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Sami Masadeh
Materials Engineering Department
Cathodic protection is one of the most effective techniques of corrosion prevention
for pipe metals combined with special kinds of coating, because in some situations, it
could completely stop corrosion, in the other hand, it lasts for a long time, and relatively
costs less than other prevention techniques.
Cathodic protection is perhaps the most important of all approaches to corrosion
prevention. By means of an externally applied electric current, corrosion is reduced
virtually to zero, and a metal surface can be maintained in a corrosive environment
without deterioration for an indefinite time. More details will be discussed in the next
Both anodic and cathodic protections utilize electrochemical polarization to reduce
corrosion rates. Otherwise, mechanisms are different, as well as the methods and
equipment for implementation. Anodic current uses an anodic current to polarize the
corroding surface into a potential region where passivity is stable. Cathodic protection
uses a cathodic current to polarize the surface to more active potential that suppress the
anodic dissolution rate. Anodic protection is effective only for active-passive metals or
alloys that form a resistant passive film. Cathodic protection can be effective for any
metal or alloy. The throwing power, or ability to be transferred over distance, is high for
anodic protection because very low current are applied, usually in low resistivity
electrolyte. Throwing power is much lower for cathodic protection because higher
currents are required, often in solution of much higher resistivity.
In this work, a cathodic protection program was made to ease the cathodic
protection design.
Keywords: cathodic protection, pipeline, attenuation constant, soil resistivity
Regardless of the type of cathodic protection system to be installed, principle
measurements should be conducted prior to beginning the system design; these
measurements are voltage, current and resistivity. The voltages and currents directly
involved with the protection circuits are unidirectional. Alternating current and voltage
measurements for rectifier input circuits are made in the same way as A.C. power
measurements. Whenever possible, a trial and error process using a temporary ground bed

Current demand. An estimate of current requirements using tables based on field experience. 2.m) 100 .5 – 1. Table 1:Typical current density requirements for cathodic protection of steel.(1) Coating quality Very weak Weak Medium Good Very good Excellent Coating resistance (ohm. CATHODIC PROTECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE Designs for impressed-current have some common steps. Soil resistivity should be determined for the specific area where the groundbed is to be installed. Areas may easily be underestimated in complex structures subject to a variety of environments.05 Less than 0. Polarized potential.200 200 – 500 500 – 1000 1000 – 2000 2000 – 10000 More than 10000 Protection current (mA/m2) 1. The primary criteria in use of cathodic protection involve the appropriate polarized potential. The calculation of exposed surface areas is not given necessary care.0 0.5 0.0 – 2. Many structures have areas exposed to a number of environments. 3. A theoretical calculation based on coating efficiency. Separate calculations are required for each environment. The current density needed to achieve this potential is used in the design of the system.05 – 0. Even small differences in location can cause . and the cathodic protection system subsequently underdesigned. which are listed.0 0. Approximate cathodic protection current requirements based on coating quality are given in table 1. Area to be protected.01 – 0. Soil Resistivity. as follows: 1. The amount of current required for complete cathodic protection can be determined by one of the following three ways:    An actual test on existing structures using a temporary cathodic protection setup. Required current is calculated simply from the product of area and the corresponding current density requirement.1 0.01 4.1 – 0.and a portable power supply should be used to determine the current required to protect the structure.

R. 6. For impressed current anodes. E=IR. and experience plays a major role because potential and current distributions in the electrolyte can only be approximated. Design output current. From the anode resistance. and driving voltage. of the selected anodes. E. Cathode resistance is usually assumed negligible. Anode number and distribution. Total required weight of anodes is determined from known consumption rates for the calculated current demand. compared to anode resistance and neglected in the calculations. The weight of anode material consumed must be divided into an appropriate number of anodes. 7.large differences in soil resistivity. the design output current can be calculated from ohm's law. The choice of anode distribution is more art than science. even for the simplest system geometries. In a proper design the output current will at least match or exceed the required current calculated. consumption is optimized to yield minimum cost for current provided from an external supply. 5. The Program . Soil resistivity may be determined by using Wenner (4-pin) procedure. Anode consumption. which are distributed around the structure to give as close to uniform current distribution as possible.

