You are on page 1of 83



1.0 Introduction
1.1 Definition
1.2 Need for estimation and costing

Learning Objecyives
After studing this unit, student will be able to
• Have an idea of the introduction to estimating and costing.

1.0 Introduction
In the civil engineering field, the construction activity contains the
following three steps.
1. Plans : Preparation of drawings plan, section, elevation, with full
dimension and detailed, specifications meeting the requirements of the proposed
2. Estimation : Preparation of an estimate is for arriving the cost of
the structure to verify the available funds or to procure the required funds for
completion of the proposed structure.
3. Execution (construction) : It is a grounding the proposed structure,
for construction as per the provision contained in drawings and estimation..


Construction Technology

The plans contains size of room and dimensions of the work and the estimate
contains the quantity and quality aspects of the structure.

1.1 Definition
Estimation and costing there are two basic points involved in
construction of structures are :
1. Quantity : The quantity aspects is with reference to the measurement
in the drawings (plan, elevation, section)
2. Quality : The quality aspects is with reference to the specifications,
i.e properties of materials, workmanship etc.
Note : The estimation and costing of any structure is defined as the
process of determination of quantities of items of work, and its cost for
2. Estimate of a project is therefore, a forecast of its probable cost.

1.2 Need for Estimation and Costing
The object of preparing the estimate for any civil engineering structure is
1. To know the quantities of various items of work, a material and
labour and their source of identification.
2. To decide whether the proposal can match the available funds to
complete the structure.
3. To obtain the administrative and technical sanction of estimate
from the competent authorities to release the funds for construction.
4. To invite tenders or quotations based on the estimate quantities for
entrust of works to the execution.

Short Answer Type Questions
1. What is meant by Estimating and Costing ?
2. State need for Estimation and Costing.



Measurement of Materials
and Works
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Units of measurements
2.2 Rules For Measurement
2.3 Different methods of tasking out quantities

Learning Objectives
After the studying this unit student will be able to
• To measure various quantities as per rules.

2.0 Introduction
The units of differents works depends on their nature, size and shape.
.In general, the units of different items of works are based on the following
1. Massive or volumetric items of work such as earth work, concerete
for foundations, R.R Masonry , Brick Masonry etc. The measurements of
length, breadth , height or depth shall be taken to compute the volume or cubical
2. Shallow, thin and surface work shall be taken in square unit or in
area. The measurements of length and breadth or height shall be taken to
compute the area, Ex. Plastering, white washing etc.


Construction Technology

3. Long and Thin work shall be taken in linear or running units and
linear measurement shall, be taken. Ex : Fencing, Rainwater pipes,
ornamental borders etc.
4. Single units of work are expressed in numbers. Ex. Doors, Windows,
Rafters, Trusses etc.

2.1 Units of measurement for various items of Civil
Engineering Works
Units of measurements

Unit of

(a) Earth work excavation in all
types of soils except rock requiring blastering.



(b) Earth work excavation in
the soils hard rock requirng



(c) Excavation of pipe line
through of specified width and
depth inall types of soils

1.00 rmt


(d) Earthwork for road formation ,bund formation etc.
cutting , embankment.



(e) Refilling of foundations ,
basements, pipe lines, trenches
with excavated soils.



Plain cement concrete




R.R.masonry or brick masonry for foundation basement, super strucrture, parapet
wall etc.



Filling the basement with



(a) RCC 1:2: 4 with normal
reinforcement for plinth beam ,
columns, lintels, verandah
beam- T beam etc.


Sl.No Particulars of items




solving stones. 155 10.00cum 10. 1.00sq m.00Rmt 1. 1.00Rmt 1. revetment stones etc. flooring. Madras terrace etc.00cum 1. (a) Roads works : Metal collections . 10.00Rmt 1. colour washing. D.C. Rough stone pitching revetment and soiling of specified thickness.00sqm 10.C. pitching any stones. Ornamentel border of specified width and thickness. A.00Rmt 12.00No 1. stone ware pipes etc. 1.P. Kg/unit kg/unit 14.00No 10 Doors. Roofing with A.00cum 1.I pipes. 1. . 1. Steel reinforcement in R.C pipes. windows.00cum 1. R.C 1: 2: 4 for slabs of specified thickness .00Rmt ness 9. Plastering pointing.00No 11.C.C sheets. 10. (c) Cement concrete payments of specified thickness.00sqm 1. painting. Wooden and steel trusses 1.00 No 1.00sqm 7.C. white washing. Kurnool trerrace.00sqm 6.II Estimating and Costing (b) R.C pipes GI or C. 1.00cum 15.00cum (b) Road works : Spreading metal gravel and consolidation with roller of specified thickness.00sqm1.00sqm 10.0.00Rmt 13.00sq m.Paper .C specified width and thick- 1. tiled roofing. ventilators.00sqm 10. 8. gravel collections. weather proof coarse.

tools and plants. 6.e 1cm(1/ 211). Same type of work under different condition and nature shall be measured separately under separate items. design and specifications. General Rules 1. In case of structureal concrete. All works shallbe measured not subject to following tolerances unless otherwise stated.2 Rules For Measurement Measurement of works occupies a very important place in the planning and execution of any work or project.1 sqft). over hands and other incidental charges for finishing the work to the required shape.01 cum(0. brick work or stone masonry. Even in the same state different departments follow different methods. The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials proportions and work-manships and accurately represent the work to be executed. 2. transport. For convernience a uniform method should be followed throughout the country.m (0. Work which by its nature cannot be accurately taken off or which requires site measuremets shall be described as provisional. Measuremet shall be item wise for the finished items of work and the description of each items shall be held to inculde materials. hoisting. size. the work under the following categories shall be measured separately and the heights shall be described. 5. In booking dimensions the order shall be in the sequence of length. breadth and height or depth or thickness.1cuft) 4.156 Construction Technology 2.01 sq. fabrication. (a) Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 meter i. The uniform methods of measurement to be followed which is applicable to the preparation of the estimates and bill of quantities and to the side measurement of completed works have been described below. (c) Cubic contents shall be worked up to the nearest 0. The methods followed for the measurement are not uiform and the practices or prevalent differ considerably in between the states. (b) Areas shall eb measured to the nearest 0. from the time of the first estimate are made until the completion and settlement of payments. (a) From first floor level . 3. labour.

Principle of units : The units of different works depend on their nature. (iv) Piece work.3 Different methods of taking out quantities The items of work like earth work in excavation in foundation. Centre line method 2.m). (i) Mass. size and shape. (iii) Long and thin work shall be taken in linear or running unit and linear measurement shall be taken(running meter). The measurement of length and breadth or height shall be taken to compute the area (sq. The same rule applicable to the excavation in foundation. .Paper . (ii) Shallow. job work etc taken in number 2. Long wall and short wall method (or) General method 2. In general the units of different item of work are based on the following principle. stone or brick masonry in super stucrture may by estimated bu either of the following methods. voluminious and thick works shall be taken in cabic unit or volumne.1 Long wall and short wall method In this method measure or find out the external lengths of walls running in the direction generally the long walls out-to-out and the internal length of walls running in the transverse direction in-to-in i. 1. breadth. of cross or short wall into-in and calculate quantities multiplying the length by the breadth and height of wall. the centre line remians same for suepr structure and for foundation and plinth. foundation concrete stone masonry in foundation and basement.II Estimating and Costing 157 (b) From plinth level to first floor level. The simple mehtod is to take the long walls of short or erros walls separately and to find out the centre to centre lengths of long wall anf short walls from the plan. The measurement of length. (c) From first level to second floor level and so on.e. thin and surface work shall be taken in separate units or in area.3. For symmetrical footing on either sides. The parapet shall be measured with the corresponding items of the story next below. to concrete in foundaiuon and to masonry. and height or depth shall be taken to compute the volume cubic contents(cum).

2. Thus in the case of a building with one partition wall or cross wall having two junctions. This method may be named as long wall and short wall method. in case of long wall add one breadth and in case of short wall substract one breadth from the centre length to get the corresponding lengths. this method is quite simple. Long wall length out-to-out = centre to centre length + half breadth on one side + half breadth on the other side = centre to centre length + one breadth. for all footings and for super structure (with slight difference where there are cross walls or number of junctions).multiplying this length by the breadth and height and get the quantities. That is.. For rectangular. It will be noticed that by taking dimensions in this ways.2 Centre line method In this method known as centre line method. etc. This method is simple and accurate and there is no chance of any mistake. Adopt the same process for foudation conceret and for eacth footing. circular polygonal (hexagonal. which gives the length in-to-in. while the short walls are increasing in length. In this method.158 Construction Technology For long walls add to the center length one breadth of wall. Short wall length in-to-in= Centre to centre length . for the length of trench out-to-out add to the centre length one breadth of foundaiton.3. long and short has to be found out. Thus for finding the quantities of earth work in excavation. For short or cross walls sub tract ( instead of adding) from the centre length one breadth of wall. This method is easy and quick in calculations. subtracting one breadth instead of breadth. or general method. In this method the total centre line multiplied by breadth and depth of concerned item gives the total quantity of each item. which gives the length of the wall out-to-out . octagonal etc) building having no inter or cross walls. This method is well suitable for walls of similar cross sections. for earthwork in foundation trench and foundation concrete deduct one breadth of trench or concrete from the total centre length (half breadth . the length will remain same for excavation in foundation for concrete in foundation. It requires special attention and consideration at the junctions. meeting points of partition or cross walls. the long walls are gradually decreasing in length from foundation to superstructure. In this method sum total length of centre lines of all walls. It should be noted that each footing is to be taken separately and the breadth of the particular footing is to be added to the centre length. and repeat the same process as for the long walls. For each junction half breadth of the respective items or footings is to be deducted from the total centre length.

If two walls come from opposite directions and meet a wall at the same point. For footings. Plastering. R. Door. but when B type walls are taken. 2. . Ornamental border. Windows. Flooring. Short Answer Type Questions 1.C. In the case of a building having different type of walls. for each junction deducting of half breadth of A type wall (main wall) shall have to be made from the total centre length of walls. 3. Masonary. Write different methods of taking out quantities and describe. then all A type walls shall be taken jointly first . Write general rules for measurement. and then all B type walls should be taken together separately. Fencing.C. than there will be two junctions.II Estimating and Costing 159 for one junction and the breadth ( 2 x 1/2 = one) for two junctions. Write the unit of measurements. In such cases no deductions of any kind need be made for A type walls.C. Trusses etc.C. similarly deduct one breadth of footing for two junctions from the total centre length and so on. Note : Student should practice method I first and when they have become sufficiently acquainted with method I.Paper . suppose the other (main) walls are of A type and inter cross walls are of B type. then only they should take up the method II. Earthwork. It may be noted that at corners of the building where two walls are meeting no substraction or addition is required. P.

stages of preparation of estimate. Data required for an estimate and types of estimate. . skilled and experienced for accurate estimating.3 Problems in preliminary estimate Learning Objectives After studying this unit student will be able to • Understand the definition of detailed estimate. 3.160 Construction Technology UNIT 3 Types of Estimates Structure 3.2 Preliminary or approximate estimate 3. It is usually prepared before the construction is taken up. If the estimate is prepared carefully and correctly there will not be much difference in the estimated cost and actual cost.0 Introduction 3.0 Introduction An estimate is a probable cost of a work. The primary object of an estimate is to know beforehand the cost of the work. The estimator should be fully acquainted with the methods of construction.1 Detailed estimate 3. The actual cost of the work is known after the completion of the work.

