You are on page 1of 21

Algebraic Systems, Spring 2014

,
January, 2014 Edition
Todd Cochrane
Gabriel Kerr

Sets and Logic Exercises 0. The set Z Exercises 1.2. Relations Exercises Chapter 1.2. Peano Axioms Exercises 0.1.3.Contents Notation 5 Chapter 0. Basic Arithmetic 1.1. Peano Axioms for Natural Numbers An Introduction to Proofs 0. The ring Z 7 7 9 10 15 15 18 19 19 21 21 3 .

.

b ∈ Z. . . } = Odd integers Q = {a/b : a. . . . b] = least common multiple of a and b a|b = “a divides b” M2.Notation N = {1. . ±5. ±4. ±6. 2. . ±. b) = greatest common divisor of a and b [a. ±2. . b] = lcm[a. } = Integers E = {0. 2. ±1. ±3. b) = gcd(a.2 (R) = Ring of 2 × 2 matrices over a given ring R R[x] = Ring of polynomials over R |S| = order or cardinality of a set S Sn = n-th symmetric group ∩ intersection ∅ ∪ union ⊆ empty set ∃ there exists ∀ ⇔ ∃! ⇒ for all equivalent to ∈ subset there exists a unique implies iff if and only if ≡ element of 5 congruent to . } = Even integers O = {±1. 5. 4. . b 6= 0} = Rational numbers R = Real numbers C = Complex numbers Zm = Ring of integers mod m [a]m = {a + mx : x ∈ Z} = Residue class of a mod m Um = Multiplicative group of units mod m −1 a (mod m) = “multiplicative inverse of a (mod m)” φ(m) = Euler phi-function (a. . 3. } = Natural numbers Z = {0. . . ±3.

.

}. Sets and Logic This section should serve as a very short introduction to 20th century mathematics. e. If a is in A (which is the same thing as saying a is an element of A). b. Unfortunately. . . Now that we know what sets are.. If you have a set with a lot of elements that are ordered. called elements. we write a 6∈ A. f }. we need a slew of symbols to describe how they work and interact with each other. d.. 4. For the above examples we could say a ∈ S but a 6∈ T and 5 ∈ T but 5 6∈ T 0 . Atoms could be the set of all atoms in the universe while Adams could be the set of all people named Adam in your family. this is just the beginning of new notation. Sometimes we want to define a set that has elements in another set which satisfy a property. it is an introduction to proofs involving sets. This was in response to several paradoxes that had come up. 7 . we will be interested in stating whether something is or is not an element of a given set. First. For example the set of integers T between 3 and 600 and the set of integers T 0 greater than 5 can be written T 0 = {6. For us. For example.CHAPTER 0 Peano Axioms for Natural Numbers An Introduction to Proofs We begin this course with the construction of the natural number system.1. c. we write a ∈ A while if it is not. . You say there is no Adam in your family? Then Adams is known as the empty set which is the set that contains no elements at all. The notation for this important set is Adams = ∅. if we want to consider atoms H that have only one proton we can write H = {a ∈ Atoms : a has one proton }. Every attempt will be made to stay away from unnecessary abstraction. . you can use the dot-dotdot notation... For example. The Peano Axioms form the heart of much of mathematics and lay the foundation for algebra and analysis. This should be a guiding principle when working out the exercises as well! 0. Set theory is in fact a subject within itself that was initiated and studied by many in the early 20th century. if we wanted to write the set S of letters in the alphabet that occur before g we would write S = {a. 600} In general.. 7. we often write a set with only a few elements by enclosing the elements inside curly brackets. T = {3. That is. For example. a set is a collection of things.