. Exit: This link allows users to quit the application. 4. The main page represents the application's navigation menu. 3. The Terms and Tables section: This links users to a useful list definitions and tables. 5. The Introduction section: This offers a brief overview about corrosion and methods of protection including ICCP. INTRODUCTION. 2. the user can easily navigate through five choices which are: 1.Figures1 &2: The main screen and main menu of the program. The Prepared by Section: shows the project team. as shown in Figures 1&2. The Calculations section: This section allows users to perform ICCP calculations. When user clicks the introduction link. figure 3 will show up.

4. 3. Coatings. Cathodic protection: links the users to a screen. 2. as following : - Corrosion definition. which contains techniques.Figure 3: The content page in the introduction section. Corrosion: this links the users to another screen. as following: - protection Material selection. Protection of metals: links the users to a screen. Anodic protection. which contains the type of cathodic protection which are: - SCP (Sacrificial Cathodic Protection). CALCULATIONS The calculation screen shown in figure 4 is divided into four logical sections as follows: . Design. Cathodic protection. which contains further subcategories for corrosion. Theory of corrosion. Economic losses of corrosion. ICCP (Impressed Current Cathodic Protection).2. The introduction screen contains three main categories which are: 1.

B. In pull-down menu (5) the user can choose the anode type and the application will automatically fill the anode consumption rate depending on the selected value. or by using the pull-down menus (as in 1. The outputs section: This contains the non-editable display controls for showing calculation results acquired depending on user inputs. each performing a desired functionality. In pull-down menu (3). a list of possible pipe's lengths in kilometers appears and selecting a value will automatically result to fill the value in meters. The inputs section: This contains the controls that allow users to efficiently supply their input values to the application. 4. It contains all of control and calculations abilities. The user may provide the inputs either by entering the value directly into the text boxes (as in 4 and 5 text boxes). C . See figure 9. 2. C. 3 and 6 menus) that automatically fills the corresponding values into their actual places. The application standard menu: This menu allows users to manage the application in a standard way.A. As shown in figure 8. a list of possible coating quality estimations appears and selecting a value will automatically result to fill the coating resistivity and protection current density. As shown in figure 7. The Commands panel: This contains a several clickable controls. D.1 THE INPUTS SECTION. When using pull-down menus special actions occur as follows: In pull-down menu (1). In pull-down menu (2). a list of possible pipe's diameter in inches appears and selecting a value will automatically result to fill the value in meters.2. Figure 5 represents a snapshot of section (A) (the inputs). As shown in figure 6.

When the user clicks on the "have data" button. The form takes three values as an input (1). Figure 12 shows the section (B) of the calculation form. When user clicks on (4) "submit" the resulting value will be copied back to the main calculation form filling the soil resistivity value. When user clicks on (2). .2.2. Figure 11. This form provides a simple way to calculate the soil resistivity when not known for the user by providing other user-known values. 4. which will show the resulting output of the given inputs. THE OUTPUT SECTION. the calculated result will appear in (3). a small form shows up as shown in figure 10. shows pull-down menu (6) which provide a way to select the system life in years.Figure 4: The calculation page divided into four section.

1 4 2 3 5 7 6 Figure 5: Snapshot of section A of the calculation page (the inputs). Figures 6&7: Pull-down menu of the pipe's diameter (inch) and length (km) Figures 8&9: Pull-down menu of possible coating quality and anode type. .

