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Estimating & Costing

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Introduction

Structure

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Definition

1.2 Need for estimation and costing

Learning Objecyives

After studing this unit, student will be able to

Have an idea of the introduction to estimating and costing.

1.0 Introduction

In the civil engineering field, the construction activity contains the

following three steps.

1. Plans : Preparation of drawings plan, section, elevation, with full

dimension and detailed, specifications meeting the requirements of the proposed

structure.

2. Estimation : Preparation of an estimate is for arriving the cost of

the structure to verify the available funds or to procure the required funds for

completion of the proposed structure.

3. Execution (construction) : It is a grounding the proposed structure,

for construction as per the provision contained in drawings and estimation..

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Construction Technology

The plans contains size of room and dimensions of the work and the estimate

contains the quantity and quality aspects of the structure.

1.1 Definition

Estimation and costing there are two basic points involved in

construction of structures are :

1. Quantity : The quantity aspects is with reference to the measurement

in the drawings (plan, elevation, section)

2. Quality : The quality aspects is with reference to the specifications,

i.e properties of materials, workmanship etc.

Note : The estimation and costing of any structure is defined as the

process of determination of quantities of items of work, and its cost for

completion.

2. Estimate of a project is therefore, a forecast of its probable cost.

The object of preparing the estimate for any civil engineering structure is

1. To know the quantities of various items of work, a material and

labour and their source of identification.

2. To decide whether the proposal can match the available funds to

complete the structure.

3. To obtain the administrative and technical sanction of estimate

from the competent authorities to release the funds for construction.

4. To invite tenders or quotations based on the estimate quantities for

entrust of works to the execution.

1. What is meant by Estimating and Costing ?

2. State need for Estimation and Costing.

UNIT

Measurement of Materials

and Works

Structure

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Units of measurements

2.2 Rules For Measurement

2.3 Different methods of tasking out quantities

Learning Objectives

After the studying this unit student will be able to

To measure various quantities as per rules.

2.0 Introduction

The units of differents works depends on their nature, size and shape.

.In general, the units of different items of works are based on the following

principle.

1. Massive or volumetric items of work such as earth work, concerete

for foundations, R.R Masonry , Brick Masonry etc. The measurements of

length, breadth , height or depth shall be taken to compute the volume or cubical

contents.

2. Shallow, thin and surface work shall be taken in square unit or in

area. The measurements of length and breadth or height shall be taken to

compute the area, Ex. Plastering, white washing etc.

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Construction Technology

3. Long and Thin work shall be taken in linear or running units and

linear measurement shall, be taken. Ex : Fencing, Rainwater pipes,

ornamental borders etc.

4. Single units of work are expressed in numbers. Ex. Doors, Windows,

Rafters, Trusses etc.

Engineering Works

Units of measurements

Unit of

payment

types of soils except rock requiring blastering.

10.00cum

10.00cum

the soils hard rock requirng

blastering.

1.00cum

1.00cum

through of specified width and

depth inall types of soils

1.00 rmt

1.00rmt

cutting , embankment.

10.00cum

10.00cum

basements, pipe lines, trenches

with excavated soils.

10.00cum

10.00cum

foundation.

for

1.00cum

1.00cum

wall etc.

1.00cum

1.00cum

sand.

1.00cum

1.00cum

reinforcement for plinth beam ,

columns, lintels, verandah

beam- T beam etc.

1.00cum

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.00cum

specified thickness .

155

10.00sqm

10.00sqm

6.

weather proof coarse, white

washing, colour washing, painting.

1.0.00sqm1.00sqm

10.00sqm

7.

roofing, Kurnool trerrace, Madras terrace etc.

10.00sq m.

10.00sq m.

8.

1.00Rmt

1.00Rmt

ness

9.

1.00No

1.00No

10

1.00 No

1.00No

11.

1.00Rmt

1.00Rmt

12.

C.I pipes, stone ware pipes

etc.

1.00Rmt

1.00Rmt

13.

Kg/unit

kg/unit

14.

thickness.

1.00cum

1.00cum

15.

solving stones, pitching any

stones, revetment stones etc.

1.00cum

1.00cum

10.00sqm

1.00sqm

10.00cum

1.00cum

metal gravel and consolidation

with roller of specified thickness.

(c) Cement concrete payments of specified thickness.

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Construction Technology

Measurement of works occupies a very important place in the planning

and execution of any work or project, from the time of the first estimate are

made until the completion and settlement of payments. The methods followed

for the measurement are not uiform and the practices or prevalent differ

considerably in between the states. Even in the same state different departments

follow different methods. For convernience a uniform method should be followed

throughout the country. The uniform methods of measurement to be followed

which is applicable to the preparation of the estimates and bill of quantities

and to the side measurement of completed works have been described below.

General Rules

1. Measuremet shall be item wise for the finished items of work and the

description of each items shall be held to inculde materials, transport,

labour, fabrication, hoisting, tools and plants, over hands and other

incidental charges for finishing the work to the required shape, size,

design and specifications.

2. In booking dimensions the order shall be in the sequence of length,

breadth and height or depth or thickness.

3. All works shallbe measured not subject to following tolerances unless

otherwise stated.

(a) Dimensions shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 meter i.e 1cm(1/

211).

(b) Areas shall eb measured to the nearest 0.01 sq.m (0.1 sqft).

(c) Cubic contents shall be worked up to the nearest 0.01 cum(0.1cuft)

4. Same type of work under different condition and nature shall be

measured separately under separate items.

5. The bill of quantities shall fully describe the materials proportions

and work-manships and accurately represent the work to be executed.

Work which by its nature cannot be accurately taken off or which

requires site measuremets shall be described as provisional.

6. In case of structureal concrete, brick work or stone masonry, the

work under the following categories shall be measured separately

and the heights shall be described.

(a) From first floor level

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(c) From first level to second floor level and so on.

The parapet shall be measured with the corresponding items of the

story next below.

Principle of units : The units of different works depend on their nature,

size and shape. In general the units of different item of work are based on the

following principle.

(i) Mass, voluminious and thick works shall be taken in cabic unit or

volumne. The measurement of length, breadth, and height or depth shall be

taken to compute the volume cubic contents(cum).

(ii) Shallow, thin and surface work shall be taken in separate units or

in area. The measurement of length and breadth or height shall be taken to

compute the area (sq.m).

(iii) Long and thin work shall be taken in linear or running unit and

linear measurement shall be taken(running meter).

(iv) Piece work, job work etc taken in number

The items of work like earth work in excavation in foundation, foundation

concrete stone masonry in foundation and basement, stone or brick masonry in

super stucrture may by estimated bu either of the following methods.

1. Long wall and short wall method (or) General method

2. Centre line method

2.3.1 Long wall and short wall method

In this method measure or find out the external lengths of walls running

in the direction generally the long walls out-to-out and the internal length of

walls running in the transverse direction in-to-in i.e. of cross or short wall into-in and calculate quantities multiplying the length by the breadth and height of

wall. The same rule applicable to the excavation in foundation, to concrete in

foundaiuon and to masonry.

The simple mehtod is to take the long walls of short or erros walls

separately and to find out the centre to centre lengths of long wall anf short

walls from the plan. For symmetrical footing on either sides, the centre line

remians same for suepr structure and for foundation and plinth.

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Construction Technology

For long walls add to the center length one breadth of wall, which

gives the length of the wall out-to-out ,multiplying this length by the breadth and

height and get the quantities,. Thus for finding the quantities of earth work in

excavation, for the length of trench out-to-out add to the centre length one

breadth of foundaiton. Adopt the same process for foudation conceret and for

eacth footing. It should be noted that each footing is to be taken separately and

the breadth of the particular footing is to be added to the centre length.

Long wall length out-to-out = centre to centre length + half breadth on

one side + half breadth on the other side = centre to centre length + one breadth.

For short or cross walls sub tract ( instead of adding) from the centre

length one breadth of wall, which gives the length in-to-in, and repeat the same

process as for the long walls, subtracting one breadth instead of adding.

Short wall length in-to-in= Centre to centre length - one breadth.

That is, in case of long wall add one breadth and in case of short wall

substract one breadth from the centre length to get the corresponding lengths.

It will be noticed that by taking dimensions in this ways, the long walls

are gradually decreasing in length from foundation to superstructure, while the

short walls are increasing in length.

This method is simple and accurate and there is no chance of any mistake.

This method may be named as long wall and short wall method, or general

method.

2.3.2 Centre line method

In this method known as centre line method. This method is easy and

quick in calculations. In this method sum total length of centre lines of all walls,

long and short has to be found out. This method is well suitable for walls of

similar cross sections. In this method the total centre line multiplied by breadth

and depth of concerned item gives the total quantity of each item. In this method,

the length will remain same for excavation in foundation for concrete in foundation,

for all footings and for super structure (with slight difference where there are

cross walls or number of junctions). It requires special attention and consideration

at the junctions, meeting points of partition or cross walls, etc.

For rectangular, circular polygonal (hexagonal, octagonal etc) building

having no inter or cross walls, this method is quite simple. For each junction half

breadth of the respective items or footings is to be deducted from the total

centre length. Thus in the case of a building with one partition wall or cross wall

having two junctions, for earthwork in foundation trench and foundation concrete

deduct one breadth of trench or concrete from the total centre length (half breadth

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for one junction and the breadth ( 2 x 1/2 = one) for two junctions. For footings,

similarly deduct one breadth of footing for two junctions from the total centre

length and so on. If two walls come from opposite directions and meet a wall at

the same point, than there will be two junctions.

In the case of a building having different type of walls, suppose the other

(main) walls are of A type and inter cross walls are of B type, then all A type

walls shall be taken jointly first , and then all B type walls should be taken

together separately. In such cases no deductions of any kind need be made for

A type walls, but when B type walls are taken, for each junction deducting of

half breadth of A type wall (main wall) shall have to be made from the total

centre length of walls.

It may be noted that at corners of the building where two walls are

meeting no substraction or addition is required.

Note : Student should practice method I first and when they have become

sufficiently acquainted with method I, then only they should take up the method

II.

1. Write the unit of measurements. Earthwork, P.C.C, R.C.C, Masonary,

Plastering, Flooring, Fencing, Ornamental border, Door, Windows,

Trusses etc.

2. Write general rules for measurement.

3. Write different methods of taking out quantities and describe.

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Construction Technology

UNIT

Types of Estimates

Structure

3.0 Introduction

3.1 Detailed estimate

3.2 Preliminary or approximate estimate

3.3 Problems in preliminary estimate

Learning Objectives

After studying this unit student will be able to

Understand the definition of detailed estimate, stages of preparation

of estimate, Data required for an estimate and types of estimate.