we can define a whole lot of new sets. This means that these two sets consist of the same elements and are therefore equal. If you are generous and have a set that you would like to share with others.  What should not be lost in this discussion is that a new term was introduced in the title of the proposition. that was how H was defined. Proof. Leaving this fascinating stuff for later. i0 ∈ I. we get that c ∈ A ∩ B. Proposition 0. This way of proving something is called a direct proof. c ∈ A and c ∈ B which implies that c ∈ B and c ∈ A. namely commutativity. let us return to sets. the idea of breaking up a set into subsets is a precise and important notion in mathematics whose definition is given below. P = {Ai }i∈I indexed by I such that (1) For any element a ∈ A. Thus A ∩ B ⊆ B ∩ A. (4) The set A × B is the Cartesian product of A and B. If we have two sets A and B. and will come up repeatedly in the course. c ∈ B and c ∈ A which implies that c ∈ A and c ∈ B. Let’s try proving something algebraic. Again by definition. . that c ∈ B ∩ A. To express this relationship we write H ⊆ Atoms. Suppose c ∈ A ∩ B. It is one of the key ideas in algebra that can sometimes fail. Thus B ∩ A ⊆ A ∩ B.1. In fact. We will sum many of these constructions (and one property) up in the following definition. It consists of elements c such that c ∈ A and c ∈ B... the Ai and Ai0 are disjoint. (2) For any two distinct elements i. (1) The set A ∩ B is the intersection of A and B. Definition 0. Then. Definition 0. Conversely. by definition. after all. there is an i ∈ I such that a ∈ Ai . (2) Two sets A and B are called disjoint if A ∩ B = ∅. It consists of elements c such that c ∈ A or c ∈ B. Enough of the definitions. then you may be tempted to break it up into subsets and pass those subsets around.1. If A and B are sets then A∩B =B∩A You may think about this a second and say “What’s the big deal? Of course this is true!”.1 (Commutativity of intersection). Then. It consists of elements c = (a. we need a proof! The way to prove a statement like this is to go back to the definition and methodically show that the definitions force the statement to be correct. Suppose A and B are sets. b) where a ∈ A and b ∈ B. But this means.8 0. again by definition.AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS It is clear that any element of the set H is also an element of Atoms.1. by definition. So every element in A ∩ B is an element of B ∩ A and vice-versa.1.2. This is precisely what it means for H to be a subset of Atoms. A partition P of a set A is a collection of non-empty subsets. (3) The set A ∪ B is the union of A and B. suppose c ∈ B ∩ A. but us mathematicians really need something better than “of course”. It simply means that a combined with b equals b combined with a for some way of combining things. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS .

This is a sad injustice that no student of Math 511 will perpetuate! However. Connection 0. Definition 0.1. Most middle and high school texts (and too many college texts) content themselves with saying ’a function is an assignment’.. A function can be denoted f :A→B There is a lot of notation that comes along with a function. The important thing is that you have a set P of subsets of Asatisfying (1) and (2).3. Here is the mathematical definition. a teacher can usually pull off this type of definition and use it successfully at the high school and early college level. write the set EI of even integers between −100 and 100. . For our set Atoms. we write f (a) as the unique element b for which (a. We also call A the domain of f and B the codomain. If f : A → B and g : B → C are functions then g◦f : A → C is defined as the set g ◦ f = {(a.4.1.. we can form the partition P = {An }n∈{1. A function f from A to B is a subset f ⊂ A × B such that for every a ∈ A there exists exactly one element c = (a. The range of f is defined as the subset range(f ) = {b ∈ B : there is an a ∈ A such that (a. This is a good description of what a function does. but perhaps not what a function is. Suppose A and B are sets.1. Nevertheless. g(f (a))) : a ∈ A}. (2) Using your previous notation.EXERCISES 9 In this definition. The most common way of combining two functions f : A → B and g : B → C is by composition. This latter term should be prevalent in secondary school but is frequently confused with the different notion of range. A worse situation occurs when high school students are taught that functions always send real numbers to real numbers. write the set of vowels V and the set of integers I between −100 and 100. b) ∈ f . a question from this type of thinking arises. We will encounter many partitions as we progress through this course.1.1. Exercises (1) Using the notation developed. For example. Now let’s return back to relationships between sets. Why does the vertical line test for graphs mean that a graph is defined by a function? Functions are most useful when they are combined and compared. let’s look at a simple example. but for now..103} where An = {atoms with n protons}. One way of relating two sets is by defining a function or a map from one to another.1. the indexing set is arbitrary could be called J or Sπ√2 or anything you want.. (3) Prove that if A ⊆ B then A ∩ B = A. b) ∈ f }. b) ∈ f . Example 0. Definition 0.

