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GSM Services

2.2Bearer Services
2.4Supplementary Services
2.4.1 Line Identification Services
2.4.2Call Offering Services
2.4.3Call Completion Services
2.4.4Multi Party Supplementary Services
2.4.5Closed User Groups (CUG)
2.4.6Advice of Charge
2.4.7Call Restriction Services
2.5Value Added Services

GSM is the first digital cellular mobile communication system to enable international roaming and ISDN service characteristics • GSM is an open standard for services. over 300 network operators in 130 countries are offering GSM services.independent of the individual countries. – Over 150 million customers use GSM.• Today. infrastructure and communication . network operators and producers. and flexible to the requirements of the individual user • All this has boosted the development of GSM: – Now. – A considerable share of the world-wide telecommunication market goes to GSM products and -services .

e. the system's capacity is constantly being enhanced . their possibilities are limited by a data rate of 9. in the multimedia or Internet sector. higher data rates are necessary • Therefore. for speech communication • Although the standard also offers data services. above all.6 kbps • To meet the growing demands of increasingly complex data applications.• GSM has been designed.g.

• • • • • Faster e-mail transfer Faster file transfer.g.• • One extension of the GSM standard is High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD) This innovation gives the bit rates an enormous boost. e. a new channel coding method. This allows. HSCSD is circuit-switched and optimizes the existing transmission rates in two respects: – – Firstly. As most of the services used require higher data rates in the downlink than in the uplink. HSCSD really shows an asymmetrical implementation.6 kbps. for example.4 Secondly. available in GSM Phase 2+ in single circuit-switched data.6 kbps to 14. the bundling of up to 4 timeslots can increase the user data rate to 57. and Speedier and thus cheaper webbrowsing and data download from the Internet. increases the data rate from 9. 3 timeslots in the downlink and 1 in the uplink This also facilitates mobile station design and avoids battery capacity problems .

but on the amount of transmitted data Additionally. billing is no longer based on the duration of the call. a data rate of up to 171. GPRS is a further step towards mobile multimedia . the more the datarate available to each individual user is reduced GPRS requires some modifications to the existing GSM infrastructure Together with HSCSD. for example web browsing or WAP access By bundling up to 8 channels. the type of data service can be charged.2 kbps can be achieved. with up to 8 subscribers per channel The more subscribers transmit data within a cell. the General Packet Radio Service GPRS is packet-switched instead of circuit-switched The radio network resources are only used if data is actually being transmitted Thus.• • • • • • • • In contrast to HSCSD.

with EDGE.• • • • • Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a technology concentrating on the air interface between the mobile and the base station Based on a new modulation process. is not just one bit. In contrast to GSM. a symbol. EDGE is very bit error sensitive and requires careful planning and a sufficient number of base stations . EDGE achieves three times the data rates of HSCSD and GPRS at the air interface Furthermore. the subscriber can use all 8 timeslots at the air interface. 8 Phase Shift Keying. but three bits This technology allows data rates of almost 474 kbps per user On the other hand. a digital data unit at the air interface. or 8PSK.

especially at the beginning. a close cooperation with the existing GSM network structure is necessary to guarantee that services are supplied area-wide . represents the 3rd generation of mobile communication It achieves bit rates of up to 2 Mbit/s if the mobile is static and no other user is transferring any data Realistic situations will allow a maximum of 144 or 384 kbps The introduction of UMTS won't make GSM unnecessary Simple services like speech will be dealt with by GSM in the future. where a broadband transmission method achieves high transmission speeds This requires considerable changes to the network architecture Thus.• • • • • • • • The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). whereas high data rate multimedia services and mobile office applications will be handled by UMTS UMTS mainly affects the air interface.

the data rate may increase to 57. a total packet-switched transmission is provided between all data terminal equipment at a maximum bit rate of 171. is used to adapt these signals to the packet-switched mode in public data networks. e.2 kbps .600bps can be chosen according to data terminal equipment and the interference situation of the air interface With HSCSD. the Internet With GPRS. called Packet Assembler-Disassembler or PAD.• • • • • Bit rates between 300 and 9.6 kbps All Bearer Services are handled as circuit-switched services between the mobile data equipment and the NSS requiring a permanent link between the involved components A converter.g.

provide automatic fax service between a mobile fax and a fax machine within a PSTN. and are transmitted over signalling channels Whereas normal short messages are stored temporarily in the Short Message Service Center SMSC. even during a call. with Cell Broadcast they are stored in the Base Station Controller BSC The fax services. for example. each with its own MSISDN at a maximum speed of 9. receipt and broadcast of short messages Short messages can be received at any time.6 kbps . or between 2 mobile fax terminals.• • • • • • Teleservices provide voice and non-voice services Voice services include normal speech telephony and emergency calls Non-voice services include the Short Message Service. that is the sending. also referred to as Group 3 facsimile.

The desired service is.• Supplementary Services can be controlled by the subscriber as well as by the network • There are two groups of services – First. as is the case with line identification • The supplementary services subdivide into several types . for example. there are those services which are provided by the service provider and made available to a customer – Then there are the services which are invoked by a customer. activated by a customer pressing a particular key.

• • • • The Line Identification Services include the Calling Line Identification Presentation (CLIP). if the called party does not want to be identified by the caller . for identification of the called party by the caller. and Connected Line Identification Restriction COLR. so it cannot be identified by the called party COLP. that is the display of the caller's number on the called party's mobile station Using Calling Line Identification Restriction (CLIR). the calling party can restrict its call number.

