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Disinfectant
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This article is about antimicrobial agents. For the Macintosh anti-virus software, see
Disinfectant (software).

Disinfection of a floor using disinfectant liquid applied using a mop
Disinfectants are substances that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms
that are living on the objects.[1] Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms,
especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilisation, which is an extreme
physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life.[1] Disinfectants are different from
other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, which destroy microorganisms within the body,
and antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue. Disinfectants are also
different from biocides — the latter are intended to destroy all forms of life, not just
microorganisms. Disinfectants work by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering
with the metabolism.
Sanitisers are substances that simultaneously clean and disinfect.[2]
Bacterial endospores are most resistant to disinfectants, but some viruses and bacteria also
possess some tolerance.
Disinfectants are frequently used in hospitals, dental surgeries, kitchens, and bathrooms to
kill infectious organisms.

Contents

without harming humans and useful forms of life.8 Copper alloy surfaces o 2. Those that are used indoors should never be mixed with other cleaning products as chemical reactions can occur.9 Other  3 Measurements of effectiveness  4 Home disinfectants  5 See also  6 References  7 External links Properties A perfect disinfectant would also offer complete and full microbiological sterilisation. as a safety measure. most disinfectants are also. while others kill a .3 Aldehydes o 2.1 Air disinfectants o 2.2 Alcohols o 2. an exceptionally bitter substance added to discourage ingestion. Most modern household disinfectants contain Bitrex.6 Quaternary ammonium compounds o 2. Some disinfectants have a wide spectrum (kill many different types of microorganisms).4 Oxidizing agents o 2.7 Silver o 2. potentially harmful (even toxic) to humans or animals.5 Phenolics o 2.[citation needed] The choice of disinfectant to be used depends on the particular situation. be inexpensive. by nature. However. and non-corrosive. 1 Properties  2 Types o 2.

or inexpensive). Alcohols are most effective when combined with purified water to facilitate diffusion through the cell membrane. Under a sustained chemical attack. rather than attempting to kill them with chemicals. but that is not the case. cutting boards and worktops in the home with bactericidal chemicals.[10] . are sometimes used as a disinfectant.smaller range of disease-causing organisms but are preferred for other properties (they may be non-corrosive. Continuous action in real-world environments with outside air exchanges at door. The engineering challenge associated with creating a sufficient concentration of the glycol vapours in the air have not to date been sufficiently addressed. a study found that airborne microorganisms could be killed using mists of dilute bleach. For this reason.[4] In principle. which results in brief contact times unless the surface is submerged. 100% alcohol typically denatures only external membrane proteins.[citation needed] There are arguments for creating or maintaining conditions that are not conducive to bacterial survival and multiplication. They also have limited residual activity due to evaporation. and have a limited activity in the presence of organic material. the surviving bacteria in successive generations are increasingly resistant to the chemical used. and ultimately the chemical is rendered ineffective. usually ethanol or isopropanol.[9] A mixture of 70% ethanol or isopropanol diluted in water is effective against a wide spectrum of bacteria. influenza virus. In the 1940s and early 1950s. which enables them to evolve rapidly. Should some bacteria survive a chemical attack. though higher concentrations are often needed to disinfect wet surfaces. it is more difficult to use them effectively in real-world environments because the disinfection of air is sensitive to continuous action. they give rise to new generations composed completely of bacteria that have resistance to the particular chemical used. and Penicillium chrysogenum (previously P. further studies showed inactivation of diverse bacteria. Bacteria can increase in number very quickly. but more often as an antiseptic (the distinction being that alcohol tends to be used on living tissue rather than nonliving surfaces). some question the wisdom of impregnating cloths. these chemical substances are ideal air disinfectants because they have both high lethality to microorganisms and low mammalian toxicity.[3] An air disinfectant must be dispersed either as an aerosol or vapour at a sufficient concentration in the air to cause the number of viable infectious microorganisms to be significantly reduced. non-toxic. but can be a fire hazard. notatum) mold fungus using various glycols. and window interfaces.[5][6] Although glycols are effective air disinfectants in controlled laboratory environments. HVAC. They are non-corrosive. principally propylene glycol and triethylene glycol. In 1928. Disinfectants are generally assumed to be limited to use on surfaces. poses engineering challenges that are not critical for surface disinfection.[7][8] Alcohols Alcohols.[citation needed] Types Air disinfectants Air disinfectants are typically chemical substances capable of disinfecting microorganisms suspended in the air. and in the presence of materials that adsorb and remove glycols from the air.