3. 3. Provision of supervision charges and contractors profit are to be provided in the estimate.II Estimating and Costing 161 3. Stages of preparation To prepare the complete estimation of the project.1. cost of land and its acquisition. the wages of different categories of labour should be available for preparing an estimate. The location of the work and its distance of source of materials and cost of transport should be known.3 Details of measurements and calculation of quantities and abstract of estimated cost To prepare an accurate estimate. taking detailed measurements of each item of work and calculating their quantities is known as detailed estimate. The cost of preliminary works and surveying.1 Detailed estimate The estimate may be approximate or preliminary estimate or accurate estimate. . the rates of various materials to be used in construction.Paper . besides the estimated cost of different main items of work. Rates : The rates for various items of work. drawn to a scale are necessary to take the details of measurements of various items of work.1. method of execution and workmanship and the class of labour required. The cement mortar with 1:3 is more costlier than cement mortar with 1:6. In approximate estimate the approximate cost of the work is estimated. cost of leveling and preparation of ground and the cost of external services are to be provided. their proportion. The cost of the work varies with its specifications. In the accurate estimate the details of various items are taken and calculated.1 Definition The estimate prepared by dividing the work into different items. Drawings : The detailed drawings of plan. quality and class of materials. Specifications : The specifications gives the nature.2. These rates may be obtained from the Standard Schedule of Rates prepared by the engineering departments. Data required for preparing an estimate : To prepare an estimate for a work the following data are necessary. elevation and section. 3.1. a detailed estimate of quantities of various items of work and an abstract estimate of the quantities and their unit rates are required.

No. 3. The various methods of preparing the preliminary estimate are plinth area estimate. per bed for hospitals. cubical rate estimate and estimate per unit base. per class rooms for schools. For schools and Description of work No Length Breadth Height/Depth Quantity Remarks Abstract estimate S.2. Cubic area estimate The cubic rate estimate is prepared on the basis of the cubical contents of the building.2. 3. etc. The cubic rate is obtained from the cost of the similar building in the locality having similar specifications. For sewerage and water supply projects on the basis of per head of population served. The plinth area rate is obtained by comparing the cost of the cost of similar building having similar specifications in the locality.162 Construction Technology Detailed Estimate S. For bridges and culverts per running meter. The preliminary estimate is prepared by different methods for different types of works.2. The cost of the building is estimated by multiplying the volume of the building with the cubic area rate. Description of work Quantity Rate Per Amount 3. . Preliminary or approximate estimate Preliminary or approximate estimate is required for preliminary studies of various items of work or project . to decide the financial position and policy for administrative sanction by the competent authority. the preliminary estimate is made per kilometer.3 Estimate per unit base The preliminary estimate may be prepared for different structures and works by various ways. 3.2.1 Plinth area estimate The plinth area rate is calculated by finding the plinth area of the building and multiplying by the plinth area rate. per seat for theater halls.2. For roads and highways and for irrigation works. Cubic rate estimate is more accurate as compared to the plinth area estimate.

specifications and rates. 25000x100=Rs. Write the tabular form for the detailed estimate. If the cost of construction of 1 km. height and calculating the quantities. Cost of construction for 20 km = Rs.10000/sq m. 5.= plinth area rate x area = 10000x100=Rs.Paper . 10000000.II Estimating and Costing 163 3. Long Answer Type Questions 1.200000000. 4.2500000. Types of preliminary estimates : Plinth area estimate. If the plinth area rate of a residential building is Rs. length of a highway is Rs. Describe the various types of preliminary estimates.1000000 Summary Detailed estimate consists of taking the detailed measurements of length. Define detailed estimate. 25000.3. Find the cost of construction for 20 km. Short Answer Type Questions 1. cubic rate estimate and estimate per unit base. Write the tabular form for preparation of an abstract estimate. 3. . breadth. What are stages for preparation of an estimate? 3. If the cost of school building per student is Rs. 10000000x20=Rs. Cost of the school building for 100 student s = Rs. Cost of construction of 100 sq. 2. 2. Calculate the cost of school building for 100 students. Calculate the cost of construction of a residential building of 100 sq. Problems in preliminary estimate 1. m. m. Data required for estimate : Drawings. List out the data required for preparation of an estimate.

3 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (load bearing type structure) 4.0 Introduction 4. Detailed estimate Dog legged and Open Well STair case.8 Detailed estimate of compound wall and steps Learning Objectives After studying this unit student will be able to Prepare detailed estimates of single roomed.5 Primary school building with sloped roof 4.1 Single roomed building (load bearing structure) 4.2 Two roomed building( load bearing type structure) 4.7 Two storied residential building (framed structure type) 4. for load bearing walls and Framed structures.164 Construction Technology UNIT 4 Detailed and Abstract Estimate of Buildings Structure 4. Building roomed. Double roomed buildings.6 RCC Dog legged – open well stairs 4. Compound walls and steps. Preparational estimate for ground and first floor. . Detailed Estimate of Primary School Building.4 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (framed structure type) 4.

4. while in the centre line method.c. Centre to centre length of long wall = internal length of long wall + ½ width of the wall. The following procedure is adopted. length of long wall = centre . The long wall and short wall method is useful for load bearing type structure. 6. the drawings consisting of plan elevation and section are sufficient. In long wall and short wall method the walls are taken separately. the wall which is taken first is long wall and the wall which is taken next is the short wall.0 Introduction To estimate the cost of any building or a structure. while the height or depth are taken from the section and elevations. 2. but it cannot be applied for framed structure. Long wall and short wall method : This method is also called as separate or individual wall method. R. 1. 4. The dimensions of long wall and short wall should be taken separately. This is simple and it gives accurate values. The length and breadth are taken from the plan.1 Single roomed building (load bearing structure) There are two steps in estimating the cost of a building or a structure. 7. 5. Regarding the detailed estimate by long wall and short wall method and centre line method. The estimator should be able to take all the dimensions from the drawings. 1. 2. The centre line of the wall of the building is considered for determining the centre to centre line length of long walls and short walls. The accuracy of estimate depends upon the skill of the estimator in studying the drawings. Determining the cost from the abstract estimate. Irrespective of its lengths.II Estimating and Costing 165 4. masonry etc. drawings.R. 3. specifications and rates are required. To determine the lengths of different quantities such as earthwork.Paper . Taking out quantities and calculation of quantities in detailed estimate. Centre to centre length of short wall = internal length of short wall + ½ width of the wall. bed in foundation. The centre to centre to centre length of long walls or short walls is obtained by adding half the width of the wall to the internal length of either long wall or short wall. c. the centre line lengths of all the walls are combined.

0 + 2x0.0 + 2x0.0 0. c. 8.2 E L E V A T I O N 0.3 S E C T I O N Fig 4.7 0. Length of Long Wall = Centre to centre Length of Long Wall + Width Length of Short Wall = Centre to centre Length of Short Wall – width For earth work in excavation Length of Long Wall = 6. Similarly length of the short wall = centre to centre length of the short wall – width.3 m.1 Plan Single Room Centre to centre length of long wall = 6. the sum of all the centre line lengths of long walls and short walls are added to get the total centre line length.2 = 7.5 m. At the junctions of two walls. the width is the respective width of the item in consideration.c.3 m.5 0. Centre line method : In the centre line method.6 0. .3 0.3/2 = 6.166 Construction Technology to centre length of long wall + width. 3. the length is present in both of the walls. bed etc.3/2 = 4. Hence half of the length of that width is to be subtracted from the total centre line length.9 1. Centre to centre length of short wall = 4. Length = Total centre line length – ½ width x number of junctions.3 + 1. where the width is the respective width of the item such as earthwork.

R. Length of Short Wall = 4. Description No.8 m respectively. Similarly for second footing & Third footing.2 m.0 + 2x0.3) = 21.9 = 7.2 30.2 = 3.4 m.2 1.5 1.Paper .R. but the height is different from that of the foundation For R.3 -0. Sl.3 4.2 0.2 m.3 7.2 0.2 12.45 Second footing 1 21.45 Basement 21. No. Length of Long Walls are 7.II Estimating and Costing 167 For earth work in excavation Length of Short Wall = 4.6 m and 3.3 m.08 Remarks .2 0.72 First footing 1 28. L m of work B m H m Quantity m3 1 Earth work in 1 excavation 21.2 0. Centre to centre length of short wall = 4. masonry in foundation and plinth 1 21.3/2 = 6.C.1 m.9 0.2 1. In cement concrete in foundation the length and width of the long wall and short wall are the same. masonry First footing Length of long wall = 6.3 + 4.0 and 6.528 2 C.3/2 = 4.7 0. Total centre line length = 2(6.3 3 19. bed in 1 foundation 21.8 and for short walls are 3.9 = 3.62 4 Brick work in 1 super structure Detailed Estimate 21.2 1.3 – 1.2 0.63 3 R.6 11.3 + 0. Detailed estimate of a single roomed building by centre line method Centre to centre length of long wall = 6.3 m.0 + 2x0.

5 Short Walls 2 3.1 1.2=7.31.2=7.56 L=4.2 1.3+1.9=7.6 7.2 0.2 4.8 .3 2.7 0. Description of work No.51 L=4.5=6.3 2. B H Quantity Remarks 1 m m m3 Earth work in excavation in foundation m Long Walls 2 7.2 8.1 1.2=3.5 1.8 0.5 1.4 0.2 21.2=3.3+1.2 0.45 Basement Long Walls 2 6.2 Short WaLLS 2 3.5 Short Walls 2 3.53 2 Plain cement concrete in foundation (1:5:10) Long Walls 2 7.5 1.1 Total 30.8 0.30.68 L=4.30.6 0.9 0.3+0.168 Construction Technology Sl.3 5.4 L=6. Masonry in foundation & basement c.6 4.6 3.m (1:8) First footing Long Walls 2 7.94 L=6.2 0.3+0.9=3.1 Total 8.45 Second footing Long Walls 2 7 0.16 L=6.7=7.5 1. L No.67 L=4.2 8.30.6 L=6.R.7 0.4 11.3+0.7=3.5=3.93 L=4.8 Short Walls 2 3.3 1.78 L=6.08 3 R.2 1.31.9 0.0 Short WaLLS 2 3.

C. Number of long walls = 2.3/2 = 10. masonry 28.72 Total R.6 + 1. Number of short walls = 3.88 L=6. L B H Quantity Remarks m m m m3 Earthwork in excavation Long Walls 2 11.3 1.2 = 4.30.2 Total 51.5 .2 33.69 2 C.1 1.Paper . Description of work 1 No.8 1.08 4.3 3 11.3x3 = 37.71 L = 5.6 0.1 m Sl.3 3 7. Centre to centre length of short wall = 5.6 Short Walls 2 4 0.3/2 = 5.8 Short Walls 3 4.3=4.6 x 2 + 5.2 = 11.0 19. Length of long wall = centre to centre length of long walls + width Length of short wall = centre to centre length of short wall .3+0.3 + 5. ( 1:8) Long Walls 2 6.2 17. No.0 + 2x0.62 of 4 Brick work in super structure c.1 1.2 Two roomed building( load bearing type structure) Detailed Estimate Of A Double Roomed Building By Long Wall And Short Wall Method Centre to centre length of long wall = 5.3=6.3 m.width Total centre to centre line lenght = 10. bed in foundation Long Walls 2 11.98 L= 10.6 m.0 + 0.II Estimating and Costing 169 12.3 8.0 + 2x0.m.2 1.2 0.8 1.R.2 L=4.

