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Experiment # 2

Volatility and Distillation
Group # 4
Name: Yvonne Cayanes Urbano
Date Performed: March 2, 2015
Score:

Date Submitted:

I.

Introduction:
In chemistry and physics, volatility is a term used to characterize the tendency of a
substance to vaporize. The vapor pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of a vapor
above its liquid (or solid); that is, the pressure of the vapor resulting from evaporation of a
liquid (or solid) above a sample of the liquid (or solid) in a closed container. At a given
temperature, a substance with a higher vapor pressure will vaporize more readily than a
substance with a lower vapor pressure. In other words, at a given temperature, the more
volatile the substance the higher will be the pressure of the vapor in dynamic equilibrium with
its vaporizing substance — i.e., when the rates at which molecules escape from and return
into the vaporizing substance are equal.
Evaporation is the slow volatilization by which molecules undergo a spontaneous
transition from the liquid phase to the gas phase. Boiling on the other hand is the fast
volatilization of a liquid. A liquid boils at a temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to
the atmospheric pressure. The lower the pressure of a gas above a liquid, the lower the
temperature at which the liquid will boil. Therefore, the less volatile a liquid is, the higher its
boiling point.
Distillation is a process that consists of driving gas or vapor from liquids or solids by
heating and condensing to liquid products and that is used especially for purification,
fractionation, or the formation of new substances. This process is done by putting a heating a
mixture to sustain boiling, and the vapor will be allowed to pass through a cooling tube where
it condenses to form the distillate.
The process of distillation require a significant temperature difference between boiling
points of the components of a mixture to obtain an efficient separation. Simple distillation is
considered as a means of purification if carried out slowly so that superheating of the vapor
will be avoided. Doing so will cause errors in the temperature readings and ebullition or
bumping.
The purpose of the following experiment will be to be able to compare the volatilities of
different organic compounds, to demonstrate a simple distillation set up and to separate
components of two liquids in a mixture.

II.

Procedure:
A. Comparison of Volatility by Rate of Evaporation

Acetone
Methanol
Water
n-butanol
Ethyl acetate

III.

Place 2 drops of the solution into 5 different watch glassesand note the time by which
the liquid has completely disappeared.
B. Distillation:
Prepare the distillation set
Pre heat the hot plate and add a few boiling chips in the distilling flask
Weigh the graduated cylinder to be used
Add unknown mixture into the distilling flask
Record the boiling point
Distill 10 mL of the unknown solution
Weigh the cylinder again with the liquid
contents

Data
A. Comparison of Volatility by Rate of Evaporation

acetone is the most volatile and high evaporation rate. The next experiment was done by conducting a distillation process. the graduated cylinder that will be used was first weighed and recorded its mass.801 IV.eoearth. Simple distillation set up and the distillation process itself was accomplished by the group.infoplease.chem. and methanol.html http://chemistry. Before distillation.com/medical/distillation http://www. The computed density and the recorded boiling point was used to identify the unknown solution. The purpose of this procedure is to compare the evaporation rate of each reagent. the unknown sample that was used in the distillation process was acetone.purdue.butanol Time of Evaporation 44s 42m 05s 2m 41s 21m 04s B. The graduated cylinder with its liquid contents was again weighed and recorded.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/evaporationdef. The time by which the liquid has completely disappeared was recorded by the group. Distillation Weight of graduated cylinder before distillation: 26. n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Unknown: ACETONE g mL Discussion: The first part of the experiment was accomplished by setting five watch glasses and labelling them with acetone. V.Reagent Acetone Methanol Water Ethyl acetate n.edu/gchelp/liquids/vpress. and then n-butanol.org/view/article/172247/ https://www. All the recorded data was used in order to compute for the density of the unknown sample. Water was the last one to evaporate because it is the least volatile of all the compounds tested. Followed the acetone was the Ethyl acetate.01 g 10 mL p=0.edu/gchelp/liquids/boil. According the groups research through the internet. This is mainly because of all the compounds present. Conclusion: Through the experiments conducted.purdue. the group was able to compare the volatility and evaporation rated of different organic compounds. methanol. Two drops of each reagent was placed in the watch glasses and wait until the liquid has completely disappeared.merriam-webster.chem.24 Net weight of graduated cylinder: 8. water.html .htm https://www. Its boiling point was recorded and 10 mL of the distillate was collected.23 g Boiling point of unknown mixture: 60oC Weight of graduated cylinder after distillation: 34. An unknown sample was used in the distillation process.html http://www. References: http://www.com/encyclopedia/science/distillation-the-basic-distillation-process. VI. The first reagent that completely disappeared was the acetone.01 g Density: p= m v p= 8.