In more dilute form. acidic hypochlorite solution made by electrolysis of sodium chloride into sodium hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid. They are partly inactivated by organic matter and have slight residual activity.  Other hypochlorites such as calcium hypochlorite are also used.Additionally. have a wide microbiocidal activity and are sporocidal and fungicidal. it is used in swimming pools. hepatitis B.  Chloramine is often used in drinking water treatment.  Electrolyzed water or "Anolyte" is an oxidizing. at best. and hepatitis C). it is used in drinking water.0–6.Diff) spores with higher concentrations of ethanol and dodecanoic acid.5. it is actually sodium hypochlorite or a related compound—not pure chlorine—that is being used. and it has been found that glutaraldehyde can cause asthma and other health hazards.[15] Commercial solutions with higher concentrations contain substantial amounts of sodium hydroxide for stabilization of the concentrated hypochlorite.[13][14] Aldehydes Aldehydes.5––8. Some bacteria have developed resistance to glutaraldehyde. hence ortho-phthalaldehyde is replacing glutaraldehyde. A large number of disinfectants operate in this way.[citation needed] Oxidizing agents Oxidizing agents act by oxidizing the cell membrane of microorganisms. and other surfaces. Chlorine and oxygen are strong oxidizers. The synergistic effect of 29. Chlorine partly reacts with proteinaceous liquids such as blood to form non-oxidizing N-chloro compounds. Further testing is being performed against Clostridium difficile (C. but the most potent solution is produced at a controlled pH 5.[9][11] The efficacy of alcohol is enhanced when in solution with the wetting agent dodecanoic acid (coconut soap). Hypochlorites yield an aqueous solution of hypochlorous acid that is the true disinfectant.  Sodium hypochlorite is very commonly used. . especially as a swimming pool additive. so their compounds figure heavily here. and is not effective against fungal and bacterial spores. and viruses. and thus higher concentrations must be used if disinfecting surfaces after blood spills. which proved effective with a contact time of ten minutes. Anolyte has an oxidation-reduction potential of +600 to +1200 mV and a typical pH range of 3. Hypobromite solutions are also sometimes used. toilets. and in still more dilute form. such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. high-concentration mixtures (such as 80% ethanol + 5% isopropanol) are required to effectively inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses (such as HIV. fungi.[10][11][12] Alcohol is. only partly effective against most non-enveloped viruses (such as hepatitis A).4% ethanol with dodecanoic acid is effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria. When pools and drinking water are said to be chlorinated. Common household bleach is a sodium hypochlorite solution and is used in the home to disinfect drains. which results in a loss of structure and leads to cell lysis and death. which would otherwise decompose to chlorine. but the solutions are strongly basic as a result.3 where the predominant oxychlorine species is hypochlorous acid.

