You are on page 1of 14

W,XYS%E,"#!

$

ISBT,UNQ7V7UO$Q#7!N$7# "#!$

! 3?,!NOP!QR

4

That
Which
is
Not:
Philosophy
asment
Entwine
of
Truth
and
Negati
vity

engl

Ray Brassier
American University of Beirut

That Which is Not:
,!&-*(*.!/$"(012#3&24542#$
of Truth and Negativity
Abstract
%&'()*+,-.'&/0(.0,)1,/++/20/,'2-,'33/'4'20/,.+,2)(,'5(6)76)4&-,
8/('39:+.0+,)1,39/2)8/2)2,'2-,2);8/2)2,<;(,'51)48'&,-;'&.+8,
of idea (eidos=,'2-,<)-:,>soma=?,@9.+,1)48'&,-;'&.+8,34)A.-/+,(9/,
2/0/++'4:,34/0)2-.(.)2,1)4,8'(/4.'&.+(,8)2.+8?,B:,<4/'C.2D,
%'48/2.-/+*,.2(/4-.0(.)2,)2,(9.2C.2D,(9'(,69.09,.+,2)(E,%&'(),
+;+3/2-+,(9/,/F;'(.)2,)1,(9.2C.2D,6.(9,</.2D,'2-,6.22)6+,
+;<+('20/,14)8,.-/'?,G)20)8.('2(,6.(9,%&'()*+,8/('39:+.0+,)1,
2/D'(.)2,.+,'50/4('.2,2/D'(.)2,)1,8/('39:+.0+,;2-/4+())-,'+,
(';()&)D.0'&,.(/4'(.)2,)1,(9/,/F;.A'&/20/,(9.2C.2DH,</.2D?,I2,
'0C2)6&/-D.2D,(9'(,69'(,.+,2)(E,+)8/9)6,.+E,6/,'4/,'&+),<);2-,(),
4/0)D2.J/,(9'(,69'(,.+E,+)8/9)6,.+,2)(?,G)2A/4+/&:E,(9)+/,<4'2-+,
)1,8/('39:+.0'&,8'(/4.'&.+8,(9'(,-/2:,2)27</.2D,;26.((.2D&:,
0)2+/04'(/,(9/,.-/'&.+(,1;+.)2,)1,(9.2C.2D,6.(9,</.2D?,@9;+,%&'()*+,
/K3)+;4/,)1,(9/,/2(6.2/8/2(,)1,</.2D,'2-,2)27</.2D,.2,(9.2C.2D,
'<);(,69'(,.+,9'4<)4+,'2,.2+(4;0(.A/,4/L).2-/4,(),(9)+/,
0)2(/83)4'4:,+)39.+(+,69),-/2:,(9/,2)48,)1,(4;(9,.2,)4-/4,(),
'1M48,(9/,.88'2/20/,)1,</.2D?
Keywords
8'(/4.'&.+8E,2)27</.2DE,%&'()E,+)39.+(4:E,(4;(9?

174

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egativity .J'(. 4/+.2D. (4.(.(/.A/.0. (9/.+'&A'D.+0.2/.4/9'<.3'4(E.(:E.+('C/.+.+E. /K/83&.'53)+(8)-/42.2. @).(.-.2D./+(.8/+E.2'2.(.'4..'2-.(4.(9.^:.0)20/3(..J'(.-/'&.'2-.2)(.)1.F.(9/.4/'00/2(.'2-.4/'37 34'.3)++.04.04. )1.'&/0(.)1.-/'+.(.(9/.)2'&.I5(9.09.'5D/27 .`9'(.(9/.09'4'0(/4.D2.'&.34'0(.1)4.</(6//2.2C. /K3)+.6.+.0'&.+.(9. )1.)1..0('<&/.().+//.)1.(9.0(.()..+. (9/. ! Philosophy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ruth.2/D'(.9/4/.0'&&.)2.(9/.2+(.D9. 04.<)(9.(9/.)<+/4A/.'&. '4097.'(/.2D.0'&.04.)&-.(9/.J/. 2)27</.<&/.2.0)2+/2+. +)E.^:.(.-/-...<. [4'2C1.4/9'<.4(.'.2.39."#!#? 175 "#!$ I*-.(9'(.(9.4/-. I5 6.-.)2.4.<A/4(..(9/.83&:.'5F. 04.)1.'2.`9'(.)1.)2.)1.'&&.'&.09.)2.'D'.34/+.)00&.(.</(6//2.2D.2/D'(.2C.27 -/4&.34)(/0(.)1.'5&. 9'A/. /K0/&&/20/=.\'1M48'(.40.-/4.)1./.11/4/2(E..27 04.0/-.8'((/4?.)2. (9/./(J+09/'2. ().2/6+.(9/. )1.(9/.+.)2_)4.+. )2&:. 1)48'&.(9'(.J/-.69/2.(4. .)1..I(.</. %&'().2+(.'2-. Z/D/&_<)(9.0. '-A)0'(/+.M0'20/.I534)3)+/..</-.'(.)2.(+.'50'+/.&.'&.2().+C/(09.8+04.()..S)8/(.+. </.B.34)3/4.F.&.4+/E.-/3(9.8'(/4.+E.+.0)2+/4A'(. <:.(). '+.04. )1.4/D'4-. 3)6/4.6/.39.(9/.'&.0.(.1'0..4/+./+.0.(9. 1)40/?.(.+.&)+)39:].14)8. (9/.)2.8':E.39.4/-.0:2.)1.'5philosophical.)1..+.8'(/4..0'&.+.'2.20(.8'(/4. 6.)2&:. '2-. 9'A/.+8?./(J+09/'2=.+(].&&'(/+.)1.</(6//2.(:.1'8.4.\1)40/E].4/F.. '&+)..2D.(9/.-/'&.2D.().)1. 3'273+:09.(9/.2D..+.+(.+.('(/.2.+.(4. (9/)4:!_0)2+3. 69)+/. (9/.2'<'+9/-&:.8.-/'.'&.'2:)2/.(4./(0?. .'51'8.C/.6..8'C/.&)+)39.+. '2.(:?.(9.0/=.(9/.A/4+.<:.</(6//2.)1.(9/.0)2(/2(.'00).2-/4+())-.!&-*(*.2+(.)2.A.+8.+(+.4D/20/.)1.().(.69)+/.8.09'4D/.(.8'(/4. .8/'+.9/4/.)2_3'4. as.3)(/20:.T):+.04. 0)2(/83)4'4:.00/++)4+?. 69'(.'(/. +). .M/-..+E.<:.'D'.+.A.().)+0.&)+)39:.(94).J'(.)4.(9.-/'&.)1. 0)2(/+(.0'&.2)270)20/3(.2(4.(9/.4/A/'&.4/&/A'20/.(9/.2.-/2(.(4.(9/.(. A. 09'&&/2D. -). .&#/ !.9/4/.)1.-/34/-'(.(:E..'2-.)1.34/8. 0'&&.>'2-.>'+.!"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$.+.'&.9/4/.)1.A'&/20/.).8'(/4.9/4/.T.0)2(4'+(.'11/0(E.