75 L = 10.9 19.3 0.6 0.3 3 19.170 Construction Technology Short Walls 3 4.0.3 .0.7 = 4.2 13.3 .7 0.1 Short walls 3 4.3 Short Walls 3 4.2 0.5 Short walls 3 4.9 0.6 7.9 = 4.3 = 10.5 = 11.3 -0.55 Second footing Long Walls 2 11.64 L = 5.3 4.1 0.5 33.6 + 0.7 7.6 + 0.13 L = 5.2 8.9 0.3 3 13.9 = 11.3 = 5.8 1.5 1.65 Third footing & plinth Long Walls 2 11.3 4.9 L = 5.6 + 0.9 L = 5.5 = 4. masonry Total 4 49.0 .8 0.62 Short Walls 3 5 0.93 3 R.R.96 R.3 2.12 L = 10.6 0.3 . masonry in foundation & plinth First footing Long Walls 2 11.4 0.16 Brick work in super structure Long Walls 2 10.7 = 11.R.42 L = 10.43 12.32 L = 10.6 312.5 0.5 21.1 1.4 0.0.6 + 0.

12 m3 L = 37.1 2x1/2x1.5 Total 49.9 Second footing 1 36.7 Basement 1 36.Paper .2 0.2 E L E V A T I O N 5m x 5 m S E 5m x 5m Fig 4.1 2x1/2x0.2 1 36.1 2x1/2x0.9 1.5 0.3 .5 1 1 36.9 1.9 1.8 0.2 21.R.6 0.3 7. No. L B H 1 35.3 0.7 1.C. masonry in 3 foundation First footing 4 No.2 Double Room C T I O N 0.0 0.9 0.II Estimating and Costing 171 Centre line method Sl.55 me L = 37.1 2x1/2x0.2 1 35.2 51.4 0.96 m3 L = 37. bed in 2 foundation R.6 19.69 m3 L= 37.3 Brickwork in superstructure Quantity Remarks 1.65 m3 L = 37.6 0.7 0.165 m3 3 33.1 2x1/2x0.2 0.93 m3 0. Description of work Earthwork in 1 excavation C.3 3.3 12.

6 m.0+2x0.6 0.3 0.0 m D 3.3m.0m 5.0 m D 0. Number of 5. length short walls = 4.3 Plan Section .3 m.6m.9 0.3 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (load bearing type structure) Length of long walls = 6.3x3+4. Number of 4.9 0.3+5.2m Fig 4.0 m. length short walls = 3 Total centre line length = 11.0 m 5. Number of long walls = 3 Length of short wall of 5.0+2x0.0 x 4.172 Construction Technology 4.6x3+5.0 m.3/2=11.3 1.3x3=63.3/2=5.0 m D D 5.0+0. length = 5.3/2=4. D D 6.0 x 4.0+2x0.0 m shortwalls =3 Length of 4.0 m.0 x 5.0 x 5.

Paper .II Estimating and Costing 173 m m m m3 5m 4m 5m 4m 5m 4m 5m 4m Basement 56.43 Basement .

C.9+9. Brickwork.0 m 0. Length of sunshades and external plastering = (12.9)x2= 45.C. length =2(5+4)=18 m.0+0. where 3. lintels. Footing 5.6 m.0 m 0.9)=45.0 m.3 m 0.0 m 6.4 Residential Building Framed Structure .C Column 3.0 m 1.0 x 4.12 m. Height of external plastering = 3. Similarly for 5mx4m room.0=2.0 x 5. Length of slab with 1 m.0+1. masonry.23 R. Internal plastering : Area of internal plastering = Length x Height Length of plastering = 2(L+B) . 1.23 x 0.0 m R.2 m P L A N S E C T I O N Fig 4. plinth beam and beams under slab = (6+6)x3+(5+4)x3=63 m. For 6mx5m room.L G.C.0 x 4.0 x 5.3 m R. Where L and B are the length and breadth of the room respectively. External Plastering : Area of external plastering = Length x Height Length of Plastering = 2x(12. 100 mm thick RCC slab 0.12.0m is the height of the room and 0.C. is the thickness of the slab.9 m 5.4 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (framed structure type) Number of columns in a framed structure = 9 Size of the columns = 230 mmx230 mm Length of R.6 m.C. length = 2(6+5)=22m.L 6.R. extension on both sides = 1.2 m G.9+9.174 Construction Technology 4.

89 In between columns 1 63 0.3 17.45 1.053)/6 0. masonry in foundation First footing 1 63 0.II Estimating and Costing S.2 34.9+1.2+ 3.1 .6 26.2 1. bed in foundation Columns 9 1.C.43 8.44 9 0.46 Second footing 1 63 0.93 3 R.23 5. Description of work No.76 Windows 8 1.65 Net Brickwork in super structure 38.06 5 R.47 Deductions Doors 6 1 0.23 2 -2.76 H=0.9 -2.2 0.03 Deduct for columns 9 0.6 0.2 1.3 2.0=5.1 2.8 23.C.6 0. column footing 9 1.9 0.7 0.985+0.2 0.23 0.23 1.2 0.02 60. 1 175 No.44 2 C.9 51.2 1.R.3 -0.9 0.89 9 Trapezoidal section Stem (1.23 3 43.2 -2.Paper .44+4x0.92 L=12x3+ 9x3=63 71.972 19.48 4 Brickwork in superstructure 1 63 0. L B H Quantity Remarks m m m m3 Earthwork in excavation Columns 9 1.C.3 3.6 0.6 0.33 In between columns 1 63 0.01 Deduct for columns 9 0.3 3.2 1.

0+ 1.6 3.C.2 72 . Slab.9 11.3 4.25 B=9.6 0. Plinth beam 1 63 0.C.52 H=3.9+1.C.9)=45.23 L=2(12.2 1.C.176 Construction Technology 6 R.0+0.12 Deductions -12 Net External plastering area 118.6 3.45 Sunshades 1 45.6 External plastering 20 mm Thick 1 45.28 L=12.9+1.12 21.2 -11.9+9.0=11.9 1 1 L=2(12.35 7 R.9) =45.3 0.0+ 1.12 142.3 4.23 0.62 R.9 0.23 0.C. 14.0=14.35 1m. Projection from 9 slab 1 0.C.C.75 10 Internal Plastering 12 mm thick Rooms 6mx5m 2 22 3 132 L=2(6+5)=22 Rooms5mx4m 2 18 3 108 L=2(5+4)=18 240 11 Sand filling in rooms Rooms 6mx5m 2 6 5 1.C.23 0.23 0.9+ 9.7 0.68 8 R. slab and beams Beams under slab 9 63 0.1 1.27 Doors 6 1 2 Windows 8 1.07 2. in lintels&sunshades Lintels 1 63 0.9 26.

Centre to centre length of short walls = 3.6 m. Width of first footing = 0. Width of third footing and plinth = 0.5 Primary school building with sloped roof Wall thickness = 0. Number of junctions = 2.7 m. Depth of first footing = 0.5x100/100x1000 tonnes 4.35+3.1 4 10 13 Flooring in rooms Rooms 6mx5m 2 6 5 60 Rooms5mx4m 2 5 4 40 100 14 Fabrication & placement of steel (8.6 m. bed in rooms Rooms 6mx5m 2 6 5 0.0 m.25)x1.68+26.3/2=3. Centre to centre length of long walls = 3. Second footing width = 0.II Estimating and Costing 2 Rooms 5mx4m 177 5 4 1.1 6 Rooms5mx4m 2 5 4 0. . Total centre line length = 6.1 m.3/2=6.22 t 4.3 m.3 m.3+3. Width of foundation = 1.Paper . in brick masonry.C. Height of the sloping roof =1.9 m.76+4. Height = 0.9 m.3x3=23.9 m.2 m.25x87.0+0.0+2x0.2 48 120 12 C.0+2x0.5/100x1000 78.6x2+3. Depth = 0.5 m. Depth of foundation = 1.8 m.


Construction Technology

Length of the sloping roof = square root of (1.5mx1.5m + 1.0m.x1.0
m.) = 1.8 m.
Number of gable rafters at a spacing of 30 cms. Centre to centre =(
Length of the gable rafters = 1.8+1.8+0.5+0.5=4.6 m.
Number of reapers along a length of 6.05 mts. At a spacing of 10 cms
each = (4.6/0.1)+1=47

Paper - II Estimating and Costing




1.5 m


2.0 m

0.9 m


0.9 m
0.6 m

0.9 m
0.6 m

0.9 m
0.3 m

0.9 m
0.3 m

1.2 m


D - Door 1.00 m x 2.00 m
W - Window 1.2 m x 1.2 m

3.0 x 3.0 m


3.0 x 3.0 m



Width of 1st footing : 0.9 m
Second footing : 0.7 m
: 0.5 m


Construction Technology

4.6 RCC Dog legged – open well stairs








Fig 4.5 Dog Legged Stair case

- A A

Paper - II Estimating and Costing

Sloping side



Tota l



of Risers No.0mx0.6 Open well Stair case .40)=6.25=2.65 m.5x2. Number of risers = 11 Height of the first flight = 11x0. All dimensions are in Milli meters 2. Size of base of flight = 1.15 m.0+0.25 m. Number of treads = 10 Length of treads in each flight = 10x0.5 m.5x0.65x1.15m. Follow the written dimensions only OPEN WELL TYPE STAIRCASE Scale 1:50 DRG.0 m. No. 300 152 8 C 7 300 152 3 4 B 300 152 8 8 SECTION AT ‘AA’ A Flight No.6.65+2. No.1 Open Well Staircase Note : 1.5)=3.182 Construction Technology Length of the inclined flight = Square root of (1. Area of the brickwork = 1/2x(0.0mx1.25 m3 Landing at the middle and top floor =2. and height 0.25x0. Length of the hand rail = (2x3.0x0. of Treads Each Riser Each Tread 4.15) m2. 18 Fig 4.15=1.8 m. Triangular portion of the brick has a base of 0.

9x0. B Horizontal length of treads = 0.75 m. A Horizontal distance of treads = 0. .35)=2.9+0.6x0.08 m.6 m.II Estimating and Costing 183 Flight No.15x9=1.15x8=1.35x1. Sloping length of flight= Square root of (0. Height of risers = 0. C Horizontal length of treads = 0.1 m.3x3=0. Height of risers = 0.Paper . Flight No. Sloping length of flight = Square root of (2.9 m.42 m.3x7=2.3x8=2.15x4=0.2x1.1x2.2 m. Sloping length of flight = Square root of(2.4+1.6)=1. Height of risers = 0.1+1.4x2. Flight No.35 m.4 m.2)=2.

902 Elevation E L E V A T I O N Fig 4.7 Two storied residential building (framed structure type) Parpet wall Weathering course Lintel & sunshade Brick masonry 3.C Mix 1:4:1 Sand filling C.C.C.05 m C. floring 1:4:8 .05 m Roof slab 3. flooring 0.184 Construction Technology 4.7 Two storied residential building R.C.

9+3. Door D1 – 0. Length of brickwork.2m – 2 Nos. W1 – 1.95 m..21+3.1+3.05+0.9 m.5x2+1.1m -1 No..5 m.1+0.05x2+3.00x2+2.5= 9.1 – 2 Nos..00x2+4.42 m.8=8.05+0. Door – D 0. Length of wall 100 mm.9 m.05+0.W – 1.20x4+3.34x2 = 64. Windows .2mx1. lintels and beams 4.9x2.2m – 5 Nos.3x1 = 15.1x5+1.00mx2.05+0.Paper .21x4+4.95 m. Height of column in ground floor = 0.1=4.00x2+3.9+9+3. Length of sunshade = 2.8 Ground Floor & First Floor Ground floor Number of columns = 15 Height of columns in ground flo or & first floor = 0. .1+0.76x2.8=3.79+1. = Openings – Main door – 1.1 – 3 Nos.1x1+1.II Estimating and Costing 185 Fig 4.90+0. thick = 4.8mx1. Height of column in first floor = 3.

