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NORMAL LABORATORY VALUES

What this test will

Laboratory Test tell u.

Normal Range in SI Units

ALT (Alanine
aminotransferase)

Test liver fx and dx


liver dse. Its an
enzymes found in
cytoplasm of hepatic
cells and to a lesser
degree in kidney,heart,
and skeletal muscle
tissues.ABNORMAL
FINDINGS when
increased it indicates
viral hepatitis or liver
necrosis(related to
drugs or chemical
toxicity).when
decresed may indicate
resolution of
pathology.

W 0.12-0.50 kat/liter
M 0.17-0.92 kat/liter

Albumin

Test the level of serum


albumin which is
found in blood plasma
and wherein its
synthesized in the
liver.

31 - 43 g/liter

Alkaline
Phosphatase

It determines the
presence of liver and
bone disorders.when
increased may
indicate
cirrhosis,rheumatoid
arthritis,or some
fractures.when
decreased may
indicate abnormal
bone formation in
prepubescent
children,cretinism,
pernicious anemia

W 0.5-1.67 kat/liter
W 0.75-1.92 kat/liter

Amylase (serum)

test that differentiates


bet pancreatitis,
trauma to the
pancreas, and other
abnormal
symptoms.when
increased may
indicate acute
pancreatitis. When
decreased may
indicate chronic
pancreatitis,pancreatic
ca.

0.88-2.05 nkat/liter

AST (Aspartate
aminotransferase)

Determine the extent


of damage to the liver,
heart or
musculoskeletal
system. When
increased may
indicate acute viral
hepatitis, alcoholic
cirrhosis, burns. When

W 0.15-0.42 kat/liter
M 0.17-0.67 kat/liter

decreased indicates
pregnancy,diabetic
ketoacidosis.

Basophils

This are capable


ingesting foreign
particles(allergic
reaction when
increased)

0.0-0.3 fraction of white blood cells

Bilirubin - Direct

Test evaluates liver


and erythropoietic fx
and helps
differentiates types of
jaundice. When
decreased may
indicate hemolytic
dse, erythroblastosis
syndrome when
increased may
indicate hepatocellular
dse,hepatitis or
cirrhosis.

0-7 mol/liter

Bilirubin - Total

This test evaluates


liver and
erythropoietic fx, and
helps differentiate
types of jaundice.
when increased
usually d/t obstruction
of biliary tree, and it
may indicate
intrahepatic biliary
obstruction such as
viral hepatitis

0-17 mol/liter

Blood pressure

Normal: 120/70 to 120/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The


top number is systolic pressure, when the heart is pumping.
Bottom number is diastolic pressure then the heart is at rest. Blood
pressure can be too low (hypotension) or too high (hypertension).

Calcium, serum

Impt constituent of bones


and teeth and essential for
metabolis processes when
increased may indicate
calculus(presence of
stones) in gallbladder.

Cholesterol, total
Desirable
Marginal
High

Cholesterol, LDL

It evaluates blood lipids


and assesses the risk of
cardiovascular dse.
Specifically
atherosclerotis coronary
artery dse. When increased
indicate
hypercholesterolemia,
hyperlipidemia. When
decreased may indicate
malnutrition and
malabsorption.

Lipoprotein Aka the bad


cholesterol

2.1-2.6 mmol/liter

6.18 mmol/liter

Desirable
Marginal
High
Very High
Cholesterol, HDL
Desirable
Moderate

4.91 mmol/liter

Lipoprotein Aka the good


cholesterol

>1.55 mmol/liter
1.03-1.55 mmol/liter

Creatine kinase

Enzyme involved in the


metabolic breakdown of
creatine to creatinine when
increase may indicate
tissue damage in cardiac
mucscle(mb) skeletal
muscle(mm) brain and
thyroid(bb)

W 0.67-2.50 kat/liter
M 1.00-6.67 kat/liter

Eosinophils

Involved in allergic
responses

0.0-0.8 fraction of white blood cells

Erythrocyte
sedimentation
rate (Sed Rate)

Rate which rbc settle out


of suspension in blood
plsma.when increased
certain proteins in the
plasma rises as in
rheumatic dse, chronic
infection

W<=30 mm/h
M<=20 mm/h

Glucose, fasting

Detects alterations in
glucose metabolism, most
often to diagnose dm.

70-110mg/dl (s.i. units 3.89-6.11 mmol/l

Hematocrit

Blood test evaluates blood


loss, anemia, blood
replacement therapy, fluid
balance. Wen increased
may indicate
polycythemia vera,
dehydration, burns,
trauma. Wen decreased
may indicate dietary
deficiency, malnutrition,
bone marrow failure,
leukemia.