(9'(. 6.<+('2(.24/07 )20. 69'(. 39'2()8.4+/E. /F. @9.2+('(.0.8'(/4.(9.@9. D4'+3+. .)1.+. 0)44/&'(.'K.)2.. . .2D.8..2D.0.2.(9/.6.(9'(.8'(/4.&(.J/. )1.+8E.<:.+.+.)1.2-/4?.'5+.-/'H..2(/4/+(.+)8/9)6.+/. 1)4.+.)1.8/2('&.2C7 .2'7 (. 4/L). (9/.2DE.-/'..434.)1.M2-.2D.+8.+/./A/4:. `9.%'48/2.(9. 2/D'(. thinking: being. '4/.34)A.0'(.+.A/.)A/4(.(9.A/. (9/.8/('39:+.20&.(9/.(9/.69/(9/4.)2.'2-. (9. B/4D+)2E.2.2D?. 2)(E.A'&/20/. /2('.0)2+/F.88'2/20/.(.0+.+.69).e/(.2'(.</.8)+(.().2D. ().(9/8+/&A/+.83/2/(4'<&/. '4D. 69'(.(.2D.+.4/..2/D'(. . (9'(.)1.'2-.0'&. 0)20)8.)1.'&.C/.(9)+/.+0)A/4:.9'4-&:.-.7Z/D/&.&.69. A.0)2+(.(9/.+(.34/4/F.2.+. 34)<&/8. .'(.-/'(. >.0)2+/04'(/-?.2D.2D.2D.+8E.(4.<+('2(.+(.:/(.(9).+8.'2-.+9.2.'2-.)4.2D.(9'(.(.+(/3.'2./A/4:..2D.2+04. . (9/./20/+. (9/. )1.)1.-/+.(). 3/4+.8/-.20/37 (.(9.'2. '2-.'&.D9(.83&:.)2.'&.)(9/46.+.(9/.'&/0(.0'&.phusis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c2-.(:.Ray Brassier I5 6.09.(9/.()&)D.'2-.+.+. 6).4/.2.+8?. (6.().+. 4/-. -. M4+(.</. '0C2)6&/-D. +)8/9)6.)1.34/+/4A.(9/.(9E.4/.(4'2+0/27 -/20/. (). (9/.+3/2+'<&/.)1.4/8'..'5(6)76)4&-.)2. '+.+E. '5 8.2-.(9/. -.+.-.. b/&/.14)8..-/+.2.-.)3'0... .(/.2+.'2-. 3)+(704.()2)8:.+E.2-/4&.)1.2)27</. 69).(/. 4'(9/4.7 176 .1)4.+.2'8/+.<&:..69'(.0+..)26'4-+E. '<).2D.'&.(/83)4'4:.0+?./20/.<)4-./F.8'(/4.2/8/2(.2D? Plato’s Sophist I(.2.+. eidos.@9/. 34/7 0.)1.(9/. '2(.('2(./6.'&. 8/('39:+.2D.)2/.().)1.)1..2D.)1. &. 34)3)+/.S).'&/0(.'58/(9)-. 4/8'.(9/. -. .(9/.-/'=. 2/D'(.'&.1)4.2(/-.2-E.2.)1.+..'&/0(. .(.34)8.(9/. .(.'2_8/('39:+.(9/.>antilogikon=.%&'()*+.0'2.(9'2.2)27</.+.69/4/.6. 34)<&/8.-. ('.8'(/.6. %&'()*+.+(/2(.(. 8/('39:+.(9/2E.(:.&d.(9/.'++)0.7a'2(.(). )1. .+E. )1.I5'D4//.1)&&)6.(/9/'-E.2D.39/2)8/2)2.+.+. .+8E. 1)48'&.. I(.8/('39:+..2C.&D'(/-.)1.form.A'4.2-.(9.%&'()2./K3)+. c8)2D.(+.A.B/0'. 6.(9/.-/1/2-.'33/'4'20/.A/..(.+.8'(/4. 69)E.(9/.2)48.)2.(9)+/. 04.)4. 0).(. S.42.0'&_<)(9.</7 .8/2)2?..'&.D9(.22)6.'&/0(.(9).4/0)D2.(4..</.8/('39:+.-/0..+.88'2/20/. '2-.. 69)..)1..8.'1M48'(.'&&..-. 4/8'. /+7 +/20/.0.)2.+8.14/F.+('C/.-/7 '&.<+('2(. ><)-:=E. /F.+.)2.)1.2-/4+())-.-. (9'(..`9:d. (9/. '.%&'()2.(9/. %&'()*+..)1.2-/4./2(6.0/.2.<).'<&:.+.(9/.A/.)1.. .'2-.logos./+.3).)1. .(9.</.2'8/.'2-.)2..)1.A/.'2('D)2.+.2.(9'2.2D.'50/4('.2DE.'.(+.A'&/20/.&-.(9/. +. G)2A/4+/&:E.'2-.2)(?..2D.69/4/'+.M4+(.1.(.(9/.+. 9/4/.2C. )1. )1.0'&..(9/.2C. soma.</. .(9/. (9'(.(9.)2...(9. %&'()*+.'. 2/D'(.(9.+.+E. +.(9/.+8?.)1...2..(9/. 4/8'..4/+)&. . +'&./2-)4+.D9(?.)2.A'7 &/20/E. 2).%&'()2.8.<).+/&:.)2/.4/?.)2E.'&.+.1)47 8'&.(9/.0)2(4'+(.+.E.2.().+.-/'&. What does (9.4/0)20.)2.(.(.)2+.4'&. )1.09.<+('20/.MD.(9/4/<:.2DE.'(/-.2-.+8. 6'2(+.3'(9)&)D.)1.69). .%&'().4/'&?.(:.'2(.83&.('(.

)11.(9/.(:?.(9/.-/<.)1.'2-..(.4/+. (9.</.2.1)40/+.&.)2.42+.-/2.(9'(.&)+)39:.2D.2D.().!&-*(*.C2)6+.)2&:.++. '33/'4'20/+.+)39.34)<&/8.'7 (.9/.(9/.('()4.(9/.4/0)D2.(9/. 0)2+(4.J/E.69).+? `9'(.20(.83&.(9).+/.(.+(d.<&:.Creative Evolution?=.+. /'4&.(9/..2D+E.A'&/2(?.</(6//2.(9'(.+(.40. +)39.)1. 39. '2-. .2D.83)++.'2-.what is thought of. .\2)(]d.2+E.<&/E..(9/4/<:E.1'0(. +)39.&.(9'( are notd.(.20/. '2-.(9.69'(.+(./2F. .8.2)27</.&(:.(+/&1.2.+('A/...'509.3)++.1M0.(9/ SophistE.(9.(:.+-)8..(9/.20/.0'&.4/1.2Dd].+)8/(9.6.2)27</.().(9).that which is (to on=.2+.>eidos=. </.+(. ()..2(/&&/0(..2C.+)39.+. ().2D.@). )1.4/'&.D9(. +)39.+(..D9(.'2:(9. '4/.2)(?.(4..2Dd.@9/4/1)4/E.A/&:.(9. (9).(9).+?.9)6.(). '1M48'(.)2. ().+.+)39.0'&. @9/.@9.(9/.'00.(9/. (phantasma=E. 39.27 -'8/2('&.2C+E.)1. (9.+(.4/.+.2)(. (9/.2D.+.'2.+/. (9/.(9).34/0..+.69'(.(9. </.'1M48'(.+(.(9.-/2:..+..0..(:.M0'(.2D.(9)4.(9'(..0)20&.+.%&'()E.(9'(.2DE.(9/.Z/4/.+)39. 9/.)1.2)(.+)39.D9(./++/20/.<&/.2)2/. )1.6)4(9.)1.2D?.2/D'(.2D?.2/D'(. (9/.-.<. 34)<&/8.0'&. 34/7 0'4. )1.9.(. (9.)2.)2.)2.().'<).+..9/20/..'2.)2.2)(..A. )1. (9/.3)(/2(.2'(/.+.(9.1)&&)6.(.'2-.c2-.2D?.)2E.)1.(9/.&.(9'(...'2-.2)(.-/M2.).2C. '2-.8. .B/4D+)2*+.&/.2'(. 39.0'2.</.%&'().(:.</.)1.A/E.2D.+)39.(9/.+.3'4'&&/&+.69'(.(9/.+.+.0'22)(..)2.9)6.2(/4.8+04.(. '&4/'-:. /F.69'(.7 0'(/-. (9'(.[)4.2)(9.. 3)+.2)27</.(4.(). .().4/.(). </(6//2.4/'&.&#/ .(.)1.+.(.(. )1.)1.'2-.2D.)1.</(6//2.%&'().().2/D'(.+.)2. '&.+.2D..69'(.().(9).1)48.B. -. </.+.2D?.)1.69. .6).0)2M-/2(.D9(..2D.not to think?.+.`9'(.+/&:..2D.!/$"(012#3&24542#$$*6$ 78#!$"29$)4:"#&.@9/.</./-.0'22)(.A'&/20/.D.(). @9/.</(6//2. 2)(.c&4/'-:.(9.3)+7 +.'51.().(9/.().`9'(.)1.+.)1..+.69.@).2D..&(.<+('2(.)1. (9/.&-.+.+.+)39.</.09..().2-.'+C.(9/.)2.('(.09'&&/2D/..J/+E.2'(..)1. @9.(9'(./-?. +/8<&'20/.(9).(.9/.(9.6/.4/&'(/-. '2-. )1.0'(/-.+//8+.+.that which is not (to mê on=.'2-.2DE.69'(.(9/.09.2)(.&)+)39/4=E.+.(./2F.+(.+?.'+C.'2-.+.)1.(.)1.+.(9/..J/-.-/2:.1'0.</.1/+(&:.2.(9'(.+(.'+CE.(:.(9/.D9(*+.)1.A.83)++.2C.4. (9)+/. )1. (9.[)4.that which is not?.'33/'4'20/.2)(?.1:.+E. (9/.4'.2D.+.F.-). /F.D9(*+.. '1M48'(.. (9/./K7 ! !"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$..+.&)+)39/4.'((/83(.8'D/+.-.)2.D4'+3.(9).4/'&...A/.9)6.<&/.(9/. '1M48+.09.(9/.-.+.+..&.().&/.-/2:.++'&.'4(.+.'.8)4/.@9/.<&/.)2.0)..6/&&.().'+.(9/.2D.D&)4.2. Y2-/4&:.I(.)2+E..20/.6.)1. /A/4:.+04. 2)27</.+'A)6'&.-.+)8/(9.(9/. (9/.+04.4'(/&:E.(9/.+)4(.2/D'(.M0'(.+(4:?. +.1'&+/E.>I(...'<)...(9/.)1.0&'.&-./++/20/. +/8<&'20/+E. >eikones=E.(9/.2.69). 1). +('(. 0)2(4'4:..+)8/7 )2/.(.)62.-/M2/E.69.2)27</.83&. (9/.2&/++.().+(.)1.+.D9(.@9./K3/-. '+.2D.+(+.(. 4/2-/4/-..+.0)214)2(.6/. ()./A/4:.of +)8/(9.A/.2/D'(..()..2('.8'..7 2'(/..)2.4/&'(.>.9/.(9).'+.?/?E.(9/.'&4/'-:. ..-/2(.+(.8'2.9)6.2(/2-/-E.2/D'(.D9(.+E..()./.(9/2.+(..'<.)2.</'4+.9'A/.)1.(9).+. </0'.+.2(/&&.\`9'(.'+C.)1.2D. 8/2(. 4/&'(.+//C+.&'(.2'(.(. '0C2)6&/-D/8/2(.)1..+/..-/2:.+9.+.+.('(/+..2)27</.(9. D/+(..0&'4.1'&+/9))-.+d. 69'(.A/.2D..&':.2D.A/...'2-.2D.D9(*+. 8'2.deny negation..1'0(.6/.20/.(9/.that one is thinking?.(.)4.</./.</(6//2..(.+E.'2-.D9(E.4/.+8./4H.(.39.2C.()..(.8.++.'<). '<+/20/./+(.(9/.e/(.@9/4/.(9).+)8/...+.(9/.)1.)2/-.(9.9)6.4/. '(7 (/83(.+.+(.2(/2-..+.+.2A)&A/+.'+C.34/0. .(:.69).2D..+. .8.</(6//2.+. /F..8/4'?.+/&:.(9/.(9/. S.-.3&/.'+. 2/D'(.>pseudos=?.'2-.2C..69.-/+E..)1.<:.A/H. +)39.'37 3/'4'20/E.+)39.8.(.69.2().)1.-/M2.-..'2-. '+.'+..(9/.2DE..)2.+.+./20).2D.177 "#!$ (./.(9/.(9/.().-/7 (/48.2D.'<).(:.8.(:.D9(E.A'&/20/./20:.+.6.+.</f..0'3.&)+)39.D28/2(. 0)2(4'4:.. 6.