186 Construction Technology Length of slab = 12. Trapezoidal section of the column foundation : Area of base A1 = 1.0 m2.0529 m2=A2 .23=0.0x1. Area of the column stem = 0.0=1.23x0..10)=43. Width of slab = 9.56 m.68+9. Length of external plastering = 2(12.10 m.68 m.

Paper .II Estimating and Costing 187 .

188 Construction Technology .

II Estimating and Costing 189 .Paper .

8 Detailed estimate of compound wall and steps Length of the compound wall between the brick columns 230 mm x 230 mm = 6.0+0.9 m.5x2=30 m2.14 m2.81= 8.3 m3. masonry first footing = 10.23x1.6= 3.44 m. Brickwork in between columns = 10.23 x 1.81 m3.66 m3. R. Plastering in columns = 4x0.74 m.85+4.5 m3.5 m.9x0.45 x 1.0= 4.5=0.66 m.24+1. Depth of excavation below ground level = 0. Thickness of the C. x 0.5 m.69 Quantity of earthwork in excavation = 10.23+4.5m = 2. Width of the foundation = 0.0 = 10.24 m3. Deduction for gate 2.85 m3. masonry total = 3. Number of brick columns = 3 Length of the earthwork in excavation = 6. . Brick masonry in columns = 3x0.0 m. Size of the first footing = 0.5=0.0 + 4.R.190 Construction Technology 4.C. masonry in plinth = 10.69x0.6x0.0+0.74-0.0m2.0x0.23x0.23x1.69x0.10x1.0mx1.23+0.69x0. R.89 m3.3 m.6 m. Net brickwork in superstructure = 1. R.5=1.69x0.45x1. Size of the brickwork in columns = 0.23 x 0.5= 1.5x3=4.3 = 1.1x1.9 m.3=2.9x0.6 m. Plastering in between columns = 10x1.C.9=8. Height of the compound wall = 1. Size of the plinth = 0. bed = 0.R.23=10. Quantity of C.0x0.R. bed in foundation = 10. Total brick masonry = 0.

5 m 0.15 0.0 m Fig.3 0.6 0.9x0.3=0.27 m3.6x0.3 1.15 0. 4. Quantity of second step = 1.3=0.27+0.3 m 0.09 m3.23 0.23 .14+30=34.23 6.9 m 0.18 m3.0x0. Total quantity of brickwork in steps = 0.23m 0.II Estimating and Costing 191 Total area of plastering = 4.3=0.18+0.0 m 0. Quantity of third step = 1.14 m2.54 m3.6 m Front View Side View 0.0x0.3x0.0x0.15 1.09=0. Estimate of steps Quantity of first step = 1.0 m Top view 4.45 1.9 Plan and Section of a compound Wall 0.Paper . 0.3 0.0m 0.

The roof under consideration is the roof having its width = 3. the total centre line length = sum of the centre line lengths of two long walls and three short walls. The lengths of the R. three short walls of length 5.3 m. and its length = 6. masonry. Length of the gable rafter = square root of [(width/2)2 + (Rise)2] Number of gable rafters = Length of the roof/ spacing of the rafters.R.0 m. the length = Total centre line length – (number of junctions)xwidth/2 For a double room building. Treads length = Number of treads x Tread. Taking out the measurement of various items and calculate the quantities as per the detailed estimate. The roof for the primary school building is a gable roof. Determining the cost of the calculated quantities as per Abstract estimate. having its slope in two directions. Plinth beam. Number of junctions = 6. and three short walls of length 4. The methods of calculating quantities are Long wall and short wall method and Centre line method. Length of Long wall = Centre to centre length of the long wall + width Length of short wall = Centre to centre length of the short wall – width In centre line method. lintels and beams under slab are obtained by adding the internal dimensions of the rooms.3 m.0 m. 2. .192 Construction Technology Summary To estimate the cost of a building or a structure the steps involved are 1. Number of treads = Number of risers – 1. the total centre line length = sum of the centre to centre lengths of three long walls. Area of the tiled surface = 2x(Length of the roof )x Width of the sloping side. The long wall short wall method and the centre line method are not applicable.) Number of risers = Height of the flight/ rise. Brickwork in superstructure. For a building with number of rooms. The number of junctions = 2.

5 m. Write the tabular formula of a detailed estimate. bed in foundation.J.II Estimating and Costing 193 Horizontal length of the stairs = Treads length + Width of the landing Length of the sloping side = Square root of [(Treads length)2 + (Height of flight)2]. 4.0 m. Detailed estimate of compound wall and steps. find the number of treads. Detailed estimate of a framed structure. 4. 3. C. 6.R. Area of brickwork in each step = (Rise x Tread) x ½. Detailed estimate of a dog legged stair case. Detailed estimate of a Primary school building. . 2. What are the methods involved in taking measurements in a detailed estimate. Detailed estimate of a number of rooms.Paper . Type Questions 1. and length 12. 2. Detailed estimate of a double storied building. Find the earthwork in excavation. 3.50 m. 5. masonry in foundation. If the number of risers = 10. 3. O.C. and the rise of 15 cms. What are the steps involved in finding the cost of the building? 2.T. Long Answer Type Questions 1. Short Answer Type Questions 1. R. Detailed estimate of an open well stair case. 5. Calculate the number of risers in a flight of height 1. Find the length of the gable rafter for a room of width 6.0 m and the rise is 1. Brick work in superstructure and plastering for single room building and double room building by long wall short wall method and centre line method.

0 Introduction 5.5 Preparation of unit rates for finished items of works Learning Objectives After studying this unit student will be able to • Prepare the unit ratio of various items of works.3 Study of the cost of labor types of labor using standard schedule of rates 5. 5. 5. The unit rates of various items of work are calculated from the specifications of the various types of materials.194 Construction Technology UNIT 5 Specifications and Analysis of Rates Structure 5. the quantities of various items of work are calculated from the drawings.0 Introduction To estimate the cost of the building. The . Find the cost of materials. 5.leads statement 5.2 Find the cost of materials at source and at site.4 Concept of lead and lift. The rates are calculated as per the rates in the standard schedule of rates. specifications of various of various items of works.1 Prepare specifications for different items of work. The unit rates of various items of work increase considerably with the specifications.

5. Foundation trench shall be dug to the exact width and depth of foundation. free from dust. If water accumulates in the trench. 6. 2. sharp and angular grains and shall pass through screen of 5 mm. Course aggregate should be of hard broken stone. Care should be taken to prevent water from entering the trench. square mesh.1 Prepare specifications for different items of work Specifications specifies or describes the nature and the class of work. they should be removed and the bed of the trench should be leveled and consolidated. 4. The bottom of the trenches shall be perfectly leveled both longitudinally and transversely. 3. From the study of the specifications one can easily understand the nature of the work and what the work shall be. dirt and foreign matter. of the edge of the foundation. 1. 2. 1. Earthwork excavation of foundation The following specifications shall be followed in the earthwork in excavations in foundations. The detailed specifications for various items of work are as follows. materials to be used in the work. 5. Detailed specifications : Detailed specifications are written to express the requirements clearly in a concise form avoiding repetition and ambiguity. Excavated earth shall not be placed within 1 m. consisting of hard. workmanship etc. . Cement concrete in foundation (1:5:10) The following specifications should be followed in cement concrete in foundation. Fine aggregate shall be of coarse sand. Foundation concrete should be laid only after the inspection and approval by the Engineer in charge. If rocks and boulders are found during excavation.II Estimating and Costing 195 specifications indicate the quality of the work while the drawings are used for the quality of the work.Paper . it should be pumped out.

Water shall be clean and free from alkaline and acid matter. in thickness and the joints shall be fully flushed with mortar. 2. Bricks of standard size. in size. Coarse aggregate and sand should be mixed by volume and cement by weight. dirt and organic matters. Sand should be free from dust. Mortar joints shall not exceed 6 mm. 7. Cement mortar 1:3 to 1:6 shall be provided. Bond stones should be provided at every 1 m. regular in shape. 4. Brick masonry The following specifications should be followed in brick masonry first class 1. 2. 4. . 6. The masonry shall be watered for at least 10 days. Random rubble masonry The following specifications should be followed in random rubble masonry 1. hard and durable. 6. The bricks should not absorb more than 20% of water when immersed in water for 24 hours. 4. 3. Mixing should be done on masonry platform or sheet iron tray in hand mixing. The brick masonry shall be watered for at least 10 days. 5. The mortar used in brick masonry shall be 1:3 to 1:6. 6.196 Construction Technology 3. The joints in the stone masonry shall not be thicker than 2 cm. having sharp square edges should be used. No stone shall be less than 15 cm. The stones should be sound. The bricks shall be well bonded and laid in English bond unless otherwise specified. 5. 3. copper red color. 5. length. The bricks should be soaked in water before use in masonry. Stones with rounded surface shall not be used.

taxes. stacking. royalties. on the surface. which are under the control of respective local agencies under government control. for internal plastering and 20 mm. 5. 5. The plastering work shall be checked for horizontality with a straight edge and for verticality with a plumb bob. 2. Cost of materials at site : The cost of materials at site includes the cost of materials at source along with the cost of seignories. Rate For 2012-13 . Category of worker S. Any defective plastering shall be cut in rectangular shape and replaced.Paper .. 7. The materials of mortar.3 Study of the cost of labor types of labor using standard schedule of rates Labour rates Si No. 4. 6. loading and unloading etc. for external plastering.2 Find the cost of materials at source and at site. Seignories are collected for materials like sand.II Estimating and Costing 197 Plastering The following specifications should be followed in plastering 1. Ceiling plastering should be completed before the start of wall plastering. 5. cement and sand used in plastering should be as per specifications. 3. The thickness of the plastering should not be less than 12 mm. The amount required to purchase the material at the source of its production is the cost of materials at the source. The plastering should be watered for at least 10 days. stones etc. transport. The joints of the brickwork shall be raked for a depth of 18 mm.

.I / Brick layer Cl.I 315 • 7 Floor Polisher / Tile Layer 315 • 8 Foreman 355 • 9 Gauge reader 300 • 10 • Maistry / Work Inspector with Non-technical Qualification • SSLC/SSC/HSC • 300 • 11 Mason Cl.198 Construction Technology 123 Skilled catregory • 1 Bar bender 330 • 2 Black smith / Tin smith / Rivetor 315 • 3 Blaster ( Licensed ) 355 • 4 Carpenter Cl.I 315 • 12 Mechanic Cl.I 315 • 13 Operator Air compressor / DG set 315 • 14 Operator Batching plant 355 • 15 Operator Bus/Ambulance/ Lorry/ Tanker 315 • 16 Operator Concrete / Asphalt mixer 315 • 17 Operator Concrete / Asphalt paver 315 • 18 Operator Concrete pump / Placer/ ice plant 315 Common SoR 2012 : 13 280 Sl No.I 315 • 5 Electrician ( Licensed ) 355 • 6 Fitter Cl.