3.0 Introduction

An estimate is a probable cost of a work. It is usually prepared before

the construction is taken up. The primary object of an estimate is to know

beforehand the cost of the work. The actual cost of the work is known after the

completion of the work. If the estimate is prepared carefully and correctly there

will not be much difference in the estimated cost and actual cost. The estimator

should be fully acquainted with the methods of construction, skilled and

experienced for accurate estimating.

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The estimate may be approximate or preliminary estimate or accurate

estimate. In approximate estimate the approximate cost of the work is estimated.

In the accurate estimate the details of various items are taken and calculated.

3.1.1 Definition

The estimate prepared by dividing the work into different items, taking

detailed measurements of each item of work and calculating their quantities is

known as detailed estimate.

3.1.2. Stages of preparation

To prepare the complete estimation of the project, besides the estimated

cost of different main items of work, The cost of preliminary works and surveying,

cost of land and its acquisition, cost of leveling and preparation of ground and

the cost of external services are to be provided. Provision of supervision charges

and contractors profit are to be provided in the estimate.

Data required for preparing an estimate : To prepare an estimate

for a work the following data are necessary.

Drawings : The detailed drawings of plan, elevation and section, drawn

to a scale are necessary to take the details of measurements of various items of

work.

Specifications : The specifications gives the nature, quality and class

of materials, their proportion, method of execution and workmanship and the

class of labour required. The cost of the work varies with its specifications. The

cement mortar with 1:3 is more costlier than cement mortar with 1:6.

Rates : The rates for various items of work, the rates of various materials

to be used in construction, the wages of different categories of labour should be

available for preparing an estimate. The location of the work and its distance of

source of materials and cost of transport should be known. These rates may be

obtained from the Standard Schedule of Rates prepared by the engineering

departments.

3.1.3 Details of measurements and calculation of quantities and abstract

of estimated cost

To prepare an accurate estimate, a detailed estimate of quantities of

various items of work and an abstract estimate of the quantities and their unit

rates are required.

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Construction Technology

Detailed Estimate

S.no Description of work No Length Breadth Height/Depth Quantity Remarks

Abstract estimate

S.No. Description of work Quantity Rate Per Amount

Preliminary or approximate estimate is required for preliminary studies

of various items of work or project , to decide the financial position and policy

for administrative sanction by the competent authority. The preliminary estimate

is prepared by different methods for different types of works. The various

methods of preparing the preliminary estimate are plinth area estimate, cubical

rate estimate and estimate per unit base.

3.2.1 Plinth area estimate

The plinth area rate is calculated by finding the plinth area of the building

and multiplying by the plinth area rate. The plinth area rate is obtained by

comparing the cost of the cost of similar building having similar specifications in

the locality.

3.2.2. Cubic area estimate

The cubic rate estimate is prepared on the basis of the cubical contents

of the building. The cubic rate is obtained from the cost of the similar building in

the locality having similar specifications. The cost of the building is estimated by

multiplying the volume of the building with the cubic area rate. Cubic rate estimate

is more accurate as compared to the plinth area estimate.

3.2.3 Estimate per unit base

The preliminary estimate may be prepared for different structures and

works by various ways. For schools and hostels, per class rooms for schools,

per bed for hospitals, per seat for theater halls, etc. For roads and highways and

for irrigation works, the preliminary estimate is made per kilometer. For bridges

and culverts per running meter. For sewerage and water supply projects on the

basis of per head of population served.

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1. If the cost of school building per student is Rs. 25000. Calculate the

cost of school building for 100 students.

Cost of the school building for 100 student s = Rs.

25000x100=Rs.2500000.

2. If the cost of construction of 1 km. length of a highway is Rs.

10000000. Find the cost of construction for 20 km.

Cost of construction for 20 km = Rs. 10000000x20=Rs.200000000.

3. If the plinth area rate of a residential building is Rs.10000/sq m.

Calculate the cost of construction of a residential building of 100 sq. m.

Cost of construction of 100 sq. m.= plinth area rate x area =

10000x100=Rs.1000000

Summary

Detailed estimate consists of taking the detailed measurements of length,

breadth, height and calculating the quantities.

Data required for estimate : Drawings, specifications and rates.

Types of preliminary estimates : Plinth area estimate, cubic rate

estimate and estimate per unit base.

1. Define detailed estimate.

2. What are stages for preparation of an estimate?

3. List out the data required for preparation of an estimate.

4. Write the tabular form for the detailed estimate.

5. Write the tabular form for preparation of an abstract estimate.

1. Describe the various types of preliminary estimates.

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Construction Technology

UNIT

Estimate of Buildings

Structure

4.0 Introduction

4.1 Single roomed building (load bearing structure)

4.2 Two roomed building( load bearing type structure)

4.3 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (load bearing

type structure)

4.4 Single storied residential building with number of rooms (framed

structure type)

4.5 Primary school building with sloped roof

4.6 RCC Dog legged open well stairs

4.7 Two storied residential building (framed structure type)

4.8 Detailed estimate of compound wall and steps

Learning Objectives

After studying this unit student will be able to

Prepare detailed estimates of single roomed, Building roomed, Double

roomed buildings, for load bearing walls and Framed structures. Detailed Estimate of Primary School Building, Compound walls and steps. Detailed estimate

Dog legged and Open Well STair case. Preparational estimate for ground and

first floor.

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4.0 Introduction

To estimate the cost of any building or a structure, drawings,

specifications and rates are required. Regarding the detailed estimate by long

wall and short wall method and centre line method, the drawings consisting of

plan elevation and section are sufficient. The estimator should be able to take all

the dimensions from the drawings. The length and breadth are taken from the

plan, while the height or depth are taken from the section and elevations. In long

wall and short wall method the walls are taken separately, while in the centre line

method, the centre line lengths of all the walls are combined. The accuracy of

estimate depends upon the skill of the estimator in studying the drawings. The

long wall and short wall method is useful for load bearing type structure, but it

cannot be applied for framed structure.

There are two steps in estimating the cost of a building or a structure.

1. Taking out quantities and calculation of quantities in detailed estimate.

2. Determining the cost from the abstract estimate.

Long wall and short wall method : This method is also called as

separate or individual wall method. This is simple and it gives accurate values.

The following procedure is adopted.

1. The dimensions of long wall and short wall should be taken separately.

2. Irrespective of its lengths, the wall which is taken first is long wall and

the wall which is taken next is the short wall.

3. The centre line of the wall of the building is considered for determining

the centre to centre line length of long walls and short walls.

4. The centre to centre to centre length of long walls or short walls is

obtained by adding half the width of the wall to the internal length of

either long wall or short wall.

5. Centre to centre length of long wall = internal length of long wall +

width of the wall.

6. Centre to centre length of short wall = internal length of short wall +

width of the wall.

7. To determine the lengths of different quantities such as earthwork,

c.c. bed in foundation, R.R. masonry etc, length of long wall = centre

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Construction Technology

width of the item in consideration.

8. Similarly length of the short wall = centre to centre length of the short

wall width, where the width is the respective width of the item

such as earthwork, c.c. bed etc.

Centre line method : In the centre line method, the sum of all the

centre line lengths of long walls and short walls are added to get the total centre

line length. At the junctions of two walls, the length is present in both of the

walls. Hence half of the length of that width is to be subtracted from the total

centre line length.

Length = Total centre line length width x number of junctions.

3.0

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.2

E L E V A T I O N

0.3

0.6

0.3

S E C T I O N

Centre to centre length of short wall = 4.0 + 2x0.3/2 = 4.3 m.

Length of Long Wall = Centre to centre Length of Long Wall + Width

Length of Short Wall = Centre to centre Length of Short Wall width

For earth work in excavation Length of Long Wall = 6.3 + 1.2 = 7.5 m.

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For earth work in excavation Length of Short Wall = 4.3 1.2 = 3.1 m.

In cement concrete in foundation the length and width of the long wall

and short wall are the same, but the height is different from that of the foundation

For R.R. masonry First footing Length of long wall = 6.3 + 0.9 = 7.2 m.

Length of Short Wall = 4.3 -0.9 = 3.4 m.

Similarly for second footing & Third footing, Length of Long Walls are

7.0 and 6.8 and for short walls are 3.6 m and 3.8 m respectively.

Detailed estimate of a single roomed building by centre line method

Centre to centre length of long wall = 6.0 + 2x0.3/2 = 6.3 m.

Centre to centre length of short wall = 4.0 + 2x0.3/2 = 4.3 m.

Total centre line length = 2(6.3 + 4.3) = 21.2 m.

m

of work

B

m

H

m

Quantity

m3

Earth work in 1

excavation

21.2

1.2

1.2

30.528

C.C. bed in 1

foundation

21.2

1.2

0.3

7.63

R.R. masonry

in foundation

and plinth

1

21.2

0.9

0.6

11.45

Second footing 1

21.2

0.7

0.3

4.45

Basement

21.2

0.5

1.2

12.72

First footing

28.62

4

Brick work in 1

super structure

Detailed Estimate

21.2

0.3

19.08

Remarks

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Construction Technology

No.

Quantity Remarks

m3

Earth work in

excavation in

foundation

Long Walls

21.6

L=6.3+1.2=7.5

Short Walls

8.93

L=4.31.2=3.1

Total 30.53

2

in foundation (1:5:10)

Long Walls

5.4

L=6.3+1.2=7.5

Short Walls

2.68

L=4.31.2=3.1

Total 8.08

3

R.R. Masonry in

foundation

& basement c.m (1:8)

First footing

Long Walls

7.78

L=6.3+0.9=7.2

Short WaLLS

3.67

L=4.30.9=3.4

11.45

Second footing

Long Walls

0.7 0.3

2.94

L=6.3+0.7=7.0

Short WaLLS

1.51

L=4.30.7=3.6

4.45

Basement

Long Walls

8.16

L=6.3+0.5=6.8

Short Walls

4.56

L=4.30.5=3.8

169

12.72

Total R.R. masonry 28.62

of

4

structure c.m. ( 1:8)

Long Walls

6.6

0.3 3

11.88

L=6.3+0.3=6.6

Short Walls

0.3 3

7.2

L=4.30.3=4.0

19.08

Detailed Estimate Of A Double Roomed Building By Long Wall And

Short Wall Method

Centre to centre length of long wall = 5.0 + 0.3 + 5.0 + 2x0.3/2 = 10.6

m.

Centre to centre length of short wall = 5.0 + 2x0.3/2 = 5.3 m.

Number of long walls = 2. Number of short walls = 3.

