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Distribution Systems

in Heating and Cooling

Distribution Systems
Equipment and Materials Necessary for
Conveying the Heating and Cooling Media

Hydronic Systems
Storage Tanks
Steam Systems
Air Distribution Systems

Pipe Insulation
Required Data:
Length of Pipe
Pipe Diameter
Temperature of Fluid
Hours of Operation
Days in Heating Season

Boiler Efficiency
Fuel Cost
Insulation Levels
Existing
Proposed

Savings = Length x Heat Loss x Hours x


of Pipe
Length
Year

1
x
Eff.

$/Unit .
Wh/Unit

Minimum Piping Insulation


System
Heating

Temperature
Range (C)

Insulation Thickness,
(mm)

High Pressure Steam

150-230

37,5-87,5

Medium Pressure Steam

120-148

32,5-75

Low Pressure Steam

up to 119

25-50

Condensate

88-105

25-75

Hot Water

over 93

25-75

Hot Water

up to 93

12,5-37,5

4,5-13

12,5-25

Below 0

25-37,5

Cooling
Chilled Water
Refrigerant and Brine

Pipe Insulation Problem


Required Data
87 m of pipe
37,5 mm diameter
82 C water
24 hours/day
240 days/year

80% efficiency
0,0287 $/kWh
No insulation
Add 25 mm of
insulation

Cost savings = pipe length x Heat Loss x Hours x 1 x $ .


Length
Year
Eff.
kWh

Heat Loss with Uninsulated Pipe


W/m of pipe

Temperature of Water in Pipe (C)


37,8

48,9

60,0

65,6

82,0

Pipe Diameter (mm)

Heat Loss (W/m of pipe) with no Insulation


12,5

18,9

31,2

43,5

45,4

67,1

20,0

23,6

35,4

53,0

65,2

80,3

25,0

29,3

47,2

63,3

80,3

100,2

31,3

35,0

55,8

75,6

96,4

121,0

37,5

40,6

64,3

88,4

112,5

141,8

50,0

48,2

75,6

106,3

132,3

160,7

62,5

56,7

88,8

125,7

154,5

189,0

75,0

66,1

104,0

149,3

181,4

222,1

Heat Loss with Insulation


W/m of pipe

Temperature of Water in Pipe (C)


37,8

48,9

60,0

65,6

82,0

Pipe Diameter (mm)

Heat Loss (W/m of pipe) with 25 mm of Insulation


12,5

2,8

5,7

8,5

11,3

12,3

20,0

2,8

5,7

8,5

11,8

15,1

25,0

3,3

6,1

8,5

11,8

15,1

31,3

3,3

6,1

9,0

12,3

16,1

37,5

3,8

7,6

9,5

14,2

19,0

50,0

4,7

10,4

10,9

16,1

21,3

62,5

6,6

10,4

14,2

21,3

23,6

75,0

9,5

13,2

19,0

24,6

28,4

Tank Insulation Example


Tank length (m)
Tank diameter (m)
U values (1/R value),
(W/m2 oC)
Energy cost ($/kWh)

Surface temperature (oC)


Room temperature (oC)
Annual hours
Boiler efficiency
D

D2
Area for heat loss: A = ( D L) + 2

Savings = (Uold Unew) x A x T x Hours x $


Efficiency x kWh

Duct Insulation
Data Required

Length of duct (m)


Size of duct (m)
Operating hours/day
Operating days/year

Ambient air temperature (oC)


Air temperature in duct (oC)
System efficiency
Cost per kWh

Energy Savings =
Area x W x hours x days x 1 x $ .
m2
day
year
eff.
kWh

Energy savings =
area x W/m2 x hours

Data Required
Length of duct (m)
Area per length of duct (m2/m)
Ambient air temperature (oC)
Air temperature in duct (oC)
Hours of operation
Cost per kWh

Duct Insulation Example

30 m duct run
No insulation
12 hours/day
240 days/year
Natural gas @ 0,0273 $/kWh

1 m x 0.3 m duct size


Add 37,5 mm of insulation
48.8C air in duct
21C plenum temperature
80% furnace efficiency
30 m

Fuel
(Natural Gas)

Air Duct (48.8 C air temp)

Furnace
Eff.: 80%

21 C

Duct Insulation Example (cont...)

30 m duct run
No insulation
12 hours/day
240 days/year
Natural gas @ 0,0273 $/kWh

1 m x 0.3 m duct size


Add 37,5 mm of insulation
48.8C air in duct
21C plenum temperature
80% furnace efficiency

Energy Savings =
Area x W x hours x days x 1 x
$ .
m2
day
year
eff.
kWh

Find from the chart