)2.(:.+/E.2/D'7 (./..)2?. +//8+.i.(.2)(. 69/(9/4.'33/'4'20/.(9.2)(. -/2:.2Dd. . )4.2&/++.(:.+.A/2.g(9/46.0'2.(9/.2D.</&.8'4C.(9/2.'33/'4'20/.4.+.4/1/44. B.+. . 'D'.)(9/46.0&'.(9.+E. (). 0'22)(.+)8/(9.)2/. -.'&6':+.2D. 69. +//8+.34)3)+/.. h.+.(9/.().69'(.. )4. '2. '2:(9.(). 9'A/.'<&/.(9/./+(.(:?. -...2DE. /.+.2D.(9'(.(9/.(9/.34/0.)1.().().6.+.2/D'(/-H.)2H.+? 178 .+.9)6./+(.eidos.(9..)2&:.'2-.-/'+?.)2.&.(9. .'2-.+(.6/.33)+/-. '++.2D.2D.8.(.(9/:.(9'(.-/A).2.L. 9)3/.2-. )1.(9/2.+)8/(9.2-/4+('2-.B.. '4/.2.'51'&+/.+.(9/.F.69.69'(.2)(.)2.+(.(..2D.().A/.()4.20(.6.27 -/4+('2-.2D1.+. 8.(.(..2D.1'&+.()D/(9/4?.'5+. 6/.+. -/A).(.K/-. 34)A. (9/. '2-.'2-. +//8+.'&&:.0)3. 6/.69.'53)+.(9'(.(9/.2(/&&.D. ().+(.2A)C.2.)4-/4.1:. .'+. (4..09. '+. 4/1/4.-/2(.&&.0. 9/..1'&+. +)8/(9.2. (9/2.(4:. -/M2.+.69)/A/4.A/4:.)20/.somethings.'<).+.)4-/4..(:.2D./1. +':.0(.0'22)(.+)8/.(9/. 6/. g. (4.+//8+. +.)2.[)4.+/&:.27 D.69'(.+.1)48.2)27</. 6/.</'4. 8/'2.</.(9/. . >4/+/8<&'20/=f.2D.8/'2.J'<&/. 0)2(4'-.2D+?.()4?./2F.(9'(. 6.0)2(/2(.</..1)48?.2-/4+('2-.A/4:.)<('.-/2.</(6//2.(9.+. )2/.. '2'&:J/.</.+.().+.-/+.2.&.(:=.2D.34)3/4(:. ().(. </(6//2.+)8/.+)39.)2.0/+. 1'&+/. +/2+/?. 2)(. 2)(].2D. @9. 8/'2. . /K34/++.+)8/(9..+(..6/.(.0'+/?.2(/&&.09.'2-. (9/..</. 0)3.69'(.6/.8.)1.+.</..(4.+.()d. </...'7 (.2D.+.&.(.(9'(.2'(.g2&:.\I(.((/4+.<.C/2/++/+. )4.(9/4.().(9/.2/-./+E.C.(9/.S). )1.+.+.2-+. .@9. '2-.14)8.0'22)(.(6).is.(9/.\Z'44:.2.+':.(9'(. ().8. ..2A)C/-d.'<). 8'2:?.().2D. '4/.3&/?..</.2C. .(9./2(&:E. /K0&.(9.is not?.2D. that is.20(..2'(. S).&(. 8/'2.(.2DH. h.<&/.0&'. (9'(. (9/.6/.'&.(9'(.().2D?.(9'(.>3&.(9/.'33/'4'20/E..'<&/.-)/+?..&&. 2)(E.4'&=.</.2D. ..>. >+)8/(9..(91./2(&:E. .&.1'&+/.2D.)4.+=E.)2.C.6/. X&/'(.(.+.(9'(. 0)3.2D.2D.S.09.+(./++/2(.+.(.+.2)(]. +. 2)27 </. 0)20&./+E. 0'22)(.(.2)(.09.8.().69. .(). (9/.as.2.9'A/. )4.\(9'(. )2/. (9/.)1.()..)2.9/20/.'+. </... +)39./-..0. 6/.D.2)(?.(9. 69. (9/.+(.+('(/.(.`9/2.. . 6/. %&'()*+.M&.is '2-. </.4/. 2)27</.<'+. ().</. )1.0.+. (4.%)((/4. (9'(.&.C/2/++78'C. 69'(.D.().+(.0'+/./K.&.8.-/2:.'33/'4'20/7 8'C.0'22)(.34)D/2.().(.6/. )4.'2-. 4/&'(.2-/4+('2-.2+)1'4.'<&/.is notE.. since something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g2&:.</.2DH.2. 1'&+.2)27</.8..2D]f.(9/.)2'&.Ray Brassier 3&'.09.)4-/4. (9'(. '2:(9.-.+. 9'A/d.2Dd..<.6/.(..69/2.+.09.09.-)/+. </.09.2'&.0'2.8.(.-).)4-/4.8./.2DE.69'(. (9'(..'2-.)1.2D. (4.4/1/4+.+.69. .-.&'0C?.69.+/2+/.69.69'(. -/2.4/0)D2. (9'(. 6/.c2-. '2-.+(.)1.</.2)(?.+. '+.. +)8/(9.6/.+)8/(9.0)2(4'-.2)(.2.(:?. '4/.)1.)4.11/4/20/.(9.(91.)4. 34)-.(9/.)2.'33&:. '2-.&'((/4.2D.+.)2.9)6.negationE. G)2+/F.37 3)+/-.<:. 6/.+(.6.09. B.(.()4. . .)2_What is '33/'4'20/d_.(). 1'&+.'5</. ().+.(9/.2.('(.G)27 +/F.+. . 69.(9/:.)1.)1.2D.+(]=E.'+.)4. 6/.(). ().6/. (9'(.L.9'A/.

