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Inequalities and Linear Programming

9.1 Absolute and Conditional Inequalities
This section aims to:
1. Define inequality symbols and illustrate its properties;
2. Distinguish absolute from conditional inequality; and
3. Solve for the solution set of linear and conditional inequalities
An INQUALITY is a statement that one quality or expression is greater than or less
than another quantity or expression, i.e. if a and b are quantities or expression, we
can write above in symbols as: as
a>b or
a<b
The symbols > and < are used as INEQUALITY SYMBOLS. The symbols > means “is
greater than,” while the symbols < means “is less than.” For example,
3 > -1, or -1 <3.
The following give the formal definitions of inequality:
a > 0 iff a is positive, and a < 0 off a is negative
a > b iff a – b > 0,
a < b iff and a – b < 0
Two in equality symbols are of the same sense if they are both greater than or both
less than; otherwise, the symbols are called unlike sense.

Two Kinds of Equality
1. An ABSOLUTE INEQUALITY is a true for all real values of the variables of letters
involved. The following illustrate the meaning of absolute inequalities:
a. a² > 0
b. (a - b)² < -1
c. a² > -0.1

2. A CONDITIONAL INEQUALITY is true for all real values of the variables or letters
involved. For example,
a. x – 1 > 1 is true only when x > 2,
c. x – 1 < 0 is true only when x < 1 ,
e.

√x

> o is true for x > 0 .

b.-x > 0 is true for x < 0
d. 2 – x > 0 is true for x < 2
f.

√ x−1

> 0 is true for x > 1

6 > 4 . then 3x > 2y To solve AN INEQUALITY in the single variable x means to find the solution set. If a < b . then x > 8 – 5 2. The sense of inequality is unchanged if the same real number is added or subtracted to both sides. i. then 4¯² < 9¯² and 4¯½ < ¯9½ 5. The sense of an inequality is reversed if both sides are multiplied or divided by the same positive real number .The sense of an inequality is reversed if both sides are multiplied or divided by the same negative real number. if a > b and c < 0 .e. then 4² < 9² and 4½ < 9½ 4 < 9 . then -8 then -8 (-3) and -8/(-1) > 2/(-1) or 8 > -2 4. or (a. i. + ∞ ) a . then 6(5) > 4(5) and 6 / 2 > 4 / 2 3.then a + c > b + c Examples: 75 > 50. then ac < bc and a / c < b / c.e. i. If a> b and c > d . then ac > bc and a/c > b/c. b. ° x > a .e.25 > 50 – 25 It follows that any tern may be transposed from one side of an inequality to the other. for any real numbers a. values of x which satisfy the inequality. The solution proceed to a series of equivalent inequalities until we find one whose solution is very evident such as x < a and x > a can be illustrated in the number line as follows.Properties of Inequalities 1. provided the sign of the term .Each property from 1-6 changes a given inequality into an equivalent one. equality with the same solution set as the original. i.e. i. then a > c – b Example: x + 5 > 8 . Example: 4 < 9 . If a + b > c . If a > b > 0 and c > d > 0 . Example: If a > b and c > 0 . then 75 . then 75 + 25 > 50 + 25 75 > 50. i. then ac > bd Example: 3/2 and x > y . then a + c > b + d.e.e. and c. Example: -8 < 2 .

A. Transpose all terms will literal coefficients on the left and all constant terms on the right.e. a) ° a x > a . + ∞) • a x < a . b. -4x – 2x < 9 – 3 . or (-∞. 5 – 7x < 8x – 25 ans. Example 9.1 Solve the following inequalities a. or [a. .1. a] • a The hole implies that the endpoint a is a part of the solution set. 5 2 Solution. 3 – 4x < 2x + 9 x +5 5 ≥ 18 12 ans. or (-∞.x < a . i. the sense of the inequality is reversed. i.e. x > 2 x≥ c. x < -1 The solution set is reflected on the number line on the right: • -1 .6x < 6 Dividing both sides of the inequality by – 6 and by using property 3.

the intersection of the inequalities gives the solution set of Case 1. i.e. The union of cases 1 and 2 gives the final solution set of the given inequality . Thus. 3 ] Case 2. x > 0 6 ≥ 2x x ≤ 3 But we are after the real numbers satisfying x < 3 but for x < 0. x < 0 6 x ≤ 2x ≥ 3 The real numbers satisfying x > 3 but x < 0 gives the solution set for Case 2. But the intersection of the two inequalities in an empty set. the solution set for Case 1 consists of real numbers common to both . 3 ] ∪ { } = ( 0. X – 3 x < -2 ( x – 3 ) 3x < 6 x<2 Thus.2 Find the solution set of 6 x >2 Solution. However.1. as a real number may be positive or negative . (0. Case 1. we have 2 cases as follows: [ ] 6 ≥2 x Case 1.e. Thus. 0 < x < 3 . i.3 Solution. 3 ] Example 9. or ( 0.1. Multiply both sides of the inequality by x. Multiply x – 3 on both sides of the inequality.Example 9. This gives two cases as x – 3 may be positive or negative.

