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Issues (LI)

Research is a process of enquiry and investigation; it is systematic, methodical and
ethical, that can help solve practical problems and increase knowledge. The word
research is derived from the ‘recherche’, which means to go about seeking.

dan jenisjenisnya.

The purpose of research is to :
 review or synthesize existing knowledge
 investigate existing situations or problems
 provide solutions to problems
 explore and analyse more general issues
 construct or create new procedures or systems
 explain new phenomenon
 generate new knowledge
The main stages of research process :
 Establish a general field of interest.
 Undertake preliminary & background reading on the subject to be
 Narrow the ideas to a workable topic or research proposal and give it a title.
 Preparation of information gathering tools, e.g. questionnaires, interview
sheets etc.
 Collation, analyse and interpretation of research data.
 Write first draft of research project report.
 Revision and re-write dissertation; submit dissertation.
There are some ethical considerations in research according to Saunders (2003) :
 The rights of privacy of individuals
 Voluntary nature of participation – and the rights of individuals to withdraw
partially or completely from the process
 Consent and possible deception of participants
 Maintenance of the confidentiality of data provided by individuals or
identifiable participants and their anonymity
 Reactions of participants to the ways in which researchers seek to collect
 Effects on participants of the way in which data is analysed and reported
 Behaviour and objectivity of the researcher
There are numerous research designs used for clinical research, including
descriptive, exploratory, and experimental studies.
Descriptive Research- Descriptive research makes observations about people or

of phenomena. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of the intervention.Exploratory research examines people or conditions that have not been extensively studied. or surveys. frequency etc.Experimental research involves comparing two groups of people. e. attitudes. Research can be approached in the following ways. Often. and historical research. Exploratory research looks to clarify or define a problem. if not all. Examples include case-studies. without any particular applied purpose in mind at the outset. perceptions. Qualitative research is more subjective in nature than quantitative research and involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject.conditions.g. broad theories.  Deductive/Inductive Deductive research moves from general ideas/theories to specific particular & situations: the particular is deduced from the general.g. Applied Research is designed from the start to apply its findings to a particular situation. pilot studies. Inductive research moves from particular situations to make or infer broad general ideas/theories. Usually. that sometimes many research projects combine a number of approaches:  Quantitative/Qualitative The emphasis of quantitative research is on collecting and analysing numerical data. it can be often difficult to interpret and present the findings. relationships or associations are looked for in order to better understand a problem. is usually highly detailed and structured and results can be easily collated and presented statistically. it concentrates on measuring the scale. This type of research. . one of the groups receives an intervention or treatment and the other does not. although harder to design initially. qualitative research. range. alternative explanations regarding their results. Generally. values. are viewed as the gold standard in research because the design allows researchers to rule out most. a study may discover a relationship between lifestyle factors and a particular disease. Experimental Research. e. Although this type of research can be easier to start. this research includes a small sample of patients and intensively studies them to gain insight into the subject of interest. the findings can also be challenged more easily. any differences at the conclusion of the study.  Applied/Basic The primary aim of Basic Research is to improve knowledge generally. For instance. cohort studies. Examples include case-control studies. Exploratory Research. These designs. If the two groups are similar at the outset of the study. when randomization is used.

harvard. or a group of people. The main methods of asking questions are by face-to-face or telephone interviews.topic851950. information that may be both qualitative and quantitative. and this is where the researcher becomes a working member of the group or situation to be observed. There are two main types of survey: a descriptive survey and analytical  Ethnography (participant observation) Ethnography is more usually described as participant observation. Longitudinal studies are often conducted over several years. one organisation.  Longitudinal Studies These are studies over an extended period to observe the effect that time has on the situation under observation and to collect primary data (data collected at first hand) of these changes. The variables can be manipulated or controlled to observe the effects on the subjects studied. http://www.  Case Studies A case study offers an opportunity to study a particular [accessed at 19 March 2014] Research .g. Introduction to Research And Research Methods. by using questionnaires or a mixture of the two.  Participative Enquiry  Grounded Theory Referensi Colin Neville. and usually involves gathering and analysing information.  Cross-sectional Studies This is a study involving different organisations or groups of people to look at similarities or differences between them at any one particular time. e.  Experimental Studies Experimental studies are done in carefully controlled and structured environments and enable the causal relationships of phenomena to be identified and 2007.  Action Research Action research involves an intervention by a researcher to influence change in any given situation and to monitor and evaluate the results. http://www.brad.pdf&ei=tgU4U9WhOYXArAezyYDYDQ&usg=AFQjCNE3SkzvzL .Some Notes. in %20definition%20and%20methods %20pdf&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CC0QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F %2Fisites.Some research methodologies :  Surveys Surveys involve selecting a representative and unbiased sample of subjects drawn from the group you wish to study.files%2FResearch %2520Methods_Some %2520Notes.

Available at : http://www.pdf [accessed at 19 March 2014] Research . Introduction to Research And Research Methods.pdf&ei= tgU4U9WhOYXArA Content of information Yes Is it applicable ? Yes .QARJTQCWq3lcLjs-i3uw&sig2=p2uQLeKMjnnf0Br4NRdag&bvm=bv. uk/management/me dia/management/el s/Introduction-toResearch-andResearchMethods.63808443.topic851950.Some Notes.ed u%2Ffs%2Fdocs m/url? sa=t&rct=j&q=resear ch%20definition %20and%20methods %20pdf&source=web &cd=2&ved=0CC0Q FjAB&url=http%3A %2F %2Fisites. Colin Neville. Available at : files%2FResearch %2520Methods_Som e %2520Notes.bmk [accessed at 19 March 2014] Table referensi Source Answer number Info type Validity Importance Applicable Foundation Result Foundation Result Foundation Result Workb ook Report Yes Content of information Yes Is it applicable ? Yes Workbook Research Yes . 2007.

d.ezyYDYDQ&usg=A FQjCNE3SkzvzLQA RJTQCWq3lcLjsi3uw&sig2=p2uQLeKMjnnf0Br4N Rdag&bvm=bv.bmk [accessed at 19 March 2014] .6380 8443.