The outputs consist of six values: .Number of anodes. . .Distance between anodes. 1 3 2 4 Figure 11: 4-wenner technique's to calculate soil resistivity page. . .Distance between anode and pipe.Weight for each anode.IR drop.Figure 10: Pull-down menu of system life (years). 1 Figure 12: Section (B) of the calculation form (the output section). .Total current required for protection. .

and a message box appears to confirm if the user wants to quit. so the user can re-enter data and calculate them. the Program does all the required calculations. If the user doesn’t fill one of the required inputs. Figure 14: Message box appears and one input turns red to alert the user. as shown in figure (14). - The Exit button: when the user presses on this button it quits the program. 4. all of the input and outputs text boxes are cleared. - The Clear All command button: when the user presses this button. the program doesn’t do the required calculations. Figure 13 shows the command panel section of the calculation form. As it shows: - The Calculate command button: when the user presses this button.2.2 1 3 4 Figure 13: Section (C) of the calculation page (command panel). STANDARD MENU .3. - The Main Page button: when pressed it links back the user to the main page. and alerts the user to fill these missing inputs. and put the results in the output text boxes.

and Exit. Figures 15&16: File menu in the menu bar and calculations menu in the menu bar. Load. .The menu bar consists of three menus. The File menu: shown in figure 14. as follows: 1. contains four menu items which are: Save. Main Page.

. The Calculations menu: shown in figure 16.1. and About. contain two menu items which are: Terms and Tables. to allow the user to choose where to save his file (which has an *. 3. contains three menu items which are: Soil resistivity. FILE MENU When the user opens the file menu. the user must press on the save button to save or can press on the cancel button to cancel the saving process. three items can be found. and Clear All.2. 4. he presses on the Save item in the file menu (or use Control + S shortcut) and a dialog box appears (as shown in figure (18)).3.Figures 17&18: Help menu in the menu bar and Save as dialog box.iccp extension).P Calculations. When the user wants to save his data. The Help menu: shown in figure 17. 2. C.After specifying the location and name of the file.

he must press on the load item in the file menu (or use Control + L shortcut). then he has to press on the open button to load the data or press the cancel button to cancel the loading (opening) process. After loading the data from the file. by pressing on the Main Page item in the file menu (or use Control + M shortcut). opened by notepad and Open dialog box.Figure 19 &20: A file saved by the user. the user can open the file to preview the saved information. an open dialog box will appear (as shown in figure (20)) to allow the user to specify the location and name of the desired file. After saving the file. which are saved as the following format shown in figure 19. . and outputs as the following sample report: If the user wants to load a previously saved data. The user can print his data as a report containing date. time. inputs. Figure 21: Filled calculation page by the loaded data. the calculation form will be filled with the corresponding values of inputs and outputs as in figure (21). The user can also return back to the main menu.

1st Ed. a form containing information about the user's computer will appear. p. Palme Pub. ‘Maximizing the Lifetime of an Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System’. 4. Yalcin & T.12. HELP MENU In the help menu the user can get some information from existing definitions. p. 72. 1991.2.Rodney J. 3. . If the user presses on the About item in the help menu (or uses F9 shortcut). Leonard Hill [Books] Limited. REFERENCES 1. ‘Cathodic Protection in Oilfield Brine’. three items will appear as in figure (16). a message box will appear to confirm the quitting. 51.P Calculation item in the calculation menu (or F3 shortcut). 4. Cathodic Protection. or can get information about the program. the program will perform the calculation that include the inputs and result with the output. or system information.2. where the user can make use of the existing terms and tables.The user can also exit the program by pressing on the Exit item in the file menu (or F4 shortcut). Materials Performance. Koc. Morgan.6. If the user presses on the Terms and Tables item in the help menu (or uses F1 shortcut).Stephen P. If the user presses on the C.3. p. No.John H. If the user presses on the Soil resistivity item in the calculation menu (or F2 shortcut). Vol. 32. an information form will.3. Dice. Containing the description of the program.2. 27-29. 1993. all the input and output texts will be cleared. If the user presses on System info button. CALCULATIONS MENU When the user presses on the Calculation menu. Materials Performance. 1st Ed. No. If the user presses on the Clear All item in the calculation menu (or Shift + Delete shortcut). and tables. Vol. 1959 2. it will make a link to the terms and table page. Katodik Koruma. p. 30.H. 4. 16-20. and showing the program's icon.3. London. a Form as in figure (11) will appear. Turnipseed.