Thus. Solving for x gives – 6x > -2.e. |x – 2|> 3 c. The solution set is . Adding 2 on each side of the inequalities we get – 1 < x < 5.1.1.2 then |x| > c iff x > c Thus. By the Theorem 9. |x – 2|> 3 if – 3 < x – 2 < 3.inequalities. The other inequality gives – 6x < -6 or x > 1.1. |5 – x|> 16 e. |x – 2| < 3 b. x > 1 and x < 2 1 < x < 2 or simply (1. x –9. the solution set of Case 2 consists of all real numbers common to both inequalities.|5 – x| < 16 Ans.e.2 |x – 2|> 3 iff – 3 < x – 2 < 3 .2) Case 2.2 If c x<>0. i. x < 1/3.1. then x > |x| -2 (x – 3) Theorem <c iff – c < x 3x > 6 < c. By Theorem 9. |4 – 6x|> 2 d. i. the solution set for this case is empty.1.1. • -1 • 5 C. By the theorem 9. Solving for x we get the solution set.e.1 3 < 0If c > 0. -11 < x < 21 Solution. 2) ∪ { } (1.2 |4 – 6x|> 2 iff 4 – 6x > 2 or 4 – 6x < -2.1. x > 5 or x < -1 . The solution set has the sketch on the umber line given on the right: • • -1 5 B. (1. The final solution set is the union of solution of the two cases. A. i. 2) Theorems on Inequalities Involving Absolute Value Example 9. x < 1 and x > 2 But there is no real numbers between the two inequalities.4 Solve the following inequalities: a. Theorem 9.

the solution set is the set of all real numbers between -9 and 6. 2. or simply (-9. Find the solution set. then x > 7. then x > 3.18 < 2x < 12 -9 < x < 6 Thus. 8. The inequality 3x < 6 is equivalent to 2 > x. x² + 2x + 1 > 0 III. -x² < 0 ______________ b. The number 4 is a member of the solution set to the in equality 3.1.indicated in the following number line: °° 0 1/3 1 Example 9. 6) EXERCISES 9. If x is at most 3. Let x be the number such that |3 + 2x | < 15. 7. 6. or -15 < 3 + 2x < 15 .5 if 3 is added to 2 times a number. x² < -1 ______________ b.2x + 1 > 0 ______________ b. then x < 5 The inequality -3x > 6 is equivalent to -2 < x.1 I. then x < 5. the absolute value of this result is less than 15. Classify the following as absolute or conditional (6 points) 1a. If x is no more than 5. If x is at least 7. x² . 4x² + 1 > -4x ______________ 2a. 7−5 x ≥−1 . 5. x² + 9 > 0 3a. The number 0 is a member of the solution set to the in quality 1 1 1 2 x− < x− 4 2 2 3 II. . Solve the following inequalities. Solution. −2 If x is no larger than 5 . True or False 1. 4.

b. Find the solution set. the absolute value of the result is less than 7. the absolute value of this result is less than 13. . 2 x−5 <0 x−3 IV. If 5 is added to2 times a number. 2 x−1 ≥0 x +2 b. |2x – 3| > 5 3a. x 1 x 1 − > + 2 3 4 5 2a.|x – 3| < 7 b. If 1 is subtracted from 4 times a number. 1a. 2 1 2x 1 − < + 3 3 2 b.x 1a. |4 – x| > -10 4. |4 – x| < -10 b. Find the solution set.

P (1 + rt) > F 1. Let P = 1. the amount F after t years is given by F = P + I + Prt = P(1 + rt).000.000 (1 + 2r) > 1. This section contains problems involving linear inequalities. The required inequality is given is 5.000 to grow more than Php 1. Example9.2. How many miles must a person drive in a week to make the rental for Company A less than that of Company B? Solution.25 . Apply the principles of inequality in problems of daily life routines: and 2. : Let x be the number of miles driven in 1 week. Solving for x gives 88 < x < 98.2 A student made a score of 82 on a quiz. the car from Company A is cheaper if the person plans to drive more than 50 miles in a week. With the amount at least Php 1. Example 9.000 per week.00 per week with no extra charge for mileage. Let x be the grade in the second quiz. Thus. In order for an investment of Php 1. plus Php 50 for each mile driven.1 A subcompact car can be rented from Company A for Php 8. Thus. The balance in the account after t years is given by A = P + Prt. Example 9.2.2 Applications of Inequalities This section aims to: 1.000 + 50x > 8. she has to get a grade for the next quiz between 88 and 98 inclusive.250 in two years.250 1 + 2r > 1.000. what must the interest be? Solution.250 we have. or 170 < + 180. What would be her grade in the next quiz if she wishes to have a grade between 85 and 90 inclusive? Solution. Solve problems with linear inequality.2.25 2r > 0.3 P peso is invested at a simple interest rate of r. A similar car can be rented from company B for Php 5. The inequality is given by 85 ≤ x +82 ≤ 2 90 . gives x > 50.9. Solving for x . if a student wants her grade for the next quiz between 85 and 90 inclusive.

2. With a minimum consumption of 300 miles. Let t be the number of gallons consumed in the travel. For what number of units of the product will give profit? Solution. In order to obtain a profit . i. For product to give a profit . With a maximum of 20 gallons that the tank can contain. Example 9. the revenue must be greater than the cost . . the car can ran out of gasoline. The cost of producing x units is C = 95x + 750.5 A car that averages 25 miles per gallon has a tank that holds 20 gallons of gasoline. then the equation is given by 25t < 300. then revenue R must be greater the cost C. or t < 12 gallons. to yield to a profit R >C 115.e.95x > 95x + 750 20. Thus. Thus.2. then the range of amount of gasoline that the tank contains is 12 < t < 20. the minimum number of gallons contained in the tank is 12 gallons.95x. What is the range of the amount of gasoline (in gallons) that was in the tank at the start of the trip? Solution.79 ≈ x> 36 units.Example 9. 0r x > 35.4 The revenue for selling x units of a product is R = 115. to obtain a profit the number of units to be sold must at least be 36 units.95 > 750. After a trip that covered at least 300 miles.