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INDEX

Pg No

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6

List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Graphs

i
ii
iii

Abstract
Introduction
General
Pozzolanas in concrete
Need of present research
Introduction to geopolymer cements
Comparison between OPC and Geopolymer Cementitous

1
2
2
4
7
14
14

Materials
Concrete without Portland cement An innovative Idea
Objectives of the present study
Scope of study
Summary
Literature review
Geopolymer
Materials used in making of Geopolymer
Source materials and alkaline liquids
Field applications
Summary
Geopolymer concrete
Properties of geopolymer concrete
Constituents of geopolymer concrete
General Mix Proportions of Geopolymer Concrete
Mixing, Casting, and Compaction of Geopolymer Concrete
Curing of Geopolymer Concrete
Factors affecting the Strength of Geopolymer concrete
General Design of Geopolymer Concrete Mixtures
Short-Term and Long Term Properties of Geopolymer
Concrete
Economic Benefits of Geopolymer Concrete
Concluding remarks
Composition, mix design and testing procedure
Introduction
Mix design of geopolymer concrete
Mix proportions
Mixing procedure
Test specimens in oven
Testing

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18
19
19
20
20
21
23
25
28
29
31
32
34
37
38
39
43
45
46
47
47
51
54
54
55
55

4.7
5
5.1
5.2
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
7
7.1
7.2

Summary
Experimental investigations
Materials used
Summary
Discussions of test results
General
Workability of geopolymer concrete
Summary
Conclusions
Introduction
Suggestion for future work
Bibliography

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64
64
66
67
67
67
74
75
75
75
77

LIST OF TABLES

Table
1

Table name
Applications of Geopolymeric Materials Based on Silica-to-

Pg. No.
26

Alumina Atomic Ratio (Davidovits, 1994)


Data for Design of Low-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer

40

Concrete Mixtures (Rangan, 2008, 2009)


Shows the Alkali liquid/fly ash ratio, water /Geo polymer

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solids ratio and workability


Modulus of Elasticity of Geopolymer Concrete in

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Compression (Hardjito and Rangan, 2005)


Indirect Tensile Splitting Strength of Geopolymer Concrete

45

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

(Hardjito and Rangan, 2005)


Compositions of fly ash
Fly ash properties
The Specifications of Na OH Pellets
Specifications of sodium silicate solutions
Physical properties of coarse aggregate 20mm
Physical properties of fine aggregates
Sieve analysis of fine aggregates
Abstract of workability values of geopolymer concrete
Workability values of different molarities of Na OH From 8M

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48
49
51
64
65
65
66
67

15
16

to 16M
Compressive strength of Cubes of different molarities
Split tensile Strength of cylinders of different molarities

72
73

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1

Figure Name
Pan Mixer Used in the Manufacture of Geopolymer Concrete

Pg. No.
34

Dry Materials of Geopolymer Concrete

35

Addition of Alkali Liquid Component

35

Fresh Geopolymer Concrete Ready for Placing

36

Slump Measurement of Fresh Geopolymer Concrete


Sodium hydroxide pellets extra pure
Fresh geopolymer concrete
Cubes under vibration
Fresh concrete cubes
Fresh concrete cylinders
cubes and cylinders under 60 degreees oven curing
geopolymer cube under compression test
shows split tensile test under CTM

36
66
68
68
69
69
70
70
71

5
5.1
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph
6.1
6.2

Graph Name
Graph between NaOH molarities and slump values obtained
at fresh stage of fly ash based Geopolymer concrete
Graph between NaOH molarities and compaction factor

Pg. No.
71
72

values obtained at fresh stage of fly ash based Geopolymer


6.3

concrete
Graph between change in NaOH molarities and compressive

73

strength of Standard cubes for 7, 14 and 28 air curing days


6.4

after 24 hours of oven curing at 600C


Graph between change in NaOH molarities and Split Tensile

74

strength of Standard Cylinders for 7, 14 and 28 air curing


days after 24 hours of oven curing at 600C