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Speaker Roles in Asian Parliamentary Debate


Prime Minister (PM)

Define context and parameters of debate. For example, in an open motion
like "This House Would Support Musicians", the debate could be
contextualized into whether music should be a commodity for trade, or it
should be available gratis (i.e. free music download and transfer)

Provide concise background or history leading to the issue

Give framework of government bench's case. I.e. mechanisms (if any),
argumentation flow (what the government's first argument is and what the
Deputy Prime Minister will talk about)

Introduce 1st argument

Assert Government stand

Deputy Prime Minister (DPM)

Rebut first argument from Leader of Opposition

Rebut rebuttals to PM's argument

Introduce 2nd and 3rd argument

Reassert Government stand and case

Government Whip

Rebut Deputy Leader of Opposition, and Leader of Opposition

Rebut rebuttals to DPM and PM arguments

Provide a deeper level of analysis for previous arguments and rebuttals

No new arguments, but new angles of arguments should be given

Brief summary of entire case of Government

Reassert Government stand and case

[Edit] Opposition: Leader of Opposition  Agree or disagree with context/ parameters of debate (any definitional challenges. or at least effectively highlight how Government proposal will worsen the situation)  Introduce first Opposition argument  Assert Opposition stand Deputy Leader of Opposition  Rebut DPM and PM arguments  Rebut rebuttals to LO arguments  Introduce 1st and 2nd (if any) argument  Reassert Opposition stand and case Opposition Whip  Rebut DPM and PM arguments  Rebut rebuttals to LO & DLO arguments  Provide a deeper level of analysis for previous arguments and rebuttals  No new arguments. accusations of squirreling. but new angles of arguments should be given  Reassert Opposition stand and case . or unfair set up should be made from the LO speech and no later)  Rebut Prime Minister's argument  Give framework for Opposition case (if Opp agrees to problem. then their case should provide solution.

set one of these sites as your homepage so that global issues "sink in" each time you open your browser. . carefully tiptoe around issues you think you lost  New examples to expand on discussed examples is usually allowed and makes the reply speech sound fresh as opposed to verbal regurgitation  Reassert stand --Most importantly. Research Timely Issues If there is an issue that is dominating the news and you have a debate tournament coming up. . If you have a computer.) Strategies & Tips for Limited Preparation Debating Read Widely Even just skimming a few international news websites. like BBC news. Al Jazeera or The New York Times will help keep you abreast of international issues. Split tasks with your partners and teammates and create briefs on these issues before the tournament so that everyone can be up to speed. A great weekly read for sheer breadth is the The Economist. you can be sure that there will be a motion on that topic.[Edit] Reply Speech:  Can only be done by either 1st or 2nd speaker from each bench  Provide a biased 'oral adjudication' of why the debate should go to own bench  Highlight issues you think your side won. try to have fun while you're doing all this. Keep these briefs throughout the year so that you can update them as events change.

Knowing the decision-making machinery of these organizations. the EU and Japan. especially the UN.can help you win debates. their jurisdiction and their activities will help you immensely. you may want to look into NATO. feature prominently in many debates as well. I differ from/with you entirely. You may want to dig deeper into important events and controversies. the US. but with thousands of articles. International organizations. (1) When you start saying something / contributing to a conversation First of all. I agree to (with) her plan. I would like to say/state that To begin with. Some good places to start are: China. . I am of the same opinion. In addition to the UN. Use IDEA's Free Resources Debatepedia (the wiki you are on right now) is a free resource open to anyone with internet access. Russia. Being even passingly familiar with the political structures and current situations of these countries . I In the first line.Research Key Countries and Organizations Some countries are global players and will enter nearly any international debate in which you find yourself. the WTO and the G8. I disagree with you: I am sure you're mistaken. I (2) What can you say instead of "I think" I would say/think In my opinion To my mind I am of the opinion that I hold the opinion that (3) When you want to stress your "personal opinion": Personally I think As far as I am concerned As for me As I take it As far as I can see (4) When you "agree" or when you "don't agree": I entirely/quite agree with you. Debatepedia is a good place to start. ASEAN. It is a great place to get a sense of an issue and begin constructing arguments.or groups of countries .

