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1. Overview of the OBE matters
 Course Learning Objectives
 Program Learning Objectives
2. 1st topic
3. Direction of this course
4. Activities


CO1- Ability to explain the origin and occurrence of
crude oil and its important properties and composition.

CO2- Ability to illustrate the overall refinery operations
of crude petroleum in converting raw materials to
valuable major products.

CO3- Ability to analyze and distinguish specific major
processes in petroleum refining and able to justify the
health and safety issues arises due to process operation
and chemicals used.

Course Learning Outcomes

health. engineering fundamentals and specialization to solve including complex engineering problems. formulate and solve engineering problems. including complex engineering problems. and the environment and sustainable development issues in specific engineering scenarios. PLO8: Ability to apply the knowledge of safety. using the principles of mathematics. basic and applied science. PLO2: Ability to identify. Program Learning Outcomes .PLO1: Ability to identify and apply knowledge of mathematics. basic and applied science and engineering fundamentals.

CHAPTER 1: Origin of crude oil CHAPTER 2: Crude oil distillation CHAPTER 3: Refinery feedstock and products CHAPTER 4: Thermal cracking CHAPTER 5: Hydrotreating CHAPTER 6: Catalytic cracking CHAPTER 7: Hydrocracking CHAPTER 8: Reforming CHAPTER 9: Alkylation and isomerization CHAPTER 10: Future trend of crude oil Topics covered .

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Theory of crude oil formation How crude oil is extracted Crude oil composition Physical properties of crude oil Definition of refinery and its schematic diagram Outline of 1st topic .

flammable liquid consist of chemical compound of organic matter . refined into fuels and petrochemicals. Mixture of naturally occuring HC. What is petroleum? .  Also called CRUDE OIL  Oily.

N2 & O2 What is natural gas? . CO2. 3% C3H8. C4H10. 10% C2H6. Produced in sedimentary rocks together with crude oil.  Consisting mainly of methane. CH4  Mixture of: 85% CH4. H2S.

How there are formed? .

How do you extract them? .

Lighter and sweet  contains higher % of HC is more profitable as fuel source. Field by field 2.Denser and sour  less flammable level of HC & high S are expensive to refine into fuel (suitable for plastic manufacturing) Classification of crude oil .Differ in viscosity: 1. The way petroleum composition was formed Crude oil can be found either: . .

Basic of crude oil .Other elements like sulfur. nitrogen and various metals.Crude oil consists of: .Hydrogen+carbon  hydrocarbons .

Naphthenes – cycloparafins 3. Aromatics – contains 1 or more benzene rings     Non-hydrocarbon compounds: Sulfur compound Oxygen compound Metallic compound Salts Crude oil composition .. Paraffins – saturated HCs 2.3 general categories of hydrocarbon in crude oil: 1.

Hydrocarbon compound .Paraffin  Consist of straight or branched carbon rings saturated with hydrogen atoms. the simplest of which is methane (CH4) the main ingredient of natural gas. Other name: Alkane.

saturated with hydrogen atoms. Other name: Cycloalkane. Hydrocarbon compound .Naphthenes  Consist of carbon rings. they occur naturally in crude oil and have properties similar to paraffins. sometimes with side chains.  Chemically stable.

toluene and xylene.  The simplest aromatic compound are benzene.  Important petrochemical intermediates & valuable component for gasoline Hydrocarbon compound .Aromatic  Contain a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating double and single bonds and six attached hydrogen atoms.

etc. Other corrosive substances are elemental sulfur and the combustion of petroleum products containing sulfur compounds produces undesirables such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide.    Present in crude oil as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). thiophenes.) or as elemental sulfur. mercaptans. Harmful due to its corrosive nature. disulfides.Sulfur Compounds. Non-hydrocarbon compound . sulfides.

Example picture of corroded Heat Exchanger .

Oxygen Compounds Oxygen compounds such as phenols. ketones. and carboxylic acids occur in crude oils in varying amounts. Their presence in petroleum stream is not poisonous to processing catalyst Non-hydrocarbon compound .