• • • • Call Offering Services are services which allow a customer to forward incoming calls to other target numbers Call Forwarding Unconditional CFU ensures that all incoming calls are diverted to a number specified by the customer. independent of the conditions of the call Call Forwarding on mobile Subscriber Busy CFB diverts calls only if the called subscriber is making a call and the line is busy Supported by the Optimal Routing Service SOR .a GSM Phase 2+ feature calls are routed directly to the subscriber's current location .

without losing the connection to the first call . and the customer is engaged in an active or held call The Call Holding Service HOLD permits the customer to interrupt communication on the active call for another call. as well as to hold calls while simultaneously making another call Call Waiting CW notifies the customer of an incoming call when no traffic channel is available.• • • Call Completion Services allow the customer to postpone incoming calls which he is currently not able to accept.

allow the customer to communicate with more than one party simultaneously The Multi Party Service can be initiated if a customer is in control of at least one active call and one call on hold After it has been initiated.• • • • Multi Party Services. parties an be added. also called conferencing services. disconnected or separated Thus the subscriber initiating the service can add more parties to the Multiparty Call and exclude others from conversation .

one or more subscribers in this group can be authorised to call subscribers outside.• • • • Closed User Group (CUG) gives a particular group of customers the opportunity to communicate with each other in PLMN or ISDN networks The members of a Closed User Group can't communicate with subscribers outside the group If desired. or to receive calls from them Emergency calls are not subject to the restrictions of this service .

each individual call is analyzed and evaluated Reverse Charging is activated at request by the calling subscriber. Reverse Charging is not implemented in GSM networks . and must be permitted by the called subscriber At present.• • • • • The service Advice of Charge (AOC) is a supplementary service that allows a mobile subscriber who uses services to receive servicerelated billing details With Reverse Charging. on the other hand. a called subscriber can be charged for certain calls For this purpose.

• There are basically two categories of Call Restriction Services: one refers to outgoing calls. The service offers several possibilities. and the other to incoming calls. or by network configuration . such as – Barring all outgoing and incoming calls – Barring all outgoing international calls • Or – Barring all incoming calls except those coming from the country of the home network • The calls can be barred manually by the subscriber.

and can be transmitted either via a normal telephone call or via SMS These services offer the supplier a further opportunity . a flight or a hire car Help in the event of a car breakdown Information services Medical advice Ticket reservation Sports news Delivery services.apart from price . like sending flowers to a particular person and many more .to attract customers Value Added Services are. for example: – – – – – – – – Information on cultural events or traffic announcements via Cell Broadcast Reservation of a hotel.• • • Value Added Services are supplied by the respective Service Provider or network operator.

• • • • The Base Station Subsystem BSS provides the connection between the mobile stations and the Network Subsystem NSS The NSS forwards user signals to other mobiles via the BSS or subscribers in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). the Short Message Service Center or the Voice Mail System complete the GSM system architecture . and provides necessary customer data The Operation & Maintenance Subsystem (OMS) monitors BSS and NSS performance. and remotely debugs occurring faults in the network elements Additional components such as interface elements to data networks.

maintains calls to a maximum of 8 mobile stations via one frequency pair each The BTS is also responsible for the monitoring of the signal quality and the encoding and modulation of useful signals Via the A-bis interface. signals and control information destined for the OMS and the NSS to the Base Station Controller (BSC) .• • The Base Station Subsystem ensures as complete a network coverage as possible and includes a large number of structurally organised radio cells It consists of the following elements: – – – • • • • • The Base Transceiver Station The Base Station Controller The Transcoder The central element of one cell of this kind is a transmitting and receiving unit known as a Base Transceiver Station (BTS). the central functional unit of the BTS. This makes the connection to the mobile station via the air interface and controls the transceiver (TRX) The transceiver. it forwards calls.

connecting mobile subscribers with each other or with subscribers in other networks such as the Public Switched Telephone Network. the ISDN network.• • • • The Base Station Subsystem forwards the signals to the Network Subsystem (NSS) where speech and circuit-switched data are controlled and forwarded to other networks if necessary The NSS provides data relevant to security and mobility The speech signals processed by the transcoder reach the Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) via the A interface The MSC serves as a digital exchange for the forwarding of messages. or data networks. .

– 2. manages hardware inventory lists. This is the Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) The OMC has the following tasks: – 1. The Software Management system feeds in new software or updates and manages the software inventory lists . The Fault Management system analyses alarms from the BSS elements. for example for radio frequencies of a BTS. The Configuration Management function installs the software when new BSS network elements are implemented. and changes operation parameters. they are eliminated when necessary via software command or in situ by technicians. – 3. When faults occur.• • The GSM network is monitored and controlled from a central point.

• • • • • For dealing with customer support and supplying certain services. GSM includes a number of additional components The Administration & Billing Center ABC transfers customer data to the appropriate registers of the NSS and into the AUC and the HLR The Administration Center is connected to the Personalization Center for SIM Cards (PCS) via an interface This makes it possible to disable the SIM card if necessary and protect it from abuse The so-called Call Detail Records are used in the Billing Center for bill preparation .

if reasonable. Several radio cells are put together to form administrative areas controlled by a BSC Various areas controlled by one BSC each form a location area controlled by a VLR It is also possible for a Location Area to cover one BSC only. the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) is a cellular network with a hierarchical structure The smallest unit is the radio cell. If a mobile phone subscriber changes to a new Location Area. or.• • • • • In GSM. so the location of the subscriber is known to the network via a VLR linked to the MSC . a Location Update takes place automatically. which the BTS supplies with frequencies. radio channels It provides the network coverage. in other words. or even one cell.