laundry. however. Although it increases both scar tissue formation and healing time. such as occurred during the 2001 anthrax attacks in the U. such as in endoscopes. Vaporized hydrogen peroxide is one of the chemicals approved for decontamination of anthrax spores from contaminated buildings. gas monitoring etc. such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease from equipment and surfaces. so that tap water chlorination cannot be entirely replaced . since the parent compound is a sulfonamide antibiotic. personal protective equipment.  The antimicrobial action of hydrogen peroxide can be enhanced by surfactants and organic acids.  Chlorine dioxide is used as an advanced disinfectant for drinking water to reduce waterborne diseases. The vapor is hazardous to the respiratory system and eyes and consequently the OSHA permissible exposure limit is 1 ppm (29 CFR 1910. foods.[20]  Iodine is usually dissolved in an organic solvent or as Lugol's iodine solution. It is chemically aggressive and destroys many organic compounds. Ozone decomposes relatively quickly. air. and is suitable for disinfecting medical equipment made from hard plastic. tincture of iodine is used as an antiseptic for skin cuts and scrapes. achieves high-level disinfection in 5 minutes.[16] Therefore. Hydrogen peroxide has the advantage that it decomposes to form oxygen and water thus leaving no long term residues. Hydrogen peroxide is sometimes mixed with colloidal silver. apart from being good germicides. it has largely replaced chlorine because it forms fewer byproducts.[citation needed]  Ozone is a gas used for disinfecting water. and solutions are a primary irritant. A 3% solution is also used as an antiseptic.  Hydrogen peroxide is used in hospitals to disinfect surfaces and it is used in solution alone or in combination with other chemicals as a high level disinfectant. resulting in rapid decolorization and deodorization in addition to disinfection.S. are safer for humans and benign to the environment. should be employed where high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide are used in the workplace. It is used in the poultry industry. Sodium chlorite.[17] The resulting chemistry is known as Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide and is produced by Virox Technologies Inc. In human and veterinary medicine. In certain parts of the world. and potassium chlorate are used as precursors for generating chlorine dioxide. It is often preferred because it causes far fewer allergic reactions than alternative disinfectants.[19] The evidence available suggests that products based on Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide. iodine products are widely used to prepare incision sites prior to surgery.[18] A 2% solution. and surfaces. sodium chlorate. but hydrogen peroxide as with most other strong oxidants is hazardous. It has also been shown to be effective in removing exotic animal viruses.1000 Table Z-1) calculated as an eight hour time weighted average and the NIOSH immediately dangerous to life and health limit is 75 ppm.  Hydrogen peroxide vapor is used as a medical sterilant and as room disinfectant. It is added to the birds' drinking water. Also used in the food packaging industry to disinfect foil containers. stabilized for extended use. and remains among the most effective antiseptics known. Chloramine-T is antibacterial even after the chlorine has been spent. engineering controls.

 Performic acid is the simplest and most powerful perorganic acid. Typically.by ozonation.  Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a purplish-black crystalline powder that colours everything it touches. Impure preparations of phenol were originally made from coal tar. which somehow limits its use and makes it necessary to use plastic or glass containers. in clean-in-place (CIP) processes. which is an IARC Group 1 carcinogen. in hard water conditions. which would produce small amounts of organochlorides if treated with chlorine only. a large shallow basin of KMnO4/water solution is kept near the pool ladder. Additionally. and these contained low concentrations of other aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene. and keeps for one week once it is made up. It also breaks down to food safe and environmentally friendly residues (acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide). it is used to remove the bulk of oxidizable matter from the water. . They are also found in some mouthwashes and in disinfectant soap and handwashes. It is used as a 1% solution in water. a household disinfectant and antiseptic.0-7. it reacts more rapidly and powerfully than peracetic acid before breaking down to water and carbon dioxide. It is expensive. Formed from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. it is widely used to disinfect community water ponds and wells in tropical countries. and therefore can be used in non-rinse applications.  Chloroxylenol is the principal ingredient in Dettol. Instead. Virkon kills bacteria. but very effective. wide pH range (3. as the ozone would decompose already in the water piping. Participants are required to step in the basin and then go into the pool. This includes staining "stainless" steel. is a wide-spectrum disinfectant used in laboratories. when it was called carbolic acid. Phenolics Phenolics are active ingredients in some household disinfectants. its pink colour fades as it is used up so it is possible to see at a glance if it is still fresh. It can be used over a wide temperature range (0-40°C). the principal ingredient in Virkon. and is not affected by protein residues. viruses.  Potassium peroxymonosulfate. as well as to disinfect the mouth before pulling out teeth.  Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Lister. It can be applied to wounds in dilute solution. It is used to disinfect aquariums and is also widely used in community swimming pools to disinfect ones feet before entering the pool. It is broadly effective against microorganisms and is not deactivated by catalase and peroxidase.5).  o-Phenylphenol is often used instead of phenol. since it is somewhat less corrosive.  Peracetic acid is a disinfectant produced by reacting hydrogen peroxide with acetic acid. It is rather corrosive to the skin and sometimes toxic to sensitive people. the enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide. and fungi. through a strong oxidising action.