(9.2'8/+.(./+.)1.+(.<:.+E.'<).+./+.6.)1.+.+'8/.3&/+.2.'&&.8)A/8/2(. ! !"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$. +'.h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j.34.&(.2D.'D/.</.+(.M0'2(&:E.</.69'(. )1.</..+./+.09.(9'(.2D.2)(E. /. X&/'(.+E.(9/+/.2D.../+.)2/E.().)1.0&)+/7 &:.'2-.(.2.'2-.Z/4'0&.1)48+. .<:..0'22)(.<. +)8/E. D4'88'(.<=.(9/.&/'-+.34/+.20.0. @9/:. +9'3/..().20(.(9'2. (9/.B.(. . )1..0)2+('2(.(9)+/E.</0)87 . (9/.-/2(.</&. 0)2(4'-./(0?.7 8'(/-. 9'A. </&.().2D..)4.'2-.</.2D.4/2-/4+.+.2)(f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f.4/'09.)1.83)++./-.+.2.0. -. </(6//2.2D.g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d.69..2('.'2-.69.+.4/+(.2D.2D.&. '2-. 34)3/4(:E.(9/4/7 1)4/.'2:(9.2D.S(.'2-.-/2(.'2-.)4.'4/. 69/(9/4.).2D. 34. '=.'+. /A/4:(9. '2-.)<+0./1+.. (9'(. . B:..2D.(9'(.2)(E.&)D.2D. (9'(.'+.1.2D.8/'2.39.0(.&(:..4/+(E.)2..-.2D.69).()4.

'2-.2'8/..)2.2D.(9.2+.2D.+(4.+(.88)<.4'(.2D.:/(. @9.&.'2-.8'(/.0)88)2.+.)1.2D. <.2D?.2F.(9/2.14)8.+(.4/. (9/.().'4/. +'8/2/++E. (9/..2D?.-. <)-.+.8)A/8/2(E. )(9/42/++.. /K.+'8/.(:?.(9/.8.1)48+.S'8/2/++.<(/-&:.2.4/+(E. +'8/.Z)6. ()..(9/. (9/.+).2D./+. '&6':+.2(/83/4'(/. 4/'+)2.0(.2).9'A/.+.+. ></.33)+/-. ().i'()./4'+/+.+(.(9/.(.4/+.'0C2)6&/-D/.4/'&. 1).2+/(+. 1'0/.4-.+(E. (9'(.+.(9/.+9'4/+.-)/+.2)27</...4/+(.-/DD/4*+.'2-. C2)6../-.4.(9/.2D.(9/. '+.(9/.6/.(.209'2D.)2.9.)2'&..4/-.+.>Z/.</(6//2.)1..(/-.S'2('. other than. .2-/4+())-. 8/'2+.B. 1)0.(.2D.\lk/'+)2*.9/.S). T.+. '2-.().-/DD/4. .3)+(8)-/42.(./(J+09/*+.20(.2D.2.()D/(9/4./+.3&/+?.2D=.9)6.+(/8)&)D.)1.2D.i'().'2-. '2K.2D?.8/2'&.(9.20(.44/-.2)(.(:.().B.</:)2-. '33/'4'20/+?. '&&. .'A/.2D./+. 8)A/8/2(.+.8)A/8/2(?.'33/'4'20/E.2D.+(.34)+/E.+. /3.(. '33&. +(':+..2.B.)(9/4.2/8/2(.(+/&1?..2.'2-.)4.0'&.3'(.+.0/+.+.8)A/?.+)E.'33/'4'20/E. .B/.09'2D/-.)(9/4.'11/0(/-E..)1.().209'2D.+.1.'2-.+)8/(9.+. Irreductions 3.+.(). .'+.-.+./2(6.-.</.+'8/2/++E. +).0'3'0.-./++/20/.14)8.+(4..)2. +)39.83/4'(.(:.'(/-E.'<L.(9/. +. 0/2(4'&.20)43)4/'&.0. )1.@9.+?.(9/.(9/:.+..'+.20(.+.2D. Sturm und Drang?.8. 4/&.<.20/.)20/.. '2-. 9)6.209'2D/'<&/. /K/.+8?. Z.</. 8)A/8/2(.'-8. +). +.+.+..2D.0)2(4'4:. .9'A/. 04//-?. )1. . '2-.1)48.6)4-+?.)(9/42/++.(:.20.44/-.+)8/(9.+E.(9.'4/.34)3)2/2(+..09'2D7 ..+.B.'&6':+.2-). -..39/2)8/2'.+. I1. .)(9/42/++.(:.(9/. 1)48+.34/+/2(+.k/+(..4/+. .)2.(9.. '2-.0(.69'(.(9/2.I1.((/-.</. /K3&'.2D.(/K(.D/+.2'(. .<:.2/-2. .(9.<..)2.4/'&..0(.)1.2D.B)-.2D?.2D.().(9/.+(:8.)2. ./K3&'.+.(9/.2-E.0)88)2.09'2D7 .+.209'2D.). are.2. .34.&&.+. (9/:.)(9/42/++?.(.)1.'2.2-/4+('2-.`/.+.+.. Sophistry and Irreduction ['.:/(.-)/+.</..+04.</.`.+.</(6//2.2.'2-. <)-..+.&+. +)8/(9.'2-.(9/.&/.4. 1)48+H.(9/.</. 1'8.'2-.'2-. ..(9.209'2D.&.'2-.A/.(9/.+. (9'2.(9'(.20(.G&'.2.(9/.&.09.+/3'4'(/.^)A/8/2(.&(.(9'2.2'(.4-. <)8<'+(./11/0(.C2)62.69.3/2/(4'(. 9'A/. '&+).2D.4-.B/. /2(6.D9&:. 9. +/3'4'(.8.(. 9)8. '2-. :/(.)(9/4.'8)2D.<.)2H.9/20/.2D?.('+(/.2DE./&/7 8/2('4:. /20)83'++/+.(9'(./A/4:.2.'2-. (9'2.().+.</. @9.+8].+.<)(9..2).(9'2. </.+.20. 9)&-+.11/4/20/.(9'2.8.2D.+)8/9)6.(9/.8/'2+. 1)48+H.C2)62E.+)8/9)6. .(.3'4(.(9/.</. )1.1)48+.2/-."##$=? 180 .(.'4/.<:.)2?.+?.2)(.+.0)88)2?.3&/+.'4/..'4/. 9'A/.+? B4. 6)4C..(..+'D4//8/2(. ().0'3'0.2+.+.)(9/4.(9.69.</.'11/0(/-. T./(J+09/'2. )(9/4. '4/.4/+(E.'&.+(.'2-.(9/.+. (9/.)1.(9.4<'2/.'+. (9/.+. .(9.2L. -. (9/. 8.().2D.44'(.+.'11/0(.4.(9/:..'&&)6+.+.2D. 8/('39:+.)2/.%&'()*+.'&&.9/.^)A/8/2(. '++)0.().</(6//2. k/+(.09.0'&. </.+)8/(9.+.20/.<.)4. 2 @9.'4/.34.(.0. <)(9. -. </.9'A/.\.(9/+/. ().2D.'2-.2D?.+(.Ray Brassier (9/:.&&.<:.(9.&:.+.8)A/8/2(.</((/4.().8.'33/'4'20/. 'D'.'2-.09'2D. </.)2'&7 .4/'&.'5(9.I(./+?.09'2D7 .+.)1.4+(E. )(9/42/++?.+9/+. 4/+(. Z/.(.'2-.'4./2(6. 8. ./K3&'.4.).)2.</.'2.2D. '&&)0'(. 'D4//8/2(. (9/+/.34)0//-d. .2D?.4.14)8.09./+E.[.(.(9'(. <'+.4. @9/. 1).-/M2. 4/+(E.2D.()..2D.1)4/8)+(.(9'(..+(.. (9/.<:.'+.(9/.9'A/.'58'((/4.(9/. (9/./K3&'.+(..'2-.'2)(9/4.(9'(. +'&A'D/. )4. '8)2D.(6).)(9/42/++E.2D.</.+(.'5(9. ().