.. That is quite the contrary to what I said./ Could you slow down a bit? (9) If you should want to "correct a mistake": Excuse me (for interrupting) you should have said:"...... I maintain the contrary...on the other hand in general ... Let's agree to differ! (5) When you want to say the "opposite" of what someone else said: on the contrary! quite the contrary! just the opposite! That is the very opposite of what I said.... / Pardon? Could you repeat what you've just said? But slower." (10)When you want to distinguish one aspect from the other: on the one hand . (6) When you are "quite sure" of something: of course! That goes without saying It goes without saying that I contend/maintain that..on second thoughts (11)When you want to "add" something: In addition Moreover Furthermore Finally (12)When you want to "emphasize" something: I would like to lay (put) emphasis (stress) on the fact that............ I just want to point out that .in particular generally speaking on the whole taken as a whole at first sight . It's my conviction that..I stick to my opinion... In contrast to what you said..... (7) When you want to "ask a question": May I interrupt you? There arises the question/point whether/if This question raises the whole issue (8) When you "haven't understood": I beg your pardon..... I maintain that.......... please..

hold it because they actually believe . ..I don't know either.. . If you really believe that they are intentionally being evil . It´s ridiculous to suggest that. rather than trying to defend a position for its own sake.. In general. (A) General phrases: in other words in this respect to a certain degree/extent It depends on your point of view in brief/short To be brief To cut a long story short.(13)When you want to "say the truth": To be frank (with you) Frankly (speaking) To say the truth (14)And if you are "not sure": I don't know exactly. It may work in the short-term / in the long-term..don't waste time in debate with them. I have doubts / reservations about . You´d better do . no matter how deranged their position or how harmful such a position may be to you...You must be joking! That´s nonsense / rubbish / ridiculous.. What´s that got to do with the issue? . / What I´m trying to say is... Your argument is flawed because. .. . You´ve got a point / a case there but... Prove it! .. Let´s face it. . the majority of people... ... I don´t see that working in practice. Bear in mind that … .. in general... As for me. What is your point? What are you driving at? . . My feeling is. I see/understand your point but .. Add the following expressions to the given categories I agree with / disagree with you... If you ask me. I´m not sure.. EMPATHY By far. What I´m getting at is.. are you? .... ..... ... .. You´re not serious. I don't know.. mean well. I think that´s debatable. . Ten Ethics of Debate The following are some guidelines I believe are helpful to any debate in which the participants are seeking truth. ... if you really think about it.. What´s more / in addition / furthermore . . However. . I don't know for certain. . 1) I would call these guidelines HAVE of Freethought for debaters. most people. whether …. Let me put it this way:. / My point is. As a rule. On the whole... . Nor/Neither do I. You´re missing the point. It goes without saying that. .

ask questions. then it is best to end the conversation. or to enact revenge for other statements. then it is best not to waste your time. spiritual. If there's little chance of them listening to anything you have to say. be passive . Ask questions .no matter what the consequences 4) DON'T or implications WASTE TIME of such IN conclusions. Hate positions. as emotions rise. and 5) let them reach conclusions KEEP on their own. because they are feeling insecure of their position. COOL Often. Think of your first few rounds of discussion as strictly information gathering don't make judgments at the beginning and don't jump to conclusions. If these are raw insults by themselves.listen. beliefs. Be clear with your definitions and be sure you are clear of theirs. believe. in the freethought spirit. and that is to find truth . If the insults . STAY etc. or simply unaware. religion. The purpose of debate. and actions 2) but love people. If you must converse on such topics. to make yourself look or feel good.especially about words such as love. Identify victory-seekers early. or if they refuse to listen to obvious reason. is not to demoralize your opponent. BE CLEAR It is possible to argue with someone for an hour before realizing that you actually agree but are using different semantics. It is easy to hate a stranger but try to imagine how you might respond if a loved one were to take the same position. policies. FOCUSED is the right position to take. moral. threatened by yours. people will use wording which you may find insulting. it is easy to turn debate into a vendetta. miscommunication about definitions can lead to huge blocks of unproductive time in argument. government. Even if you don't agree. better. COMBAT Most people are not open-minded and merely want to win the argument. 3) wrong. There is only one proper purpose for such discussion.

