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I.

European Exploration
Fifteenth to Early Seventeenth Century
-

Age of Discovery/ Age of
Exploration,
when
Europeans
engaged in intensive exploration of
the world, establishing direct
contacts with Africa, the Americas,
Asia and Oceania and mapping the
planet.

Reason for exploration:
- To establish new trading partners,
goods
(particularly
spices),
and
trade routes
1519–1522 Expedition - Ferdinand
Magellan, the first to traverse the Atlantic
to the Pacific Ocean and the first to
circumnavigate the globe. Funded by
Spain, he was sent to circumnavigate the
world to find an easier route for trade ending
at the stop of the Spice Island or Maluku
Island.
Competition
between
burgeoning
European empires (Spain and England) Motivated by religion, profit, and power, the
size and influence of European empires
during this period expanded greatly.

Empire and Politics
Vasco de Gama and Christopher
Columbus - search for new trade routes to
the East.
Marco Polo - encouraged many Europeans
to search for new territories and places that
would lead to the East (During the
Thirteenth Century)
Spanish and Portuguese - some of the first
European states to launch overseas voyages
of exploration

II. Political System
Encomienda System

headed by alcalde mayor.The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza. and where government buildings. a market area and other infrastructures were located.Distribution of men for draft labor. capitan-general of the province and even vice-regal patron. the person given privileges of the encomienda.The most important administrative .. Municipal Government Pueblo / Town headed the Gobernadorcillo or little governor by National Government Duties of Gobernadorcillo: Consejo de las Indias (Council of the Indies) .During the conquista. justice and governance.Encomiendero. - . was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants.The earliest political system used during the conquista period. Manila head of the supreme court. friars and native nobles were granted estates for their service to the king. The conquistadores. a central area for town activities such as the fiesta.It was abused by the encomienderos. it was largely replaced by administrative provinces.Judge. Spaniard born Philippines in the Corregimiento – Unpacified Military Zones (Mariveles and Mindoro) Corregidores – Head of Corregimiento Ayuntamiento – City Government Alcalde Mayor and Corregidores . and by 1700’s.Preparation of the tribute list (padron). and were given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants. - Commander-in-chief of the army and navy - economic planner of the country usually a peninsular Spaniard. . 25 years old.Postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits - Any native or Chinese mestizo. . a Spaniard born in Spain. recruitment organ of the Spanish Empire Gobernador y Capitán General - Representative in the Philippines - the seat of power is in Intramuros. literate in oral or written . inspector of encomiendas. or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. Provincial Government Alcaldia – Pacified Provinces Alcalde Mayor – Provincial Governor - Leader of Ayuntamiento Insulares. communal public work and military conscription (quinto) . . the church. the Royal Audiencia of Manila - . the first task of colonization was the reduction. tribute collector. chief of police.

. Barrio Government Barrio / Village – Headed by cabeza de barangay - - responsible for peace and order and recruited men for communal public works Should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property.Spanish and has been a Cabeza de Barangay of 4 years can be a Gobernadorcillo.