2. I. . He. the notation n++ is stolen from Terrance Tao’s book on real analysis. the natural numbers start with 1 instead of 0. Another way of writing this axiom is 0 ∈ N. Proposition 0. Let’s call this number 1 from now on! • 1++ is a natural number (Axiom 2). then n++ is also a natural number. To some mathematicians.e. (c) Give an example of a function that is both onto and one to one. Combining Axioms 1 and 2 gives us a way of writing some potentially new natural numbers! Definition 0. The number 0 is a natural number.2.2. Axiom 1. The mathematical way of writing Axiom 2 is to say that there is a function ++ : N → N. Let us try now to prove our first proposition about N. B and C are sets. Prove that the set π = {(a. We work our way step by step to show that the proposition is true.1. Proof. 0. The number 3 is ((0++)++)++. Let’s call this number 2 from now on! • 2++ is a natural number. stole it from the world of computer programming where it means to add 1 to the number n. If n is a natural number. prove that if A.1. • 0++ is a natural number (Axiom 2).AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS (4) Prove that intersection is an associative operation. (6) Give an example of a set A and two functions f and g with domain and codomain A such that f ◦ g 6= g ◦ f . (8) A function f : A → B is onto if for every b ∈ B there exists an a ∈ A such that f (a) = b. Even though we have just begun. (a) Give an example of a function that is one to one. then A ∩ (B ∩ C) = (A ∩ B) ∩ C (5) Suppose P = {Ai }i∈I is a partition of A. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS .10 0. Axiom 2. The number 3 is a natural number. We will adopt the more mainstream attitude though and keep Axiom 1 as it is written. the first axiom is not without some controversy. Peano Axioms Let us now write down the basic ingredients that come together to produce the set of the natural numbers which is denoted N. • 0 is a natural number (Axiom 1). (a) Give an example of a function that is onto. (b) Give an example of a function that is not onto. (b) Give an example of a function that is not one to one. in turn. (7) A function f : A → B is one to one if the equality f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) implies a1 = a2 . Ai ) : a ∈ Ai } ⊆ A × P defines a function π : A → P. In the context of Peano axioms.

Proof. Step 1) Assume the proposition is false. This conclusion contradicts Axiom 3. then Pn is true for all natural numbers n. Axiom 3. One immediate consequence to the induction axiom is the following proposition. We will do this by using what is called a proof by contradiction. (B) Pn implies Pn++ for every natural number n. We never made anything up (except the notation 1 and 2). Step 3) Conclude that the assumption in Step 1) was false and therefor the proposition is true.e.  Now that we are getting somewhere. PEANO AXIOMS 11 We can appeal to Definition 0. To use the language of the last section. . then you can climb to the (n + 1)-st step”. and directly concluded that the statement in the proposition was true.0. This means that the proposition is true. The assumption in Part (B) that Pn is true is called the induction hypothesis. This axiom says that 0 is not in the range of the function ++.2. We can now prove the following proposition. If n++ is the same natural number as m++ then n and m are the same. Step 2) Arrive at a contradiction. Then. an unraveling of definitions and axioms. so our initial assumption that 1 = 2 must be false. let’s pause and look over that proof again. Axiom 5 (Induction). If (A) P0 is true. was called a direct proof. Following Step 1) we will assume that the proposition is false and that 1 does equal 2. Part (A) is usually called the base case and one can think of it as the first step of a ladder. Let’s return to the axioms. Axiom 4. 1 does not equal 2. This axiom has a bit of vocabulary associated with it. Recall that this type of argument. The number 0 is not n++ for any natural number n. We have reached a contradiction.2. Here’s how it works.2. Proposition 0. So we conclude that it is indeed a natural number. • 1 = 0++ and 2 = 1++ (Definitions of 1 and 2) • 0 = 1 (Axiom 4) • 0 = 0++ (Definition of 1 again) • 0 is n++ for a natural number n .  Before moving on. Each step appealed to either a definition or an axiom. let’s throw a real winner into the mix.2. Axiom 4 states that the function ++ is one to one. Given statements Pn for every natural number n. Part (B) as a whole is called the induction step and can be thought of as saying: “if you can get to the n-th step on the ladder. i.1 for the meaning of 3 as ((0++)++)++ = 2++.