II Estimating and Costing Category of worker S.I / Stone cutter Cl. steel Fabricator / Marker / Erector 355 199 .l 315 • 40 Struct.I 350 • 36 Plumber / Pipe fitter 350 • 37 Sarang / Khalasi 315 • 38 Spun pipe moulder 315 • 39 Stone chiseller CI.Paper . Rate for 2012-13 123 • 19 Operator Core drilling machine 355 • 20 Operator Crane/ Tower crane/ Cable way 355 • 21 Operator Drilling jumbo / Loco / Winch 315 • 22 Operator Grouting/ Guniting/ Shotcreting 315 • 23 Operator Jackhammer/Pneumatic tamper 315 • 24 Operator Pump / Ventilation fan 315 • 25 Operator Lathe/Drilling/Shearing machine 355 • 26 Operator Bending / Planing machine 315 • 27 Operator Road roller 315 • 28 Operator Shovel / Scraper / Dozer 355 • 29 Operator Spillway / Sluice gate 315 • 30 Operator Crusher / Conveyor / Mucker 315 • 31 Operator Tipper / Dumper / Transit mixer 355 • 32 Operator Concrete vibrator 315 • 33 Operator Vibratory plain / pad foot roller 315 • 34 Operator Wagon drill / Drifter 355 • 35 Painter Cl.

Asphalt Sprayer / Boiler attendant 285 2. Category of worker S.II 285 • 10 Gang man / Head / Survey mazdoor 285 • 11 Gardener / Trained mali 285 • 12 Helper Air compressor / DG set 285 • 13 Helper Batching plant 285 • 14 Helper Blasting 285 • 15 Helper Bus/ Ambulance/ Lorry/ Tanker 285 . Rate for 2012-13 123 • 4 Carpenter Cl.II / Erector shuttering 285 • 5 Cartman with double bullock cart 330 • 6 Cartman with single bullock cart 310 • 7 Chavali / Navagani 285 • 8 Crowbarman / Jumper man 285 • 9 Fitter Cl.200 Construction Technology • 41 Welder / Gas Cutter 315 • 42 Welder (X-ray quality) 355 II. Semi skilled category 1. Boatman with boat 300 Common SoR 2012:13 281 Sl No. Bhisti 285 3.

II Estimating and Costing • 16 Helper Bending/Shearing/Planing machine 285 • 17 Helper Carpenter 285 • 18 Helper Concrete / Asphalt mixer 285 • 19 Helper Concrete / Asphalt paver 285 • 20 Helper Core drilling machine 285 • 21 Helper Crane/ Tower crane/ Cable way 285 • 22 Helper Drilling jumbo / Loco / Winch 285 • 23 Helper Fitter / Fabrication/Electrician 285 • 24 Helper Grouting/ Guniting/ Shotcreting 285 • 25 Helper Jack hammer / Pneumatic tamper 285 • 26 Helper Laboratory / Instrumentation 285 • 27 Helper Road roller 285 • 28 Helper Shovel / Scraper / Dozer 285 • 29 Helper Crusher / Conveyor / Mucker 285 • 30 Helper Tipper / Dumper/ Transit mixer 285 • 31 Helper Vibrator 285 • Common SoR 2012:13 • 282 Sl No. Rate for 2012-13 123 • 32 Helper Vibratory plain/ pad foot roller 285 • 33 Helper Wagon drill/ Drifter 285 201 .Paper . Category of worker S.

202 Construction Technology • 34 Lineman Electric / Telephone 285 • 35 Mason Cl.II 285 • 40 Stone breaker / Hammer man 285 • 41 Valve man / Canal sluice operator 285 III.II 300 • 38 Patkari / Neeraganti / Sowdy 285 • 39 Stone Chiseller Cl.ll / Brick layer Cl-II 285 • 36 Mechanic Cl.II 285 • 37 Painter Cl. Other category • 1 Care-taker / conductor / Lift Attender 300 • 2 Cook / Mess man 300 • 3 Dhobi 300 • 4 Diploma Engineer / Surveyor 450 • 5 Diver with headgear 365 • 6 Graduate / Laboratory Assistant 350 • 7 Graduate Engineer/ Geologist 600 • 8 Horticulture Assistant / Photographer 300 • 9 ITI certificate holder / Tracer / Printer 350 • 10 Literate mazdoor 285 • 11 Stenographer / Computer Operator 400 • Common SoR 2012:13 . Un-skilled category • 1 Cement / Asphalt handling mazdoor 250 • 2 Civic worker 250 • 3 Heavy mazdoor 250 • 4 Light mazdoor 250 • 5 Watchman 250 IV.

The wage should not be less than the minimum wages of schedule of employment. Rate for 2012-13 123 • 12 Telephone / Wireless Operator 350 • 13 Typist / Job Typist 350 • 14 • CAD operator with Diploma in Engineering/General degree with • CAD certificate • 500 • 15 Jeep Driver 355 • 16 Data Processing Operator 500 • Note : 1.S.Paper . • Transport cost includes cost of transporting the material from source to the site. 25% extra over the corresponding labour rates in respect of the work to be • Done during night time subject to issue of certificate accordingly by the concerned estimate. Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation and Vijayawada Municipal Corporation limits only. • Subject to out turn. Category of worker S. 2. • Sanctioning authority for providing in the data and by concerned Executive Engineer in charge of the work for payment. In S. the cost of transporting on a mettaled road is .of various government agencies.R.II Estimating and Costing 203 283 Sl No.. The night time allowance is applicable only to the works done under Greater • Hyderabad Municipal Corporation.

machinery and hiring charges and wages of labor are prepared. Standard schedule of rates : In standard schedule of rates (S. If transport is required on a cart track or a sand track. 5. Lead Statement S. plus conveyance. Bricks are stacked for a given number.S. Distance on cart track = Distance on metalled road x 1. Lead statement : Lead statement gives the cost of various materials at site. to reach the site. It includes basic rate. It is prepared by the board of chief engineers and approve it for that year.204 Construction Technology given. The equivalent distance of metalled road for cart track = 1.4 Stacking includes placing the material in a specified heap for a given volume in the case of materials like sand and coarse aggregate. seignorage charges etc. Loading and unloading charges are fixed for a given volume or weight for different materials.R. Lead charges : The conveyance charges of the materials from source to the site of work is called lead charge.S.) . while for sandy track = 1.leads statement The distance between the source of material to the worksite is known as the lead.4xlead. the lead charges are given for Metalled roads.1 Distance on sand track = Distance on metalled road x 1. In S. This lead distance changes from one project to another project depending upon the location. Sometimes are stacking charges are included in loading and unloading. The vertical height through which the material is to be disposed is known as the lift.4 Concept of lead and lift.Source Unit Cost at Lead Equi Blas Seign Cess Cru Deduc Net Re source inKm.R. valent ting orage charges shing tions rate mar No erial char if any at ks metal char char ges ges ges site led road . the rates of various materials.1xlead. that distance is converted to equivalent metalled road. The cost of labor wages for each category of labor are given above as per Standard schedule of rates 2012-13. Mat. blasting charges.

1048.9 Rs.813.5 Preparation of unit rates for finished items of works Cost of sand as per S.85 1334. Quantity of sand = (1.85 1713. Mixing charges for mixing 1 m3 of mortar = Rs. Cost of cement = Rs.S. 375/m3.85 1946. 436. . = Rs.95 Rs.85 1199.75 Rs.52/16)x1=0.095 m3=0.475 m3 Quantity of aggregate = (1. Cement concrete in foundation (1:5:10)1 Quantity of cement =(1. Cost of Coarse aggregate=Rs. 85. 406. 1221. 255 per bag. 50 00 Rs. 50 70 Rs. Cost of sand=Rs. 5100/ton.79 0.2 0.20 1:6 4.62 0..55 1:10 2. 1469.19 0.74 bags.5..2422. 00 00 Rs. Rs.85 05 1553.10 Rs.255 per bag.419.490. 323. For plastering = Rs.76 0.668. 50 40 Rs.588/m3.1.857 Rs. 367. 375. Rs.95 m3.095x1440/50=2.00 1:8 3.R.52/16)x5=0.00 1:5 4.83 Rs. 445.50 1:3 7.52/16)x10=0. 392..Paper . 45 Rs.11 0. 1836.66 Rs. 10 Rs. : For concrete = Rs. Cost of preparation of 1 m3 mortar for different proportions Mix Quantity of Quantity Cost of propor cement in of sand cement -tion bags in m3 Cost of sand Total cost Mix -ing charges 1:2 9.II Estimating and Costing 205 5.85 2831.50 1:4 5. Rs. For filling = Rs.00 5. Cost of cement = Rs. Rs. 288.8 Rs. Rs...89 Rs.85 2288.5 bags 0.91 Rs.

100 Add 20% for labor Rs.2533. 47.95 Total Rs.15 No. wooden reapers.70 Sand 0. Slabs up to 150 mm. Rs. 698. 450 Waterman 0.4 No. 1215/m3. 1637/m2.52x2/7=0. poles etc. Rs. slab. 315/No.217 m3 =0. 929/ m2. 558. Rs.182. 1593.C.217x1440/50=6. Rs. Materials Cement .206 Construction Technology Particulars Quantity Rate Cost Materials Cement 2. Quantity of sand = 1. Rs. Sunshades = Rs. 250/No.C. (1:2:4) works in Beams. 184/m2. Beams = Rs.1x78. = Rs. Rs. Lintel = Rs. 375/m3. 17..50 Mason 0.35 kgs.869 m3.5/100=0. 255/bag Rs.05 No.8 No..52x4/7=0. Rs. Rs.15 R. 300 Women mazdoor 1.75 R.25 bags Rs.15 Coarse aggregate 0.2 NO. Rs. Quantity of coarse aggregate = 1. Rs.434 m3. 250/No. 588/bag Rs. columns etc Quantity of cement = 1.C. Particulars Amount Quantity Rate 6.95 m3 Rs. Columns = Rs. 214/m2.74 bags Rs.86quintals=86.25 bags. 350/No. 250/No. 255/bag Rs.60 Labor: Head mason 0. Quantity of steel =1. bamboos.25 Men mazdoor 1. centering charges but excluding cost of steel and its fabrication.475 m3 Rs. Centering and scaffolding charges with casurina ballies. labour charges.52x1/7=0.C(1:2:4) including cost of materials. Rs. 178.

05 Rs.00 Beam Rs.40 Total cost of materials & labour = Rs. Rs.2 No. wall plates etc. 4034.33 Rs. 350/No.Paper . Rs.80 m3 Total Rs. 375/m3 Rs. 162.C.0 NO. Rs. beams and columns Centering charges with Casuarinas baileys. Item Centering Cost of Total Cost charges materials and including labour materials and labour Lintel Rs. 1161.50 Men mazdoor 1. 4034.70 R. 315/No.868 m3 Rs. bamboos. Rs. 4034.434 m3 Rs.II Estimating and Costing 207 Sand 0. 300. 1533.40= Rs.00 20% local allowance Rs.40 Rs.1215 Rs. 5671. 2760.4034.30 Labour Head mason 0.70 Rs.70 Rs.70 Rs.3 Rs. Rs. Rs.75 Coarse aggregate 0. 94. 1062. 5568. works in lintel.50 Mason 0. slab. Rs. 4034.70 Slab Rs.00 Rs.00 Women mazdoor 2. 5249. 150.70 .00 Waterman 0. 212. 1003. 17. 1637 Rs.30+1274. 1274. 250/No. 250/No.70 Column Rs. 500.2760. 250/No.929 Rs. 4963. poles.C.6 No.80/ Rs.70 Rs. Rs.