Length of long wall = centre to centre length of long walls + width

Length of short wall = centre to centre length of short wall - width

Total centre to centre line lenght = 10.6 x 2 + 5.3x3 = 37.1 m

Sl. No. Description of

work

1

No. L

Quantity Remarks

m3

Earthwork in

excavation

Long Walls

11.8 1.2

1.2

33.98

L= 10.6 +

1.2 = 11.8

Short Walls

4.1

1.2

17.71

1.2

Total 51.69

2

C.C. bed in

foundation

Long Walls

11.8 1.2

0.3

8.5

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Construction Technology

Short Walls

4.1

1.2

0.3

4.43

12.93

R.R. masonry in

foundation &

plinth

First footing

Long Walls

11.5 0.9

0.6

312.42

L = 10.6 +

0.9 = 11.5

Short walls

4.4

0.6

7.13

L = 5.3 - 0.9

= 4.4

0.9

19.55

Second footing

Long Walls

11.3 0.7

0.3

4.75

L = 10.6 +

0.7 = 11.3

Short Walls

4.6

0.3

2.9

L = 5.3 -0.7

= 4.6

0.7

7.65

Third footing &

plinth

Long Walls

11.1 0.5

1.2

13.32

L = 10.6 +

0.5 = 11.1

Short walls

4.8

1.2

8.64

L = 5.3 - 0.5

= 4.8

0.5

21.96

R.R. masonry Total

49.16

Brick work in

super structure

Long Walls

10.9

0.3

19.62

Short Walls

0.3

13.5

33.12

L = 10.6 + 0.3 =

10.9

L = 5.3 - 0.3 =

5.0

171

Sl. No. Description of

work

Earthwork in

1

excavation

C.C. bed in

2

foundation

R.R. masonry in

3

foundation

First footing

No. L

35.9 1.2

35.9 1.2

36.2 0.9

Second footing

36.4 0.7

Basement

36.6 0.5

1

1

36.8 0.3

Brickwork in

superstructure

Quantity

Remarks

0.3 12.93 m3

0.3 7.65 m3 L = 37.1 2x1/2x0.7

1.2 21.96 m3 L = 37.1 2x1/2x0.5

Total 49.165 m3

3 33.12 m3 L = 37.1 2x1/2x0.3

3.0

0.5

0.7

0.9

1.2

E L E V A T I O N

5m x 5 m

S E

5m x 5m

C T I O N

0.3

0.6

0.3

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Construction Technology

(load bearing type structure)

Length of long walls = 6.0+0.3+5.0+2x0.3/2=11.6 m.

Number of long walls = 3

Length of short wall of 5.0 m. length = 5.0+2x0.3/2=5.3 m.

Number of 5.0 m shortwalls =3

Length of 4.0 m. length short walls = 4.0+2x0.3/2=4.3m.

Number of 4.0 m. length short walls = 3

Total centre line length = 11.6x3+5.3x3+4.3x3=63.6m.

6.0 x 5.0 m

5.0 x 5.0 m

5.0 x 4.0 m

3.0m

5.0 x 4.0 m

0.3

0.6

0.9

0.9

0.3

1.2m

173

m3

5m

4m

5m

4m

5m

4m

5m

4m

Basement

56.43

Basement

174

Construction Technology

(framed structure type)

Number of columns in a framed structure = 9

Size of the columns = 230 mmx230 mm

Length of R.R. masonry, Brickwork, lintels, plinth beam and beams

under slab = (6+6)x3+(5+4)x3=63 m.

Length of sunshades and external plastering = (12.9+9.9)x2= 45.6 m.

Length of slab with 1 m. extension on both sides = 1.0+1.0=2.0 m.

External Plastering : Area of external plastering = Length x Height

Length of Plastering = 2x(12.9+9.9)=45.6 m.

Height of external plastering = 3.0+0.12, where 3.0m is the height of

the room and 0.12 m. is the thickness of the slab.

Internal plastering : Area of internal plastering = Length x Height

Length of plastering = 2(L+B) , Where L and B are the length and

breadth of the room respectively.

For 6mx5m room, length = 2(6+5)=22m. Similarly for 5mx4m room,

length =2(5+4)=18 m.

100 mm

thick

RCC slab

0.23 x 0.23

R.C.C Column

3.0 m

1.2 m

G.L

G.L

6.0 x 5.0 m

0.9 m

5.0 x 5.0 m

R.C.C.

Footing

5.0 x 4.0 m

6.0 x 4.0 m

0.3 m

0.3 m

R.C.C.

1.2 m

P L A N

S E C T I O N

S. Description of work

No.

1

175

No. L

Quantity Remarks

m3

Earthwork in excavation

Columns

1.2

In between columns

63

0.6

L=12x3+

9x3=63

71.44

2

Columns

1.2

In between columns

63

0.6

19.93

R.R. masonry in

foundation

First footing

63

Second footing

63

60.48

Brickwork in

superstructure

63

0.23 3

43.47

Deductions Doors

0.23 2

-2.76

Windows

1.2

1.2

9

Trapezoidal section

Stem

8.76

H=0.9+1.2+

3.0=5.1

176

Construction Technology

63

R.C.C. in

lintels&sunshades

Lintels

63

Sunshades

45.6 0.7

0.07 2.23

L=2(12.9+

9.9)=45.6

3.68

8

Beams under slab

63

slab

R.C.C. Slab.

L=12.9+1.0+

1.0=14.9

26.25

B=9.9+1.0+

1.0=11.9

L=2(12.9+9.9)

=45.6

External plastering

20 mm

Thick

45.6

3.12 142.27

Doors

Windows

1.2

1.2 -11.52

H=3.0+0.12

Deductions

-12

10 Internal Plastering

12 mm thick

Rooms 6mx5m

22

132

L=2(6+5)=22

Rooms5mx4m

18

108

L=2(5+4)=18

240

11 Sand filling in rooms

Rooms 6mx5m

1.2 72

Rooms 5mx4m

177

1.2

48

120

Rooms 6mx5m

0.1

Rooms5mx4m

0.1

4

10

13 Flooring in rooms

Rooms 6mx5m

60

Rooms5mx4m

40

100

14 Fabrication &

placement of

steel

(8.76+4.35+3.68+26.25)x1.25x87.5/100x1000 78.5x100/100x1000

tonnes 4.22 t

Wall thickness = 0.3 m. in brick masonry.

Width of foundation = 1.2 m. Depth of foundation = 1.8 m.

Width of first footing = 0.9 m. Depth of first footing = 0.9 m.

Second footing width = 0.7 m. Depth = 0.6 m.

Width of third footing and plinth = 0.5 m. Height = 0.9 m.

Centre to centre length of long walls = 3.0+0.3+3.0+2x0.3/2=6.6 m.

Centre to centre length of short walls = 3.0+2x0.3/2=3.3 m.

Total centre line length = 6.6x2+3.3x3=23.1 m.

Number of junctions = 2.

Height of the sloping roof =1.0 m.

178

Construction Technology

m.) = 1.8 m.

Number of gable rafters at a spacing of 30 cms. Centre to centre =(

6.0/0.3)+1=21

Length of the gable rafters = 1.8+1.8+0.5+0.5=4.6 m.

Number of reapers along a length of 6.05 mts. At a spacing of 10 cms

each = (4.6/0.1)+1=47

179

les

Ti

1.5 m

s

Tile

2.0 m

0.9 m

ELEVATION

0.9 m

0.6 m

0.9 m

0.6 m

0.9 m

0.3 m

0.9 m

0.3 m

1.2 m

References

W

W

D - Door 1.00 m x 2.00 m

W - Window 1.2 m x 1.2 m

Room

3.0 x 3.0 m

Room

3.0 x 3.0 m

P L A N

Second footing : 0.7 m

Basement

: 0.5 m

S E C T I O N

180

Construction Technology

1650

250

1650

150

Floor

E L E V A T I O N

S E C T I O N

2500

1000

P L A N

- A A

Sloping side

22

181

0.28

Tota l

0.4

2.464

11.264

182

Construction Technology

m.

Size of base of flight = 1.0x0.5x0.25 m3

Landing at the middle and top floor =2.0mx1.0mx0.15m.

Length of the hand rail = (2x3.0+0.40)=6.8 m.

Number of risers = 11

Height of the first flight = 11x0.15=1.65 m.

Number of treads = 10

Length of treads in each flight = 10x0.25=2.5 m.

Triangular portion of the brick has a base of 0.25 m. and height 0.15 m.

Area of the brickwork = 1/2x(0.25x0.15) m2.

300

152

8

C

300

152

3

4

B

300

152

8

8

SECTION AT AA

No. of Treads

Each Riser

Each Tread

Note :

1. All dimensions are in Milli meters

2. Follow the written dimensions only

OPEN WELL TYPE STAIRCASE

Scale 1:50

DRG. No. 18

Fig 4.6 Open well Stair case

183

Flight No. A

Horizontal distance of treads = 0.3x8=2.4 m.

Height of risers = 0.15x9=1.35 m.

Flight No. B

Horizontal length of treads = 0.3x3=0.9 m.

Height of risers = 0.15x4=0.6 m.

Sloping length of flight= Square root of (0.9x0.9+0.6x0.6)=1.08 m.

Flight No. C

Horizontal length of treads = 0.3x7=2.1 m.

Height of risers = 0.15x8=1.2 m.

Sloping length of flight = Square root of (2.1x2.1+1.2x1.2)=2.42 m.

184

Construction Technology

Parpet wall

Weathering

course

Lintel &

sunshade

Brick

masonry

3.05 m

Roof slab

3.05 m

C.C. flooring

0.902

Elevation

E L E V A T I O N

Fig 4.7 Two storied residential building

R.C.C Mix

1:4:1

Sand filling

C.C. floring

1:4:8

185

Ground floor

Number of columns = 15

Height of columns in ground flo or & first floor =

0.90+0.9+3.05+0.1+3.05+0.1+0.8=8.9 m.

Height of column in ground floor = 0.9+9+3.05+0.1=4.95 m.

Height of column in first floor = 3.05+0.1+0.8=3.95 m.

Length

of

brickwork,

lintels

and

beams

4.21x4+4.20x4+3.05x2+3.00x2+2.00x2+4.00x2+3.34x2 = 64.42 m.

Nos., Door D1 0.76x2.1 2 Nos.

Windows - W 1.8mx1.2m 5 Nos., W1 1.2mx1.2m 2 Nos.

Length of wall 100 mm. thick = 4.21+3.79+1.5= 9.5 m.

Length of sunshade = 2.1x5+1.5x2+1.1x1+1.3x1 = 15.9 m.