2. functions from N × N to N). Otherwise n is obtained by successively applying ++ to 0. so the proposition is proved. Since we proved the base case and the induction step. are binary operations (i. which is still a finite number of times. (ii) m + (n++) = (m + n)++.. Addition and multiplication. there exists a unique number m + n and a unique number m · n.3. The statement in the proposition can be written (Pn ) Either n = 0 or n = (· · · (0++) · · · )++ but not both.2. Let’s prove it makes sense. Is Pn++ true? If n = 0 then n++ = 0++ and the statement is true. 2.  The upshot of this is that we can almost write down the natural numbers as the set N = {0. But Pn being true for all n is the proposition. 5. Connection 0. What does this mean? It means that they make sense. Definition 0. (B) Now assume the statement Pn is true (or. 3. For any natural numbers m and n. Multiplication is defined as the operation that satisfies the following two properties for any m ∈ N (i) m · 0 = 0. The P0 case is true since 0 = 0 and 0 6= m++ by Axiom 3. (ii) m · (n + +) = m · n + m. Examples range from Gauss’ trick for adding the first 100 (or 103. (A) Base case P0 . Proposition 0.2.1. by Axiom 3 we again have that n 6= 0 since it is the result of applying ++.) numbers together to the binomial theorem. .e. but not both.}.12 0. Let’s try using induction here.2.. But then n++ is obtained by applying ++ to zero exactly one more time. 4. We will prove the statement involving addition and leave the multiplication case as an exercise.211. Also. denoted + and · respectively. we have proved that Pn is true for all n ∈ N by Axiom 5. or . Before we can be sure they make sense though. We prove this by induction (which means we use the axiom of induction to prove the statement). Proof. with our new vocabulary. Proof. . we have to define them. dx One should think of it as an essential instrument in the mathematical toolkit! We now use induction to prove that addition and multiplication are “well defined” operations.4.AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS Proposition 0. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS . Take m to be any natural number and let Pn be the statement . Induction is used throughout high school education. assume the induction hypothesis). This is what is known as an inductive definition. A high school calculus course can use induction to prove several formulas such as the power rule d n x = nxn−1 .2. If n ∈ N then either n = 0 or n is obtained by applying ++ to 0 a finite number of times. 1. Addition is defined as the operation that satisfies the following two properties for any m ∈ N: (i) m + 0 = m. . Thus Pn++ is true and the induction step is proven.

0 + n = n = n + 0.1 (Algebraic properties of (N.2. We do this with the next two theorems which should be taken as foundational and important. m.1) (l + m) + n = l + (m + n) Commutativity of addition: For any two natural numbers m. (l + m) + (n++) = ((l + m) + n)++ Definition 0. we have that Pn is true for all natural numbers n and the proposition is proved. we see 0 + (n++) = (0 + n)++ = n++ Definition 0.2. if n + m1 = n + m2 . (m + n)++ is also uniquely defined by Axiom 3. In fact. PEANO AXIOMS 13 (Pn ) There is a unique number m + n. So the base case is proven. (A) To prove P0 we just use property (i) to see m + 0 = m. part (ii) = l + (m + (n++)) Definition 0. n ∈ N. Additive identity: For any n ∈ N. part (ii) = (l + (m + n))++ Induction hypothesis = l + (m + n)++ Definition 0.2.2. without these theorems.2.2. Having proved both conditions (A) and (B). +)). Proof.0. (0. Additive identity: The right hand equality n = n + 0 follows from Definition 0. part (ii) Induction hypothesis Associativity of addition: Here we use induction on n with l and m fixed. (B) Now assume m + n is defined and unique. If n ∈ N then n++ = n + 1. Rather than being coy about these operations and forestalling the inevitable. Observe. Since m + n is unique. (0. To see that 0 + n = n.2.2.2.5. m + (n++) = (m + n)++ so that it is defined. n ∈ N. Associativity of addition: For any three natural numbers l. then m1 = m2 .  Try to prove this next proposition out for fun. Then by property (ii). Now assume 0 + n = n.2) m+n=n+m Cancellation law for addition: For any natural number n ∈ N. part (ii) . For the base case. The base case is 0 + 0 = 0 which again follows from Definition 0. practical arithmetic would be nearly impossible. Theorem 0. let’s write down straightaway the most important properties.2. We must prove (l + m) + (n++) = l + (m + (n++)). The following properties hold. we use induction.1) holds for n. For this. we see that (l + m) + 0 = l + m and l + (m + 0) = l + (m) = l + m. we need to prove (l + m) + 0 = l + (m + 0). Now assume equation (0.2.2. part (i). Proposition 0.2. part (i). But by the additive identity result we just proved. We prove these in order.2.2. We need to prove that 0 + (n++) = n++.