A)0'(..69. g20/. (9/. 3).'&&. .&(.8/('39)4+.0/+. 2)(. ().3.9/'4(. `/.2-.+.\'07 ('2(+].2DE.. (9/. 2). .\3)6/4E].2//-.(9/. (9'(.)(9/4.I20&.(E.8.M0. '59'2-.2.1)40/H.0)22).)1.'<+/20/.\8/'2. (9'(.+(.4/&'(..2.6)4-..3+... . .(.'2-.2. )1. 4/'+)2.MD.(9.1)4.0(.+8.(9.l(4. 4/'+)2+d]. 1)4.b/+3.33&/8/2(.\2/(6)4C?].09.&)+)39.20(.(.1)4/D). 39. C2)679)6H..3'D/./.+.l8/('39)4.34/)00.'5+/4.'2)(9/4.+(/20/.'&8+.+/.(4'(.4/-.44/-.!/$"(012#3&24542#$$*6$ 78#!$"29$)4:"#&.0(.0. /2(.4/-.0'&. 9'A/.)2E.+. 4/'&.+(.)2E.\4/+.+. )1.0/+. C2)6&/-D/.Z/4/.&&.8./20/E. +.(9/8].0&'.2D.)1..+(.mno.(4.2D.0'44.2.20(. ().)1.. 2)(9.'2-.)2+. 8/('39)4./1. .2D.)3/4'(.2D+].>.2. \'0()4E].2D&/.)1.(9/4/. C2)67 &/-D/E.0&'./2(.++. .83)4(.4/1/44/-. '2-.().9/.8/('39:+. 0&/209..!UU$?...04'1(+. .(9.(9/.-/2.3/4.. )1.'4/.A/.+.(E.i'(). 4/&.0./K'DD/4'(. .C2)6&/-D/_69'(.(.(.(.'2-.09.2-.0+.(.(). D4)./+(.2D+./20/. '1j'(. </0)8/+..(9/.-)8. (4.0'&.'2-.3. . (9/.+.</. '+.1)40/H. 4/+)2'20/H.+?.)1.8+. 14)8.4.I1.0+..(4.l+0. g1.)1.+.2.)1.)2. 0&'../20/.'--/-.9'+.)2+.D2)4'20/E. 4'(.'0()4?. C2)6&/-D/. F.2D. 4/-.+(.34)<&/8'(.(9E.)2.2. (9/.D2+.(:E.14)62E. ().34)3)+.69.)1.(9/4/./20/*.)2+9.)2.(.)1.0.&'(.>O?$?"=?. (4'-. '&&.6.<.)<&.42+. .A/.+.3)6/4H.-/.@9/+/.0(.(.+/E.69..(.14//. /A/4:(9.A/.3.\B/0'. '&6':+. >\C2)6.8.2D7(9'(]=. i'().+(.)(9/4.6)4-.4+9.4/.)4. +0.0'&*].(9/.</d. >"?!?Q?O=$?.-.'00)4-/-. '2-.)1.C2)6&/-D/?./2(..'(.(9/./K3&'2'(.0&'++.+9'<&/.)<L/0(.14)8. )11./A/-.33&'2(. .A.04/7 -./(:.4+/E. ().+.)2.('<&/.09.(9/. ().&/'+(E.(:.+/./-.)2E.(9). (9. \'&&:E].+0.69. 2).2D.44/-.D'(.C2)679)6.4.D9.(9/. /2(9.\@9/.)2.(9'(.+0.9)6. .+(.2L.8.4'(.9.2)(9.0(.i'+(.09.C/:.0'2.2)(/.2-H. +.(9/.&'((/4. )4-/4.+./+.+. 0&'.(.)A/4.+0.++/.(9_'&&./3.14)8. M+(+E.3)++. 6)4-+E.&'(.2).</.+(/7 8)&)D.().(9/.'+./(:.04'1(+.20/.(.9/. .+0. '2-./2-.0/4('.2../11/0(.2/. '<). 9)&-.0(.<&/.0)D2.2).+(. /&.-.0(.(9/.+9'<&/.(9/.C2)679)6?.09./*.>O?"?R=?. 9'+. (). -).34)34. 8/('39)4E./*.4'(9/4. .2D./-.&D/+E..&(.(9/.().@9/4/.(/4'&.(.(9)+/. S/&&'4+_(9/. )2/.+. \1)40/E].'+.)./A/4:. %&'().0+E.4/+(E.&(E. i'().)(9/4+E.. '5 1. +(4/2D(9.8.(9/.(.(). 34'0(.&.(9/.+. 0.c2-. '4<.2D.S. ).(). `9). ()./K3&'7 2'(.2D.+/E.)2&:. \@9/4/.)1. 8/('39)4+?. (9'(.().4/-.A/. +3.4.++/+.M0.. 8/('39)4.2D.>O?V?Q=? I(.().`.'4/.+..6).A/..)2.)2. l(4.)2.0'&.'5&)2D.(9.A/.)4..().'5+.'2:.0'&.+.8'C/. 0).'2-.+(.87 </4/-.)2E.8'(/&:.().+.9/. 2/A/4..+../&+/69/4/E.6./K3&'2'(.().834)34.@9.2. 0)D2. '2-.'&&.2/(6)4C+.(9/.8. <..4.2D. (9/.(/.-'JJ&/./20/.0)2(4'4:E..+/.<..().8'+7 (/478/('39)4+.'2-.9/.. D/(.09.8/'2(_(9/. ! !"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$.-/-. (9/.1)40/]./K.0'8/].\B/&.(9.F.7 (. (9'(.>"?R?$=? Z)6/A/4E.(4. -4/'8?. 0)2+(4'. /A/4:(9.S/0)2-E.(9/.2)(.6/. +0.4/.+. 4/'+)2E.44/-. (4.+/+?. 1/'4.'2-.&/D/.0/E.`/.2DE.i'().)2.&#/ .)2+.4*+. .4-E.0)D2. 8/('39:+.+.(9/4/.)2.(.+('20/E].2D.Irreductions.4/-. '5 <))2E.I2. +0.0/+.().@9/:.8.3'4(.2'(/.2). /F. 0&'.).+..(9/.2'(/-?.'+.3E.&.(.2-.2+. 8/('39:+.8/'2..69)+/.0'&_8. 8.'4/.&.2.(4'-/+?. '2.'&&. 8/'2.0'2..0'3H. 8'2. 4/+.'&+. )2.(9/.+.&(.'&?.)1.().</7 (6//2.3'4/2(9/+/+=E.<. 3'4(.+.2+(4.+.+8.8'(/.42*.!&-*(*.+('(.(). 181 "#!$ 1//&./20/.0.6'2()2&:.&(.4/-.&'4?.'+.)1.(9/.09..(9/2.(9'2.(.'2:.A/4.)(9/4.+/0)2-.)2.l4/(. 2).&-.69). +/8'2(.4/'&H.'4/./20'3+.8'2:.'+:88/(4:E.)2'&. 14)8. <:.8/('39)4.+()8E.2)(..8</4? $.(9/.0). )1. (9/.2-/4+('2-.D9(.2(+.34.+(.\+(4/2D(9E].14)8. </.(9/.

