are increased.Transport | 9 Under the new monitoring system.

9 | 交通 监督德士为何如此昂贵? 商业时报.000。 180 .000 辆德士,所以每月的总收费会是 $470.000。 据媒体报道,陆路交通管理局每年对新捷运以及 TIBS 征收$10400,以 监督巴士服务水平。相比之下,为什么监督德士的收费会多出 540 倍 呢? 陆管局是否能提供一份详细的分析,让公众了解每年是怎样花费 560 万元在德士的监督上?还有,陆管局每年的盈利究竟是多少?本人可 否建议,陆管局利用一部分的盈利来减低这$25 的“监督费”? 据去年媒体报导,陆交局打消搬迁到新办公楼的主意。如果这项计划 的改变能节省成本,是否能用省下的钱来减低那$25 的收费呢? 陆交局说:“每辆德士的收费平均每天少过$1,我们认为这将不会对 车资造成影响”。万一陆交局搞错了,导致车资上涨,我建议对这项新 收费作出调整,抵消任何车资的上涨,以避免让消费者负担更高的费 用。 在新的监测系统下,违法的德士业主每次可被罚款的最高金额为 $100.2003 年 1 月 31 日 参阅《商业时报》于 1 月 28 日刊登的报道 《德士业主车费激增》我想 在此作出回应。 陆路交通管理局(LTA)宣布,德士业主每月得开始为旗下每辆德士缴 交$25 的执照费。本地有约 19.

Transport | 9 如果车资上涨,陆管局是否能利用罚金来减低$25 的收费,以减轻对 消费者的影响? 本人认为,除此之外还有另一个问题。如果每当公众埋怨基本商品或 服务的服务水平欠佳,有关当局的解决方法便是收取新的费用来监督 与确保服务水平,从而加以改进。那么新加坡的生活费用和经营生意 的成本也许会因此持续地攀升。 新加坡人或许应该减少投诉的次数,以免得缴付更多的费用。 181 .

However. Singaporeans should voice up when they disagree 182 . it is difficult to induce the people to step into the shoes of the policymakers and think about the public interests. yet the flame dies down without much follow-up coverage. we have examined some of the most common issues faced by Singaporeans. We also hope to encourage our readers to read between the lines. However. such as letters to the editor. who take ownership of the country’s issues. Valuable feedbacks occasionally surface in the mainstream media. This is especially relevant in the face of globalisation. as people are no longer confined to their native country. being well informed of the possible problems that may arise may help us avoid facing the same dilemma in the future. A nation’s foundation can only be built upon its sons and daughters. Sometimes. and whose role cannot be consistently replaced by foreign talents.Conclusion Conclusion In this book. there is generally a lack of lively debates about policies in the mainstream media. It is hard to pinpoint whether the public’s lack of interest in policies has led to an “unhappening” media. or vice versa. A tempting job offer from overseas may be all it takes for some to uproot themselves and settle abroad. We hope that readers would gain a deeper insight and develop alternative perspectives regarding policies that matter to them. we see replies to readers’ enquiries by the various authorities which are far from convincing. it is highly certain that without a vibrant environment where people are passionately voicing their views and questioning the norm. As no policy is perfect. evaluate the policies and not accept what they see or hear at face value. Just as children of the home will not watch and do nothing when things happen in the family.

and not just leave it all to the policy makers. and rightful owners of the land. Citizens. As responsible citizens. Finally. Tan Yunyou 183 . we need to take ownership of the issues of the country. it is crucial that people actively discuss about topics such as those covered in this book.Conclusion with any policies or issues that may affect their fellow countrymen. should actively voice their views and suggestions for the benefit of the people. Hence. Not everyone may agree on the same point. rather than keep it to themselves and care about their personal interests only. They day people stop talking about these issues also means that their interest for the nation has died. as stakeholders in the country. but the very fact that people are talking about it shows that they care for the nation. Which is a greater problem? Having too many opposing views or no interest at all? A meaningful citizenship is more than satisfying personal needs and desires. we hope that this book will be a step forward in shaping a country full of responsible citizens.

后记 后记 在以上的文章中,我们探讨了许多与新加坡人息息相关的课题。我们 希望读者在读了这本书后会对一些政策有更深入的认识,并产生不同 的见解。 此外,我们也希望鼓励读者对各项政策进行进一步的分析,而非一律 照单全收。每一项政策必有它的利与弊。只有了解有关的细节及对自 己的影响,许多不幸的状况就不会发生了。 媒体中时常有人提出宝贵的意见,如报刊上发表的文章。然而,在我 国的主流媒体中却缺乏一种积极辩论、对政策追根底的的精神与文 化。譬如,一些机构对于写信人的提问只是轻描淡写地答复,难以让 人信服。然而,因为没有殷切的追踪与报道,事情便不了了之,被人 们淡忘了。 究竟是“乏味”的媒体造成人们对国政的冷漠,或是说媒体反映了人 民的兴趣,没有人能说出一个肯定的答案。但肯定的一点是,若没有 一个人人积极讨论国家的课题,并检讨现状的环境,我们很难激发人 们,特别是年轻一代设身处境地为国家利益着想。 在社会迅速全球化的今天,人们再也不被国界所拘束。为了更好的工 作条件放弃公民权而远居他乡已成了普遍的现象。土生土长的新加坡 人是奠定国家基础的关键。我们需要一群对国家有归属感,并关心国 家兴亡的国民。因此我们不能长期依赖外来人才解决一切的问题。 身为国家的子女,我们若对政策有任何不认同的地方就应该主动发表 看法,而不是一味想着个人的利益。 184 .

后记 我们也必须确保国人对国家大事感兴趣,并积极发表意见。虽然偶尔 会出现意见的分歧,但勇于发言这一点也表现出他们对国家的热忱。 对国家大事失去兴趣不是比意见分歧问题更大吗? 一个有意义的公民权远远超过满足个人的需要与欲望。身为一个负责 任的国民,我们必须把国家大事视为己任。人民是国家的主人翁,因 此更应该发表看法并提供意见,使更多的人民受益。 最后,我们希望这本书能为建设一个更美好的家园迈出一大步,并启 发更多负责人的国民。 陈昀佑 185 .

com Access Replies To The Articles Note: To retrieve the replies to the articles in this book.nlb.conferences@gmail. please refer to www.后记 Appendix Contact Us If you would like to send us your (Under e-resources) 186 . please feel free to contact us at the email below: tia.