208 Construction Technology 1 m3 of R.4687+Rs.0 No. Quantity of cement = 0.00/ Kg.2 No.C.0457 m3=0. 17.C. Rs. of steel. 175. 250/No. Rs. 336.7 NO. Rs.30per Rs. 5021. work requires approximately 90 kgs. Cost of brick masonry for 1. Conveyance charges =118.55 Labour Head mason 0.30 Rs.80x10=Rs. 255 per bag Rs.32/7=0.00 .00 Women mazdoor 1. Cement 1. 315. =Rs.3 Brick masonry in cement mortar The size of the bricks considered are 19 cmx9 cmx9 cm. Rs.32 bags Quantity of Sand = 0.5021.65 1000 Nos.32x6/7=0. 250/No. 250/No. Rs.) Total cost of bricks = Rs. Rs. 5.( for 15 K.274 m3 Cost of 1000 no. The cost of fabrication of steel including bending and placement in position is Rs. 6.05 No.60 Sand 0.2510. 350/No.30. of bricks 19cmx9cmx9cm as per S. The volume of mortar is 0.32 m3.30+297=Rs.00 Waterman 0. Number of bricks required = 500 Mortar with a proportion of 1:6 is considered. Loading and unloading charges=Rs. 50. 250. 134.50 Mason 1.30 Particulars Quantity Rate Bricks 500 Nos. Rs.37. 2981. 4687.32 bags Rs.37. 490/m3.0 No.R.M.0 m3 is considered. 297.0457x1440/50=1.5. Rs. 315/No. Amount Brick masonry in superstructure including cost of materials and labour Materials Materials cost Total Rs. Rs.274 m3. Rs. Rs. Rs.S.65+17.00 Men mazdoor 0.

II Estimating and Costing 209 Total Rs. 969.00 Materials and Labour Total Cost Rs.40 Rs. Rs.80 Total cost of materials and labour Rs.80 Rs.6 No. Rs.36 m3. 1304. 250/No. 176. 231. stone and wastage Rs. 400.60/m3 Rs.90 Labour Head mason 0. 1390. 200. Rs.06x1440/ 50=1.00 Waterman 0.06 m3=0.50 Add 20% Rs. 1:6 = 0. 37.00 Men mazdoor 1.5.50 Rs. Volume of mortar required =40%=0.8 bags Rs.50 Rs.00 Add 20% allowance Rs.5 Cement 1. 807.4 Course rubble stone masonry(CRS) in cement mortar Quantity of stone required = 1.05 No.25 m3. 250/No. 250/No.4/7=0.M. Particulars Quantity or No. Rs. 350/No.55 5.50 Mason 1. 315/No.535.4. 459 Sand 0. Rs.Paper .1159. 490/m3. Rs.161. 17. Rs. Rate Amount Materials Stone including bond 1.6 No. 669.8 bags. Rs.70 . Rs. 2695. 504. 255/ bag Rs. 3950. Quantity of cement required for C.00 Women mazdoor 0.15 No.25 m3.8 No. Rs. Rs. Rs.

187.00/100= Rs.00 Total cost of external plastering=Rs. Volume of plastering = 100x20/1000=2. Add 30% for uneven surfaces and 25% for dry volume. 8645.M.00/m3. 3750.0 m3.50= Rs.4+0.116. m.00+ Rs. 7204.00 Cost of 20 mm.2+0.00 Labour charges : Head mason =1/3 no. 1553. 8645. 3150+Rs.3106.2 m3.00 Men mazdoor=15 Nos.74.60 for a conveyance of 20 K. Cost=10x315=Rs. Total cost of plastering 12 mm.70 Mason=12 Nos.00.0 m3 mortar = 2x1553. Cost of 1:6 cement mortar for 1 m3= Rs.00=Rs.00 Waterman= ¾ No. thick for 100 m2.80=Rs. 5.36 m3.0+0. 117. 535. 11751. = 15x250= Rs.00 Cost of plastering 12 mm thick per m2= 11751/100=Rs.133.3750.6=3.20 Add 20% allowance =Rs. 13304. 116. Total cost of labour = Rs. 7204.36+0. 8645.29=1. thick = Rs.04 Materials for internal plastering 12 mm.00 Cost of 2.00+ Rs. 3106. thick.0 m3 cement mortar=1553. Cost of rubble stone = Rs. thick plastering/m2 = 13304.70+Rs. 3150. Cost = (3/4)x250=Rs. say 2. Cost of labour = Rs.293+Rs.00= Rs. thick and Internal plastering 12 mm. Cost of 1:6 cement mortar = Rs.00 Labour charges = Rs. Cost of 3. Materials for 20 mm.8645. 1440.50.0 m3. thick plastering in a wall of 100 sq. 1553. Cost=(1/3)x350=Rs.80. Add 20% for wet volume and increasing 25% dry volume=2.20x15 = Rs. Volume of plastering= 100x12/1000=1.95 m3.5 Plastering External plastering 20 mm. 187.0 m3.4659.00=Rs.51 .60+11. Total volume of plastering = 1.20+1440.00x3=Rs.4659.210 Construction Technology Quantit y of sand= 0.00+Rs.5.

80/m3.2x1440/50=6 bags. thick concrete for an area of floor = 100 m2.5. Cost of aggregate = Rs. Waterman=0.75+1. Total cost = 5891.75 m3.375=4. 5891.125/7=0..3150.1161.25=2.5x250=Rs. Cost of cement= Rs.4 m3.60 m3.6x1440/50=18 bags. 490/m3. 87. Add 10% for unevenness of concrete Quantity of concrete = 2.60 m3 for 100 m2.7070. 116.2 m3.5+0. Total quantity of concrete= 2. Men mazdoor=10x250=Rs. 255/ bag. Volume of concrete floor = 100x2.5 cm.60 m3 Cost of mortar 1:2 for 1 m3=Rs.=0.00+7070.00 Cost of pointing per m2= 8769.00=Rs.00 l Cost of labour = 116.00/100=Rs.50.8769.2 m3. Cement concrete flooring Considering 2.70 Add 20% allowance=Rs. Cost of sand= Rs.30= Rs.5 m3.375 m3.II Estimating and Costing 211 5.00.6 Pointing in cement mortar For pointing in brickwork the total dry volume of materials is taken as 0.00 Labour : Head mason (1/3)x350=Rs. Cost of 0.125 m3. Cement for surface finishing = 100x2/1000=0. Quantity of stone aggregate = 0.6x2831.70 5.00.5. .5/100=2. Pointing with cement mortar of proportion 1:2 : Dry volume of mortar = 0.30. 2831. Quantity of cement required = 4. Quantity of sand= 0.00 Total cost of materials and labour = 1699. 125.70+3150+2500+125.6x2=1.Paper .70 Mason = 10x315=Rs.00=Rs.7. Add 50% for dry volume of concrete=1.6 m3 mortar = 0.70+1178.6x4 = 2. 1699. = 0.1178.2500.50=Rs.

250/day Rs.40 Sand (coarse) 1. x 2.00 Total cost of materials Rs. 1161. 9496.5. Rs.40 Labour etc. 250/day Rs. 255/ bag Rs. Rs. Rs. 262. 1250. 588.500. Head mason ¾ no.00 m.1250. 300.50 Mason 10 Nos. Doors and windows – paneled and glazed Consider preparation of door frame with Sal wood . Rs. 490/m3.00 Women mazdoor 5 Nos.00 Side forms for finishing Lump sum Rs. 255/ bag Rs. 6412. Rate per Amount Materials Stone aggregate 2.00 Cost of cement concrete flooring per sq.17491. . 315/day Rs.212 Particulars Construction Technology Quantity or No.00 Rs.00 Men mazdoor 5 Nos.20 m3.00 m.50 Add 20% extra Rs.00 Cement 18 bags Rs. Rs. 4590. 300.1282.1530.174. Rs.00 Cement for surface 6 bags finishing Rs. 9496.00 Side forms Lump sum Rs. 250/day Rs. 5. 3150. The size of the door is 1. 7695.8. Rs. 2788. 7695.40 Total cost of labour Rs. Rs.80/m3.00/ 100=Rs. meter = 17491.91/sq m.40 m3.50 Rs. Rs.00 Rs. 350/day Rs.00 Waterman 2 Nos.00 Total cost Rs.

frieze.00= Rs.78. Quantity of timber=6.08x0.45. (Width of the stiles) Length of the plank = 2.04 0.004 Frieze rail 1 1.064+0.10=1.10-0. Length of the frame = 2x( 2.2)=6.10 0.10-0.10 0. Rate of sal wood = Rs. Total quantity of timber =0.064 m3.00 0.00 0.004 Lock rail 1 1.10-0.Paper .04 0. 270.10-0.125.00/m3.032 Top rail 1 1.0-0.10-0.80 Labour : Head carpenter =1/16 No.85=Rs.68 m.2959.04 0.0672 m3.10 0.68x0.10=0.00 0. Add 5% for wastage = 0. 2688. Cost =250x1/2= Rs.006 Bottom rail 1 1. lock and bottom rails Unit rate of 40 mm. double door in teak wood.15 0.80+Rs. (width of top.20 Total cost of labour Rs.00 0. Cost =350x1/16= Rs.270.0-0.12=0.55 m. 2688.04 0.004 Particulars Thick ness Quantity/ Rate Nos.75 Men mazdoor = ½ No.85 To tal cost of materials and labour = Rs.0032 m3. Materials:timber Amount .00 Cost of labour Rs.225.00 0. 40012.00 Width of the plank=1.65 Add 20% allowance Rs.6 m.0 sq m.10 0. L B Stiles 4 2.0x2. Cost of timber = 0.II Estimating and Costing 213 Materials : Teakwood of cross section 8 cmx12 cm.15-0. No.90 Carpenter =1/4 No.0032=0. Cost =315x1/4= Rs.65 say Rs.14+1. 2960.0672x40012.21.04 0. thick paneled door shutter of size 1.

121.8090.214 Construction Technology Planks for 1 panels 1. Rs.00/No. 1 No.0767 m3 Rs. Tower bolt 1No.00 No.00 Helpers 2 Nos.00/ Rs. Rs. day 1260.025 0.35 . Rs.00/ Rs. 315/ Door stopper Rs. 4 Nos.073 Ad d 5% for wastage 0.55 0.2590. Rs. 350/ Rs.112. 1/15 No.80 86.023 0.00 . Rs. 1783.00 day Rs. 15 cm. Rs. Handle 10 2. 1 No. 146. Rs. Rs.674. Rs. 1 No.00/ No.00 1 No.248 Rs. 2 Nos.00365 0. 672.00 729. Hinges 6 Nos. 6. Cost Of Labour Head 1/15 carpenter No.00/ Rs.00 No. cm.146. Aldrop 30 1 No.00 accessories 1 No.121.337.35 day Carpenter 4 Nos.00/m3 Brass accessories Tower bolt 1No. 250/ Rs.00/ No.00 No. 30 cm.500.1054 Rs.6 0. 729. 23. Rs.. 248. Rs.

hiring charges and wages of labour. Lead and Lift : The horizontal distance between the source of the material to the work site is known as the lead.2590.12820.80 Cost of brass accessories=Rs.) : Standard schedule of rates consists of the rates of materials.52 x 5/16 = 0.4 x Distance on metal led road Standard Schedule of Rates (S.095 cu m. Cost of materials at the site = Cost of materials at the source + Seignories + Taxes + Royalties + Transport + Loading + unloading etc. Cost of transport on metal led road is given in the S.65 extra Total Rs.S.1 x Distance on metal led road Distance on sand track = 1.00 Cost of labour = Rs.II Estimating and Costing 215 Add 20% Rs. . It is prepared by the board of chief engineers and approved for that year.00 Cost of materials = Rs.R.Paper .475 cu m. 8090.80 Summary Specification defines the nature and class of work. The vertical height through which the material is lifted is known as the lift.095 x 1440/50 = 2. = 0. Quantity of materials in Plain cement concrete (1:5:10) : Quantity of cement = 1.00 Total cost = Rs. 356.74 bags Quantity of sand = 1.S. Lead Statement : The statement in detail of the cost of materials at the site is known as the lead statement. 2140. materials to be used in the work.52 x 1/16 = 0. workmanship etc. machinery. Distance on cart track = 1. Cost of materials at the source : The amount required to purchase the materials at the source of its production is the cost of materials at the source. 2140.R.

