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Kinetics of Particles

Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion
Kinetics is a branch of dynamics that deals with the relationship
between the change in motion of a body and the forces that cause this
change. The basis for kinetics is Newton's second law, which states
that when an unbalanced force acts on a particle, the particle will
accelerate in the direction of the force with a magnitude that is
proportional to the force. This law can be verified experimentally by
applying a known unbalanced force F to a particle, and then measuring
the acceleration a. Since the force and acceleration are directly
proportional, the constant of proportionality, m, may be determined

from the ratio m =

a . This positive scalar m is called the mass of

the particle. Being constant during any acceleration, m provides a
quantitative measure of the resistance of the particle to a change in its
velocity, which is its inertia.
Newton's second law of motion may be written in mathematical form

F = ma
F = force acts on a particle
m = mass of the particle

257 m/s2 ¿ ¿ ∑Fy = may ] .a = acceleration of the particle SAMPLE PROBLEM 1. A 75-kg man stands on a spring scale in an elevator. The total mass of the elevator. man. Find the reading R of the scale in newtons and the velocity υ of the elevator after 3 seconds. The tension T in the hoisting cable is 8300 N. and scale is 750kg. Solution: ¿ ¿ ∑Fy = may ] T – m1g = m1y 8300 – 7360 = 750ay ay = 1.

15(230) = 25a N = 230 N a = 1.77 m/s SAMPLE PROBLEM 2.257 dt 0 υ = 3.257) [∆υ = ∫ a dt ] R = 830 N 3 υ–0= ∫ 1. Solution: Frame and sphere as a unit: ∑Fy = N – mgcosѲ = 0 ∑Fx = N – mgcosѲ – μN = max N – 25(9. The 10-kg sphere is suspended from the 15-kg frame sliding down the 20° incline.0.81)cos20° = 0 25(9.973 m/s2 .15. compute each tension of wires A and B. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between the frame and incline is 0.81)sin20° .R – m2g = m2y R – 736 = 75(1.

000 kg m/s2 F=3.000 kg.000 N .56 N (TA + TB)cos45° .81)cos20° =0 Answers: TA + TB = 130. F=ma F=(45.10(9. If the mass of the rocket is 45.Sphere alone: ∑Fy = 0 TA .000 kg)(70 m/s2 ) = 3.4 N ∑Fx = max (TA + TB)sin45° + 9.150.TB = -19.4 N TA = 75 N TB = 55.81sin20° = 10(1. how much net force must the rocket develop? Solution : Using Newton's second law.973) SAMPLE PROBLEMS Engineers at the Johnson Space Center must determine the net force needed for a rocket to achieve an acceleration of 70 m/s2 .150.

.Exercises on Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion Exercise 1 A horizontal force of 10-N is applied to a 4-kg block that is at rest on a perfectly smooth level surface. Find the speed of the block and how far it has gone after 6s.

Exercise 2 The 50-kg crate shown rests on a horizontal plane for which the coefficient of friction is μ = 0. determine the velocity of the crate is 3s starting from rest. .30. If the crate is subjected to a 400-N towing force.

000 N. What is the greatest upward acceleration possible for the elevator under these circumstances? .Exercise 3 A loaded elevator whose total mass is 800 kg is suspended by a cable whose maximum permissible tension is 20.

A.Exercise 4 The figure shows a 12-kg block. Find the accelerations of the two blocks under the assumption that the string is massless and the pulley is massless and frictionless.30 . B. which hangs from a string that passes over a pulley and is connected at its other end to a 30 kg block. What is the tension in the string? . which rest in a table with coefficient of friction of μ=0.

Exercise 5 The figure shows the same two blocks. suspended by a string on either side of a massless. Mass A = 12kg and mass B = 30 kg. . A and B. frictionless pulley. Find the accelerations of the two blocks and the tension in the string.

What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the shell just before it strikes the ground? . a. Determine the initial speed Vi of the shell b.Problem Set on Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion Problem 1 A shell is fired with a horizontal velocity in the positive X direction from the top of an 800m high cliff. What is the speed of the shell as it hits the ground? c. The shell strikes the ground 1330m from the base of the cliff.

Determine the initial speed Vi of the balloon b. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the balloon just before it strikes the beach? . The balloon strikes the beach 30m from the base of the bluff. a.Problem 2 A water balloon is launched with a horizontal velocity in the positive x direction from the top of a 10m high bluff above the beach.

55 seconds later.Problem 3 A quarterback throws a pass at an angle of 35 o above the m horizontal with an initial speed of 25 s . Determine the distance the ball was thrown. . The ball is caught by the receiver 2.

Find the friction forces between two blocks f1 and between the supporting plane and the 40kg block f2 b.2 and the static friction coefficient between the 40-kg block and the supporting horizontal plane is 0.Problem 4 A horizontal force F is gradually increased until 40 kg block begins moving to the right. For the magnitude of the force F does the lower block just start to move? . a.5. The 10 kg block cannot move because of the cord attaching it to wall at left. The static friction coefficient between two blocks is 0.

a. A force of 50 N pulls the blocks to the right. What is the magnitude of the tension T in the rope that connects the two blocks? . The surface on which the blocks slide is frictionless.Problem 5 A 10-kg block is connected to a 40-kg block as shown in the figure. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the 40-kg block? b.