186

Construction Technology

Length of external plastering = 2(12.68+9.10)=43.56 m.

Trapezoidal section of the column foundation : Area of base A1 =

1.0x1.0=1.0 m2.

Area of the column stem = 0.23x0.23=0.0529 m2=A2

187

188

Construction Technology

189

190

Construction Technology

Length of the compound wall between the brick columns 230 mm x

230 mm = 6.0 + 4.0 = 10.0 m.

Height of the compound wall = 1.5 m.

Depth of excavation below ground level = 0.9 m.

Width of the foundation = 0.9 m.

Thickness of the C.C. bed = 0.3 m.

Size of the first footing = 0.6 m. x 0.6 m.

Size of the plinth = 0.45 x 1.0m2.

Size of the brickwork in columns = 0.23 x 0.23 x 1.5 m.

Number of brick columns = 3

Length of the earthwork in excavation =

6.0+0.23+0.23+4.0+0.23=10.69

Quantity of earthwork in excavation = 10.69x0.9x0.9=8.66 m3.

Quantity of C.C. bed in foundation = 10.69x0.9x0.3=2.89 m3.

R.R. masonry first footing = 10.69x0.6x0.6= 3.85 m3.

R.R. masonry in plinth = 10.69x0.45x1.0= 4.81 m3.

R.R. masonry total

= 3.85+4.81= 8.66 m.

Brickwork in between columns = 10.0x0.10x1.5= 1.5 m3.

Total brick masonry = 0.24+1.5=1.74 m.

Deduction for gate 2.0mx1.5m = 2.0x0.1x1.5=0.3 m3.

Net brickwork in superstructure = 1.74-0.3 = 1.44 m.

Plastering in columns = 4x0.23x1.5x3=4.14 m2.

Plastering in between columns = 10x1.5x2=30 m2.

191

Estimate of steps

Quantity of first step = 1.0x0.9x0.3=0.27 m3.

Quantity of second step = 1.0x0.6x0.3=0.18 m3.

Quantity of third step = 1.0x0.3x0.3=0.09 m3.

Total quantity of brickwork in steps = 0.27+0.18+0.09=0.54 m3.

0.23m

0.15

0.15

0.15

1.5 m

0.45

1.0 m

0.6

0.6 m

Front View

Side View

0.3 m

0.9 m

0.3

0.23

0.3

0.3

1.0 m

Top view

4.0 m

0.23

6.0m

0.23

192

Construction Technology

Summary

To estimate the cost of a building or a structure the steps involved are

1. Taking out the measurement of various items and calculate the

quantities as per the detailed estimate.

2. Determining the cost of the calculated quantities as per Abstract

estimate.

The methods of calculating quantities are Long wall and short wall method

and Centre line method.

Length of Long wall = Centre to centre length of the long wall + width

Length of short wall = Centre to centre length of the short wall width

In centre line method, the length = Total centre line length (number of

junctions)xwidth/2

For a double room building, the total centre line length = sum of the

centre line lengths of two long walls and three short walls. The number

of junctions = 2.

For a building with number of rooms, the total centre line length = sum

of the centre to centre lengths of three long walls, three short walls of length 5.3

m. and three short walls of length 4.3 m. Number of junctions = 6.

The long wall short wall method and the centre line method are not

applicable. The lengths of the R.R. masonry, Brickwork in superstructure, Plinth

beam, lintels and beams under slab are obtained by adding the internal dimensions

of the rooms.

The roof for the primary school building is a gable roof, having its slope

in two directions. The roof under consideration is the roof having its width = 3.0

m. and its length = 6.0 m.

Length of the gable rafter = square root of [(width/2)2 + (Rise)2]

Number of gable rafters = Length of the roof/ spacing of the rafters.

Area of the tiled surface = 2x(Length of the roof )x Width of the sloping

side.)

Number of risers = Height of the flight/ rise.

Number of treads = Number of risers 1.

Treads length = Number of treads x Tread.

193

Length of the sloping side = Square root of [(Treads length)2 + (Height

of flight)2].

Area of brickwork in each step = (Rise x Tread) x .

1. What are the steps involved in finding the cost of the building?

2. What are the methods involved in taking measurements in a detailed

estimate.

3. Write the tabular formula of a detailed estimate.

4. Calculate the number of risers in a flight of height 1.50 m. and the rise

of 15 cms.

5. If the number of risers = 10, find the number of treads.

6. Find the length of the gable rafter for a room of width 6.0 m. and

length 12.0 m and the rise is 1.5 m.

1. Find the earthwork in excavation, C.C. bed in foundation, R.R.

masonry in foundation, Brick work in superstructure and plastering for single

room building and double room building by long wall short wall method and

centre line method.

2. Detailed estimate of a dog legged stair case.

3. Detailed estimate of compound wall and steps.

O.J.T. Type Questions

1. Detailed estimate of a number of rooms.

2. Detailed estimate of a framed structure.

3. Detailed estimate of a Primary school building.

4. Detailed estimate of an open well stair case.

5. Detailed estimate of a double storied building.

194

Construction Technology

UNIT

of Rates

Structure

5.0 Introduction

5.1 Prepare specifications for different items of work.

5.2 Find the cost of materials at source and at site.

5.3 Study of the cost of labor types of labor using standard schedule

of rates

5.4 Concept of lead and lift- leads statement

5.5 Preparation of unit rates for finished items of works

Learning Objectives

After studying this unit student will be able to

Prepare the unit ratio of various items of works. Find the cost of

materials, specifications of various of various items of works.

5.0 Introduction

To estimate the cost of the building, the quantities of various items of

work are calculated from the drawings. The unit rates of various items of work

are calculated from the specifications of the various types of materials. The rates

are calculated as per the rates in the standard schedule of rates. The unit rates of

various items of work increase considerably with the specifications. The

195

specifications indicate the quality of the work while the drawings are used for

the quality of the work.

Specifications specifies or describes the nature and the class of work,

materials to be used in the work, workmanship etc. From the study of the

specifications one can easily understand the nature of the work and what the

work shall be.

Detailed specifications : Detailed specifications are written to express

the requirements clearly in a concise form avoiding repetition and ambiguity.

The detailed specifications for various items of work are as follows.

Earthwork excavation of foundation

The following specifications shall be followed in the earthwork in

excavations in foundations.

1. Foundation trench shall be dug to the exact width and depth of

foundation.

2. Excavated earth shall not be placed within 1 m. of the edge of the

foundation.

3. The bottom of the trenches shall be perfectly leveled both

longitudinally and transversely.

4. If water accumulates in the trench, it should be pumped out. Care

should be taken to prevent water from entering the trench.

5. If rocks and boulders are found during excavation, they should be

removed and the bed of the trench should be leveled and

consolidated.

6. Foundation concrete should be laid only after the inspection and

approval by the Engineer in charge.

Cement concrete in foundation (1:5:10)

The following specifications should be followed in cement concrete in

foundation.

1. Course aggregate should be of hard broken stone, free from dust,

dirt and foreign matter.

2. Fine aggregate shall be of coarse sand, consisting of hard, sharp and

angular grains and shall pass through screen of 5 mm. square mesh.

196

Construction Technology

4. Water shall be clean and free from alkaline and acid matter.

5. Mixing should be done on masonry platform or sheet iron tray in

hand mixing.

6. Coarse aggregate and sand should be mixed by volume and cement

by weight.

Random rubble masonry

The following specifications should be followed in random rubble

masonry

1. The stones should be sound, hard and durable. Stones with rounded

surface shall not be used.

2. No stone shall be less than 15 cm. in size.

3. Bond stones should be provided at every 1 m. length.

4. Cement mortar 1:3 to 1:6 shall be provided.

5. The joints in the stone masonry shall not be thicker than 2 cm.

6. The masonry shall be watered for at least 10 days.

Brick masonry

The following specifications should be followed in brick masonry first

class

1. Bricks of standard size, copper red color, regular in shape, having

sharp square edges should be used.

2. The bricks should not absorb more than 20% of water when immersed

in water for 24 hours.

3. The mortar used in brick masonry shall be 1:3 to 1:6.

4. The bricks shall be well bonded and laid in English bond unless

otherwise specified.

5. Mortar joints shall not exceed 6 mm. in thickness and the joints shall

be fully flushed with mortar.

6. The bricks should be soaked in water before use in masonry.

7. The brick masonry shall be watered for at least 10 days.

197

Plastering

The following specifications should be followed in plastering

1. The materials of mortar, cement and sand used in plastering should

be as per specifications.

2. The joints of the brickwork shall be raked for a depth of 18 mm. on

the surface.

3. Ceiling plastering should be completed before the start of wall

plastering.

4. The thickness of the plastering should not be less than 12 mm. for

internal plastering and 20 mm. for external plastering.

5. The plastering work shall be checked for horizontality with a straight

edge and for verticality with a plumb bob.

6. Any defective plastering shall be cut in rectangular shape and replaced.

7. The plastering should be watered for at least 10 days.

The amount required to purchase the material at the source of its

production is the cost of materials at the source.

Cost of materials at site : The cost of materials at site includes the

cost of materials at source along with the cost of seignories, taxes, royalties,

transport, stacking, loading and unloading etc.

Seignories are collected for materials like sand, stones etc., which are

under the control of respective local agencies under government control.

schedule of rates

Labour rates

Si

No.

Category of worker

S. Rate

For

2012-13

198

Construction Technology

123

Skilled catregory

1 Bar bender 330

2 Black smith / Tin smith / Rivetor 315

3 Blaster ( Licensed ) 355

4 Carpenter Cl- I 315

5 Electrician ( Licensed ) 355

6 Fitter Cl- I 315

7 Floor Polisher / Tile Layer 315

8 Foreman 355

9 Gauge reader 300

10

Maistry / Work Inspector with Non-technical Qualification

SSLC/SSC/HSC

300

11 Mason Cl- I / Brick layer Cl- I 315

12 Mechanic Cl- I 315

13 Operator Air compressor / DG set 315

14 Operator Batching plant 355

15 Operator Bus/Ambulance/ Lorry/ Tanker 315

16 Operator Concrete / Asphalt mixer 315

17 Operator Concrete / Asphalt paver 315

18 Operator Concrete pump / Placer/ ice plant 315

Common SoR 2012 : 13

280

Sl

No.