induction on n! Base case is the statement that if 0 + m1 = 0 + m2 . By the induction hypothesis.AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS Commutativity of addition: Induction again! First let’s show that m + 1 = m + + = 1 + m by induction on m.5 = (n + 1) + m1 Associativity and commutativity = (n++) + m1 Proposition 0. then m1 = m2 . ·)). you got it.5 = (n++) + m2 Assumption = (n + 1) + m2 Proposition 0.. This follows immediately from 0 being the additive identity. m + (n++) = m + (n + 1) Proposition 0.5 = (1 + m) + 1 Induction hypothesis = 1 + (m + 1) Associativity of addition = 1 + (m++) Definition of m++ So we have shown that m + 1 = 1 + m for any m ∈ N. Theorem 0.2 (Algebraic properties of (N. (0.5 = (n + m2 ) + 1 Associativity and commutativity = (n + m2 )++ Proposition 0.2. Let us assume the statement is true for n and suppose that (n++) + m1 = (n++) + m2 . n ∈ N.2. Multiplicative identity: For any n ∈ N. 1 · n = n = n · 1.2.5 But by Axiom 4. m.2.14 0. this equality implies that n + m1 = n + m2 . Then (n + m1 )++ = (n + m1 ) + 1 Proposition 0. Again we use induction.2. The base case of m = 0 is true by the additive identity and the definition of 1.  And now it’s multiplication’s turn. this means that m1 = m2 . Now for the induction step. Now the induction step can be shown by observing that (m++) + 1 = (m + 1) + 1 Proposition 0.2. this time on n. following properties hold.2. Now we want to do this for any n. The base case is simply the fact that 0 is an additive identity..3) (l · m) · n = l · (m · n) .5 = (m + n) + 1 Associativity of addition = (n + m) + 1 Induction hypothesis = n + (m + 1) Associativity of addition = n + (1 + m) Commutativity of 1 and m = (n + 1) + m Associativity of addition = (n++) + m Proposition 0.2. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS . Associativity of multiplication: For any three natural numbers l. Now for the induction step.5 Cancellation law for addition: Guess what we use.

Let’s take some time to humanize these properties.5. c) ∈ R implies (a.3.2.2.3. 0. n ∈ N.2. Exercises (1) (2) (3) (4) Prove Prove Prove Using the power rule by induction. b. c ∈ A.4 for the operation of multiplication. A binary relation on a set A is a subset R ⊆ A × A.b Which of the properties in Definition 0. (3) R is called antisymmetric if (a. b) ∈ R(−blank−) if and only if a -blank. First. prove Theorem 0. but without the additional property. These terms permeate common language because of their relationship to basic logic. R(has the same color hair as). Example 0.1. Suppose A is the set of all of the people in Kansas.1 as inspiration. a) ∈ R for every a. m·n=n·m (0.2 are satisfied by R(has had lunch with). let’s go back to preschool and make sure that we understand the “size” of a number.2. .3.3. Definition 0. c) ∈ R for every a. Let R ⊆ A × A be a binary relation. R(is a step sibling of) and R(loves)? There are a couple of relations that have great utility in mathematics. a) ∈ R for every a ∈ A. (b. Relations We saw in the first section that a function is defined as a subset of a Cartesian product of sets satisfying a particular property. b ∈ A. the proof of Theorem 0. (1) R is called reflexive if (a.0.4) Cancellation rule for multiplication: For any natural number n. a) ∈ R implies a = a (4) R is called transitive if (a. Proposition 0. Proposition 0. b).2. There are some key properties that a relation might satisfy. The relation R(−blank−) is defined as (a. b) ∈ R implies (b.1. RELATIONS 15 Commutativity of multiplication: For any two natural numbers m.3. if n · m1 = n · m2 6= 0 then m1 = m2 .2. (b. (2) R is called symmetric if (a. Definition 0. The idea of a relation is similar to this. b).3.