A meta-analysis of 26 studies by the Cochrane Collaboration found that.  Thymol. and mycobacteria. pathogenic fungi. derived from the herb thyme. rotavirus. and does not produce toxic fumes. as generally these treatments did not promote wound healing or prevent wound infections. colorless. enveloped viruses. leading to its death. odorless. Quats are biocides that also kill algae and are used as an additive in large-scale industrial water systems to minimize undesired biological growth. non-caustic. such as benzalkonium chloride.4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol has similar effects as phenols.  Although not a phenol. or polio virus. is the active ingredient in some "broad spectrum" disinfectants that bears ecological claims. and tasteless. Once inside the organism. the silver ion denatures the DNA. However. but compounds suitable for disinfection are usually unstable and have a limited shelf-life. SDC is non-toxic. Hexachlorophene is a phenolic that was once used as a germicidal additive to some household products but was banned due to suspected harmful effects. leading to microbial death. category IV. Newer synergous. 2. Silver Silver has antimicrobial properties. Some concentrated formulations have been shown to be effective low-level disinfectants. allowing the silver ion to enter the microbe. which could lead to ineffective or incomplete disinfection. are a large group of related compounds. but it cannot inactive viruses. Silver dihydrogen citrate (SDC) is a chelated form of silver that maintains its stability. quats do not exhibit efficacy against difficult to kill non-enveloped viruses such as norovirus. This dual action makes SDC highly and quickly effective against a broad spectrum of microbes. and actually slowed healing. Quaternary ammonium compounds Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats").[21] Copper alloy surfaces Main articles: Antimicrobial properties of copper and Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces . 2) the microbes view SDC as a food source. the addition of alcohol or solvents to quat-based disinfectant formulas results in the products' drying much more quickly on the applied surface. SDC is non-toxic to humans and animals: the United States Environmental Protection Agency classifies it into the lowest toxicity category for disinfectants. Typically. a throat disinfectant. Some evidence suggested that silver sulphadiazine had no effect on infection. SDC kills microorganisms by two modes of action: 1) the silver ion deactivates structural and metabolic membrane proteins. which halts the microbe's ability to replicate. while most were small and of poor quality. lowalcohol formulations are highly effective broad-spectrum disinfectants with quick contact times (3–5 minutes) against bacteria.  Amylmetacresol is found in Strepsils. there was not enough evidence to support the use of silvercontaining dressings or creams.

9% of bacteria within two hours.9% of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria within two hours of exposure. Japan. sinks.Copper-alloy surfaces have natural intrinsic properties to destroy a wide range of microorganisms (e.[29] It has very low toxicity to higher organisms such as human cells. Staphylococcus. coli O157:H7. see: Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces#Approved products). adenovirus. Denmark. health club equipment. alter its transcription. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa sanctioned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) using Good Laboratory Practices found that when cleaned regularly. but not porous materials that are opaque to the light such as wood or foam. France. . computer keyboards. handrails. Ultraviolet light fixtures are often present in microbiology labs.K. EPA has approved a long list of antimicrobial copper products made from these alloys. at night). It has a unique method of action: The polymer strands are incorporated into the bacterial cell wall. E. High-intensity shortwave ultraviolet light can be used for disinfecting smooth surfaces such as dental tools.[22][23][24] In addition. Enterobacter aerogenes. faucets. coli O157:H7. and Brazil and in the subway transit system in Santiago. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)..  Help inhibit the buildup and growth of bacteria within two hours of exposure between routine cleaning and sanitizing steps. where copper-zinc alloy handrails will be installed in some 30 stations between 2011 and 2014. It is also known to bind to bacterial DNA.. Staphylococcus. etc.g.  Kill greater than 99. Korea. and cause lethal DNA damage.9% of bacteria within two hours. (for a comprehensive list of products. shopping cart handles. extensive tests on E. and are activated only when there are no occupants in a room (e."[25] which allows manufacturers to legally make claims regarding the positive public health benefits of products made with registered antimicrobial copper alloys. remaining effective in killing greater than 99.. Clostridium difficile. Ireland.  Kill greater than 99. which have more complex and protective membranes. and continue to kill 99% of bacteria even after repeated contamination. These copper alloys were granted EPA registrations as “antimicrobial materials with public health benefits. which has a lethal effect to bacteria. influenza A virus. door knobs. Antimicrobial copper alloy products are now being installed in healthcare facilities in the U. which disrupts the membrane and reduces its permeability. achieving 99. such as bedrails.9% reduction within two hours of exposure.g. over-bed tables. some 355 different copper alloy surfaces:  Continuously reduce bacterial contamination. toilet hardware. Chile. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).  Deliver continuous and ongoing antibacterial action. and fungi).[26][27][28] Other The biguanide polymer polyaminopropyl biguanide is specifically bactericidal at very low concentrations (10 mg/l).