Category of worker

S. Rate

for

2012-13

123

19 Operator Core drilling machine 355

20 Operator Crane/ Tower crane/ Cable way 355

21 Operator Drilling jumbo / Loco / Winch 315

22 Operator Grouting/ Guniting/ Shotcreting 315

23 Operator Jackhammer/Pneumatic tamper 315

24 Operator Pump / Ventilation fan 315

25 Operator Lathe/Drilling/Shearing machine 355

26 Operator Bending / Planing machine 315

27 Operator Road roller 315

28 Operator Shovel / Scraper / Dozer 355

29 Operator Spillway / Sluice gate 315

30 Operator Crusher / Conveyor / Mucker 315

31 Operator Tipper / Dumper / Transit mixer 355

32 Operator Concrete vibrator 315

33 Operator Vibratory plain / pad foot roller 315

34 Operator Wagon drill / Drifter 355

35 Painter Cl- I 350

36 Plumber / Pipe fitter 350

37 Sarang / Khalasi 315

38 Spun pipe moulder 315

39 Stone chiseller CI- I / Stone cutter Cl- l 315

40 Struct. steel Fabricator / Marker / Erector 355

199

200

Construction Technology

42 Welder (X-ray quality) 355

II. Semi skilled category

1. Asphalt Sprayer / Boiler attendant 285

2. Bhisti 285

3. Boatman with boat 300

Common SoR 2012:13

281

Sl

No.

Category of worker

S. Rate

for

2012-13

123

4 Carpenter Cl- II / Erector shuttering 285

5 Cartman with double bullock cart 330

6 Cartman with single bullock cart 310

7 Chavali / Navagani 285

8 Crowbarman / Jumper man 285

9 Fitter Cl- II 285

10 Gang man / Head / Survey mazdoor 285

11 Gardener / Trained mali 285

12 Helper Air compressor / DG set 285

13 Helper Batching plant 285

14 Helper Blasting 285

15 Helper Bus/ Ambulance/ Lorry/ Tanker 285

17 Helper Carpenter 285

18 Helper Concrete / Asphalt mixer 285

19 Helper Concrete / Asphalt paver 285

20 Helper Core drilling machine 285

21 Helper Crane/ Tower crane/ Cable way 285

22 Helper Drilling jumbo / Loco / Winch 285

23 Helper Fitter / Fabrication/Electrician 285

24 Helper Grouting/ Guniting/ Shotcreting 285

25 Helper Jack hammer / Pneumatic tamper 285

26 Helper Laboratory / Instrumentation 285

27 Helper Road roller 285

28 Helper Shovel / Scraper / Dozer 285

29 Helper Crusher / Conveyor / Mucker 285

30 Helper Tipper / Dumper/ Transit mixer 285

31 Helper Vibrator 285

Common SoR 2012:13

282

Sl

No.

Category of worker

S. Rate

for

2012-13

123

32 Helper Vibratory plain/ pad foot roller 285

33 Helper Wagon drill/ Drifter 285

201

202

Construction Technology

35 Mason Cl- ll / Brick layer Cl-II 285

36 Mechanic Cl- II 285

37 Painter Cl- II 300

38 Patkari / Neeraganti / Sowdy 285

39 Stone Chiseller Cl- II 285

40 Stone breaker / Hammer man 285

41 Valve man / Canal sluice operator 285

III. Un-skilled category

1 Cement / Asphalt handling mazdoor 250

2 Civic worker 250

3 Heavy mazdoor 250

4 Light mazdoor 250

5 Watchman 250

IV. Other category

1 Care-taker / conductor / Lift Attender 300

2 Cook / Mess man 300

3 Dhobi 300

4 Diploma Engineer / Surveyor 450

5 Diver with headgear 365

6 Graduate / Laboratory Assistant 350

7 Graduate Engineer/ Geologist 600

8 Horticulture Assistant / Photographer 300

9 ITI certificate holder / Tracer / Printer 350

10 Literate mazdoor 285

11 Stenographer / Computer Operator 400

Common SoR 2012:13

203

283

Sl

No.

Category of worker

S. Rate

for

2012-13

123

12 Telephone / Wireless Operator 350

13 Typist / Job Typist 350

14

CAD operator with Diploma in Engineering/General degree with

CAD certificate

500

15 Jeep Driver 355

16 Data Processing Operator 500

Note : 1. The wage should not be less than the minimum wages of

schedule of employment,

Subject to out turn. 2. 25% extra over the corresponding labour

rates in respect of the work to be

Done during night time subject to issue of certificate accordingly by

the concerned estimate.

Sanctioning authority for providing in the data and by concerned

Executive Engineer in charge of the work for payment. The night time

allowance is applicable only to the works done under Greater

Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal

Corporation and Vijayawada Municipal Corporation limits only.of

various government agencies.

Transport cost includes cost of transporting the material from source

to the site. In S.S.R., the cost of transporting on a mettaled road is

204

Construction Technology

the site, that distance is converted to equivalent metalled road.

Distance on cart track = Distance on metalled road x 1.1

Distance on sand track = Distance on metalled road x 1.4

Stacking includes placing the material in a specified heap for a given

volume in the case of materials like sand and coarse aggregate. Bricks are stacked

for a given number. Sometimes are stacking charges are included in loading and

unloading. Loading and unloading charges are fixed for a given volume or weight

for different materials.

The cost of labor wages for each category of labor are given above as

per Standard schedule of rates 2012-13.

Standard schedule of rates : In standard schedule of rates (S.S.R.) ,

the rates of various materials, machinery and hiring charges and wages of labor

are prepared. It is prepared by the board of chief engineers and approve it for

that year.

The distance between the source of material to the worksite is known

as the lead. This lead distance changes from one project to another project

depending upon the location. The vertical height through which the material is to

be disposed is known as the lift.

Lead charges : The conveyance charges of the materials from source

to the site of work is called lead charge. In S.S.R. the lead charges are given for

Metalled roads. The equivalent distance of metalled road for cart track = 1.1xlead,

while for sandy track = 1.4xlead.

Lead statement : Lead statement gives the cost of various materials at

site. It includes basic rate, plus conveyance, blasting charges, seignorage charges

etc.

Lead Statement

S. Mat- Source Unit Cost at Lead Equi Blas Seign Cess Cru Deduc Net Re

source inKm. valent ting orage charges shing tions rate mar

No erial

char if any at ks

metal char char

ges ges

ges

site

led

road

205

Cost of sand as per S.S.R. : For concrete = Rs. 375., For filling =

Rs. 288., For plastering = Rs.490.

Cost of cement = Rs. 5100/ton., = Rs. 255 per bag.

Mixing charges for mixing 1 m3 of mortar = Rs. 85.

Cost of preparation of 1 m3 mortar for different proportions

Mix Quantity of Quantity Cost of

propor cement in of sand cement

-tion bags

in m3

Cost of

sand

Total cost

Mix

-ing

charges

1:2

9.5 bags

0.66

50

40

Rs.85

2831.50

1:3

7.2

0.75

50

00

Rs.85

2288.50

1:4

5.76

0.8

00

00

Rs.85

1946.00

1:5

4.79

0.83

50

70

Rs.85

1713.20

1:6

4.11

0.857

05

1553.00

1:8

3.19

0.89

Rs.813.

45

1334.55

1:10

2.62

0.91

Rs.668.

10

1199.00

Quantity of cement =(1.52/16)x1=0.095 m3=0.095x1440/50=2.74

bags.

Quantity of sand = (1.52/16)x5=0.475 m3

Quantity of aggregate = (1.52/16)x10=0.95 m3.

Cost of cement = Rs.255 per bag., Cost of sand=Rs. 375/m3., Cost of

Coarse aggregate=Rs.588/m3.

206

Construction Technology

Particulars

Quantity

Rate

Cost

Materials Cement

2.74 bags

Rs. 255/bag

Rs. 698.70

Sand

0.475 m3

Rs. 375/m3.

Rs. 178.15

Coarse aggregate

0.95 m3

Rs. 588/bag

Rs. 558.60

0.05 No.

Rs. 350/No.

Rs. 17.50

Mason

0.15 No.

Rs. 315/No.

Rs. 47.25

Men mazdoor

1.2 NO.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 300

Women mazdoor

1.8 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 450

Waterman

0.4 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 100

Rs.182.95

Total

Rs.2533.15

Quantity of cement = 1.52x1/7=0.217 m3 =0.217x1440/50=6.25 bags.

Quantity of sand = 1.52x2/7=0.434 m3.

Quantity of coarse aggregate = 1.52x4/7=0.869 m3.

Quantity of steel =1.1x78.5/100=0.86quintals=86.35 kgs.

Centering and scaffolding charges with casurina ballies, bamboos,

wooden reapers, poles etc.

Lintel = Rs. 1215/m3; Sunshades = Rs. 214/m2., Columns = Rs. 929/

m2., Beams = Rs. 1637/m2.

Slabs up to 150 mm. = Rs. 184/m2.

Particulars

Amount

Quantity

Rate

6.25 bags

materials, labour charges,

centering charges but excluding

cost of steel and its fabrication.

Materials

Cement

207

Sand

0.434 m3

Rs. 375/m3

Rs. 162.75

Coarse aggregate

0.868 m3

m3

Total

Rs. 2760.30

Labour

Head mason

0.05

Rs. 350/No.

Rs. 17.50

Mason

0.3

Rs. 315/No.

Rs. 94.50

Men mazdoor

1.2 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 300.00

Women mazdoor

2.0 NO.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 500.00

Waterman

0.6 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 150.00

Rs. 1062.00

20% local

allowance

Rs. 212.40

Rs. 1274.40

= Rs.2760.30+1274.40=

Rs.4034.70

R.C.C. works in lintel, slab,

beams and columns

Centering charges with

Casuarinas baileys, bamboos,

poles, wall plates etc.

Item

Centering

Cost of

Total Cost

charges

materials and

including

labour

materials and

labour

Lintel

Rs.1215

Rs. 4034.70

Rs. 5249.70

Slab

Rs. 5568.00

Beam

Rs. 1637

Rs. 4034.70

Rs. 5671.70

Column

Rs.929

Rs. 4034.70

Rs. 4963.70

208

Construction Technology

of fabrication of steel including bending and placement in position is Rs. 6.00/

Kg.

5.5.3 Brick masonry in cement mortar

The size of the bricks considered are 19 cmx9 cmx9 cm. The volume

of mortar is 0.32 m3. Cost of brick masonry for 1.0 m3 is considered.

Number of bricks required = 500

Mortar with a proportion of 1:6 is considered.

Quantity of cement = 0.32/7=0.0457 m3=0.0457x1440/50=1.32 bags

Quantity of Sand = 0.32x6/7=0.274 m3

Cost of 1000 no. of bricks 19cmx9cmx9cm as per S.S.R. =Rs. 4687,

Loading and unloading charges=Rs.37.30, Conveyance charges

=118.65+17.80x10=Rs. 297.( for 15 K.M.)