We use induction for this theorem. assume that A ⊆ N does not contain a smallest element. Theorem 0. In conclusion.AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS Definition 0. This definition is the same as giving the relation R≥ ⊂ N × N defined by a ≥ b if and only if (a. Antisymmetric: We need to prove If a ≥ b and b ≥ a then a = b. Now let Pn be the statement If m ∈ N such that n ≥ m then m 6∈ A Let us show the base case is true.3. This is a contradiction. b) ∈ R≥ . Given any non-empty subset A ⊆ N. then it must have a smallest element (for otherwise the above argument would show it to be empty). if 0 ≥ m then m = 0. Thus c1 = 0 and a = b + c1 = b + 0 = b which proves antisymmetry.16 0. since A ⊆ N.  The following theorem is a very useful and important property of subsets of N. there exists a unique smallest element a ∈ A. This means that there is no natural number n ∈ A and thus. First. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS . written a ≥ b if there exists c ∈ N such that a = b + c.3.4. so Pn++ is true and we have proven Pn for all n. as promised. The relation a ≥ b is a partial order on N. Definition 0. By definition. But then 0 = (c2 + c)++ which contradicts Axiom 3.1. Theorem 0. but m is less than or equal to all natural numbers and so m 6∈ A (for otherwise it would be a smallest element). antisymmetric and transitive. We need to show that the relation is reflexive. A set with a partial order is sometimes called a poset.  . we return to our early youth with the following definition. then n ∈ A and there is no m strictly less than n such that m ∈ A. If c1 6= 0. A (non-strict) partial order on a set A is a binary relation R that is reflexive. b ∈ N we say that a is greater than or equal to b. we mean an element a ∈ A such that if b ∈ A then b ≥ a. Proof.3.3. By the smallest element. Proof. If a. Reflexive: Exercise. But then for every m ∈ A we must have m ≥ n which means n is a smallest element.2 (Well ordering principle).2. if A is non-empty. A must be the empty set. antisymmetric and transitive. Now.3. Let’s establish that ≥ is indeed a partial order on N.3. Clearly. But by the cancellation law for addition we have that 0 = c2 + c1 . Transitive: Exercise. but Pn++ is false. there are natural numbers c1 and c2 such that a = b + c1 b = a + c2 So that a + 0 = a = b + c1 = (a + c2 ) + c1 = a + (c2 + c1 ). Now if Pn is true. then c1 = c + + for some c ∈ N by Proposition 0.

2 is satisfied. Theorem 0. then ∼AR is the set theory analog of a quotient.3.5. For any a. If we have a fixed relation that we know about. Thus c ∼R a and a ∼R d which implies c ∼R d by the transitivity of R. Assume R is an equivalence relation on A. Thus [a] ⊆ [b]. simply observe that [a] ∈ ∼AR by definition. we know that either S = S 0 which means they are the same element in ∼AR or they are disjoint. But since R is reflexive. often it is convenient to denote a relation with a symbol separating two elements of the set. By Proposition 0. we can take each element a ∈ A and make it into a subset [a]R by defining (0. Suppose [a] and [b] are not disjoint. a ∼R a and a ∈ [a]. the notation := means that we define the left hand side by the right hand side. we have that if S and S 0 are in ∼AR then there is an a and b such that S = [a] and S 0 = [b]. This is just notation to indicate the relation as a “relationship” between elements. A cool fact comes up when R is an equivalence relation. b) ∈ R. As we will see very shortly. R is a transitive relation if and only if a ∼R b and b ∼R c implies a ∼R c. We can do this generally for a binary relation R ⊆ A × A by writing a ∼R b if and only if (a. For example.5) [a]R := {b ∈ A : a ∼R b}. Proof. But switching the a and b in the above argument shows [b] ⊆ [a]. in this notation.0. since c ∈ [b] we have b ∼R c.3. Now suppose d ∈ [a]. As we saw above with ≥.1.  . A binary relation R on a set A is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive. We can do this directly. Since c is in [a] we have a ∼R c and since R is symmetric c ∼R a. Thus [a] = [b] as was to be shown. namely that every element a ∈ A is an element of some S ∈ ∼AR . then there is a c ∈ [a] ∩ [b].1. ∼R If Cartesian products are the set theory analog of products of numbers (which they are). Since b ∼R c and c ∼R d we get b ∼R d which implies d ∈ [b]. we will just write [a] instead of [a]R . So what can we do with a relation R on A? Well. Proposition 0. If R is an equivalence relation then A ∼R is a partition of A. On the other hand. Since d is in [a] we have a ∼R d. b ∈ A either [a] = [b] or [a] is disjoint from [b]. To see property (1).3.3. By the way.  For an equivalence relation R on A we can define (0. By definition. Thus property (2) in Definition 0. RELATIONS 17 A partial order is not the only type of binary relation that is important to us. Proof. symmetric and transitive. the following notion may be even more important in algebra.6) A := {S ⊆ A : there is an a ∈ A such that S = [a]}. Definition 0.3.1.3.

