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For other uses, see Detergent (disambiguation).

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute
solutions."[1] These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds
that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of
detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions
found in hard water. In most household contexts, the term detergent by itself refers
specifically to laundry detergent or dish detergent, as opposed to hand soap or other types of
cleaning agents. Detergents are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions.
Detergents, like soaps, work because they are amphiphilic: partly hydrophilic (polar) and
partly hydrophobic (non-polar). Their dual nature facilitates the mixture of hydrophobic
compounds (like oil and grease) with water. Because air is not hydrophilic, detergents are
also foaming agents to varying degrees.


1 Chemical classification of detergents
o 1.1 Anionic detergents
o 1.2 Cationic detergents
o 1.3 Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents

 2 Major applications of detergents o 2. and a soap.[2] An estimated 6 billion kilograms of anionic detergents are produced annually for domestic markets. such as deoxycholic acid (DOC). depending on the electrical charge of the surfactants.1 Laundry detergents o 2. Anionic detergents Typical anionic detergents are alkylbenzenesulfonates. .3 Biological Reagent o 2. Bile acids. Two different varieties have been popularized. are anionic detergents produced by the liver to aid in digestion and absorption of fats and oils. linear sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The former were largely phased out in economically advanced societies because they are poorly biodegradable. The alkylbenzene portion of these anions is lipophilic and the sulfonate is hydrophilic. those with branched alkyl groups and those with linear alkyl groups.2 Fuel additives o 2.4 Soapless soap  3 See also  4 References  5 External links Chemical classification of detergents Detergents are classified into three broad groupings. Three kinds of anionic detergents: a branched sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

Concentrations are about 300 ppm. with a hydrophobic component. Fuel additives Both carburetors and fuel injector components of Otto engines benefit from detergents in the fuels to prevent fouling. Major applications of detergents Laundry detergents Main article: laundry detergent One of the largest applications of detergents is for cleaning clothing. hydrophilic headgroups. instead of the anionic sulfonate group. Typical non-ionic detergents are based on polyoxyethylene or a glycoside. Typical detergents are long-chain amines and amides such as polyisobuteneamine and polyisobuteneamide/succinimide.Cationic detergents Cationic detergents are similar to the anionic ones. See surfactants for more applications. The ammonium center is positively charged. Examples include octyl-thioglucoside and maltosides.[5] Soapless soap . reflecting the diverse demands of the application and the highly competitive consumer market. The formulations are complex. the cationic surfactants have quaternary ammonium as the polar end. and many other agents. and the Brij series. In general.[3] Biological Reagent Reagent grade detergents are employed for the isolation and purification of integral membrane proteins found in biological cells. and photosystem II. brighteners. Common examples of the former include Tween. Advancements in the purity and sophistication of detergents have facilitated structural and biophysical characterization of important membrane proteins such as ion channels. laundry detergents contain water softeners. These materials are also known as ethoxylates or PEGylates. Zwitterionic detergents possess a net zero charge arising from the presence of equal numbers of +1 and −1 charged chemical groups. enzymes. HEGA and MEGA series detergents are similar.[4] transporters. signaling receptors. The formulation is strongly affected by the temperature of the cleaning water and varies from country to country. Examples include CHAPS. fragrances. bleach. Triton. possessing a sugar alcohol as headgroup. Glycosides have a sugar as their uncharged hydrophilic headgroup. surfactants. but.[2] Non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents Non-ionic detergents are characterized by their uncharged.

a16_719. Frederike Wiebel. Retrieved 2013-01-12. Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002. Andrea Schütze. Weinheimdoi:10. Cohen SL.1002/14356007. Eric Sung. Gulbis JM.[6] Soapless soaps are used in an array of products. Josef Steber. MacKinnon R (1998). Weinheim. Arno Reglitzky. ^ Werner Dabelstein. Pfuetzner RA. doi:10. "The structure of the potassium channel: molecular basis of K+conduction and selectivity". Wolfgang Rybinski. Chait BT. Anette Nordskog.1002/14356007. ^ "IUPAC Gold Book . Kuo "Laundry Detergents" in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002. 2.Soapless soap refers to a soapfree liquid cleanser with a slightly acidic pH. Wilfried Rähse. ^ a b Eduard Smulders. ^ Doyle DA. Borax-based washing detergent See also  Green cleaning  Laundry detergent  Dishwashing liquid  Hard-surface cleaner  Cleavable detergent  Dispersant References 1. Morais Cabral J.pub2 4. 2012-08-19. Wiley-VCH. Science 280(5360): 69–77 .pub2 3.detergent". Goldbook.iupac.a08_315. WileyVCH.

Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II at a resolution of 1. Keisuke Kawakami. destaining methods and soil. doi:10. Indian J Pediatr 69 (9): 767–9. doi:10.9 How Do Detergents Clean  Detergents and Surfactants  Campbell tips for detergents chemistry.1007/BF02723687. surfactants. Jian-Ren Shen & Nobuo Kamiya. View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories:  Cleaning products  Membrane-active molecules  Cleaning Navigation menu  Create account  Log in  Article  Talk . 473: 55–60. ^ Yasufumi Umena.1038/nature09913 6. PMID 12420908.5. ^ Tyebkhan G (2002). External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Detergents  About. and history related to laundry washing. Nature 2011. "Skin cleansing in neonates and infants-basics of cleansers".

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