Total cost of bricks = Rs.4687+Rs.37.30+297=Rs.5021.30

Particulars

Quantity

Rate

Bricks

500 Nos.

1000 Nos.

Cement

1.32 bags

Sand

0.274 m3.

Rs. 490/m3.

Amount

Brick masonry in

superstructure including cost

of materials and labour

Materials

Rs. 134.30

Rs. 2981.55

Labour

Head mason

0.05 No.

Rs. 350/No.

Rs. 17.50

Mason

1.0 No.

Rs. 315/No.

Rs. 315.00

Men mazdoor

0.7 NO.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 175.00

Women mazdoor

1.0 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 250.00

Waterman

0.2 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 50.00

209

Total

Rs. 807.50

Add 20%

Rs.161.50

Rs. 969.00

Total Cost

Rs. 3950.55

Quantity of stone required = 1.25 m3. Volume of mortar required

=40%=0.4.

Quantity of cement required for C.M. 1:6 = 0.4/7=0.06 m3=0.06x1440/

50=1.8 bags.

Particulars

Amount

Materials

Stone including bond 1.25 m3.

stone and wastage

Rs.535.60/m3

Rs. 669.5

Cement

1.8 bags

Rs. 459

Sand

0.36 m3.

Rs. 490/m3.

Rs. 176.40

Rs. 1304.90

Labour

Head mason

0.05 No.

Rs. 350/No.

Rs. 17.50

Mason

1.6 No.

Rs. 315/No.

Rs. 504.00

Men mazdoor

1.6 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 400.00

Women mazdoor

0.8 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 200.00

Waterman

0.15 No.

Rs. 250/No.

Rs. 37.50

Rs.1159.00

Add 20%

allowance

Rs. 231.80

Rs. 1390.80

labour

Rs. 2695.70

210

Construction Technology

Rs.293+Rs.74.60+11.20x15 = Rs. 535.60 for a conveyance of 20 K.M.

5.5.5 Plastering

External plastering 20 mm. thick and Internal plastering 12 mm. thick.

Materials for 20 mm. thick plastering in a wall of 100 sq. m.

Volume of plastering = 100x20/1000=2.0 m3.

Add 20% for wet volume and increasing 25% dry

volume=2.0+0.4+0.6=3.0 m3.

Cost of 1:6 cement mortar = Rs. 1553.00/m3. Cost of 3.0 m3 cement

mortar=1553.00x3=Rs.4659.00

Labour charges : Head mason =1/3 no. Cost=(1/3)x350=Rs. 116.70

Mason=12 Nos. Cost=10x315=Rs. 3150.00 Men mazdoor=15 Nos.

= 15x250= Rs. 3750.00

Waterman= No. Cost = (3/4)x250=Rs. 187.50.

Cost of labour = Rs.116.70+Rs. 3150+Rs.3750.00+Rs. 187.50= Rs.

7204.20

Add 20% allowance =Rs. 1440.80. Total

cost of labour = Rs. 7204.20+1440.80=Rs. 8645.00

Total cost of external plastering=Rs.4659.00+ Rs. 8645.00=Rs.

13304.00

Cost of 20 mm. thick plastering/m2 = 13304.00/100= Rs.133.04

Materials for internal plastering 12 mm. thick for 100 m2.

Volume of plastering= 100x12/1000=1.2 m3. Add 30% for uneven

surfaces and 25% for dry volume.

Total volume of plastering = 1.2+0.36+0.29=1.95 m3. say 2.0 m3.

Cost of 1:6 cement mortar for 1 m3= Rs. 1553.00 Cost of 2.0 m3

mortar = 2x1553.00= Rs.3106.00

Labour charges = Rs. 8645.00.

Total cost of plastering 12 mm. thick = Rs. 3106.00+ Rs.8645.00=Rs.

11751.00

Cost of plastering 12 mm thick per m2= 11751/100=Rs. 117.51

211

For pointing in brickwork the total dry volume of materials is taken as

0.60 m3 for 100 m2.

Pointing with cement mortar of proportion 1:2 : Dry volume of mortar

= 0.60 m3

Cost of mortar 1:2 for 1 m3=Rs. 2831.50. Cost of 0.6 m3 mortar =

0.6x2831.50=Rs. 1699.00

Labour : Head mason (1/3)x350=Rs. 116.70

Mason = 10x315=Rs.3150.00; Men mazdoor=10x250=Rs.2500.00;

Waterman=0.5x250=Rs. 125.00

l Cost of labour = 116.70+3150+2500+125.00=Rs. 5891.70

Add 20% allowance=Rs.1178.30; Total cost = 5891.70+1178.30=

Rs.7070.00

Total cost of materials and labour = 1699.00+7070.00=Rs.8769.00

Cost of pointing per m2= 8769.00/100=Rs. 87.70

5.5.7. Cement concrete flooring

Considering 2.5 cm. thick concrete for an area of floor = 100 m2.

Volume of concrete floor = 100x2.5/100=2.5 m3. Add 10% for

unevenness of concrete

Quantity of concrete = 2.5+0.25=2.75 m3. Add 50% for dry volume

of concrete=1.375 m3.

Total quantity of concrete= 2.75+1.375=4.125 m3.

Quantity of cement required = 4.125/7=0.60 m3.=0.6x1440/50=18

bags.

Quantity of sand= 0.6x2=1.2 m3. Quantity of stone aggregate = 0.6x4

= 2.4 m3.

Cement for surface finishing = 100x2/1000=0.2 m3. = 0.2x1440/50=6

bags.

Cost of cement= Rs. 255/ bag; Cost of sand= Rs. 490/m3.; Cost of

aggregate = Rs.1161.80/m3.

212

Particulars

Construction Technology

Amount

Materials

Stone aggregate

2.40 m3.

Rs. 1161.80/m3.

Rs. 2788.40

Sand (coarse)

1.20 m3.

Rs. 490/m3.

Rs. 588.00

Cement

18 bags

Rs. 4590.00

Rs.1530.00

finishing

Rs. 9496.40

Labour etc.

Head mason

no.

Rs. 350/day

Rs. 262.50

Mason

10 Nos.

Rs. 315/day

Rs. 3150.00

Men mazdoor

5 Nos.

Rs. 250/day

Rs. 1250.00

Women mazdoor

5 Nos.

Rs. 250/day

Rs.1250.00

Waterman

2 Nos.

Rs. 250/day

Rs.500.00

Rs. 6412.50

Rs.1282.50

Rs. 7695.00

Side forms

Lump sum

Rs. 300.00

Rs. 9496.40

Rs. 7695.00

Lump sum

Rs. 300.00

Total cost

Rs.17491.00

100=Rs.174.91/sq m.

5.5.8. Doors and windows paneled and glazed

Consider preparation of door frame with Sal wood . The size of the

door is 1.00 m. x 2.00 m.

213

Length of the frame = 2x( 2.14+1.2)=6.68 m. Quantity of

timber=6.68x0.08x0.12=0.064 m3.

Add 5% for wastage = 0.0032 m3. Total quantity of timber

=0.064+0.0032=0.0672 m3.

Rate of sal wood = Rs. 40012.00/m3.

Cost of timber = 0.0672x40012.00= Rs. 2688.80

Labour : Head carpenter =1/16 No. Cost =350x1/16= Rs.21.90

Carpenter =1/4 No.

Cost of labour

Rs.225.65

Rs.45.20

Rs.270.85

270.85=Rs.2959.65 say Rs. 2960.00

Width of the plank=1.0-0.10-0.10-0.10=0.6 m. (Width of the stiles)

Length of the plank = 2.0-0.10-0.10-0.10-0.15-0.10=1.55 m. (width

of top, frieze, lock and bottom rails

Unit rate of 40 mm. thick paneled door shutter of size 1.0x2.0 sq m.

double door in teak wood.

No. L

Stiles

2.00

0.10 0.04

0.032

Top rail

1.00

0.10 0.04

0.004

Frieze rail

1.00

0.10 0.04

0.004

Lock rail

1.00

0.15 0.04

0.006

Bottom

rail

1.00

0.10 0.04

0.004

Particulars

Thick

ness

Quantity/ Rate

Nos.

Materials:timber

Amount

214

Construction Technology

Planks for 1

panels

1.55

0.6

0.025

0.023

0.073

Ad d

5%

for

wastage 0.00365

0.0767 m3 Rs.1054 Rs.8090.80

86.00/m3

Brass

accessories

Tower bolt 1No.

30 cm.

1 No.

.00/No.

15 cm.

1 No.

Rs.121.00/ Rs.121.00

No.

Handle 10 2.no

cm.

2 Nos.

Rs.337.00/ Rs.674.00

No..

Hinges

6 Nos.

No.

6.no

Door

stopper

Rs.

Rs. 729.00

729.00/

No.

Rs.146.00

1 No.

Rs.

146.00/

No.

Rs.2590.00

accessories

1 No.

Aldrop 30 1 No.

cm.

1 No.

Cost Of

Labour

Head

1/15

carpenter No.

1/15 No.

day

Carpenter 4 Nos.

4 Nos.

day

1260.00

Helpers

2 Nos.

day

Rs.

1783.35

215

extra

Total

Rs. 2140.00

Cost of brass accessories=Rs.2590.00

Cost of labour = Rs. 2140.00

Total cost = Rs.12820.80

Summary

Specification defines the nature and class of work, materials to be used

in the work, workmanship etc.

Cost of materials at the source : The amount required to purchase

the materials at the source of its production is the cost of materials at the source.

Cost of materials at the site = Cost of materials at the source + Seignories

+ Taxes + Royalties + Transport + Loading + unloading etc.

Cost of transport on metal led road is given in the S.S.R.

Distance on cart track = 1.1 x Distance on metal led road

Distance on sand track = 1.4 x Distance on metal led road

Standard Schedule of Rates (S.S.R.) : Standard schedule of rates

consists of the rates of materials, machinery, hiring charges and wages of labour.

It is prepared by the board of chief engineers and approved for that year.

Lead and Lift : The horizontal distance between the source of the

material to the work site is known as the lead. The vertical height through which

the material is lifted is known as the lift.

Lead Statement : The statement in detail of the cost of materials at the

site is known as the lead statement.

Quantity of materials in Plain cement concrete (1:5:10) :

Quantity of cement = 1.52 x 1/16 = 0.095 cu m. = 0.095 x 1440/50 =

2.74 bags

Quantity of sand = 1.52 x 5/16 = 0.475 cu m.

216

Construction Technology

Brick masonry in cement mortar for 1.0 cu m.