. say we think of the set of students S in the class. Exercises (1) Give an example of a binary relation on a set A that satisfies exactly two of the conditions in Definition 0. (b) P = ∼AR . For example. otherwise they are not equal.3 in the following sense. we only need to think of the element [a] ∈ ∼AR .1. It manifests itself in a huge number of constructions in algebra. So if we want to think about a in the R sense of equality.3. b ∈ S}. geometry and analysis. The map π : S → ∼SR from the exercises in Section 0. (4) Show that there is a converse to Theorem 0. Prove that (a) ∼R is an equivalence relation. The idea that an equivalence relation makes partitions means that a ∼R b can be thought of as saying a is equal to b in some R sense.2. define a relation R = {(a. PEANO AXIOMS FOR NATURAL NUMBERS . (2) Prove the reflexive and transitive properties in Theorem 0.3.18 0. We can define an equivalence relation R as a ∼R b if and only if student a and student b get the same letter grade. If P is a partition of A. (3) Give an example of a partially ordered set that does not satisfy the well ordering principle. b) ∈ A × A : there exists S ∈ P such that a. Mike and Mary are equal from the perspective of ∼R if they get the same grade.1 will be equal on R-equivalent elements and will be distinct on R-inequivalent elements. Then the quotient ∼SR is the list of grades that the students will receive.AN INTRODUCTION TO PROOFS It is hard to overstate the importance of this last theorem.3.

1) (a. b) and so ∼ is reflexive. Thus (c. (1) We need to prove that ∼ is reflexive. b) ∼ (0. b) ∼ (c. 1. There are some fundamental facts about this relation that we now establish. 0) with both occurring if and only if c = 0.1. c) or (a.2) (a1 + c. b) ∼ (c. symmetric: Suppose (a.CHAPTER 1 Basic Arithmetic While the title of this chapter may strike the college upper classmen as slightly offensive. it is my hope that the impression will be overcome by a study of its contents. b1 ) ∼ (a2 . The set Z In this section we utilize the construction of the natural numbers N to construct the integers Z. b) ∼ (a. (4) If (a1 . d) ∈ N × N then (1. For many mathematicians. b) ∼ (c.1. (2) For every (a. Then c + b = b + c = a + d = d + a by commutativity of addition. b) there exists a unique natural number c ∈ N for which either (a. b1 + d) ∼ (a2 + c. We will prove the first two properties and leave the last two as exercises. b) ∈ N × N then a + b = a + b since addition is well defined. d) ∼ (a. The following statements hold with respect to relation 1.3) (a1 c + b1 d. By definition of ∼. a2 d + b2 c) Proof.1. a1 d + b1 c) ∼ (a2 c + b2 d. a modern viewpoint on arithmetic is more subtle and complicated than several other advanced sounding subjects. b2 ) and (c.1. (3) If (a1 . b) which shows that ∼ is symmetric. d) if and only if a + d = b + c. Let us first define the binary relation ∼ on N × N via (1. So what do I mean by arithmetic? I mean working with integers and rational numbers and their basic operations. (1) The relation ∼ is an equivalence relation. b2 ) and (c. d) ∈ N × N then (1. symmetric and transitive. b1 ) ∼ (a2 . Proposition 1. b2 + d). reflexive: Let (a. 19 . this implies (a. d).