as witnessed by the long exposure to extremely dilute "chlorine" (actually sodium or calcium hypochlorite) many children get in swimming pools. fungi. as this can cause noxious gases to be formed. It even has some disinfectant action against parasitic organisms. it has gained importance in the market. A less specific measurement of effectiveness is the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classification into either high. the surface or item to be disinfected must be clean. like many common disinfectants. Negatives are that it is caustic to the skin. it is not effective against Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium. and the corresponding rating system is called the "Phenol coefficient". lungs. and breaks down quickly into harmless components (primarily table salt and oxygen). To use chlorine bleach effectively. Due to its natural and environmental profile. and is effected with a chemical germicide cleared for marketing as a sterilant by the U. it degrades in the presence of organic substances. The disinfectant to be tested is compared with phenol on a standard microbe (usually Salmonella typhi or Staphylococcus aureus).[35] Positives are that it kills the widest range of pathogens of any inexpensive disinfectant.[31] though those are too weak to be effective at a home environment. and bacteria with a chemical germicide registered as a "tuberculocide" by the EPA. Intermediate-level disinfection kills mycobacteria. including difficult organisms such as tuberculosis (mycobacterium tuberculosis). Measurements of effectiveness One way to compare disinfectants is to compare how well they do against a known disinfectant and rate them accordingly. and extreme caution must be taken not to combine it with ammonia or any acid (such as vinegar). hepatitis B and C. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). special caution must be taken to wipe up urine first. Dilute bleach can be tolerated on the skin for a period of time by most persons. Those that are less effective have a coefficient < 1.[33] High-level disinfection kills all organisms. intermediate or low level of disinfection. .[30] and some antiviral and antibacterial properties. Low-level disinfection kills some viruses and bacteria with a chemical germicide registered as a hospital disinfectant by the EPA. is extremely powerful against viruses and bacteria at room temperature.[34] Home disinfectants By far the most cost-effective home disinfectant is the commonly used chlorine bleach (a 5% solution of sodium hypochlorite). is commonly available and inexpensive. Disinfectants that are more effective than phenol have a coefficient > 1.S. which is effective against most common pathogens. [32] Lactic acid is a registered disinfectant. In the bathroom or when cleaning after pets. except high levels of bacterial spores. and antibiotic-resistant strains of staphylococcus and enterococcus. it has a strong odor. and eyes (especially at higher concentrations). Phenol is the standard.Common sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has antifungal properties. The best practice is not to add anything to household bleach except water. most viruses.

UK. Robertson OH (April 1952). The use of some antimicrobials such as triclosan.1084/jem.593. Journal of Experimental Medicine 75 (6): 593– 610. to avoid reaction with the ammonia in urine. PMID 19871209.2988. Chlorine bleach and alcohol do not cause resistance because they are so completely lethal. 3. Dunklin E.before applying chlorine.cdc.[36] See also  Diethylene glycol . goggles. Protective goggles and good ventilation are mandatory when applying concentrated bleach.75. 4. Where one does not want to risk the corrosive effects of bleach. it should be applied at 1-to-1 concentration. doi:10. (2009). is controversial because it may lead to the germs becoming resistant. see: Robertson OH. Science 115 (2988): 379–382. PMID 17770126. Puck TT. ^ For a review through 1952 see: Lester W. Mid Sussex District Council. . i". ^ a b www. whenever the container is opened. in a very direct physical way.htm 2. Extreme caution must be taken to avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes. A 1-to-20 solution in water is effective simply by being wiped on and left to dry. If parasitic organisms are suspected. The user should wear rubber gloves and.1126/Science. alcohol-based disinfectants are reasonably inexpensive and quite safe. Commercial bleach tends to lose strength over time. Miller BF (June 1942). Old containers of partially used bleach may no longer have the labeled concentration.a raw material for air sanitation  Hand sanitizer  Hygiene  Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures  Sunlight References 1. Bigg E.gov/oralhealth/infectioncontrol/glossary.115. The great drawback to them is their rapid evaporation. ^ For a review of the early work in this field. sometimes effective disinfection can be obtained only by immersing an object in the alcohol. "Bactericidal effects of propylene and triethylene glycol vapors on airborne Escherichia coli". in particular in the uncontrolled home environment. ^ Cleaning and disinfecting. doi:10. in tight airless spaces. PMC 2135271. causing toxic gas byproducts.6.379. "The bactericidal action of propylene glycol vapor on microorganisms suspended in air. or even undiluted.

