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EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems

R. S. Kshetrimayum

A.1 An Introduction to OFDM
A.1.1 Introduction
A.1.2 Principle of OFDM
A.1.3 Implementation of transreceivers

A.1.1 Introduction 
One of the main reason to use OFDM is to increase robustness against
frequency-selective fading or narrowband interference 
In a single-carrier system, a single fade or interferer can cause the entire link
to fail, but in a multi-carrier (MC) system, only a small percentage of the subcarriers (SCs) will be affected 
The difference between the conventional non-overlapping MC technique and
overlapping MC technique is: we save almost 50% of the BW in the latter case 
To realize this, however, we need to reduce cross-talk between SCs, which
means that we want orthogonality between the different modulated carriers 
OFDM is a modulation scheme that is especially suited for high-data-rate
transmission in delay-dispersive environments 
It converts a high data stream into a number of low-rate streams that are
transmitted over parallel, narrowband channels that can be easily equalized 
OFDM dates back some 40 years; a patent was applied in mid 1960s by Chang
Climini [1985] was the first to suggest OFDM for wireless communications 
But it was only in the early 1990s that advances in hardware for DSP made
OFDM a realistic option for wireless systems 
Currently OFDM is used for DAB, DVB, WLANs (IEEE 802.11a, IEEE
A.1.2 Principle of OFDM 
OFDM splits the information into N parallel streams which are then
transmitted by modulating N distinct carriers (henceforth called SCs or tones) 
Symbol duration on each SCs thus becomes larger by a factor of N 
In order for the receiver to be able to separate signals carried by different SCs,
they have to be orthogonal

i=1.EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems R. Kshetrimayum  The SCs constitute an orthogonal (orthonormal. A. S.1.….2.N and W is the total available bandwidth  In most simple case. W=N/T  We further assume that modulation SCs is PAM with rectangular basis pulses  It follows that the SCs themselves satisfy the conditions of orthonormality over the symbol period T.1 FDMA (Guard interval) . to be more precise) set  Given that the frequencies of the SCs satify fn=nW/N. as the following series of manipulations of the cross correlation of the exponential SCs shows − j ( 2 π fn t ) 1 T 1 T j ( 2 f t ) π k ∫ e dt = T ∫ e j ( 2 π ( fk − fn ) t ) dt T 0 e 0 jT 1T = ∫ cos( 2 π ( f k − fn ) t )dt + ∫ sin( 2 π ( fk − fn ) t )dt T0 T0  sin( 2 π ( fk − fn )) 1  = = 2 π ( fk − fn ) 0 for all k = n for all k ≠ n Guard interval Fig.

A.…. but each carrier is in the spectral nulls of all other carriers  Therefore.3 Implementation of transreceivers  OFDM can be implemented in two ways: one in analog interpretation. A.EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems R.1. FDMA have large freq. spacing between carriers  This however wastes precious spectrum  A narrower spacing of SCs can be achieved in OFDM as shown in Fig.1.1.2  Let us assume modulation on each SCs is PAM with rectangular pulse shape in time domain. as long as the receiver does the appropriate demodulation (multiplying by exp (-j2πfrt) and integrating over symbol duration). as depicted in Fig. A.3  We first split our original data stream into N parallel sub-streams. Kshetrimayum Fig.1.N-1  Each of the parallel data streams then modulates one of the carriers .2 OFDM (Carrier spacing W/N)  In order for the receiver to be able to separate signals carried by different SCs. S. each of which has a lower data rate  We furthermore have a number of local oscillators available. each which oscillates at a frequency fn=nW/N.1. the spectrum of each modulated carrier has sinc shape  The spectra of different modulated carriers overlap. where n=0. the data streams of any SCs will not interfere A.

1.4 Analog OFDM transreceiver Cɶ k . N −1 e W j 2π ( N −1) t N Fig.3. Kshetrimayum Ck . A.5 OFDM receiver (analog) An alternative implementation divides the transmit data into blocks of N symbols  This block is subjected to an IFFT and then transmitted  This approach is much easier to implement using digital technology  In the following. N −1 e W − j 2π ( N −1) t N Fig.1. but is ill-suited for actual implementation – the hardware effort of multiple local oscillators is too high s(t) Hs(t) OFDM transmitter H OFDM receiver Channel Fig. OFDM transmitter (analog)  This picture allows an easy understanding of the principle.1 e − j 2π W t N Ck . A. we will show that the two techniques are equivalent  Let us first consider the analog interpretation .1 e j 2π W t N Cɶ k .0 e− j 0 s (t ) Ck .0 Hs(t ) e j0 Cɶ k .EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems R. A. S.1.

. this is the reason why we have a P/S (parallel to serial) conversion directly after the IFFT  At the receiver. S. Kshetrimayum  Let the complex transmit symbol at time instant i on the nth carrier be Cn.0  Now this is nothing but the IFFT of the transmit symbols  Therefore the transmitter can be realized by performing an IDFT  In almost all practical cases. we can reverse the process: sample the received signal. one after another.e. a S/P conversion and perform FFT on this vector  The result is an estimate of the original data Cn  Analog implementation of OFDM would require multiple local oscillators each of which has to operate with little phase noise and drift: in order to retain orthogonality between the different SCs  This is usually not a practical solution . and sample it at the instances tk=kT/N s (t ) = k k k j 2π n 1 N −1 ∑ C e N T n = 0 n .i  The transmit signal is then ∞ ∞ N −1 ∑ s(t ) = si ( t ) = ∑ ∑ Cn .EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems R.i gn ( t − iT ) i =−∞ i =−∞ n = 0 where the basis pulse g (t) is a normalized frequency shifted rectangular pulse n  t   1 j 2 π nT for 0 < t <T g (t ) =  e n  T  0 otherwise  Let us know without loss of generality consider the signal only for i=0. as temporal samples. and the IDFT is realized as an IFFT  Note that input to this IFFT is made up of N samples (the symbols for the different SCs)  And therefore the output from the IFFT also consists of N values  These N values now have to be transmitted. the number of samples N is chosen to be a power of 2. write a block of N samples into a vector – i.

2005  http://www. Goldsmith. Ergen. Multicarrier Digital Communications Theory and Applications of OFDM. Saltzberg and M.1 P/S data sink Cɶ k . OFDM for Wireless Communication Systems.1 Ck .kth.EC635 Advanced Topics in Communication Systems R. highly efficient structures exist for the implementation of FFT ( so called “butterfly structures”. S.s3. Wireless Communications.1. Artech House.5 OFDM (a) transmitter and (b) receiver using IFFT References:  Ahmad R. Molisch. A. F. John Wiley & Sons.htm . Bahai. Cambridge University Press. R. Wireless Communications. B. Springer 2004  R. and computational effort (per bit) of performing an FFT increases with log (N) Ck .N −1 (b) Fig. S. N −1 (a) Cɶ k . 2005  A.0 Hs(t ) S/P FFT Cɶ k . Prasad. Kshetrimayum  The success of OFDM is based on fast digital implementation that allows an implementation of the transreceivers that is much simpler and cheaper  In s (t ) Ck . 2004  A.

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