Define standard schedule of rates. Number of bricks of size 19 cm.0 cu m. Brick masonry in cement mortar for 1. with a mix proportion 1:2 is 0. Define specification.0 cu m.216 Construction Technology Quantity of coarse aggregate = 1. Plastering 20 mm. 2. Short Answer Type Questions 1. and a thickness of 12 mm. List out the various types of labour.32 cu m.60 cu m. What is a lead statement. and a thickness of 20 mm. Find the unit rate for course rubble masonry of cement mortar (1:6). thick : The volume of cement sand mortar required for an area of 100 sq m. x 9 cm. thick : The volume of cement sand mortar required for an area of 100 sq m.0 cu m. 2. 7. Long Answer Type Questions 1. (b) Cement concrete in foundation.? 3. . = 500 Volume of mortar = 0. What is lead and lift? 8.25 cu m.52 x 10/16 = 0. Volume of mortar = 0. What is the cost of materials at the site? 4. 6. Course rubble masonry : Quantity of stone = 1. Prepare specifications for the following (a) Earthwork in excavation. is 3. What is cost of materials at the source. Pointing : The volume of cement sand mortar required for pointing of an area of 100 sq m.R. is 2. x 9 cm. Write a tabular form for an abstract estimate. 5. (c) R. masonry. (d) Brick work in cement mortar. Plastering 12 mm.95 cu m. Find the unit rate for Plain cement concrete (1:6:12) 3.40 cu m.

) in country wood 4.2 m x 1. using modular bricks.0 cu m. x 2.2 m) in Sal wood. Find the unit rate of plastering 12 mm. Find the cost of a window (1. Prepare a unit rate of brickwork in cement mortar for 1.Paper . 3.C. and 20 mm. . beams and columns.II Estimating and Costing 217 4. Prepare a unit rate of R. in slabs. 2.C.00 m.00m.T. thick with a proportion of (1:5) cement mortar. Find the unit rate for brick work in cement mortar (1:6) using standard size of bricks. O. (1:2:4) for 1.0 cu m. Find the cost of a door (1.J. Questions 1. 5.

railways and irrigation works are constructed over earthwork.2 Taking out quantities from L. The quantity of earthwork may be calculated by the following methods.0 Introduction All types of roads.218 Construction Technology UNIT 6 Earthwork Calculations Structure 6.1 Trapezoidal. in cutting and embankment Learning Objectives After studying this unit student will be able to • Calcualate the quantities of earth work in banking and cutting by Trapezoidal and Prismoidal Rule 6.S. . Prismoidal. Mid ordinate 6. these methods of calculation have to be studied in detail.S. and C. Cross section of earthwork is in the form of a trapezium. To understand the calculation of earthwork involved in these structures.0 Introduction 6.

II Estimating and Costing 219 6.1.Paper . B is the formation width. and S:1 is the side slope and d1 and d2 are the height of the embankment at the two ends Mean height dm = (d1+d2)/2 Area of midsection = Area of rectangular portion+ area of two triangular portions=Bdm+1/2sdm2+1/2sdm2=Bdm+2dm2. Trapezoidal. Mid sectional area method : In the mid sectional area method. Sectional are at one end A1 = Bd1+S(d1)2 Sectional area at the other end = Bd2+S(d2)2=A2 The mean sectional area A=(A1+A2)/2 Quantity Q=((A1+A2)/2)xL The quantities of earthwork may be calculated in a tabular form as follows Station Height Area of Area of or depth cent ral s i d e s portion Sd2 Bd To t a l M e a n sectional sectional a r e a area Bd+Sd2 Length between stations L Quantity =(Bd+Sd2) x LBanking Cutting . the average height of the two ends is taken as the mean depth. Quantity of earthwork = (Bdm+sdm2)xL The quantities of earthwork may be calculated in a tabular form as below Quantity Stations Depth Mean Central Area of Total Length or depth or area Bd sides Sd2 sec between (Bd+Sd2)xL tional stations L Embank Height Height ment cutt area ing Bd+Sd2 Mean Sectional Area Method : In this method. Mid ordinate Sectional and mean sectional area methods for calculating earthwork. L is the length of the section. the area at the ends of depth d1 and d2 are calculated and the mean area of the section is found. Prismoidal.

.A1.60 m.00 and 1. If the area at the ends are A1 and A2 respectively and Am is the mid sectional area. Assume that there is no transverse slope. A2. then the volume by the trapezoidal formula is given by V = ((A0+An)/2+A1+A2+A3+ ……….1 Trapezoidal-Prismoidal Formula : In the prismoidal formula the areas at the ends and the mid sectional area are also taken into consideration. The heights of the banks at the two ends are 1.+An-1 +An) Volume by Prismoidal formula : V=((A0+An)+2(Sum of the odd areas)+4(Sum of even areas))xD/3 Example 1 : Calculate the quantity of earthwork for 200 metre length for a portion of a road in an uniform ground. The formation width is 10 metre and side slopes are 2:1.220 Construction Technology 1:S d1 Sd1 Sd2 1:S Sd1 B 1:S 1:S B d2 Sd2 B d1 L Fig 6. . …………An are at equal distances D. Quantity or volume = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6 • Cross sectional area at one end A1 = Bd1+S(d1)2 • Cross sectional area at the other end = A2 = Bd2+ S(d2)2 • Depth at the mid section = dm = (d1+d2)/2 • Area at the mid section = Bdm+S(dm)2 = Am • Quantity = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6 Trapezoidal formula and prismoidal formula for a series of cross sections : When the series of cross sections A0.A3.

60 m.56 sq m. • Am = Mid sectional area = Bdm+S(dm)2 dm = (d1+d2)/2= (1.38)x200/6 = 98.3 m.3+2(1.6)2= 21.Paper .38 sq m.3 m.3)2 = 16.0)2 = 12 sq m. • Prismoidal formula : Quantity = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6 • A1 = sectional area at one end = Bd1+S(d1)2 = 10x1.00m.12+4x16. m.II Estimating and Costing 221 Mid sectional area method : Height d1 = 1.6)/2 = 1. .38 sq. thick stone pitching.6+2(1.0+1. Length = L = 200 m.00+1. If the side slopes are to be provided with 15 cm.6+2(1.0+2(1)2 = 12 sq m. • Mean sectional area method : Quantity = Mean sectional area x length • A1 = Sectional area at one end = Bd1 + S(d1)2 =10x1+2(1. • Quantity = Mean sectional area x length = 16.3)2 = 16.3 + 2(1. • Area at the mid section = Bdm + S(dm)2 =10x1.50 m and 3.12)/2 = 16. 200 per cu m. calculate the cost of pitching at the rate of Rs. • A2 = Sectional area at another end = Bd2+S(d2)2 = 10x1. and the ratio of side slope 2:1. The heights of the banks at the two ends are 2.12 sq m.60)/2=1. • Quantity = (12+21. Formation width = B = 10 m.50 m.64x200/6= 3288 cu m. • Height at the mid section dm = (d1+d2)/2 = (1. • Am = Bdm+S(dm)2 = 10x1.56x200=3312 cu m. • Mean sectional area = Am = (A1+A2)/2 =(12+21.38x200 = 3276 cu m. • Quantity = Area x length = ((Bdm+S(dm)2)xL=16.2 sq m. • Area of side sloping surface : Area of side slopes = Lxdx(square root of (S2+1)) Example 2 : Calculate the area of the side slopes of a portion of a bank for a length of 200 m. Height d2 = 1. Side slopes S = 2.6)2= 21. • A2 = Sectional area at another end = Bd2+S(d2)2 =10x1.

106.6 x 400=Rs.58 30 437. 0. Formation width of the road is 10 metre and side slopes of banking are 2:1.00 2.80 2. Taking out quantities from L.15 = 402.82 7. and the road is in downward gradient of 1 in 150 up to the chainage 14 and then the gradient changes to 1 in 100 downward.00 104.6 cu m.83 8.71 m.83 14.60.30 R. 1.68 30 290.16 105.S.00 - 11 1.22 30 216.5)/2 = 3. 104.4 - 14 0.20.73 30 441.) of ground along the centre line of a proposed road from chainage 10 to chainage 20 are given below. 16.4 - 13 0.00 5. of ground : 105. 15.9 - 16 0.60.16. 104.19 11. 161040.44. 1.50. 1. 106.38 9.00.6 - .30 1. Length of the chain is 30 metre. 105.60 16. Calculate the quantity of earthwork.20. 18. 0.6 - 15 1. The formation level at the 10th chainage is 107 m. 14.40.42 13. 104. 105. 105. 0.90.30 105. and C.00 .S.30 105.12 21.10. 105.60.42.L.40 Height of bank : 2. 12. 13. 1.71 = 2684 sq m.60 1. 6.20 6.105. 1.222 Construction Technology • Mean height = (2. • Sloping breadth at the mid section = d(square root of s2+1)=3[Square root of( 2x2)+1] = 6. • Quantity of pitching = Area x thickness =2684x0. 0.6 - 12 1.10 11.00.78 14. Chainage : 10.70. in cutting and embankment Example : Reduced level (R.50 0.00.12 30 633. 11.00.10 Chainage Height Mean Central or Depth height area or depth Bd Side area Sd2 Length in Quantity = Total area between [(Bd+S(d)2]xL Bd+Sd2 chainage Banking Cutting 10 2.L.78.78 0.L. 19. 104. 20 R. • Area of the two side slopes = 2x200x6.60 1. 105.40 0.0 m. • Cost of stone pitching = 402.60.18 11.90 2.70 104.2. 106. 103. formation : 107. 0.42 30 402.20.5+3. 17. 106.

8)2.8=59.8=59.76 m2. 2.5 - 19 0.40 m.90 9.5 m3.8)3.10 0. it is cutting at a depth of 0. .5)2. . • A2 = (10+1.8.79 7.0)4.26 m2.37 m2.5x2.4 - 20 1. +An-1 ] • V = 20[( 29.66)+4(57.9 m3. • A3 = (10+1.15 30 274. and at 31st chainage. wide with side slopes 11/2 to1.0.37)+2(59. 2.7. calculate the volume contained in a length of 120 metres.26+34.54 m2.62 10. .5 m. A railway embankment is 10 m.70 0. • Volume by prismoidal rule : V=d/3[(A1+An)+2(Sum of odd areas)+4(sum of even areas)] •V=20/ 3[(29.58 5.26+34.Paper .6 - Total 3513. • A5 = (10+1.7)3.2. 4.76] = 6258. For a level section.7=57.62 10.5x3.II Estimating and Costing 223 17 1.2)2.5x4.66 m2.54+64.38 0.5=34.66+64.62 30 318. intervals being 2. the centre heights at 20 m. the area is given by A=(b+nh)h • Slope is 11/2:1.00+59. • A4 = (10+1.00 1.5x2.5 The areas at different sections will be as under • A1 = (10+1.66+59.54 5. Hence n=1. 3. Assume the ground to be level in direction transverse to the centre line.25 9.00 1.5x3.20 0. • A6 = (10+1.40 0. 3.66 m2. .6 - 18 0.3 m.2=29.5x3.00 m2.8)3.00+39.8. Problems involving banking and cutting : At the 30th chainage the height is banking of height 0.6 cu m.90 9.66+39.8=39.90 1.98 30 179.0=64. • A7 = (10+1.37)/2 +57. • Volume by trapezoidal rule : V = d[(A1+An)/2 +A2+A3+A4+.62 30 318.8.76)]=6316.5x2.54+59. 3.

