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Components

In mathematics, given a vector at a point on the

curve, that vector can be decomposed uniquely as

a sum of two vectors, one tangent to the curve,

called the tangential componentof the vector,

and another one perpendicular to the curve, called

the normal component of the vector. Similarly a

vector at a point on a surface can be broken down

the same way.

More generally, given a submanifoldN of a

manifold M, and a vector in the tangent space to

M at a point N, it can be decomposed into the component tangent to N and the

component normal to N.

Surface

More formally, let S be the surface, and x be the point on the surface. Let V be a

vector at x. Then one can write uniquely V as a sum

V=V„ + V┌

where the first vector in the sum is the tangential component and the second one is

the normal component. It follows immediately that these two vectors are

perpendicular to each other.

To calculate the tangential and normal components, consider a unit normal to the

surface , that is, a unit vector ň perpendicular to S and x. Then,

V┌ = ( V ▪ ň ) ň

And thus

V„ =V - V┌

where “ ▪ ” denotes the dot product. Another formula for tangential component is

V„ = -ň X (ň X V),

where “ X “ denotes the cross product.

References • Rojansky. given a submanifoldN of a manifold M and a point p ε N. so one of the units normal is negative of the other one). pointing in the opposite directions. we can again compute using the dot product. the cross product is special to 3 dimensions though. If N is given explicitly. more generally as hypersurface) as a level set or intersection of level surfaces for gi. and the tangent space of Matp decomposes as a direct sum of the component tangent to N and the component normal to N. Submanifold More generally. Electromagnetic fields and waves. then the derivative gives a spanning set for the tangent bundle (it’s basis if and only if the parametrization is an immersion). the above sequence splits. If N is given implicitly (as in the above description of the surface. If M is a Riemannian manifold. New York: Dover Publications. Computations: Suppose N is given by non-degenerate equations. ISBN 0486638340. . In both cases.Note that these formulas do not depend on the particular unit normal ň used (there exist two units normal to any surface at a given point. Vladimir (1979). then the gradients of gi span the normal space. via parametric equations (such as a parametric curve). we get a short exact sequence involving the tangent spaces: The quotient space is a generalized space of normal vectors.

(online version [1]) ISBN 097046701X. .• Benjamin Crowell (2003) Newtonian physics.

Kinematic quantities of projectile motion In projectile motion. and can be found if the is known: . but often the symbol alpha is used. If the projectile's range. the horizontal motion and the vertical motion are independent of each other. The only force of significance that acts on the object is gravity. that is. There are no horizontal forces needed to maintain the horizontal motion – consistent with the concept of inertia. . then it can be written as . launch velocity can be found using Newton's formula . and it moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only. which acts downward to cause a downward acceleration. launch angle. and drop height are known. . neither motion affects the other. The initial velocity If the projectile is launched with an initial velocity . The launch angle is usually expressed by the symbol theta. The components angle.Projectile motion Projectile motion is a form of motion in which an object or particle (called a projectile) is thrown near the earth's surface.

The accelerations in the and directions can be integrated to solve for the components of velocity at any time as follows: . because the acceleration due to gravity is constant. the projectile's horizontal and vertical displacement: . The vertical component of the velocity increases linearly. . being equal to . Here the acceleration is constant. The magnitude of the velocity (under the Pythagorean theorem ): Displacement At any time . being equal to . . Velocity The horizontal component of the velocity of the object remains unchanged throughout the motion. The magnitude of the displacement: . . The maximum height of projectile . The vertical motion of the projectile is the motion of a particle during its free fall.The components of the acceleration are: .Acceleration Since there is only acceleration in the vertical direction. the velocity in the horizontal direction is constant.

Time to reach the maximum height: . The increase of the height will last. until . that is.The highest height which the object will reach is known as the peak of the object's motion.. Tankönyvkiadó. Relation during horizontal range and maximum height The relation between the range height reached at on the horizontal plane and the maximum is: Application of the work energy theorem According to the work-energy theorem the vertical component of velocity are listed below: . . References BudóÁgoston: KísérletifizikaI. ISBN 963 17 8772 9 . From the vertical displacement of the maximum height of projectile: . 1986.Budapest.

NemzetiTankönyvkiadó. ZátonyiSándor: Fizika 9. We can use the initial velocity to get this. . To do this all (well almost all) we need to do is integrate the acceleration. ISBN 963-19-3506-X Sample problem: Example 1 If the acceleration of an object is given by . NemzetiTankönyvkiadó. összefüggésekésadatok.. Budapest. ISBN 978-963-19-6082-2 Hack Frigyes: Négyjegyűfüggvénytáblázatok. 2009. 2004. Find the object's velocity and position functions given that the initial velocity is position is and the initial . To completely get the velocity we will need to determine the “constant” of integration.Budapest. Ifj. Solution We’ll first get the velocity.

To do this we’ll need to notice that. Using the initial position gives us. We will find the position function by integrating the velocity function. the position function is. Example 2 For the object in the previous example determine the tangential and normal components of the acceleration. Solution There really isn’t much to do here other than plug into the formulas. .The velocity of the object is then. So.

we also need a couple of magnitudes. Next.Let’s first compute the dot product and cross product that we’ll need for the formulas. .

. The normal component of the acceleration is.The tangential component of the acceleration is then.

speed and acceleration of a particle whose trajectory is given by r(t) = (3 cos(2t). (2)Suppose a particle moves with a constant speed. 5t.PROBLEM: (Normal and tangential components) (1) Find velocity. Show that the acceleration is normal to the trajectory. 3 sin(2t)). .