W 0.36-0.46 fraction of red blood cells


M 0.37-0.49 fraction of red blood cells

Hemoglobin

This test evaluates blood


loss, erythropoietic ability,
anemia, bloods cell
carries oxygen and carbon
dioxide to and from the
tissues. when increased
may indicate
polycythemia vera,
congenital heart fairlure,
chronic obstructive

W 7.4-9.9 mmol/liter
M 8.1-11.2 mmol/liter

pulmonary dse, severe


burn. when decreased may
indicate anemia from
blood loss, dietary anemia,
malnutrition.

Leukocytes
(WBC)

Evaluates a number of
conditions and
differentiates causes of
alterations in the total wbc
count including in
flamation, infection, tissue
necrosis, or leukemia
neoplasia.

4.5-11.0x109/liter

Lymphocytes

a variety of wbc, present


also in thelymp nodes,
spleen, thymus gland, gut
wall, and bone marrow

0.16-0.46 fraction of white blood cells

Monocytes

Its fx is the ingestion of


foreign particles, such as
bacteria and tissue debris.

0.04-0.11 fraction of white blood cells

Neutrophils

Capable of ingesting and


killing bacteria and
provides an impt defence
against infection

0.45-0.75 fraction of white blood cells

Phosphorus

Is most concertrated in
bone eg. (atp) adenosine
creatine phosphate- play
an impt part in enrgy
conversions in storage in
the body.

0.81-1.45 mmol/L

Platelets
(Thrombocytes)

This test evalutes platelet


production and asses the
effects of cancer treatment
on platelet numbers. when
increased may indicate
hemorrhage, infectious
disorders, malignancies,
iron defiency anemia,
recent surgery, recent
pregnancy. when
decreased
thrombocytopenia may
reaveal, bone marrow
depression, hypoplastic
bone marrow, pernicious
anemia, carcinoma or
leukemia.

130 400 x 10 9L

Potassium

it is the main base ion of


intracellular fluid together
with sodium that maintain
the electrical potential of
the nervous system. when
increased may indicate

3.4-5.0 mmol/liter

kidney failure that lead to


arrhythmia and finally
cardiac arrest

RBC (Red blood


cell count)

A blood cell containing


the red pigment
haemoglobin, the principal
fx of which is the transport
of oxygen.(produces
normally in blood forming
tissue of the bone marrow.

W 3.9 5.2 x 1012/L


M 4.4 5.8 x 10 12/L

Sodium

Evalute fluid and


electrolyte balance as well
as the renal or adrenal
disorders. sodium is the
main cation of the extra
cellular fluid and is a
critical facor in acid-base
balance and the water
balance bet blood and
body tissues.

135-145 mmol/liter

Triglicerides
(fasting)
Normal
Borderline
High
Very high

This test evaluates the risk


of coronary artery and
peripheral vascular dse
through indentification of
hyperlipidemia. when
increased may indicates
hyperlipidemia ,
pancreatitis, dm,
pregnancy,
hypothyroidism,
obstrucyion of bile ducts.
when decrased may
indicate copd,
hyperthyroidism,
malnutrition,
malabsorption disorder.

Urea, plasma
(BUN)

Measures renal fx and


hydration. urea, the end
product of protein and
amino acid metabolism in
the liver, enters the blood
and passes to the kidney
for excretion. when
increased may indicate
renal failure,
glomerulonephritis,
pyelonephritis, acute
tubular necrosis,
hypovolemic shock. when
decreased hypervolemic
shock, malnutrition,
acromagaly, alcohol
abuse.

Urinalysis - pH
Specific gravity

Urinalysis screens for


abnormalities within the
urinary system as well as
for systemic problems that
may manifest symptoms
through the urinary tract.

0.45-1.69 mmol/liter
1.69-2.26 mmol/liter
2.26-5.65 mmol/liter
>5.65 mmol/liter

2.9-8.9 mmol/liter

5.0-9.0
1.001-1.035

abnormal: may indicate


dehydration, syndrome of
inappropriate antidiuretic
hormone, glycosuria,
proteinuria, fever,
diaphoresis, vomiting or
diarrhea.

TERMINOLOGY:
UNITS:

gram : common measurement of weight. Used in this table: pg (picograms), g (grams),


mg (milligrams), etc. per liter
micrometer (m) : a unit of length. Mean Corpuscular Volume is expressed in cubic
micrometers
mole : also gram molecular weight, a quantity based on the atomic weight of the
substance. Many test results in the Systme Internationale are expressed as the number of
moles per liter. In US units, these measurements are usually in grams per liter. Used in
this table: mmol (millimoles), mol, (micromoles), nmol (nanomoles), pmol (picomoles)
per liter
Some units of measurement include the following fractions and multipliers:
mega (M) : 10 6 or x1,000,000
kilo (k) : 10 3 or x1,000
deca or deka : 10 1 or x10
deci (d) : 10 -1 or 10
milli (m) : 10 -3 or 1,000
micro () : 10 -6 or 1,000,000
nano (n) : 10 -9 or 1,000,000,000
pico (p) : 10 -12 or 1,000,000,000,000

Sir Jay Hernandez


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