+(. +:+(/8'(.</(6//2. 8)4/.2D. )1.(9'2.. i'().e/(. A'&..B.11/4/20/.<4)'-&:.(9'(.+8..0'(/D)4.'+04.4/+.2D.+.1. 8/('39)4./+.(:.40/+.(9/.'2-. \'0('2(+E]..-/.Ray Brassier 6.)2.'2-.A'2.3(.8/09'2..</H. '4/.+':.>"?O?V=?.A/4'0.)2? 182 .2D.(9'(.20(.\1)40/E]. 34'0(.2D.\6)4-+].0'&.D.2D+].())(9.D2.3)6/4.2D.+(+. /K/40.-/. )3/4'(.20(.2D.2.(9'(.</(6//2.-.2)(6.-.+.&'((/4. '5 -.B:.(:.\(9.(94)./-.+.. C2)679)6.0)20/3(.\3)6/4E]. \6)4-7(9.8/09'2.0)20/3(+.-.<&/.'52)272/D&.. .)<&.+.(9'(.4/7 '&.)<L/0(+.'4/.2D=E.\4/'&].4/34/+/2('(. (9/:.+(.+. (9/:.(9/.-. (9/:. '4/.().2D+].2D.'2-.11/4..'5+/4.(9/4/.09.'+.+. ()..(). i'(). '4/.(9.(.\4/'&.(9/. +.0'+7 (.4/2-/4+.(9/.</..(.2D.(. .-.i'().4)&/.<7 +.(9+('2-7 .++.3(.)1..69.A/.&.A/4'07 .0)D2.11/4/20/+.A'<&/.8/('39:+.I2.). . ^)4(D'D/-.'+. \2/(6)4C+].(9.. /4'+/+.(/K(+. '33/'4'20/.9)6. )1.44/&/A'2(.2D.20(..8'(/&:. 14)8.-.'37 3&.+9.(.</(6//2.9/. )2?.)1. (9/.A'&. <:.20(.(9/.i'(). -.<:.2D+E. I2.0'2.(9/.&&.(9/.'4/.34)3/4&:.2.</(6//2.20/.\'0('2(]_(9'(.'&)2D. (9/.l6)4-+*.'2-..)2].)(9/4.+(+. '00). +.A'&.7 (.+. (9/.-.(9/.4. '2-. +.-.0'&.3)+7 +.)<7 L/0(+E.i'().A'(.42+.)2.2D.1'...4/&'(/+.A/2. \(9.234)<&/8'(.4/A)&.2D.</(6//2.i'7 ().34/-.'2-. 0)20/3(.\I(.4/&.+)39. /20)83'++/+../K3&'. 34)3)+.)4. D/2/4.'2-.)1.(.-.)2+.0)20/3(+.0=../+. 4/'&. .37 3)+/-.(:H.3&':.(9/.0/+.D'(.2D.4/9/'4+/.0(.>9. (9/.(/K(./3.(.0'&.)<7 L/0(+.)1.\(4'2+&'(.0'&&:./A/4:(9.&/(.+.(9/. -/+04. (). i'(). '2(.(.'11/0(/-.(:E.(:.9/.i'(). 4'(.</4'&=.+(.+8+.09.2.'4/.44/-./3.3'(9:.4'(9/4.).'((/83(.11/4/20/.+.9/.'5-.)2.A. l(9.'2-.+&:.. </.4*+.G'(9)&. 34)3)+.+.0'&.8/('39)4./E. 1)4.4*+.)2.'2-.+.9. )1.+.(9/:.++.0+.8/('7 39)4.&'0C.8/('39:+.09.)<&.. -.<&/.)2'&.2+?.2)48+.3)6/4.-/+04.A/.11/4/20/+.0)2+0. S.</-.\'07 ('2(+]. </(6//2.1)4.)62.+8.(..2)8.)1. 04.4)&/.(9/.+.++)&.2j'(. .2-//-E. >\1)40/+]=.'2-.(9'(.(). -.4/-.(E.'+.<:.\1)40/+]. 2)(9./2(.3)+(7+(4.8/'2.(.1)&&)6+.-/.4.'5(9/)4:E. 2).2D+E.0.&/D.2(/4&.&)D.(9/.(9.D).(9/:. (9/.D))-.\. )1.D. -/8)2+(4'(.>k)8'2.1'.().-.34/+04.(9)+/. )33)+/-.2.+8].)2'&.4E.3)&.)2.().8/-.+/+.7 8/2('(.+(+.</0'.-/2:.09'.'&&.+.(.2DE.A/f.)1.11/4/20/.+/+. 1)40/.)1./A/4:.<&/. -.0'22)(.-.(.0.)2.4.)2'&.(9/.34)(/+('(.2A)C..>\+.0'&&:.'&.2)(. </(6//2.)2. (9.3&'2(+.'2. .2'&. 0)20/3(.8'(/.</(6//2..(9)+/.2.0(.4. .6)4(9&/++?. (9.(). 0)2+(4.<.4.)1.D.83)4(.69/(9/4.34)A.2D+].(9/.(..44/'&7 .D9.A/.A'&/20/.0'22)(..&(.8/'2. '4D.)2.4/'&. '+..6.4'&. \'0('2(?].8)+(.2)(_.0'(/. ().(.(.>2/)7 &.k'(9/4E.(9/. /K'&(+E.A/.)2+.+8].(9)+/.3'0/.().2/K.9)&&)6H.14)8. -.+(/8.(.2-/4+())-.9:-4)/&/0(4.2().'&)2/.2C/-.3)+(8)-/42.9/.09.+.0)&&'3+./+E.69.+':E.0.'2-.(9/. <:.+8+. (9'2.'+.0/+.+.+.(9/.+E.11/4/20/.(.+(4.2D.0)20&.)2.(:. &'((/4.+.4. 14)8.'11/0(.)1.3&'2(+. 69'(.0./+_(9'(.'2-.2)6.</(6//2.0. 8/('39)4?.8/'2.(9/.(). i'().'&.'0('2(+.2D.4/7 +)./-. 8)(.&(.(9'(.+9/+. </.4E.().A'4:.(9/.4E.+. ()6'4-+.)1.<L/0(/-./+.11/4/20/.+(/8. 69.(9'(.3&':.'58/4/&:.11/4/20/.+.20(.0)2+(4.0:2.4*+..0'&.9.().2D.69.D)A/42/-.2D.(.B. 4/D'4-E.'2-./20)83'++/-.C/.<:.11/4/20/.(:?. /A/4:(9.'&. </.+(/8)&)D.2-.D'(/+E. (9/.&)2D.i'().(9.F.4*+.0)20/.(9'(.6..+.2D&/.2)(.11/4/20/.0)2(4'4:. 1)4.().(). '5 1.3)++.()./-?.6)4-+. (9/.+/.20/.4*+.M/4+]=?. 8/4/&:.2D+*].2.\6)4-+].2D+. '2-.-. ).(:E.0'&../K3&'.(9.14)8.69/4/.(.0(. @9/.(9/.6)4C./3.().(/&&.34/A/2(.'2-.(9/. (9/. (4'1M0C.A/.2D+.09.(9/4/. )1./+E.+.)1.)2.8'C/.</(6//2.0'&&:. (.0)D2.(). /(0?.-.)2+.().0)2(4'+(.+(.(). .'4/.+. 9. 9/&-..+(.8'(/. ()D/(9/4.<:.2(/-.+. 69.+.(). -.i'().L.().44/2(&:.