(4)A water-skier is pulled forward by a rope at u = 7. following a curved path which can be approximated by a circular arc of radius r = 20 m. cos2 (t). .sin2 (t)). Find: The magnitudes of the boat’s velocity and acceleration at the instant t = 3 s. v = (0.1 m s−1 .2 t2) m/s. a motorboat travels around a circular path of ρ = 50 m at a speed that increases with time. Find the velocity and acceleration components if θ = 45? (5) Starting from rest. Plan: The boat starts from rest (v = 0 when t = 0).(3) Find the tangential and normal components of the acceleration if r(t) = (t. 1) Calculate the velocity at t = 3s using v(t). 2) Calculate the tangential and normal components of acceleration and then the magnitude of the acceleration vector.

The velocity is v(t) = r 0 (t) = (−6 sin(2t). Note. 2 cos(2t)). − sin(2t). (3) The derivatives are v(t) = (1. acceleration is orthogonal to velocity.e.Solution: (1) Let us first find the derivatives. 6 cos(2t)). we get 2a · v = 0. (2) Since the speed is constant.sin(2t)) and a(t) = (0. −2 cos(t) sin(t). i. Differentiating this equation with respect to t. so v = |v(t)| = q 36 sin2 (2t) + 25 + 36 cos2 (2t) = √ 36 + 25 = √ 61. its square is constant as well: v · v = |v(t)| 2 = const. so by the next problem the acceleration is normal to the trajectory. 2 sin(t) cos(t)) = (1. that the speed is independent of time. 5. 0. −2 cos(2t). −12 sin(2t)). Speed is the magnitude of the velocity vector. The tangential component of the acceleration is . The acceleration is a(t) = v 0 (t) = (−12 cos(2t).

compute the cross product first: The normal component of the acceleration can be found using the formula (4) .To find the normal component of the acceleration.

2t2)/dt = 0.4t m/s2 At t = 3s: at = 0.0648)2]0.2t2 = 0.2 m/s2 . where the magnitude is given by v = (0.4(3) = 1.2t2)2/(ρ) m/s2 At t = 3s: an = [(0.5.5 = [(1.4t = 0.2)(32)]2/(50) = 0. Solution: 1) The velocity vector is v = v ut .5 = 1.20 m/s2 .2(3)2 = 1. Normal component: an = v2/ρ = (0.2)2 + (0. Tangential component: at = v = d(.2t2) m/s.8 m/s 2) The acceleration vector is a = atut + anun = vut + (v2/ρ)un.0648 m/s2 The magnitude of the acceleration is a = [(at)2 + (an)2]0. At t = 3s: v = 0.

For how long is the child airborne? . 2. The child then experiences projectile motion.2 m below the slide.0 s.Problem: (projectile motion) 1. landing in a swimming pool 3. as in Figure 7(a).0 s.2 m/s horizontally. Determine the position of the ball at t 1. 3.0 s. 2. leaving it with a velocity of 4. A child travels down a water slide. and 4. A ball is thrown off a balcony and has an initial velocity of 18 m/s horizontally.0 s.

where it strikes the ground 3 seconds later. The pilot does not throw the package. The ball is given an initial velocity of 8m/s at an angle of 200 below the horizontal. determine the ball’s horizontal range (assuming that it lands at the same level from which it started) 5. A golfer strikes a golf ball on level ground. The pilot prepares to release a relief package intended to land on the ground 96 m horizontally ahead. travelling horizontally. Let the x direction be to the right and the y direction be downward (which is convenient since there is no upward motion) (see Figure 6(a)). is 82 m above the ground. The ball leaves the ground with an initial velocity of 42 m/s [32° above the horizontal]. A helicopter. A ball is tossed from an upper-story window of a building. How far horizontally from the base of the building does the ball strike the ground? b.0 s x= ? x= vixt . a. Air resistance is negligible. At what height was the ball thrown? Solution: 1. The initial conditions are shown in Figure 12. Horizontally (constant vix ): Vix= 18 m/s t =1. What is the initial velocity of the package relative to the ground? 4. If air resistance is negligible. but lets it drop.3.

8 m/s2 vfy =? T=? The horizontal motion has two unknowns and only one equation x vixt. Horizontally (constant vix ): x =96 m t= ? vix= ? Vertically (constant ay ): viy =0 m/s y= 82 m ay =+g= 9. Horizontally (constant vix ): vix =4.8 m/s2 t =? .0 s) x =18 m 2.=(18 m/s)(1. We can analyze the vertical motion to determine t : 3.2 m ay =+g =9.2 m/s x= ? t= ? Vertically (constant ay ): viy =0 y=3.

6 m (b) Taking y positive downwards. the ball was hit at t 0 and the ball lands at 22 m/s – 4.80)(3. We begin by finding the horizontal and vertical components of the initial velocity.8 m/s2 y =0 viy =22 m/s t =? vfy =-22 m/s Since the horizontal motion has two unknowns and only one equation. which we can use to find the horizontal range. y = vyit + 1 2 gt2 = 8.6 102 m.4. 5.9 m/s2 t 0.00) = 22. (a) x = vxit = (8.3 m .00 cos 20.5 s.00(cos 20. Vix= vi cos v viy = vi sin v = (42 m/s)(cos 32°) =(42 m/s)(sin 32°) vix =36 m/s viy =22 m/s Horizontally (constant vix ): vix =36 m/s x= ? t= ? Vertically (constant ay ): Ay= -g=. Solving for t.0°)(3.00) 2 = 52.9.6 102 m The horizontal range is 1. x =vixt = (36 m/s)(4.0°)3. we find that t 4. we can use the vertical motion to solve for t: Therefore.00 + 1 2 (9.5 s) x =1.

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