• The various methods of calculation of earthworks are Mid sectional area method. railways.0)/2=0. • Length of cutting =( 40-x) . mean sectional area method.05=1.0+0. • Side area = 2x(0. 0.14 say 17.15)=0.3x 0. Chainage distance = 40 m.38 m3. Total area = 1.06 = 2.06 x 23 = 47.55 sq m.15 m. Central area = 10x0.5+0.2 Summary • Earthwork calculations are required for various engineering works as roads.4] 0.4x=12- • Volume of banking : Mean height = (0.05 sq m. • Side areas = 1.0+0. • Banking : If the earthwork is above the ground level it is banking.55x17=26.3 0.7x= 12 x=17.3) =[(40-x)/0. • Volume of cutting = Area x length = 2. • Volume of banking = Area x length = 1.2 m. • Prismoidal formula is not applicable for even number of areas.2) = 0. • Volume of cutting : Mean depth = (0.06 sq m. Let the height of embankment be zero at a distance of x mts.2 =2.4 x (40-x) 40 Fig 6. and the side slopes are 2:1 in banking and 11/2 : 1 in cutting. Central area = 10x0.0 m. 0.3+0.5(0.35 m3.15x0.224 Construction Technology Find the volume of banking and cutting if the formation width is 10 m. trapezoidal rule and prismoidal rule.06 sq m. (x/0. .0 sq m. Total area = 2.15 = 1. irrigation and water supply and sanitary works.2x0.4)/2 = 0.5 sq m.

Mention the relationship between the Reduced level of formation and the ground line 5. Define banking and cutting 4.000 m2 102 12. The areas within the contour line at the site of reservoir and the proposed face of the dam are as follows Contour Area 101 1. calculate the capacity of the reservoir. List out the various types of engineering works involving earthwork. 2. What are the various methods of calculating earthwork? 3. What is the formula for calculating the side slope area.200 m2 104 147. O.000 m2 108 2286.000 m2 Taking 101 as the bottom level of the reservoir and 109 as the top level. .600 m2 105 872. Short Answer Type Questions 1. Prepare a detailed estimate for earthwork for a portion of road from the following data.II Estimating and Costing 225 • Cutting : If the earthwork is below the ground level.000 m2 109 2512.? Long Answer Type Questions 1.000 m2 107 1985.800m2 103 95. it is cutting.Paper . Questions 1.T.J.500 m2 106 1350.

50 Downward grad 1 in 400 Formation width of road is 10 m.75 1100 117.000 100 114.50 115. The side slopes are 2:1 in banking and 11/2:1 in cutting.75 Upward grad.80 1000 117. 1 in 200 200 115.25 300 115. wide. of formation 0 114.226 Construction Technology Distance in metres R.90 1200 117.25 800 118. of ground R. .10 900 117.10 500 116.L.20 400 116.00 700 118.L.85 600 118.

bituminous roads and gravel roads.0 Introduction A road consists of sub base. The wearing course may be of cement concrete. Calculate the quantities of Septic Tank. base course and wearing course. In order to estimate the cost of the .2 Cement concrete road 7. The sub base consists of earthwork prepared as per the height of formation. Depending upon the wearing course provided the roads are classified as cement concrete roads.3 Septic tank with soak pit Learning Objectives After studying this unit student will be able to • Calculate the quantities of material required for gravel and cement concrete roads. bitumen or gravel. 7. Thickness compacted to 8 cm.0 Introduction 7. Finally a wearing coat is laid over this base course.UNIT 7 Detailed Estimates Structure 7. is laid.1 Estimate of gravel roads 7. Depending upon the cost involved the appropriate road required is decided. Over this sub base a base course of stone ballast or brick ballast of 12 cm.

15m 1. In this unit we shall find the quantities of the base course and wearing course. thick boulders at the base. Calculate the quantity of metal required for a 3.7 +0.15m 3. m. It is laid over the entire width of the road. The formation width of the road is 10.1.0 m Saeing coat Inter coat Top coat Fig 7.M. compacted thickness. is required for compact thickness of 8 cm.0 m. compacted to 8 cm. we should be able to prepare the detailed estimate of the various types of roads and calculate the materials required. as volume of loose metal gets reduced on half compaction. inter coat and top coat of 12 cm. road. The metal led width is 3. Metal of 12 cm.0m 3.12 = 444 cu m. Estimate of gravel roads In a gravel roads.0 + 2(1)2] x 1000 =12000 cum. A gravel coat of 5 cm. thick is laid over these metal led surface.0 m. Quantity of metal = 1000 x 3. and the side slopes are 2:1. 7.7 m. the gravel is generally laid over stone ballast.70 x 0. Length of the soling coat = 3. Prepare a detailed estimate for the construction of one kilometer length W.70 m. Soiling coat of 15 cm. Over this soiling coat.1 Cross section road Gravel . The quantity of stone boulders and gravel consists of thickness of their respective layers multiplied by its thickness. and three coats of metal are to be provided as per cross section. and the average height of the bank is 1. Quantity of earth work = [Bd+S(d)2] x L = [10 x 1.0 m 1. Detailed estimate of wbm road with gravel 10.228 Construction Technology road.0 m.15 + 0.70m 3.15 = 4. In the sixth unit we studied about calculation of earthwork involved in the formation of roads.B. wide road for one kilometer length for one layer of 8 cm.

No Length m Cement concrete 2 1000 1:2:4in tracks including laying.tracks.7 0.12 444 2 Layer of gravel 1 1000 3.7 0. 133 m.II Estimating and Costing S.33 = 0.No. Similarly for 0. Eg.tracks in between c.15 m thickness loose kankar = 0.133 120 S.6 120 Kankar metal loose 2 under c.2 360 1000 0. Particulars of work 229 B Hor D Quantity m3 m m2 No.9 0.15 600 (b) Inter coat 1 1000 3.c.05 185 7. For 0. 1 1000 0.9 0.20 m.10 m.c.50 meter centre to centre over 15 cm rammed kankar.1 0.1 + 0. L m Metal ling 1 Preparation of sub (a) grade Soling coat 1 1000 4 0.15 x 1.2 Cement concrete road Prepare an estimate for one kilometer length of a cement concrete track way with 60 cm wide tracks 1. Breadth Thickness Quantity m m2 m3 Particular 1 2 480 For consolidating kankar an allowance of 1/3 is to be provided while taking loose thickness of kankar. thickness loose kankar taken = 0. .7 0.Paper .1 x 1/3 = 0.12 444 (c) Top coat 1 1000 3.

0)2 1.2 0.C. the foundation and floor shal be of 1:3:6 cement concrete.42 1 (22/28)x(1.7 0.9 0.05 0.Track Rammed kankar 60 cm 60 cm 10 cm cc 15 cm kankar 90 cm 90 cm Rammed kankar Fig 7.No Particulars of items 1 2 Earthwork in excavation septic tank Soak pit upto 3. Roof covering slabs and baffle wall shall be of precast R. Length m Breadth Height Quantity or m3 m Depth m 1 1 1.230 Construction Technology 10 cm Thick cc .C.3.95 3 9. Inside septic tank shall be finished with 12 mm cement plaster and floor shall be finished with 20 mm cement plaster with 1:3 cement mortar.95 Sloping floor 1 2 0.7 2.4)2 0.2 0.C.3 19 Floor& Foundation 1 2.2 C. Upper and lower portions of soak pit shall be of second class brick work in 1:6 cement mortar and middle portion shall be of dry brickwork. Septic tank with soak pit Septic tank shall be of first class brickwork in 1:4 cement mortar. Details of Measurement & Calculation Of Quantities S.28 9.8 (22/28)x(2.8 1.09 Cementconcrete 1:3:6 .0 m Soakpit Lowerportion No. Track 7.

II Estimating and Costing 3 231 First class brickwork in 1:4 c.20 1 (22/7) x 1. work Coverslab septictank Coverslab Soak pit Baffle wall septictank 7 12 mm cement plaster 1:3 in septic tank 1 (22/7) x 1.018 0.2 0.2 1.C.53 2.88 0. in septic tank First step Long walls 2 2.5 0.15 0.6 0.9 0.115 0.3 0.4 0.367 .32 2nd step Long wall 2 2.3 0.2 0.94 Short wall 2 0.5 1.42 Short wall 2.2 1.C.Paper .075 0.4 1 (22/ 28)x(1.78 4 2nd class brickwork in 1:6 cement mortar in soak pit Upper portion Lower portion 5 2nd class dry brickwork in soak pit 6 Precast R.15 1.6 0.04 0.1 2 0.45 0.2 0.40)2 1 1 0.075 0.m.2 1.20 1 2.38 0.15 0.6 0.20 1 (22/7) x 1.234 0.9 0.3 0.

0 m Plan Fig.06 9.7 3. 7.3 Septic Tank Summary Structure of a road : The structure of a road from base to the top is as follows. Types of roads : Gravel road.9 1. 2 1 Baffle wall Section 0. base course and wearing course. Earthwork formation . sub base.86 sq m. cement concrete road. 8 20 mm c e m e n t plaster 1:3 in floor of septic tank 1.80 sq m. bituminous road. inter coat and top coat 8 cm to 10 cm thick and wearing course of gravel 5 cm thick. .4 m 0.232 Construction Technology Long walls 2 2 1. Structure of a gravel road : Soling coat of boulders about 15 cm thick.9 In let Out let 2.7 6.8 Short walls 2 0.

II Estimating and Costing 233 Structure of a cement concrete road : Plain cement concrete is provided over rammed earth. List out the various types of roads.0 m. A soak pit consists of hollow circular brickwork constructed with cement mortar. long and 1. and side slope 2:1. inlets and oulets. . 3. Short Answer Type Questions 1. Wearing coat of gravel 5 cm thick. boulders. Questions 1.0 m.R. baffle wall. Prepare a detailed estimate for a septic tank 2.0 m wide and 15 cm thick. wide.0 m. Component parts of a septic tank : A septic tank consists of Plain cement concrete at its base.0 m. masonry. It is laid over rammed earth 6.Paper . What is the structure of a road ? 2. sum board for large tanks. slabs at the top. Dry brickwork is placed in the hollow section. Prepare a detailed estimate for one kilometer length cement concrete road 4. and three coats of metal ling are to be provided. Precast R. wide and 20 cm thick. 4. The metal led width is 4. 2. A soak pit is connected to the septic tank to collect the discharge effluent.C. inlet and outlet pipes. Soling coat of 15 cm.0 m.0 m. What are the various parts of a septic tank? Long Answer Type Questions 1. Calculate the materials required for proposed construction of gravel road and cement concrete road over an existing formation. 3.T. The height of the septic tank is 2. baffle wall. Mention the various parts of a gravel road. Prepare a detailed estimate for the construction of one kilometer length over a formation of an embankment. Walls on all the four sides in brickwork or R.C.J. Assume suitable data for pre cast slabs . inter coat and top coats of 12 cm loose compacted to 8 cm thick. The formation width is 10. O.