2/K.S/&7 &'4+.-).'2-.2DE.4'(9/4.'2-.4/6)4C/-. .</(6//2.)1.1)4..-).8.!/$"(012#3&24542#$$*6$ 78#!$"29$)4:"#&..(9.(9/.9.)1. 49/()4.0(.2D. '33/'4'20/. L./20/..)62.'334)34.'+()2.&.0.+.+0/3(.11/4/20/.)2+. 3+:09)&)D.().-./+('<&.().<:.D9(./+.6)4(9. '<+(4'0(. '33/'4'20/E.4.(:.(9'(.+.2-//-.(. .+. )1.. .2D. 09'4'0(/4.'2-./K(4'749/()4.\+/F..+.4/0/2(&:E.(9'2.D9(.'2-.2.39.2('. (9/.(4'0/-. 3/4+.34)-. D4'2(.8/'2.2(.(9/.0.2D?.1.+(.a'2(. @9.'2.4.\4/'&]. '2./.'2:(9.0'&. <//2.a'2(..4'&.2/-.-/+.(9/4/<:.'33/'4'20/.&14.(:].-/2:. 8'4C+.'2.1.0'22)(./&/8/2('4:.(9/4./+. '&&../20/.2D.L.+0. </0)8/+. &)D.</./K3&.+(.0).)2+H. +(4.0)20/3(.9/4/.(:].</9)&-/2.<'DD'D/E.09..'2:(9.6.2)48+?. )1..0.(9)+/.8)+(.+/.69).0)7L.'&&/D/-&:.</(6//2.0'&.9)&-.14/.++.49/()4.4.8)-.(9/. +C/3(.S/&&'4+*+.+.nec plus ultra.'&. L. 6)4&-A.-.<&/. )2.&)D.-D7 8/2(+E.F..69). a'2(..)1.)2.0'&.4.1)48'&.)1. '2-.6/.34)A/.+?.'00)./.)2'&.+. (9/.(9/2.(.(9/.2D. 2)48'(.2+.6)4-+E.+(4.(/K(+.'2-.49/()4. 2/./2D.D9.2D. <:.3/4/22.4'(.)1. <.8'4C.A.'5-/7 8)2+(4'(. 9.)2'&.)1.2-/4+('2-. '+.2(.l49/()4.</0'.(4:. '-4)..(9.)2./++/20/?.4*+./27 D'D/-.0?.L). 2)4.0'3'7 <&/.2-/4.2-/48.'&.)1.+8. -/2.)3/4'2-.i'()..0'&..0'&.69.(. /8<4'0. '4(.-/'+E.2D.B4'2-)8.)(9/4. )1. (9/.\1)40/].. i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i'().+.0(.'00).)2E. 1. '2-.(9/.)1.4+.2D..(:.34)<&/8..0/.+(4:? B:.+(4.2D. '5 &.'2-. 0)20/3(. 6. 4/'&.8/('39)4.+(.4'(.&)+(].(9/.().A.0'&&:.+.2(4.2D.a'2(?.(9/.)1. 9/.(9./87 39'+./(9.+(.2. /A/4:(9.-/A/&)3/-.?/?E.2+.\2)48'(.(.)1.0.(). <:.+(.+(+.()..2-. -)D8'(.+)39. 0'&&/-.>"?O?!=?.'2-.0)2+/4A'(.)1.-/<'(/.D9(.<:.0*.<4'J/2.(9/.(:.2A)C/-.^:.'&4/'-:.(9'(.)4-/4.-.+E.!&-*(*.(9/)4:.&#/ I2.4/'&.0.(/48.8'.0'&.!"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$.09'4'0(/4.0)2(/2(+.+.a'2(.0)D2.+E.09'4'0(/4.)1.0'&&:.(.2(&:.0'2.G)20/3(+.'<).-.2.2DE.J/-.2'(.'2-.'54'(..'2. >.+('(.<'0C. +.-D8/2(?.4/+.(9'(.+.2D.A/.34/+.69). 0)2+(4.4/'+)2.(9/.2D.(9/.2-.+/2(/20/+.D9(?.'+.)2&:. .)1. /K3/4.A/+.33)+/.2().4'(.C2)6.>.4/7 A/'&/-. +(4/++.A/=.+. /83.8/'2..9'+.)1. )1. (9/.@9/.(9/. . (9/.L.&'(/-.0)20/3(+.)1.0.(.B. 4'(.4/.4/+)4(.2D.'7 (. '07 C2)6&/-D.1)48'&.k)</4(.&)+)39.['4.+/2(/20/+]. ^)4/.(9'(. (). '4/.@9.7 0.2D.+.0'&.2D.6'+.J.(:.)1.'0(. B:.4'(9/4.21/4/2(./(9.(9/7 )4:.&'4&:.(9/.A.22'(/.2(.'2-.'4/.9'A/.27 -'8/2('&&:. 4'(9/4.0)22/0(/-.4/'+)2.0'&?. ().\k9/()7 4.4'(9/4.(9.20'3'<&/./20/.)1.(9)+/.)1..D2/-.(.-.+/.0'&.(.(9/.-/8)2+(4'(.9'+.)2+.(9).4/. 4.1)4.1)40/... 1)48+. (94).'&4/'-:.@9.8.69'(.+C/3(..(&:.6/'C.34/8.(9/.0)88)2.2D..6. -/3&):8/2(.'&.@9. (9/.9/4/. .'+.+9.3.'2-. )1.)2'&.i'().2)48'7 (.)2'&./6.B:.04./A/4:.)2?..'4/. 4)&/.(:?.2-'8/2('&.+..2D.`.)1.+8.)1.'5+/F.I2. /++/20/.)2'&. 183 "#!$ ! The Non-Being of the Normative .)1..2.

.+/(.2/K.\2)48'(.(9/.0'&..)2+.().'&. @9.(9/.(.)2.-/1'8.0)44/0(. 0)20/3(.('(.09.A/.)2.4/('.0)20/3(.. C2)6.(9/.)1. . .)2?.'&?.39.-. '5 3+:09)&)D.'&.'D/.0(.3)2.(.(4'2+0/2-/2('&.2D?.'&.J'(.0)88)2.0.'(./K3&.&)+)39.0=.33)+/-.2D.2D.4+/.(. .2-/48.69'(.+2/++?.&'(/.+&:E.3).+':.\+/&170)2+0.)1.A.+)&'(/.34/+/2('(.'++/4('<.(9/.(?.0/?.0)20/3(.M/+.('(. .J'(.+)8/.'(.0.(:.+. .09'4'0(/4.(/-.)2'&. ('C/2.)1.Z'</48'+*+. )1.4/.21/7 4/20/?.2D.M7 0'(...0)20/3(.2.)1. 34)3)+.<+/F. '+.0'&.()./K3&.)1. 69'(.3'4(.&'(/.(.C2)679)6.I(.2.+(.+.B4'2-)8.9)6. &. (9/.(/48.&/A/&.2)48'(. +/2+/..0)27 L.-/3(9O?.)1./K3&.(9.J'(.+0).. 34'0(.<+('2(.0.&.+8+?.(..'(/-. /K('2(..(9/)4/(.(9/. '00)./K3&.2'(/.0. '5 8'((/4.)2'&.)2.88/-. .'&.-/+34/'-.'(.+.2(/4-/3/2-/2(. &/'-+.(.214'0)27 0/3(.+.8.+3/'C?. )1. /K3&.)1.)2.+2/++].)1.)4-/4.2)(.0)2-. 4'(.+.A/.0.)2. 4'(.explicitation of the (socio7 &. '5 +. '2-.'&.2-/47 +('2-.3'47 (.7 1'0(_&'2D.4/8'.)4.(9.)2+.2(.2D. 6.2D.2(.(9/.2.2(/D4'(. S//E.2. '2.)1.)2'4:. )1. '5 C.0'(.+(.+9/-E.4/j/07 (.&)+)39:.(.8'22/4.A.A'7 &/20/.)1.)37 O.()..('(. k/j/K.'+.(9. .)2..7 8'&.'2-.09.)2?.7 0'(..)2.+.(:.-//3/2.0+?.&-.8/09'2.+2/++.0)20/3(.'83&.2'pA/.)2.(9.2-*+.4/j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k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g<A./A/8/2(. )1.2D.-/)&)D.+.+E.(8/2(+.+)4(.<:.0.)2'&.34)3)+.. /K3/4. )1./(9.4/j/0(.3'4(.&'2D.2.(:.34/0)2-.)2.F. /F. )1.'&4/'-:.I(.+.1)4. '00). 8. ..0.().69.&(:. 0)2(/2(?.4/34/+/2('(.)2'&.(9/.1)48'&. )1.09.2-/47 +())-.4'(9/4.J'(.34'0(.83&.0)20/3(..+.4(.(.83&. '5 +)0. 39/2)8/2)&)D.8/2+.. 04.+8_'2.0.2(/D4'(.'&. '2.'&. )1.2D.+.04.C2)67 .'&.0/E.8.'2.+/&170)2+0.(9/.<.().+. @9.0)20/3(.2/.(9.(:.2A)&A/+.+.0.0)20/3(..0)2-. 2).<.-.1)48'&E. ().0)D2. '+.0.2.+.+0).(). (9/.&'4E. </. <.)1.0.<)(9.()./..4/j/0(+..2A)C/. 3)+(.).&.'&.(). 4/'&8E.1(.1)48'&../2(.(9/)4:.2.).@9.2().)1..(9/.(9/. .2.(9/.-.(.F.'09.(+./+.09.+3/'C.)1.<.+(.(.1)4..21/4/2(.09.14)8..I5('C/.(:E.'&. . ).(:.+.A.4/'07 (.+0.). 4/j/K.+.1)4.4/.Ray Brassier +0)3/.)2E. )1.)2.-)/+. )1.34'0(.83&:.)2..+(E.