Number of bricks of size 19 cm. x 9 cm. x 9 cm. = 500

Volume of mortar = 0.32 cu m.

Course rubble masonry :

Quantity of stone = 1.25 cu m.

Volume of mortar = 0.40 cu m.

Plastering 20 mm. thick : The volume of cement sand mortar required

for an area of 100 sq m. and a thickness of 20 mm. is 3.0 cu m.

Plastering 12 mm. thick : The volume of cement sand mortar required

for an area of 100 sq m. and a thickness of 12 mm. is 2.0 cu m.

Pointing : The volume of cement sand mortar required for pointing of

an area of 100 sq m. with a mix proportion 1:2 is 0.60 cu m.

1. Define specification.

2. What is cost of materials at the source.?

3. What is the cost of materials at the site?

4. Write a tabular form for an abstract estimate.

5. List out the various types of labour.

6. Define standard schedule of rates.

7. What is lead and lift?

8. What is a lead statement.

1. Prepare specifications for the following

(a) Earthwork in excavation, (b) Cement concrete in foundation, (c)

R.R. masonry, (d) Brick work in cement mortar.

2. Find the unit rate for Plain cement concrete (1:6:12)

3. Find the unit rate for course rubble masonry of cement mortar (1:6).

217

4. Find the unit rate for brick work in cement mortar (1:6) using standard

size of bricks.

5. Find the unit rate of plastering 12 mm. and 20 mm. thick with a

proportion of (1:5) cement mortar.

O.J.T. Questions

1. Prepare a unit rate of brickwork in cement mortar for 1.0 cu m.

using modular bricks.

2. Prepare a unit rate of R.C.C. (1:2:4) for 1.0 cu m. in slabs, beams

and columns.

3. Find the cost of a door (1.00m. x 2.00 m.) in country wood

4. Find the cost of a window (1.2 m x 1.2 m) in Sal wood.

218

Construction Technology

UNIT

Earthwork Calculations

Structure

6.0 Introduction

6.1 Trapezoidal, Prismoidal, Mid ordinate

6.2 Taking out quantities from L.S. and C.S. in cutting and embankment

Learning Objectives

After studying this unit student will be able to

Calcualate the quantities of earth work in banking and cutting by

Trapezoidal and Prismoidal Rule

6.0 Introduction

All types of roads, railways and irrigation works are constructed over

earthwork. To understand the calculation of earthwork involved in these structures,

these methods of calculation have to be studied in detail.

Cross section of earthwork is in the form of a trapezium. The quantity of

earthwork may be calculated by the following methods.

219

Sectional and mean sectional area methods for calculating earthwork.

Mid sectional area method : In the mid sectional area method, the

average height of the two ends is taken as the mean depth. L is the length of the

section. B is the formation width, and S:1 is the side slope and d1 and d2 are the

height of the embankment at the two ends

Mean height dm = (d1+d2)/2

Area of midsection = Area of rectangular portion+ area of two triangular

portions=Bdm+1/2sdm2+1/2sdm2=Bdm+2dm2.

Quantity of earthwork = (Bdm+sdm2)xL

The quantities of earthwork may be calculated in a tabular form as below

Quantity

Stations Depth Mean

Central Area of Total

Length

or depth or area Bd sides Sd2 sec

between (Bd+Sd2)xL

tional stations L Embank

Height Height

ment cutt

area

ing

Bd+Sd2

Mean Sectional Area Method : In this method, the area at the ends

of depth d1 and d2 are calculated and the mean area of the section is found.

Sectional are at one end A1 = Bd1+S(d1)2

Sectional area at the other end = Bd2+S(d2)2=A2

The mean sectional area A=(A1+A2)/2

Quantity Q=((A1+A2)/2)xL

The quantities of earthwork may be calculated in a tabular form as follows

Station Height Area of Area of

or depth cent ral s i d e s

portion Sd2

Bd

To t a l M e a n

sectional sectional

a r e a area

Bd+Sd2

Length

between

stations

L

Quantity

=(Bd+Sd2)

x LBanking

Cutting

220

Construction Technology

1:S

d1

Sd1

Sd2

1:S

Sd1

B

1:S

1:S

d2

Sd2

B

d1

L

Fig 6.1

at the ends and the mid sectional area are also taken into consideration. If the

area at the ends are A1 and A2 respectively and Am is the mid sectional area,

Quantity or volume = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6

Cross sectional area at one end A1 = Bd1+S(d1)2

Cross sectional area at the other end = A2 = Bd2+ S(d2)2

Depth at the mid section = dm = (d1+d2)/2

Area at the mid section = Bdm+S(dm)2 = Am

Quantity = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6

Trapezoidal formula and prismoidal formula for a series of cross

sections : When the series of cross sections A0,A1, A2,A3, An are

at equal distances D, then the volume by the trapezoidal formula is given by V =

((A0+An)/2+A1+A2+A3+ ..+An-1 +An)

Volume by Prismoidal formula : V=((A0+An)+2(Sum of the odd

areas)+4(Sum of even areas))xD/3

Example 1 : Calculate the quantity of earthwork for 200 metre length

for a portion of a road in an uniform ground. The heights of the banks at the two

ends are 1.00 and 1.60 m. The formation width is 10 metre and side slopes are

2:1. Assume that there is no transverse slope.

221

m. Formation width = B = 10 m.

Height at the mid section dm = (d1+d2)/2 = (1.00+1.60)/2=1.3 m.

Side slopes S = 2.

Area at the mid section = Bdm + S(dm)2 =10x1.3 + 2(1.3)2 = 16.38

sq. m. Length = L = 200 m.

Quantity = Area x length = ((Bdm+S(dm)2)xL=16.38x200 = 3276

cu m.

Mean sectional area method : Quantity = Mean sectional area x

length

A1 = Sectional area at one end = Bd1 + S(d1)2 =10x1+2(1.0)2 =

12 sq m.

A2 = Sectional area at another end = Bd2+S(d2)2 =10x1.6+2(1.6)2=

21.12 sq m.

Mean sectional area = Am = (A1+A2)/2 =(12+21.12)/2 = 16.56 sq

m.

Quantity = Mean sectional area x length = 16.56x200=3312 cu m.

Prismoidal formula : Quantity = (A1+A2+4Am)xL/6

A1 = sectional area at one end = Bd1+S(d1)2 = 10x1.0+2(1)2 = 12

sq m.

A2 = Sectional area at another end = Bd2+S(d2)2 =

10x1.6+2(1.6)2= 21.2 sq m.

Am = Mid sectional area = Bdm+S(dm)2 dm = (d1+d2)/2=

(1.0+1.6)/2 = 1.3 m.

Am = Bdm+S(dm)2 = 10x1.3+2(1.3)2 = 16.38 sq m.

Quantity = (12+21.12+4x16.38)x200/6 = 98.64x200/6= 3288 cu

m.

Area of side sloping surface : Area of side slopes = Lxdx(square root

of (S2+1))

Example 2 : Calculate the area of the side slopes of a portion of a bank

for a length of 200 m. The heights of the banks at the two ends are 2.50 m and

3.50 m. and the ratio of side slope 2:1. If the side slopes are to be provided with

15 cm. thick stone pitching, calculate the cost of pitching at the rate of Rs. 200

per cu m.

222

Construction Technology

Sloping breadth at the mid section = d(square root of s2+1)=3[Square

root of( 2x2)+1] = 6.71 m.

Area of the two side slopes = 2x200x6.71 = 2684 sq m.

Quantity of pitching = Area x thickness =2684x0.15 = 402.6 cu m.

Cost of stone pitching = 402.6 x 400=Rs. 161040.

6.2. Taking out quantities from L.S. and C.S. in cutting and

embankment

Example : Reduced level (R.L.) of ground along the centre line of a

proposed road from chainage 10 to chainage 20 are given below. The formation

level at the 10th chainage is 107 m. and the road is in downward gradient of 1 in

150 up to the chainage 14 and then the gradient changes to 1 in 100 downward.

Formation width of the road is 10 metre and side slopes of banking are 2:1.

Length of the chain is 30 metre. Calculate the quantity of earthwork.

Chainage : 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

R.L. of ground : 105.00, 105.60, 105.44, 105.90, 105.42, 104.30

105.00 , 104.10, 104.62, 104.00, 103.30

R.L. formation : 107.00, 106.80, 106.60, 106.40, 106.20,105.90.

105.60 105.30 105.00 104.70 104.40

Height of bank : 2.00, 1.20, 1.16, 0.50, 0.78, 1.60, 0.60, 1.20,

0.38, 0.70, 1.10

Chainage Height Mean

Central

or Depth height area

or depth Bd

Side

area

Sd2

Length in Quantity =

Total

area

between [(Bd+S(d)2]xL

Bd+Sd2 chainage Banking

Cutting

10

2.00

11

1.20

1.60

16.00

5.12

21.12

30

633.6

12

1.16

1.18

11.80

2.78

14.58

30

437.4

13

0.50

0.83

8.30

1.38

9.68

30

290.4

14

0.78

0.64

6.40

0.82

7.22

30

216.6

15

1.60

1.19

11.90

2.83

14.73

30

441.9

16

0.60

1.10

11.00

2.42

13.42

30

402.6

223

17

1.20

0.90

9.00

1.62

10.62

30

318.6

18

0.38

0.79

7.90

1.25

9.15

30

274.5

19

0.70

0.54

5.40

0.58

5.98

30

179.4

20

1.10

0.90

9.00

1.62

10.62

30

318.6

Total

3513.6 cu m.

the ground to be level in direction transverse to the centre line, calculate the

volume contained in a length of 120 metres, the centre heights at 20 m. intervals

being 2.2, 3.7, 3.8, 4.0, 3.8, 2.8, 2.5 m.

For a level section, the area is given by A=(b+nh)h

Slope is 11/2:1. Hence n=1.5

The areas at different sections will be as under

A1 = (10+1.5x2.2)2.2=29.26 m2.

A2 = (10+1.5x3.7)3.7=57.54 m2.

A3 = (10+1.5x3.8)3.8=59.66 m2.

A4 = (10+1.5x4.0)4.0=64.00 m2.

A5 = (10+1.5x3.8)3.8=59.66 m2.

A6 = (10+1.5x2.8)2.8=39.76 m2.

A7 = (10+1.5x2.5)2.5=34.37 m2.

Volume by trapezoidal rule : V = d[(A1+An)/2 +A2+A3+A4+. . .

. +An-1 ]

V = 20[( 29.26+34.37)/2 +57.54+59.66+64.00+59.66+39.76] =

6258.9 m3.