f ) ∈ [(a. b) ∼ (0. b)]∼ .b) .  . b). definition of ∼ = b + (c + f ).b) .b) is non-empty since a ∈ S(a. f ) ∼ (˜ e. c) ∼ (0. commutativity Thus (e. Thus f = f˜ + 1 and e = e˜ + 1 for natural numbers e˜. • Suppose (0. b)]∼ and we have shown existence. There are three options to consider. Note e > e˜ and e + f˜ = (˜ e + 1) + f˜. 0) ∼ (a. then (e. we have c + c0 = 0 + 0 = 0. c) ∼ (a. definition of e˜ = e˜ + (1 + f˜). there is a smallest element e ∈ S(a. we have c0 = 0 + c0 = c + 0 = c. f ). commutativity = d + (e + b). c0 ). violating Axiom 3). associativity = b + (d + e). 0).20 1. b)]∼ and e˜ ∈ S(a. d) ∈ [(a. we have achieved a contradiction.2. b)]∼ with e > 0 and f > 0. 0) ∼ (0. b) ∼ (c. associativity = e˜ + f. (2) We first show the existence of such a c. d) and (c. we have c = c + 0 = 0 + c0 = c0 . c0 ). c0 ). But since e > e˜ and e was assumed to be the smallest element of S(a. f˜) ∈ [(a. Now we define another set. since ∼ is transitive (c. this implies that a + f = b + e which in turn yields (a. c) ∈ [(a. b) ∼ (c. then we claim (e. d) ∈ N × N : (a. Thus. = e˜ + (f˜ + 1). b) ∼ (e. b)]∼ }. f˜. • Suppose (c. 0) ∈ [(a. So we must have that (e. Now we come to uniqueness. b)]∼ := {(c. 0) ∼ (a. d)}. commutativity = (b + c) + f. • Suppose (c. b) which is defined as [(a.b) . b) ∼ (c0 . by the Well Ordering Principal of N. Then. Let us consider the equivalence class of the pair (a. Then d + (a + f ) = (d + a) + f. 0) ∈ [(a. commutativity By the cancellation property in Theorem 0. If e > 0. c0 ). If not. commutativity definition of f˜ = f + e˜.1. If e = 0 then there is an element (0. associativity = d + (b + e). BASIC ARITHMETIC transitive: Now assume (a. Then. Then. 0).b) = {c ∈ N : there exists d ∈ N such that (c. d) ∼ (e. since ∼ is transitive (c. This is the set of elements that are ∼-equivalent to (a. associativity = (a + d) + f. Note that S(a.b) . Thus ∼ is transitive. since ∼ is transitive (0. But this implies that c0 = 0 = c (otherwise 0 = n++ for some natural number n. definition of ∼ = (d + e) + b. b) ∼ (0. f ). f˜) implying (˜ e. S(a. b)]∼ showing the existence of c. 0) ∼ (c0 .

b) ∼ (c. we should assess what we have and what we do not have! What we have is the set of integers Z. THE RING Z 21 Do not worry. Exercises (1) Prove part 3) of Proposition 1.2.1.1. b) ∼ (0.4) Z= ∼ If (a. In fact. we have introduced negative numbers by partitioning relative to the equivalence relation ∼. c) for c > 0. However.1. we do not even know how to add or multiply two integers. b)]∼ by c. The set of integers. If (a. Definition 1.2. we do not yet have arithmetic of the integers. we denote [(a. much less whether these operations satisfy the properties in Theorem 0. but now let’s see the motivation by thinking about the next definition.1. (2) Prove part 4) of Proposition 1. b)]∼ by −c.1.1. it is OK if you are feeling lost. The ring Z . Before moving on. This theorem may have looked looked arbitrary and unneccessary.1.1.2. (3) 1. we denote [(a. denoted Z is the quotient N×N (1. 0). Thus.