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`9'(. .(9/. 6'44'2(.(9/. 8/('39:+. /K'0(.0'2.(. '++/2(?.+(.(9/. .'+.(9/."##Q? V.44/2(&:.(+.Z/D/&*+.(. </..(9/+/.'&.. 0)2-. .)2? b/+3. ().)2'&. <.)2.8'2.2D.c&&.)2.8'(/.(. /K3&.A.+(.(.-.+9).2/. c2:(9.2-/4+())-.'. e/(.k/'-.(.-/.'&.)1. (9/.0'&E.+.2(. </(6//2.)2'&.+/&170)44/0(7 . -.. (9'2.2-/-?.'50)20/3(.3&.23.44'(.2).0'(/-.4/34/+/2('(.4'(.(.qr<4'2-)8q9/D/&q.(.-/4. c&(9).2-/K/+.(9'(.+. +)0.A/+. )2&:.0'+/E. B4'2-)8*+. 0/4('. )1.&'<&/.2.0./-.(9/. &/++.'&.4/'7 sonR?.4/'+)2. 4/0)D2.0'&&:. @9/.A'4.)1.69)+/.(9'(.2.2. ().20. @9/8/+. 34)A.'4(.'((/83(.+.'5%4)D4'8.)1.().+C/(09d.+8.9.2D.+C/3(.)2. 0&'. (4.4/'&.6/.0)20&...I5('C/. <.2-/K?9(8&?.&.6'44'2(. '(.().&-'".+8.11/4/20/.MD7 .%:449)2.^. (9/. (4'2+0/2-/2('&.(9.'((/83(.Z/D/&E. /2(/434.(9/.(:./(J+09/. .%4'D8'7 (.2. 0'44.c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g2&:./2-)4+/8/2(.&(.2D. 0).88/-.'74'(.2A)&A/+. '5 0)88.'.I(.4/F./K(4'(/44.(&/-.0.().21/4/2(.+(. .04.+. '5 +(4)2D.2D.0'(.&#/ .3/49'3+.)2.A/+.'&. +C/(09/-.+()4.20/.)2. '++/4(. -/8)2+(4'(/. 0)2(4'-.3&.Z/D/&].4'(. . (9/. B:.'&&. 2/D'(.0(.C/.0.+8N?. 185 "#!$ (.4/34/+/2('(. )<L/0(.&)+)39:.++.(. .83)4('2(./A/2.2.)4.7 '(/&:.2.'&.04.9((3Hqq666?3.)1.214'7 +(4.4'&.+.'<).(9'(.'&+). 9'+.(4. 0)2(/2(.+8E].D/-.&/D.)1.8'&. /K34/++.69'(. (9'(. 4/M2/-.+.83&.&&/4."##R? N. +(:8.)<&.@9'(.9.((?/-.(9)+/..(9.(9/.(9/4/.+.(.(9)+/. '2-..().1)4.%:449)2./+.'&&/D/-&:.+C/3(.)1.'(7 ('.2.()7 4.(4'2+0/2-/2(.0(.4/+.I2. )1.0'+/./?.(:V.)2.2)(.+04.&(:?.1)4.4/. )1./A/4:.2)(. 0)83&'.'++/2(.'00). )1.. 0)20/3(.+'8/.)4.-/+. ! "#$%$&' ()' *%+.40.(9/.T. -.+.S//.'2.+8E.<&.)2/-.-.0)20/3(.+(4. ! !"#$%!&'!$&($)*#+$$.M/-.(.7 &'(/.14)8..<).<4.(+.6.(9.'5-/1/2+/.4/'+)2E.)2'&.+//. &'(/2(..2...(:.. I5 9'A/.. 1)4(90)8.2D.'4/.+.(9/.2-.A/.8A/2('<&/.B. .6)..)2'&.C2)6. )1. 4'(9/4.!&-*(*. 9/4/E.)1.'2-. <4'2-+.'A'.(/.3'4(.-.2'8/.F.A/.0)20/3(.04. [)4.(9. (4. )1.)2/.

<.k)</4(./F.-/+.'2'./+.+('(/-.<.2<..!UH.&'(/.'4(. .34/+.. .\%4/+.(9). </(6//2.(:.().. 6.)<L/0(.2)27</.(+.(9/. (4.'&/0(.'2-.(9.2..Z'4A'4-.+('(/8/2(.2/D'(.0.0(.A.(+./72&$</-' !=%$&$>+/'()'=(4&/3#(%2%?'=(4tinental Theory?.2.0/.)1.&.+8?].'2-.(9/.0'&. (9/.</7 (6//2.(9/.(9/.'&.<&/.)2.(.'+.1:.-. 34)A.'5.</7 (6//2.)4.4/.>"##Q=?.'&+).8)7 ()4H.(.(:. G'8<4.'&.09.+.J'<&/.&/A/&.<.)2'&.'<). -.69.+.2D.-D/E.2/D'(.0(. (9/.(9/.0'22)(.6/4?.>"#!#=?.09. 2)48'(.83&.(9).Making it Explicit?...2(/D4'(/.B4.c+97 D'(/? T):+E.2D+].<&/.)1.(.69'(.3)++.2D()2H.33)+/+. -/9.@9.i'6?.+('(/8/2(.4E.4/8'.2.Y2.)1.(.b'A.(:E.(9/. 69.2-/48.4/0)D2.XA/4:.(9?.2D2/++.'2:.2/D'(.'(.)2.4/.)2&/++.(:.2D. 4'(.4+/.2().83)++.+(.$.M/-.-.09.2-/K.0J. 0'20/&.+0).X-.8'(/.)2.^'++?H..2().2-/4]. References B4'2-)8E.A/4+.B/2L'8.(:..@4'2+?.Z'4A'4-.)2.69'(.!##P!"R? 186 .2D.2/D'(.A/.>"##$=?.2)(..-)/+.(9).0)2(4'-.0)20/3(.2<.\.(.c2-4s.(9/.+.*1/':/%.+.(.Y2.)2()&)D.'&.@4'2+?.%4/++? ^.(:.(:?. 0)20/3(.+0/20/. )1.The Pasteurization of France?.M'<&/. @9.6.0.44/-.34/+.c&'2.X-.(9/.-.09'4-.)<L/0(.A..+(4.34'0(.2.A/4+.'+.+.A.A.0)20/3(=..(9'(.'<).2D.(.69'(.>!UUO=?.Ray Brassier ..(:?.%4/++? @4.&/40/'()'&1/'...</..\(9. (9/.33)+.40/.)1.(4. '52)48'(.)2.)1.S0/3(.+.%4/++? Z/./2'<&.(E.(.(.<&/.A/4+.2).2)270)20/3(. ().Y2.(9?.4/'&. '33/'4'20/..2'-A/4(/2(&:..09.2+.>"##R=?.+).['429'8H.2D..t)92.(9'(.2./2(..(). +':E.0'22)(..+(4.)1.2'4:.</.(. .0)2-.4+/E.)<L/0(.(9/.'+.&&/4E.>!UU$=?./&+.S9/4.2D.A/4+.G'8<4.(:.4D9H. '2-. )4.8/2+..Y2.(.2D. 2)27</.'&&:....%4/++? i'().I)'22.I2-..^'4(. 6.++)C'+E.&/.07 (.2(/D4'(/-. 69'(.+?.+.-/DD/4E.'2-.k.)1.+.(4.0.+.'5-.+.Pli: The Warwick Journal of Philosophy. 4/7 8'.A/E..&(.2.-'2.Plato’s Sophist?.0)20/3(.+. B&))8.'&. (9/.k)L0/6.-D/E.+.2. 2)(9.-.20(.(:.&'(/4'&.`9.>.2)<L/0(.(.33)+/-.Out of Error: Further Essays on Critical Rationalism?.'2-.?/?E.(:.+. .11/4/20/. </(6//2.83)++.(9'(.0)2(/2(?.0'(/-. c0C2)6&/-D. .4D9.+0).D.69'(.1.(.69'(.)1. 4/'&.0'&.(9/.S09.^'++?H.