Volume by prismoidal rule : V=d/3[(A1+An)+2(Sum of odd

areas)+4(sum of even areas)]

V=20/

3[(29.26+34.37)+2(59.66+59.66)+4(57.54+64.00+39.76)]=6316.5 m3.

Problems involving banking and cutting : At the 30th chainage the height

is banking of height 0.3 m. and at 31st chainage, it is cutting at a depth of 0.40 m.

224

Construction Technology

Find the volume of banking and cutting if the formation width is 10 m. and the

side slopes are 2:1 in banking and 11/2 : 1 in cutting.

Chainage distance = 40 m. Let the height of embankment be zero at a

distance of x mts.

Length of cutting =( 40-x) . (x/0.3) =[(40-x)/0.4]

0.3x 0.7x= 12 x=17.14 say 17.0 m.

0.4x=12-

area = 10x0.15 = 1.5 sq m.

Side area = 2x(0.15x0.15)=0.05 sq m. Total area = 1.5+0.05=1.55

sq m.

Volume of banking = Area x length = 1.55x17=26.35 m3.

Volume of cutting : Mean depth = (0.0+0.4)/2 = 0.2 m. Central

area = 10x0.2 =2.0 sq m.

Side areas = 1.5(0.2x0.2) = 0.06 sq m. Total area = 2.0+0.06 =

2.06 sq m.

Volume of cutting = Area x length = 2.06 x 23 = 47.38 m3.

0.3

0.4

x

(40-x)

40

Fig 6.2

Summary

Earthwork calculations are required for various engineering works as

roads, railways, irrigation and water supply and sanitary works.

The various methods of calculation of earthworks are Mid sectional

area method, mean sectional area method, trapezoidal rule and

prismoidal rule.

Prismoidal formula is not applicable for even number of areas.

Banking : If the earthwork is above the ground level it is banking.

225

1. List out the various types of engineering works involving earthwork.

2. What are the various methods of calculating earthwork?

3. Define banking and cutting

4. Mention the relationship between the Reduced level of formation

and the ground line

5. What is the formula for calculating the side slope area.?

1. The areas within the contour line at the site of reservoir and the

proposed face of the dam are as follows

Contour

Area

101

1,000 m2

102

12,800m2

103

95,200 m2

104

147,600 m2

105

872,500 m2

106

1350,000 m2

107

1985,000 m2

108

2286,000 m2

109

2512,000 m2

Taking 101 as the bottom level of the reservoir and 109 as the top level,

calculate the capacity of the reservoir.

O.J.T. Questions

1. Prepare a detailed estimate for earthwork for a portion of road from

the following data.

226

Construction Technology

R.L. of formation

114.50

115.000

100

114.75

200

115.25

300

115.20

400

116.10

500

116.85

600

118.00

700

118.25

800

118.10

900

117.80

1000

117.75

1100

117.90

1200

117.50

Formation width of road is 10 m. wide. The side slopes are 2:1 in banking

and 11/2:1 in cutting.

UNIT

Detailed Estimates

Structure

7.0 Introduction

7.1 Estimate of gravel roads

7.2 Cement concrete road

7.3 Septic tank with soak pit

Learning Objectives

After studying this unit student will be able to

Calculate the quantities of material required for gravel and cement

concrete roads. Calculate the quantities of Septic Tank.

7.0 Introduction

A road consists of sub base, base course and wearing course. The sub

base consists of earthwork prepared as per the height of formation. Over this

sub base a base course of stone ballast or brick ballast of 12 cm. Thickness

compacted to 8 cm. is laid. Finally a wearing coat is laid over this base course.

The wearing course may be of cement concrete, bitumen or gravel. Depending

upon the wearing course provided the roads are classified as cement concrete

roads, bituminous roads and gravel roads. Depending upon the cost involved

the appropriate road required is decided. In order to estimate the cost of the

228

Construction Technology

road, we should be able to prepare the detailed estimate of the various types of

roads and calculate the materials required. In the sixth unit we studied about

calculation of earthwork involved in the formation of roads. In this unit we shall

find the quantities of the base course and wearing course.

In a gravel roads, the gravel is generally laid over stone ballast. It is laid

over the entire width of the road. The quantity of stone boulders and gravel

consists of thickness of their respective layers multiplied by its thickness.

Calculate the quantity of metal required for a 3.70 m. wide road for one

kilometer length for one layer of 8 cm. compacted thickness.

Metal of 12 cm. is required for compact thickness of 8 cm. as volume

of loose metal gets reduced on half compaction.

Quantity of metal = 1000 x 3.70 x 0.12 = 444 cu m.

Prepare a detailed estimate for the construction of one kilometer length

W.B.M. road. The formation width of the road is 10.0 m. and the average

height of the bank is 1.0 m. and the side slopes are 2:1. The metal led width is

3.7 m. m. and three coats of metal are to be provided as per cross section.

Soiling coat of 15 cm. thick boulders at the base. Over this soiling coat, inter

coat and top coat of 12 cm. compacted to 8 cm. A gravel coat of 5 cm. thick is

laid over these metal led surface.

Quantity of earth work = [Bd+S(d)2] x L = [10 x 1.0 + 2(1)2] x 1000

=12000 cum.

Length of the soling coat = 3.7 +0.15 + 0.15 = 4.0 m.

Detailed estimate of wbm road with gravel

10.0m

3.70m

3.15m

3.15m

1.0 m

1.0 m

Saeing coat

Inter coat

Top coat

Fig 7.1 Cross section road

Gravel

S.No. Particulars of

work

229

B Hor D Quantity

m3

m

m2

No. L

m

Metal ling

Preparation of sub

(a)

1000 4

0.15

600

(b)

Inter coat

444

(c)

Top coat

444

Layer of gravel

185

Prepare an estimate for one kilometer length of a cement concrete track

way with 60 cm wide tracks 1.50 meter centre to centre over 15 cm rammed

kankar.

No Length

m

Cement concrete 2 1000

1:2:4in tracks including laying.

m

m2

m3

0.1

0.6

120

under c.c.tracks in between c.c.tracks.

1

1000

0.9

0.2

360

1000

0.9

0.133

120

S.no Particular

1

480

For consolidating kankar an allowance of 1/3 is to be provided while

taking loose thickness of kankar.

Eg. For 0.10 m. thickness loose kankar taken = 0.1 + 0.1 x 1/3 = 0.

133 m.

Similarly for 0.15 m thickness loose kankar = 0.15 x 1.33 = 0.20 m.

230

Construction Technology

10 cm Thick cc .Track

Rammed kankar

60 cm

60 cm

10 cm cc

15 cm kankar

90 cm

90 cm

Rammed kankar

Septic tank shall be of first class brickwork in 1:4 cement mortar, the

foundation and floor shal be of 1:3:6 cement concrete. Inside septic tank shall

be finished with 12 mm cement plaster and floor shall be finished with 20 mm

cement plaster with 1:3 cement mortar. Upper and lower portions of soak pit

shall be of second class brick work in 1:6 cement mortar and middle portion

shall be of dry brickwork. Roof covering slabs and baffle wall shall be of precast

R.C.C.

Details of Measurement & Calculation Of Quantities

S.No Particulars of

items

1

Earthwork in

excavation

septic tank

Soak pit upto

3.0 m

Soakpit

Lowerportion

No. Length

m

or

m3

m

Depth

m

1

1

1.7

2.8

(22/28)x(2.0)2

1.95

3

9.28

9.42

(22/28)x(1.4)2

0.2

0.3

19

Floor&

Foundation

2.8

1.7

0.2

0.95

Sloping floor

0.9

0.05

0.09

Cementconcrete

1:3:6

231

First class

brickwork in

1:4 c.m. in

septic tank

First step

Long walls

2.6

0.3

0.6

0.94

Short wall

0.9

0.3

0.6

0.32

wall

2.4

0.2

1.15

1.1

0.9

0.2

1.15

0.42

Short wall

2.78

4

2nd class

brickwork in

1:6 cement

mortar in

soak pit

Upper portion

Lower portion

brickwork

in soak pit

Precast

R.C.C. work

Coverslab

septictank

Coverslab

Soak pit

Baffle wall

septictank

12 mm

cement plaster

1:3 in septic

tank

(22/7) x 1.20

(22/7) x 1.20

(22/7) x 1.20

2.4

(22/

28)x(1.40)2

0.2

0.2

0.2

1.3

0.04

0.5

0.38

0.2

0.15

0.53

2.5

1.88

0.075

0.234

0.075

0.115

0.45

0.018

0.367

232

Construction Technology

Long walls

1.7

6.8

Short walls

0.9

1.7

3.06

9.86 sq m.

20 mm

c e m e n t

plaster

1:3 in floor of

septic tank

1.80 sq m.

Baffle wall

Section

0.4 m

0.9

In let

Out let

2.0 m

Plan

Fig. 7.3 Septic Tank

Summary

Structure of a road : The structure of a road from base to the top is as

follows. Earthwork formation , sub base, base course and wearing course.

Types of roads : Gravel road, cement concrete road, bituminous road.

Structure of a gravel road : Soling coat of boulders about 15 cm

thick, inter coat and top coat 8 cm to 10 cm thick and wearing course of gravel

5 cm thick.

233

provided over rammed earth.

Component parts of a septic tank : A septic tank consists of Plain

cement concrete at its base, Walls on all the four sides in brickwork or R.R.

masonry, baffle wall, sum board for large tanks, Precast R.C.C. slabs at the

top, inlet and outlet pipes. A soak pit is connected to the septic tank to collect

the discharge effluent. A soak pit consists of hollow circular brickwork constructed

with cement mortar. Dry brickwork is placed in the hollow section.

1. What is the structure of a road ?

2. List out the various types of roads.

3. Mention the various parts of a gravel road.

4. What are the various parts of a septic tank?

1. Prepare a detailed estimate for the construction of one kilometer

length over a formation of an embankment. The formation width is 10.0 m. and

side slope 2:1. The metal led width is 4.0 m. and three coats of metal ling are to

be provided. Soling coat of 15 cm. boulders, inter coat and top coats of 12 cm

loose compacted to 8 cm thick. Wearing coat of gravel 5 cm thick.

2. Prepare a detailed estimate for one kilometer length cement concrete

road 4.0 m wide and 15 cm thick. It is laid over rammed earth 6.0 m. wide and

20 cm thick.

3. Prepare a detailed estimate for a septic tank 2.0 m. long and 1.0 m.

wide. The height of the septic tank is 2.0 m. Assume suitable data for pre cast

slabs , baffle wall, inlets and oulets.

O.J.T. Questions

1. Calculate the materials required for proposed construction of gravel

road and cement concrete road over an existing formation.

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