Mg2Cl3) or organometallic cmpds (Ni or V). salts can form soap with carboxylic acid  very corrosive! Non-hydrocarbon compound .  Presence either as inorganic salts (NaCl . iron.  It is also desirable to remove trace amounts of arsenic.Metallic Compounds  Metals.  When crude oil is processed. vanadium. and nickel prior to processing as they can poison certain catalysts. and vanadium found in crude oils in small quantities. including nickel.

Non-hydrocarbon compound .Salt  Contain inorganic salts such as sodium chloride.  Salt corrosion is caused by: ◦ the hydrolysis of some metal chlorides to hydrogen chloride (HCl) and ◦ the subsequent formation of hydrochloric acid when crude is heated. and calcium chloride in suspension or dissolved in entrained water (brine). and fouling.  These salts must be removed or neutralized before processing to prevent catalyst poisoning. magnesium chloride. equipment corrosion.

Summary of crude oil composition .

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given V to the weight of the same V of water measured at same T. Physical Properties of Petroleum Fluids . Viscosity indicates the ease of (or more correctly the resistance to) flow.The important physical properties of petroleum are : (1) (2) (3) Density is the mass of liquid per unit volume at specific temperature.

”  Another way to express relative masses of crude oil.  A low API gravity  heavier crude oil or a petroleum product  while a higher API gravity  a lighter crude or product.0 for heavier. What is API Gravity? .API gravity is defined as:“a measure of the lightness or heaviness of petroleum that is related to density and specific gravity.  Specific gravities of crude oils roughly range from 0.82 for lighter crudes to over 1.

the API gravity is readily measured using a calibrated hydrometer API Gravity .Gr.5  API   131. @ 60F    Sp. by using a prepared table of standard values:- 141.5 Sp.Gr. = specific gravity to water at 60°F The API gravity of water is 10° In the field. The observed reading are always corrected for temperature to 60 °F.

93 – 0.87 Conclusion : °API Specific Gravity °API Specific Gravity API Gravity = less valuable petroleum = more valuable petroleum .93 0.87 < 0.0 – 0.A Rough Classification of Crude Oil Based on The API Gravity °API Classification Specific Gravity 10 – 20 20 – 30 > 30 Heavy oil Medium oil Light oil 1.


Products made from a barrel of crude oil (gallons) .

lubricating oil. What is refinery? . Petroleum refinery is an organized and coordinated arrangement of manufacturing processes designed to produce physical and chemical changes in crude oil to convert it into everyday usable finished products like petrol. fuel oil and bitumen. diesel.

Petroleum Refinery Schematic .

hydrotreatment or blending Heavy distillate sweetening. hydrotreatment or blending Middle distillate sweetening. blending Light distillate sweetening.Separation Crude oil Gas Desalting Atmospheric distillation ADR Conversion Catalytic isomerization Light naphtha Heavy naphtha Kerosene Catalytic reforming Alkylation Polymerization Gas oil Vacuum distillation VDR Light vacuum gas oil Fluid catalytic cracking Heavy vacuum gas oil Hydrocracking Dewaxing Solvent deasphalthing Visbreaking Coking Finishing Gas sweetening. hydrotreatment or blending .


hydrotreatment or blending Hydrocracking Visbreaking Coking Heavy distillate sweetening.CHAPTER 3 Separation Crude oil Gas Desalting Atmospheric distillation ADR Conversion Light naphtha Heavy naphtha Kerosene Gas oil Vacuum distillation VDR Catalytic isomerization Light vacuum gas oil Heavy vacuum gas oil Dewaxing Solvent deasphalthing CHAPTER 8 Catalytic reforming CHAPTER 9 Polymerization Alkylation CHAPTER 6 Fluid catalytic cracking Finishing Gas sweetening. hydrotreatment or blending Products . hydrotreatment or blending Middle distillate sweetening. blending Light distillate sweetening.