not how you perceive them. Insulting people is a completely separate task from debating. simply tell them their words are offensive and why but do not answer with equal offense .even a little.there's no point to it.are part of the argument itself. 8) DON'T MARRY YOUR POSITION To be fair. Put yourself in their shoes and imagine yourself believing what they believe . this may only be an exaggerated word used to over stress a concept. rather than squabbling over fringe elements of the issue. 7) CRITICIZE POSITIONS & ACTIONS - NOT PEOPLE Sometimes you may feel lulled into ad homonym yourself. In the end. remember that words are just words . If the words are offensive to you but you have every reason to believe the person wasn't intending to offend. humor at the other's expense. This means that you absolutely must be wrong about some things . Secondly. That includes using sarcasm. POINTLESS If offended in any case. . you yourself must be open-minded enough to listen and really consider what the other person is saying. there are a few things to keep in just don't know which. What is sometimes confused with enthusiastic support for a cause is actually selfish betrayal of it. You know you are not perfect.get tougher skin 6) and REVENGE move IS on. and you will likely hurt the cause for which you fight. What is worse is that you are hurting a good cause for your own emotional gratification. This will mean that you can both spend your time focusing on the key points of difference. Don't do it . For one. Not only does this help you to listen. or even wording that merely suggests something insulting without stating it overtly. your position will not be spread.much like an actor. you ensure that you will not be listened to. he or she may not realize how offensive the remarks are to you. focus on their intentions . it helps you to understand why they believe what they do. then don't worry about it. When you engage in revenge talk. Insults never make your point better than plain facts. Most importantly. Don't feel threatened or hurt if you are "loosing" the argument. It is best to stick to the issues at hand.

I'm not sure about that but give me some time to look into it and think about it and I'll get back to you. then you have intentionally spread what might be falsehood for your own personal gain. This presents a good opportunity for learning and improvement . or both of them are. which will encourage open mindedness in others too.maybe for him or her but also maybe for you. "That's a good point. This can also be an opportunity to show them that you yourself are not merely a victory seeker in debate. If you "know" you're right. If you had to distract your opponent with logical fallacy." If you look into it and. and a vice when it leads one to be unethical or to care more for one's image or position than for truth. or irrelevant data. 9) DON'T USE DECEPTION It is better to lose the debate than to win it with deception. Letting others know when they are right is a way to "cash in" on your open mindedness and not only improve relations but set a good example. If you need shifty tactics. for you have learned something new today. then you are probably wrong and should concede defeat. If you can't. ad homonym attacks. the point of a debate is not to win. Put the argument on hold to study the other's points further if you must but do not attempt to 10) win FORGET by illegitimate ABOUT means. Your position is not you. but if you lose then you are the most fortunate of the two. then you should be able to back it up with facts and logic. encourage and promote . Finding or spreading the truth is more important than you.for the ethical and thinking person. You don't have to concede in one sitting but you can at least say. When two people disagree. then change. then you're either wrong or you need to learn more. If you win the argument you have helped to enlighten someone else. WINNING Regardless of what much of the world. . It is a good idea to admit this openly to the other person to affirm them in their correct stance as well. including debate clubs. after careful consideration.This might be one of them. find that you are wrong. either one of them is wrong. Pride is irrelevant.