"Antiviral activity of alcohol for surface disinfection". Ramakrishnan MA. "UrthMED has been proven to kill Clostridium Difficile (C. International Journal of Dental Hygiene 1 (3): 138–42. Sobsey MD. Goyal SM (February 2008). EPA 739-R-06-002.S.2105/AJPH. Cdc. 11. ^ Weber DJ. doi:10.1016/j. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 20 (12): 821–7. ^ Lester W. PMID 15418852. doi:10. doi:10. non-porous surfaces.gov/~dms/a2z-b.40. Kaye S. ^ Lages SL. Reregistration eligibility decision for triethylene glycol.1601-5037.jhin. see: United States Environmental Protection Agency (September 2006). 12.2003. Reregistration eligibility decision for propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol. PMC 1528959. doi:10. "In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a surrogate for norovirus". PMID 12090799. doi:10. Moorer WR (June 2002).cfsan. 8.523 . ^ "CDC . ^ For a review of the toxicity of propylene glycol.1053/jhin. Schuitemaker H. PMID 15425663. in a surprisingly user friendly formula. "Factors of Importance in the Use of Triethylene Glycol Vapor for Aerial Disinfection". see: United States Environmental Protection Agency (September 2005).632. Rutala WA (December 1999).gov. 17.7. and a quaternary ammonium compound". Retrieved 201011-18. 9. PMID 10614606. PMID 16451513. American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 40 (7): 813–820. Barbee SL.2105/AJPH. ^ For a review of the toxicity of triethylene glycol. ^ a b van Engelenburg FA. Retrieved 2010-11-18. a phenolic. Patent 7.813. 13. 14. 6. "The virucidal spectrum of a high concentration alcohol mixture". The Journal of Hospital Infection 68 (2): 159–63.Diff) spores on hard.html 10. The Journal of Hospital Infection 51 (2): 121–5. Bacteria & Viruses in any Environment". American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 40 (5 Pt 2): 82–88. ^ "The Urth Technology".018. ^ a b FDA/CFSAN . Retrieved 2012-11-10. "Air Sanitation (Progress in the Control of Air-Borne Infections)".1086/501591.1034/j. ^ a b Moorer WR (August 2003). 7.00032. 16. "Bacteria" http://vm. ^ "Clean & Disinfect Mold. PMID 18207605.2002. ^ U. Dunklin EW (July 1950).5_Pt_2.2007.Food Safety A to Z Reference. doi:10.fda.NIOSH Publications and Products".5.Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Chemical Listing and Documentation of Revised IDLH Values . EPA 739-R-05-002. ^ Committee on Research Standards (May 1950).11.40. Terpstra FG.1211. "The effect of blood on the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite.x. 2009-07-31. PMC 1528669. Robertson OH." 15.82.

