You are on page 1of 5

# THE FOLLOWING CAN BE USED AS A GUIDE TO ESTIMATE PIPE FRICTION LOSSES AND MAXIMUM PRESSURES FOR PRESSURE FLOW

IN PLASTIC PIPE
FRICTION LOSS AND PRESSURE CALCULATOR
Input
Flow
20 L/s
Internal Pipe dia
200 mm
Pipe length
16000 m
Equivalent length of fittings
0.00 m
0m
Output
Estimated friction loss
29.17
m
Flow velocity
0.64
m/s
29.17
m

Notes
refer to Table 2 for metric pipe and Table 3 for rural pipe sizes for typical diameters ranges and pressure ratings
straight length not including fittings
use calculator attached to Table 1 below to estimate an equivalent straight pipe length for fittings.
difference in level between source water and discharge point
to decrease losses use a larger diameter pipe
represents the maximum pumping requirements (if applicable) and the maximum pipe pressure. Refer to Tables 4 to 6 for maximum allowable heads for different class pipes.

## Some general notes to consider:

1 For a given flowrate, a LARGER diameter pipe will have a lower velocity and lower pipe friction loss.
2 For a given flowrate, a SMALLER diameter pipe will have a higher velocity and higher pipe friction loss.
3 Higher velocity in a larger diameter pipe produces less pipe friction loss when compared to the same velocity in a smaller pipe.
4 Higher pipe friction losses require larger pumps or can reduce flows at outlets. They can also result in higher power costs to run pumps.
5 Pipe velocities should not exceed 5 m/s, and preferably be less than 1.5 m/s
6 Refer to Tables 4 to 6 below for allowable pressures for different pipe categories, as well as pressure deratings at higher temperatures.
TABLE 1 Approximate Equivalent Lengths for Plastic Pipe Fittings
Fitting

CALCULATOR
INPUT
OUTPUT
No. of fittings
Eq. Length
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Eq Length
0.00

Equivalent Length
20D
50D
30D
25D
18D
60D
350D
180D
15D
40D
100D

Running Tee
Branch Tee
90o elbow
60o elbow
45o elbow
45o Wye
Conventional globe valve (fully open)
Conventional angle valve (fully open)
Conventional wedge gate valve (fully open)
Butterfly valve (fully open)
Conventional swing check valve

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

## TABLE 2 METRIC PIPE INFORMATION

Nominal Size
DN
mm
16
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110

PN6.3
min wall
mean
thickness
I.D.
mm
mm
1.6
13
1.6
17
1.6
22
1.6
29
1.9
36
2.4
45
3
57
3.6
67
4.3
81
5.3
99

PN8
min wall
thickness
mm
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.4
3
3.8
4.5
5.4
6.6

mean
I.D.
mm
13
17
22
28
35
44
55
66
78
96

PN10
min wall
mean
thickness
I.D.
mm
mm
1.6
13
1.6
17
1.9
21
2.4
27
3
34
3.7
42
4.7
53
5.5
63
6.6
76
8.1
93

PN12.5
min wall
mean
thickness
I.D.
mm
mm
1.6
13
1.9
16
2.3
20
2.9
26
3.7
32
4.6
40
5.8
51
6.8
61
8.2
73
10
89

PN16
min wall
thickness
mm
1.8
2.3
2.8
3.6
4.5
5.6
7.1
8.4
10
12.3

PN20
mean
I.D.
mm
12
15
19
24
31
38
48
58
69
84

min wall
thickness
mm
2.2
2.8
3.5
4.4
5.5
6.9
8.6
10.3
12.3
15.1

mean
I.D.
mm
11
14
18
23
38
35
45
53
65
78

source:
DWLBC, 2006
TABLE 3 RURAL PIPE INFORMATION
Nominal Size
DN
mm
12
19
25
32
40
50
source:
DWLBC, 2006

min.
12.2
18.8
25
31.4
37.9
50.6

Mean ID
mm
max.
13.1
19.3
25.5
31.9
38.3
51.1

TABLE 4 PRESSURE
DERATING FOR RURAL PIPE

Wall Thickness
mm
min.
max.
1.4
1.7
1.4
1.7
1.5
1.8
1.9
2.2
2.2
2.5
3
3.3

Temperature

Allowable

PN16

PN12.5

PN10

PN8

PN6.3

20
25
30
35
40
45

63
55
50
45
40
35

20
30
40
50
60
70

163
153
132
112
102
86

127
120
103
88
80
67

102
96
82
70
64
54

81
76
66
56
51
43

64
60
52
44
40
34

Temperature

## source: DWLBC, 2006

minimum of 50 years expected for water up to 45oC
minimum of 28 years expected for water up to 50oC
minimum of 9 years expected for water up to 60oC
minimum of 1 year expected for water up to 70oC

Temperature

PN16

PN12.5

PN10

PN8

PN6.3

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

163
143
128
117
100
92
82
74

127
112
100
92
78
71
64
58

102
88
80
73
62
57
52
46

81
71
64
59
50
46
41
36

64
56
51
46
39
35
32
29

## source: DWLBC, 2006

minimum of 50 years expected for water up to 70oC
minimum of 25 years expected for water up to 80oC
minimum of 10 years expected for water up to 90oC

WORKED EXAMPLE

Gate valve
90o elbow

Pump

2 x 90o
elbows

El 10 m

Choose a suitable pipe diameter and class to deliver water to a holding tank at 2 l/s.
Known variables
Elevation head = 50m - 10 m = 40 m
Pipe length (straight) = 500 m
no. of 90o elbows = 4
no. of 45o elbows = 2
no. gate valves = 1
flow required = 2 l/s
Finding pipe diameter and class
Try metric 25 mm pipe class PN6.3
Input
Flow
2
Internal Pipe dia
22
Pipe length
500
Equivalent length of fittings
3.76
40
Output
Estimated friction loss 604.69
Flow velocity
5.26

Notes
L/s
mm
m
m
m

## Metric 25 mm dia PN6.3 refer to Table 2

straight length not including fittings
from calculator attached to Table 1 with 4x90 elbows, 2x45 el
difference in level between source water and discharge point

m
m/s
m

## Pipe friction losses are very high. To decrease losses use a l

warning beyond accuracy of formulas, select a larger diamet
Beyond pressure range of metric pipes. Refer to Table 5

Input
Flow

Notes
2 L/s

## Internal Pipe dia

45
Pipe length
500
Equivalent length of fittings
7.70
40
Output
Estimated friction loss 18.68
Flow velocity
1.26

mm
m
m
m

## Metric 50 mm dia PN6.3 refer to Table 2

straight length not including fittings
from calculator attached to chart 1 with 4x90 elbows, 2x45 el
difference in level between source water and discharge point

m
m/s
m

## flow velocity is within recommended limit of 1.5 m/s

Represents pumping head required. Max. pipe pressure for P

Solution
Metric 50 mm PN6.3 is suitable. Larger diameters can be used to reduce pumping head.

90o elbow

El 50 m

2x 45o
elbows

ank at 2 l/s.

## ble 1 with 4x90 elbows, 2x45 elbows and 1 gate valve

urce water and discharge point

## gh. To decrease losses use a larger diameter pipe

ormulas, select a larger diameter pipe
ric pipes. Refer to Table 5

## art 1 with 4x90 elbows, 2x45 elbows and 1 gate valve

urce water and discharge point

## ended limit of 1.5 m/s

uired. Max. pipe pressure for PN6.3 at 20 oC is 64 m (Table 5), thus chosen class is suitable.