Wikipedia. doi:10. International Journal of Food Microbiology 109 (1–2): 160–3. Samuel ⋅ (2011-07-22). ^ Cochrane Collaboration: Topical silver for preventing wound infection.1016/j. rail. ^ EPA registers copper-containing alloy products. .wikipedia.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia". Engl.1016/j. Susan L.ijfoodmicro. White GF. 32. Retrieved 2012-11-10.1099/mic. 2009 22. 23. JSTOR 10. doi:10. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 29. ^ Malik YS. ^ Zamani M.com. PMID 10656352. "Antimicrobial Activity of Home Disinfectants and Natural Products Against Potential Human Pathogens". Retrieved 2012-1110. Rutala. ^ "Virox Technologies Inc". Retrieved 2012-11-10. ^ Omidbakhsh et al (2006). 20.org. Viroxtech.2006. ^ by A. 30. "The response of Escherichia coli to exposure to the biocide polyhexamethylene biguanide".02.003.ve/nl/noticia_nl.ajic.Wikipedia. PMID 18396809.0. ^ Sattar et al (Winter 1998).) 152 (Pt 4): 989–1000.com. Barbee. 19. Goyal SM (May 2006). Microbiology (Reading. "A new peroxide-based flexible endoscope-compatible high-level disinfectant". Sobsey.1086/501694. En. May 2008 26. Sharifi Tehrani A. doi:10.co.18. "Chilean subway protected with Antimicrobial Copper . a norovirus surrogate". Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 72 (4): 773–7.28643-0. ^ http://construpages. (2000). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus.org. doi:10. PMID 16540196. ^ Allen MJ. the free encyclopedia". American Journal of Infection Control 34 (9): 571–577. ^ "Antimicrobial properties of copper . En. ^ "Antimicrobial copper-alloy touch surfaces .Rail News from". ^ "PR 811 Chilean Subway Installs Antimicrobial Copper" (PDF). Ali Abadi AA (2007). David J. 27. Aguiar. Newman C. ^ Copper Touch Surfaces 25. PMID 17097451. 31.php?id_noticia=3032&language=en 28. Morby AP (2006).08. Mark D.033.2005. "A product based on accelerated hydrogen peroxide: Evidence for broad-spectrum activity". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America) 21 (1): 33–38. Retrieved 2012-11-10. 21. "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold". PMID 16549663. ^ William A. 24. Weber. Canadian Journal of Infection Control: 123– 130.

Office of DOE Science Education [hide]  v  t  e Antiseptics and disinfectants (D08) Acridine derivatives  Ethacridine lactate  9-Aminoacridine  Euflavine  Dibrompropamidine  Chlorhexidine#  Propamidine Biguanides and amidines .org. ^ tpub. Retrieved 2012-11-10. and Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Viruses. 2010 34. 2002. ^ cdc. and Antimicrobial Products Against HIV-1.33. 2006) 36. (Obtained January 4. Content source: Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion (DHQP) 35. Watoxics. 1997-09-15.com > LEVELS OF DISINFECTION Retrieved on Feb 14. ^ "Antimicrobial Products: Who Needs Them? — Washington Toxics Coalition". ^ EPA's Registered Sterilizers. Tuberculocides.gov > Sterilization or Disinfection of Medical Devices Date last modified: August 20. External links  Ohio State University lecture on Sterilization and Disinfection  What Germs Are We Killing? Testing and Classifying Disinfectants  Disinfectant Selection Guide  Disinfectant and Non-Chlorine Bleach -.

Phenol and derivatives Nitrofuran derivatives Iodine products  Hexamidine  Polihexanide  Hexachlorophene  Policresulen  Phenol  Triclosan  Chloroxylenol#  Biphenylol  Fenticlor  Nitrofurazone  Iodine/octylphenoxypolyglycolether  Povidone-iodine#  Diiodohydroxypropane  Dequalinium  Chlorquinaldol  Oxyquinoline  Clioquinol  Benzalkonium Quinoline derivatives Quaternary ammonium compounds .

 Benzethonium chloride  Cetrimonium (bromide/chloride)  Cetylpyridinium  Cetrimide  Benzoxonium chloride  Didecyldimethylammonium chloride  Mercuric amidochloride  Phenylmercuric borate  Mercuric chloride  Merbromin  Thiomersal  Mercuric iodide  Silver nitrate  Propanol (propyl alcohol)  Isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol)  Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)#  Potassium permanganate  Sodium hypochlorite  Hydrogen peroxide Mercurial products Silver compounds Alcohols Other .

 #  ‡  Clinical trials:  Eosin  Tosylchloramide  Octenidine dihydrochloride WHO-EM Withdrawn from market o † o § Phase III Never to phase III M: INT. LCT View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) Categories:  Disinfectants  Hygiene Navigation menu  Create account  Log in  Article  Talk . SF.

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